IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?AAeA II AEA*AIITH I?IAeOEOEAIEO NEE OE?A?IE

Aaeaiia Ai?en ?na?ae/

OAeE 316.334.2/477

I?AAI?CAOe?EII-AEIIII?*I? INIIAE

OI?AAE?IIss ?ICAEOEII I?NO

(IA I?EEEAAe? I?NUeEEO IINAEAIUe AeIIAANO)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.10.01 — ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ? ?aa?iiaeueia
aeiiii?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o ?aae? ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie

Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaaaaeeinueeee
TH??e Iao?iae/ — i?ioani? eaoaae?e oi?aae?iiy i?noii Oe?a?inueei?
aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e IAI
Oe?a?ie Iaiooia Aaeaioei Ea?eiae/ — aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo
aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ??iioaiei Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/ —
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo eiiieaeniiai aiae?co o?iainiai? noa?e aia?aoo ?aaee
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie.

Aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Noaiaiaiei Aiaoie?e Aaneeueiae/ —
aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?aaee ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie
(a?aeae?e i?iaeai ?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 14 /a?aiy 1999 ?. ia 11 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.160.01 ?aaee ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252032, i. Ee?a, aoeueaa? O. Oaa/aiea, 60.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?aaee ii aea/aiith
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252032, i. Ee?a,
aoeueaa? O. Oaa/aiea, 60.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «14» o?aaiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieoiaoe, i?ioani?
N.?. Aaiaeo?

I. Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aeiiiii/iee i nioeiaeueiee i?ioean
cia/iith ii?ith aeaoa?iiio?oueny aoaeoeaiith i?aaiicaoei?th ae?iaieoeoaa
i aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi ianaeaiiy a iinoao. Oey i?aaiicaoeiy caeaaeeoue
aiae iinueeeo i?aaiia oi?aaeiiiy, yei ianooue aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoue ca
aeeiiaiiy /eneaiieo noniieueieo ooieoeie. Caieueoaiiy ?icii?ia iino i
neeaaeiinoi iinueeiai aeeooy, a o./. o ca’yceo ic ?icaeoeii
iaoeiai-oaoii/iiai i?ia?ano, aacia?a?aiee ?ino i oneeaaeiaiiy iinueeeo
ooieoeie, /enei yeeo eeoa ca ia?oo iieiaeio XX no. iiaeai?einue i
ia/eneth?oueny nioiyie, iineeaiiy athaeaeaoiiai aeaoioeeoo iino
aeooaeicothoue i?iaeaio oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie.

Ia?icoiiiiy aei inoaiiueiai /ano no?aoaai/ii? ?iei iino ye aeiiiii/iiai
oaiiiaia i eiai iinoey a noniieueiiio ?icaeoeo i?eaiaeeei aei oiai, ui
ainiiaea?nueei iiaeeeainoi iinueeiai na?aaeiaeua caeeoaeenue
iaaeiaeei?enoaieie, ii nooi aoee iica iieai ci?o niaoeiaeinoia i
i?aeoeeia iinoiaoaeiaieoeoaa. Caiaene aeiaaeeiaeie aeyaeeenue /eneaiii
?ioaiiy i?i ?iciiuaiiy a iinoao ia’?eoia i?iieneiainoi oa iioi?
aeiyeueiinoi, iaeiie?aoiinoth aiaecia/aeeny aaia?aeueii ieaie iino, yei
canoa?iaaee ?aiioa ?o iaia?iaeoaaiiy a i?ani, ia aoei /ioei? i
i?iaeoiaii? nenoaie caieaei?enooaaiiy o iinoao i ia?aaeiinoyo,
iaaaeaeaaoiith aoea nenoaia oi?ioaaiiy iinueeeo athaeaeaoia, yea
caeeoaea iinoa c iinoieiei a?ioiaei aeaoioeeoii i iiaiith caeaaeiinoth
aiae aeueo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?. A?eueo?noue iaoeiaeo caeeaae?a, yei
iieeeeaii ?icaeyaeaoe iinoi a oeieiio i ae?iooaaoe i?iaeaie iinoa
eiiieaenii, ioeiieoe ia?niaeoeae eiai ?inoo i ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae
aieeaaoe ia oaeee ?icaeoie, ia aeaeue no?aaeathoue iaeiiai/iith
a?oioaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueiith i?i?ioaoei?th, iaii?oth/ith neeaaeii
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ii i iniaeeai /enoi aeiiiii/ii oaeoi?e, yei
aecia/athoue oaeee ?icaeoie. Oiio iaaoaeoeaii ae?iooaaeenue
iaeaaaeeeaioi i?iaeaie oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie, na?aae yeeo ia?o ca ana neiae
iacaaoe ?icoe?aia aiaeoai?aiiy naiiai iinueeiai na?aaeiaeua,
iioeiicaoeith ?o ae?iaie/i? aace, oi?ioaaiiy i aeei?enoaiiy iinueeeo
oiiainia oiui. Iaioth/? aei inoaiiueiai /ano aaeiiiino?aoeaii iaoiaee
oi?aaeiiiy neeueii iaiaaeoaaee iiaeeeainoi naieo iino aieeaaoe ia naith
aeieth. ?ino ?o ae?iaie/i? aace coiiaethaaany aiaeii/eie aa?’??aie.
Aeaaea iino iaae oeie i?ioeanaie, ui aiaeaoaaeeny ia ?o oa?eoi?i?, aoea
cia/iith i??ith iaiaaeaia. Aac aeei?enoaiiy a oi?aaeiiii aeiiiii/ieo
iaoaiiciia ooieoeiiioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiiiiee ae?ioeoue aieueoinoue
i?iaeai iino aoei iaiiaeeeaei.

E??i oiai, c ia?aoiaeii ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie ??aaiue i?aai?coth/iai
aieeao ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?nueei? aeaaee ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
i?ioeane o i?noao ia a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei aeiiaai ? iio?aaai oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. O ca’yceo c oeei aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue
iinooiiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeaaeii-?icii?yae/i? ae?yeueiino? i?nueei?
aeaaee o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iio?aaaie aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo
ia?aoai?aiue ? aeiiaaie aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, yea i?iaiaeeoueny a
aea?aeaa?. Caaaeaiiy iieyaa? o o?ainoi?iaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?c
aaeueia aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ia iaeei ?c oaeoi??a ?o i?enei?aiiy.

?acii c oei, ae??ooth/e i?iaeaie i?no ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?, Oe?a?ia ia?
ocaiaeaeoaaoe ?o c i?aeia?iaeieie caoiaeaie ? aeeiioaaoe i?eeiyo?
ae?oaith eiioa?aioe??th III c ethaenueeeo iinaeaiue OAA?OAO — II iiaee
Aeiaaeueiee ieai ae?e ia XXI noi??//y, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? ?ic?iaeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee oa no?aoaa?? a aaeoc? i?noiaoae?aieoeoaa ?
caaacia/aiiy noaeiai ?icaeoeo iinaeaiue a o?aai?ciaaiiio na?o?.

A Oe?a?ii iaaooi cia/iiai aeinaiaeo a aeineiaeaeaiii i?iaeai oi?aaeiiiy
iinoaie (I.I.Aeeiia, N.I.Aei?iaoioeia, TH.I.Eaaaaeeinueeee,
I.N.Eiaaeaiei, E.I.Ei?aoeueeee, A.E.Iaiooia., A.I. Ioaeaeueiai,
A.A.Iaaeeoei, A.A.Noaiaiaiei, I.O.Oei/oe, A.A.Oiiaaii, I.I.Oiiii oa
ii.). Neiae cacia/eoe, ui i?iaeaia nenoaiiiai oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie a
ia?aoiaeiie aei ?eieo aeiiiiioei iaaeinoaoiuei aeineiaeaeaia, ia
?ic?iaeaiee i?aaiicaoeieii-aeiiiii/iee iaoaiici ?o oi?aaeiiiy.
Aaaaoiieaiiai i aeeiaii/ii ciiie o ?icaeoeo iino aeiaaathoue oai?aoeei-
iaoiaeieiai/iiai inieneaiiy iiaeo ?aaeie i eiiai?ieo ia?niaeoea
aaiethoei? iino. Iiaa iinueea iieioeea iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia iaaeieiiio
iaoeiaiio ooiaeaiaioi. Aiaenooii iiiia?aoi/ii i?aoei c ieoaiue oai?i? i
i?aeoeee oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie. A oeueiio iieyaa? aeooaeueiinoue i iiaecia
aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aea?aiee iai?yi
aeineiaeaeaiue — i?aaiicaoeieii-aeiiiii/iee iaoaiici oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie
— aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee c oaiaoeeith iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue, yei
aeeiioaaeenue a Iinoeoooi aeiiiiiee i?iieneiainoi IAI Oe?a?ie, ?aae? ii
aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, cie?aia c ?ic?iaeaie ii
oi?aaeiiith ?aaiiiaeueiei ?icaeoeii ? i?iaiicoaaiith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a o oa?eoi??aeueieo no?oeoo?ao, a o./.
iino, i?iaeaiii i???ioiaaieo i?ia?ai eiiieaeniiai ?icaeoeo Aeiiaano,
aeieiai/ieo i?ia?ai oiui.

Iaoa i caaea/? aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
i?aaiicaoeieii-aeiiiii/iiai iaoaiicio oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie o
aenieio?aaiiciaaieo ?aaiiiao c iai?oaeaiith aeieiai/iith neooaoei?th.
Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeyaeeiny iaiao?aeiei ae??oaiiy
ianooiieo caaea/:

?ice?eoe aeiiii?/io nooiinoue i ciino iaoeiai? eaoaai?i? «iinoi» ye
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa?eoi??aeueii? nenoaie;

anoaiiaeoe caeiiiii?iino? aaiethoei? iinueeeo iinaeaiue ?
o?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a;

aeie?aieoe iaoiaeieiai/ii i?eioeeie oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie ? iaa?oiooaaoe
iaoeia? canaaee i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy ieie a
?eieiaeo oiiaao;

noi?ioethaaoe oai?aoe/ii canaaee oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie a ia?aoiaeiie
aeiiiiioei;

?ic?iaeoe caoiaee ii noaa?e?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a
?aa?ii? ? i?noao;

aeyaeoe iia? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? i?aeoiaee aei oi?aae?iiy
oaooa?nueeeie i?noaie ? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ?o aeiiii?/ii? aace;

aeine?aeeoe aeieiai/iee iaiaaeaeiaio ?icaeoeo iino o aiia?o?aaiiciaaieo
?aaiiiao;

iieacaoe iaoiaee oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie i?e ia?aoiaei ?o ia noaaeith noaeiai
?icaeoeo;

?ic?iaeoe oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiicaoeieii-aeiiiii/iiai iaoaiicio
oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. Aei iaeaieueo aaaiieo
?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iaoeiaith iiaeciith i aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a?aeiinyoueny:

iiaeeaeaiiy iiiyoieiiai aia?aoo a iaooei i?i iinoa, yea a
aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi iaceaa?oueny iinoiciaanoii, cie?aia aecia/aiiy
iiiyoue “iinoi”, “i?aaiicaoeieii-aeiiiii/iee iaoaiici”, “aeieiai/iee
iaiaaeaeiaio”, “ia?eaoeia i?noa”;

?ice?eooy caeiiii??iinoae aaiethoe?? i?nueeeo iinaeaiue ?
o?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a;

?ic?iaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo canaae oi?aae?iiy i?noaie a ia?ao?aei?e aei
?eieo aeiiii?oe?;

cai?iiiiiaai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy i?noaie;

iaa?oioiaai? i??i?eoaoi? caoiaee ii noaa?e?caoe??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?no ? ?aa?ii?a o i?ioean?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee;

noi?ioethaaiiy aecia/aiiy ia?eaoeiao i?no ye iiaiai oi?aae?inueeiai
i?ioeano;

?ic?iaeaiiy caoiae?a ii oi?aae?iith ?icaeoeii i?iieneiaino? ye iniiaii?
i?noioi?ioth/i? aaeoc? ia iniia? ?aae?caoe?? aioee?eciai? ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?ia?aie;

iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? oaooa?nueeeo i?no a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? cae?eooy aeiiii?/ii iaaoaeoeaieo oaoo;

noi?ioethaaiiy i?eioeei?a ? iaoiae?a aeieia?/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo ?
caaacia/aiiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee;

aecia/aiiy iai?yi?a ia?aoiaeo i?no ia iiaeaeue noaeiai ?icaeoeo;

cai?iiiioaaiiy iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy i?noaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. ?ic?iaee ii oaeineiiaeaiith
oi?aaeiiiy ?icaeoeii iino ?aaeiciaaii oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy ?o a
i?aaiicaoeieieo no?oeoo?ao oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie ia ?icieo ?aaiiiaeueieo
?iaiyo (aea?aeaaiiio, iaeaniiio, iinueeiio i iinueeeie ?aeiiaie).
Iaa?oioiaaii a aeena?oaoeieiiio aeineiaeaeaiii i?eioeeie oa aoaie
i?ioeano i?eeiyooy oi?aaeiinueeeo ?ioaiue ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy a
oi?aaeiiii iinoaie Aeiiaano i, cie?aia, Aeiiaoeueea oa eiai iinueeeo
?aeiiia. I?iiiceoei? ii oaeineiiaeaiith i?aaiicaoeieii-aeiiiii/iiai
iaoaiicio oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie aiaeia?aaeaii oaeiae a oeieueiaeo i?ia?aiao
?icaeoeo Aeiiaoeueei? iaeanoi i Aeiiaoeueea, iaoeiaeo caioao oa
aeiiiaiaeyo, ia?aaeaieo Aaeiiiino?aoei? I?aceaeaioa, Eaaiiaoo Iiiino?ia
Oe?a?ie, Iiiinoa?noao aeiiiiiee, iioei iiiinoa?noaai i aiaeiinoaai
Oe?a?ie, iaeaea?aeaaeiiiino?aoei?.

Ia aea?aeaaiiio ?iaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii o
ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai a eiiieaenieo oeieueiaeo i?ia?aiao Aeiiaoeueei?
iaeanoi i aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo aeiiiaiaeyo. Ia ?aaiiiaeueiiio i iinueeiio
?iaiyo ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ?aaeiciaaii a i?ia?aiao ?icaeoeo
Aeiiaoeueea i eiai iinueeeo ?aeiiia, aioee?eciaie ?aaiiiaeueiie i?ia?aii
aoaeaaeaeiaooeo. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy a
?ic?iaeao ii iaa?oiooaaiith aieueii? aeiiiii/ii? ciie a Aeiiaoeueeie
iaeanoi, oi?ioaaiiy yei? aiaeia?aaeaii a Oeaci I?aceaeaioa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Noi?ioeueiaaii oa iaa?oioiaaii a
aeena?oaoei? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoei? ? iniaenoei
iaaeaaiiyi ?? aaoi?a. ?ic?iaea oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiai/ieo iieiaeaiue
i?aaiicaoeieii-aeiiiii/ieo iniia oi?aaeiiiy iinoaie a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiiiiee caeieniaii aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a
caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? caiaeeoueny aei ianooiiiai:

?ic?iaeaii i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iniiae oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii i?no;

?ice?eoi oai?aoe/i? canaaee oi?aae?iiy i?noaie a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?,
iiaeeaeaii iiiyo?eiee aia?ao o i?noiciaanoa?;

aecia/aii i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie ii noaa?e?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo i?no ? caoiaee ii oi?aae?iith i?iieneia?noth ye iniiaii?
i?noioi?ioth/i? aaeoc?;

cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee oi?aae?inueeee i?ioean ia iniia? ia?eaoeiao i?no,
aecia/aii oeyoe ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? oaooa?nueeeo i?nueeeo iinaeaiue;

?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie ? iaoiaee aeieia?/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo ? caaacia/aiiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee a a?ia??iaeono??ae?ciaaieo ?aa?iiao,
aecia/aii iniaeeaino? ia?aoiaeo i?no ia iiaeaeue noaeiai ?icaeoeo;

noi?ioeueiaaii iia? i?aeoiaee aei oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy i?noaie.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiaii iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii oa
i?aeoe/ii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy aeiiiaiaeaeenue ia
iaoeiaeo ? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo, ia?aaeao i naiiia?ao c
i?iaeai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?no, ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo
nee ? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, cie?aia: I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo no/aniiai
i?noa. I?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee nai?ia? (Aeiiaoeuee, 1996).
?aa?ii: no?aoaa?y aeaeeaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo Aeiiaano. II I?aeia?iaeia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y (i.Aeiiaoeuee, 1996). Caeo/aiiy a?ioae
aeey oe?a?inueeeo ?aoi?i – aaeaioaoe?y ?iicaiiiai aeina?aeo.
I?aeia?iaeiee nai?ia? (i.Aeiiaoeuee, 1997). I?noi, ?aa?ii, aea?aeaaa:
I?iaeaie ?iciiae?eo aeaaee. I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y
(Neaa’yiiai?nuee, 1997). ?icaeoie ?eieiaeo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?:
iae?iaeiiii?/i? oa ?aa?iiaeuei? aniaeoe. ?anioae?eainueea eiioa?aioe?y
(i.Aeiiaoeuee, 1998). I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy ?iaanoeoe?eieie ?
?iiiaaoe?eieie i?iaeoaie ia oa?eoi??yo i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo. Nai?ia?.
(i.Aeiiaoeuee, 1998). I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ciai?oiuei-aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a
? caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e – ?aa?iiaeueiee aniaeo. I?aeia?iaeia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y (i.Neaaa’yiiai?nuee, 1999).
Noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie
(Ee?a, 1999).

Ioaeieaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue iioaeieiaaii a iiiia?aoi?:
«I?aaiicaoeieii-aeiiiii/ii iniiae oi?aaeiiiy iino» (Ee?a, 1998. — 13,3
ae?oe. a?e.), 16 a?ioo?ao, noaooyo o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo ?
?icae?eao o iiiia?ao?? ? ca??ieeao. Anueiai ca oaiith aeena?oaoei?
iioaeieiaaii aieueoa 22 ae?oeiaaieo ?ia?o caaaeueiei ianyaii iiiaae 45
ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeiy aeeeaaeaia ia 370 noi?iieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ui aeeth/a? 19 oaaeeoeue oa 15 iethno?aoeie
(ae?aa?aie, a?aoiee). Nienie aeei?enoaieo eioa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
ia?aoiao? 252 iaeiaioaaiue. Ie?ii oeueiai, iiaeaii 2 aeiaeaoee ianyaii
41 noi?. Aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, 5 ?icaeieia oa
aeniiaeia.

II. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy

1. Oai?aoeei — iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei
?icaeoeii i?no

?ice?eoa aeiiii?/ia nooi?noue eaoaai??? «i?noi», yea aenooia? ye
ina?aaeie oa?eoi??aeueii-ae?iaie/eo nenoai oa ye aeaiaio oa?eoi??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa. I?noi — oea: eaiea oa?eoi??aeueiiai iiae?eo
i?aoe?, ui cae?enith?oueny /a?ac iino?eii ?nioth/ee ?eiie,
eiioeaio?aoe?th ? aeeaa?neo?eaoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa; cina?aaeaeaiiy
ethaeae, iia’ycaieo i?ae niaith noa?ith ae?iaieoeoaa, niiaeeaaiiy,
oa?eoi??aeueiei non?aenoaii, iiaooiaeie ? n?iaeieie /eiieeaie;
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo oiiae?a: aoae?aaeue, nii?oae, ?iaeaia?ieo
ia?aae, caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue oiui; oa?eoi??y, ui ia? iaaiee noaoon ?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny niaoeeo?/iei na?aaeiaeuai: nioe?aeueiei, ae?iaie/ei,
i?e?iaeiei, a?o?oaeoo?iei.

sse iniiai? eaiee noni?eueiiai iiae?eo i?aoe? ? oi?ie ?icnaeaiiy, i?noa
ooai?ththoue eiiieaene, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiii?/iei ? nioe?aeueiei
iio?aaai ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee. Aiie aeeiiothoue aaaeeea? ae?iaie/?
ooieoe??, na?aae yeeo aieiaiith ? aeiiii?/ia, aecia/ath/a eiai o/anoue
o a?aeoai?thaaeueiiio i?ioean?. Aiia caiaeeoueny aei noai?aiiy
ia?aaeoiia aeey ?icaeoeo ? ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, caaacia/aiiy
aaeaeaaoiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? ? iineoa o
iaiao?aeieo noni?euenoao ianyaao ? i?iii?oe?yo. ?aae?caoe?y aeiiii?/ii?
ooieoe?? cae?enith?oueny i?noii ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy a
ainiiaea?nueeeo ?ioa?anao i?e?iaeiiai ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
iioaioe?ae?a oa?eoi???, ia ye?e a?i ?ici?uaiee.

I?noi — neeaaeia a?aee?eoa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia oa?eoi??aeueia
nenoaia, yea a?aecia/a?oueny, iniaeeaith i?e?iaeith oa aiiainoaoe/ieie
aeanoeainoyie. Eiio, ye iniaeeaiio aeaeo aaeeeeo neeaaeieo aeeiai?/ieo
nenoai, aeanoea? oae? iciaee: iayai?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeaiaio?a,
ye? aeeiiothoue ??ci? ooieoe??; neeaaei?noue no?oeoo?e, aeeiai?/i?noue
iiaaae?iee aeaiaio?a ? nenoaie a oe?eiio, iayai?noue neeaaeieo
aca?iica’yce?a i?ae ia?aiao?aie oa aeaiaioaie nenoaie; ia?aaoey?i?noue
aieeao ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? iayai?noue noioanoe/iino? a
iiaaae?ioe? nenoaie; caeaoi?noue nenoaie a i?ioean? aca?iiae?? ?c
ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai caa??aaoe nooo?a? ci?ii? o aeayeeo caaeaieo
iaaeao (aiiainoac), caaacia/oth/e oei naiei ??aiiaaao nenoaie ciai?oi?i
na?aaeiaeuai; iayai?noue i?aenenoai ???a?o?/iiai ? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, ye? iathoue aeani? oe?e? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo.

I?noi, yaeyth/enue neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa,
a?aeie?aieth?oueny a iueiio, iaaoaath/e iciae niaoeeo?/ii? oe?e?niino?,
yaeyth/e niaith neeaaeio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io nenoaio c aeanoeaeie ?e
caeiiii??iinoyie ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. O no/ani?e iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? iaia? iaeiinoaeiino? uiaei no?oeoo?e i?noa. I?noi, ye
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia nenoaia, ia? oae? i?aenenoaie ??cii? i??e
neeaaeiino?: i?noiooai?thth/o ? i?noiianeoaiaoth/o, ianaeaiiy ?
a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?noiaoae?aio. I?aenenoaie i?noa iiaeii? aooe o?nii
aca?iioa’ycaieie ? caaeainiaaieie. Iaiao?aei?noue i?iii?oe?eiiai ?
aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo no?oeoo?e i?noa, iiaeieaiiy aeeni?iii?oe?e a eiai
ooieoe?iioaaii? iaoiiaeth?oueny aeiiaaie ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, iio?aaaie
nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano.

Aeiaaeueiee i?ioean c?inoaiiy ?ie? i?no o ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, yeee
aecia/a? niin?a aeeooy ianaeaiiy, eiai aeaiia?ao?/io oa
nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eio no?oeoo?e, aeaee aeiiii?/ii? oa iiaooiai?
ae?yeueiino?, oa?aeoa? ?icnaeaiiy oa ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee,
iaoiiaeth?oueny nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie o?aai?caoe??,
oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie yei? ?: iaooeeueia c?inoaiiy i?no, ui aeyaey?oueny
o ca?eueoaii? ?o e?eueeino? oa c?inoaii? ethaeiino? i?e no?eeiio
ca?eueoaii? /anoee ianaeaiiy, yea iaoea? o aaeeeeo i?noao; iineeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iaiaeii??aeiino? oa?eoi??? a ?acoeueoao?
cina?aaeaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ? c?inoaiiy nioe?aeueii?
aeoeaiino? a i?nueeeo iinaeaiiyo, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieei
nooiaiai iane/aiino? nioe?aeueii? oa ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e,
?iaeaia?iiai iaeaoooaaiiy oa aeaaiono?ith oa?eoi???, ui ?iaeoue ?o
iniaeeai ni?eyoeeaeie aeey ?ici?uaiiy iia?oi?o ae?iaieoeoa, iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino?, ?icaeoeo aaaeeeaeo aeae?a oi?aae?iiy, cania?a ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? oa noa?e ianeoaiaoaaiiy; ci?ie no?oeoo?e naieo i?nueeeo
iinaeaiue.

Oe? ci?ie no?oeoo?e aeyaeythoueny o: iineeaii? o iaaeao i?no
ooieoe?iiaeueii? oa nioe?aeueii? no?aoeo?eaoe?? oa?eoi???; ia?a?inoaii?
ii??aiyii aaoiiiiieo i?no, iia’ycaieo eieenue eeoa c i?eeaaeith aei ieo
n?euenueeith i?noeaa?noth a nenoaie i?nueeiai ?icnaeaiiy (aaeiia?aoe??,
eiio?aaoe??, iaaaiie?ne, o?aai?ciaai? ?aeiie) ia iniia? ae?iaie/i?
eiiia?aoe??, ?aeiino? ?eieo i?aoe? oa a?aeoai?aiiy eaae??a, ni?eueiino?
aia?aaoe/ii? oa aoae?aaeueii? aace, ?iaeaia?ii-o?ainii?oii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, cii ianiaiai a?aeii/eieo; «aeaiaoa??ae?caoe??» ?o
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?io?eth, ui aeyaey?oueny oei /?oe?oa, /ei a?eueoa
i?noi; iiaeeiaii? i?noaie iiaeo caiaeueieo ieiu ? iia??oaiiy
aeieia?/iiai noaio a iaaeao i?nueeeo a?aae?a ? iiaeeco ieo.

A ?noi??? oeea?e?caoe?? i?noa i?ieoee aeiaaee oeyo aaiethoe??. Iniiaieie
aoaiaie a ?o ?icaeoeo aoee: i?noa aeaaieie — na?aaeiueia?/i? i?noa —
i?iieneia? i?noa — iino?iaeono??aeuei? i?noa. ?o ?icaeoie o ??ci?
?noi?e/i? aiioe iaa nai? iniaeeaino? ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iaaieie
caeiiii??iinoyie.

Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y o?aai?caoe?? ia eeoa a oa?eoi??aeueiiio aei???, aea ? a
/an? na?ae/aoue i?i noaae?aeueii-?aa?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? aaiethoe??
o?aai?caoe??. A ?? ?icaeoeo aeae?ey?oueny i’youe noaae?e: ca?iaeaeaiiy
no/anieo i?no; oaeaeeiai ?inoo i?no ia iniia? aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a
o?aai?caoe??; aaeiia?aoe?eia o?aai?caoe?y;
aaeiia?aoe?eii-noao?aai?caoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo; ?noioii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
i?nueeiai ?icnaeaiiy oeyoii aeaaeiia?aoe?? o?aai?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e.

Aiae?c aaiethoe?? i?no iieaco?, ui ?o ?icaeoie ia? iaai? caeiiii??iino?,
iniiaieie c yeeo ?:

iaooeeueia c?inoaiiy ?ie? i?no o noni?euenoa?. Oeea?e?caoe?eiee ?icaeoie
iia’ycaiee ia?o ca ana c i?noaie. Ia ?oaaae? XXI noie?ooy a?eueo?noue
ianaeaiiy ieaiaoe i?iaeeaaoeia o i?noao;

eiioeaio?aoe?y i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy o aaeeeeo i?noao, ?ieue ? cia/aiiy
yeeo aacia?a?aii c?inoa?. O aeai?e caeiiii??iino? i?iyaey?oueny aoaeo
ianooaao ae?iaieoeoaa ? ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?;

aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y ooieoe?e i?nueeeo iinaeaiue. sseui ?ai?oa aeiiii?/iith
aacith ?icaeoeo i?no aoei ia?aaaaeii i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai, oi oaia? o
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee i?no ana a?eueoiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? noa?a iineoa. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iiea o?aai?caoe?? ?icoe?th?oueny;

noaiiaeaiiy na?oiaeo i?no, ui aeeiiothoue aeiaaeuei? ooieoe??, a yeeo
eiioeaio?o?oueny ae?iaieoeoai ia no?eueee oiaa??a, ne?eueee ae?iaieoeoai
?ioi?iaoe??. Aieiai? iciaee na?oiaeo i?no, e??i ?o ethaeiino?, — oea
niaoe?ae?caoe?y ia o?iainiai-oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?yo, ia ae?eiaeo
iineoaao, ?ioaineai?noue ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueieo ca’yce?a, ?icaeoie
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo ia?aae;

ia?ao?ae a?ae eiiiaeoiiai “oi/eiaiai” i?noa aei nenoai ?icnaeaiiy.

O e?ioe? OO noie?ooy o ca’yceo ?c ?aaeeeaeueiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th
iie?oe/ii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa c i???ioaoe??th ia i?aaia?,
aaaaoiia?o?ei? oa aeaiie?aoe/i? eiai iniiae, ia?aoiae? aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, a?aeiiaith a?ae oioaeueiiai iaea?aeaaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo, a?aeaoeeny ea?aeeiaeuei? ci?ie o i?nueeiio ?icaeoeo ?
ciai?oi?o eiai oiiaao. I?noa, iniaeeai a Aeiiaan?, ia?aoai?eeenue a
oeaio?e noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? iai?oae, aea i?e o?e aea
eiioeaio?aoe?? ianaeaiiy ??cei nei?ioeeenue athaeaeaoi? aeaea?aea
o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e. Aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny nioe?aeueia
no?oeoo?a i?no, ao?a/a? i?anoeae o?aaeeoe?eia i?nueea ?ioae?aaioe?y,
i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ieue noa’?eo?a o?iainiai-oi?aiaiai naeoi?o.
I?eioeei?aeueii iaiiaeththoueny oi?ie ? iaoiaee i?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy.
I?aeaeueeanue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?nueeeo aeanoae ca aa?aiooaaiiy
ianaeaiith a?aeiia?aeieo nioe?aeueieo aeaa ? i?aa ethaeeie. Oe?
ianoaaeie aeiaaathoue iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?aae?iiy
ooieoe?iiaeueii-i?inoi?iaeie ia?aoai?aiiyie i?no o ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?.

Nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ooieoe?iiaeueii-i?inoi?iaei ?icaeoeii i?no yaey?
niaith niaoe?aeueii i?aai?co?io noeoii?noue iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ieo,
i?aaiaeo ? aeiiii?/ieo ae?e ia oiiae, i??i?eoaoe ? iaiaaeaiiy
ia?aoai?aiue ie?aieo i?nueeeo i?aenenoai c iaoith onoiaiiy i?ioe??/ ?
caaacia/aiiy ia oe?e iniia? eiiieaeniiai ? caaeainiaaiiai ?icaeoeo i?no.
Nenoaii?noue oi?aae?iiy iieyaa? ye a iaeii/ani?e ae?? ia i?nueeo
no?oeoo?o aeae?eueeio aca?iiiia’ycaieo ?aaoeyoi??a (i?aaiaeo,
aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo ? o.ae.), oae ? i???ioaoe?? oe??? ae?? ia
aioo??oiueino?oeoo?i? a?aeiineie.

Oi?aae?inueea ae?yeuei?noue — oea ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo ooieoe?e,
iai?aaeaieo ia ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ?icaeoeo i?no. Eiei i?iaeai, ye?
ae??oothoueny a i?ioean? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?, caiaeeoueny aei
ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo oe?eae ?icaeoeo, aeyaeaiiy ?o i??i?eoaoiino?,
/a?aiaino? ? iine?aeiaiino? ?o ?aae?caoe??. Ia oe?e iniia?
?ic?iaeythoueny oe?e? oi?aae?iiy ? iaa?oioiaothoueny iaai? caaaeaiiy,
ye? iaiao?aeii aeeiiaoe aeey ?o aeinyaiaiiy. I?ioean oi?aae?iiy i?noaie
ia? oae? iniiai? ooieoe??: aecia/aiiy oe?eae oa oeyo?a ?o ?aae?caoe??;
ieaioaaiiy; i?aai?caoe??; i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue;
eii?aeeiaoe?? ? ?aaoethaaiiy; ea??aieoeoai ? eiio?ieue ca ae?yeuei?noth;
caaacia/aiiy cai?ioiiai ca’yceo.

I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy i?noaie icia/a?
i?aai?caoe?th no?oeoo?e oi?aaeyth/i? nenoaie ? i?aai?caoe?th i?ioeano ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy c aeii?ioaaiiyi aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a ea??aieoeoaa. Eiai
neeaaeiaeie eiiiiiaioaie ?: i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? i?aaeea, ii?iaoeae ?
noaiaea?oe, aeciath/? no?oeoo?o oi?aae?iiy; iaia’ycee, i?aaa,
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy oa ?o i?aoe?aiee?a; ea??aieoeoai
oi?aae?inueeith ae?yeuei?noth; ?iciiae?e ?ia?o i?ae ie?aieie eaieaie;
iniauaiiy oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? caniaaie i?aoaoi?ee, a oaeiae
nenoaio aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a ea??aieoeoaa.

Aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano (nenoaie) oi?aae?iiy iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe aeaiyei:
ye ioe?ieo i??e caeaoiino? aeaii? i?ia?aie oi?aae?inueeeo ae?e
caaacia/eoe aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae ?icaeoeo i?noa ? ye ioe?ieo i??e aeo?ao
?ano?n?a ? coneeue, ye? aeo?a/athoueny nenoaiith i?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy
aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae ?icaeoeo acyoo ii a?aeiioaiith aei yeiainue
?ioiai iiaeeeaiai ono?ith oaei? nenoaie. ?ioaa?aeueieie iieacieeaie
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? i?noa iiaea aooe
?iaeaen ethaenueeiai ?icaeoeo, ye?noue aeeooy ? noae?noue ?icaeoeo.

Aeey ae?iaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue iaiao?aeia noai?aiiy
aaeaeaaoii? i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e ? iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy,
iiaoaeiaaieo ?c a?aooaaiiyi noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.
Ia?niaeoeaieie i?aai?caoe?eieie no?oeoo?aie iaiao?aeii aaaaeaoe oae?,
ye?: ii-ia?oa, eaaei ? aeoeaii ?aaaothoue ia ci?ii? oiiae noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo, noai?thth/e i?aaie ? i?ae?icae?ee oi?aae?iiy, aeia?aaeaeath/e
oe? oiiae, ye? ?o oi?iothoue; ii-ae?oaa, caaacia/othoue ?aaeueiee i?i?ea
o oaoiieia?/iiio, nioe?aeueiiio, aeiiii?/iiio ? iie?oe/iiio ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa; ii-o?ao?, oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?eioeei?aeueii iia? oi?ie
aca?iica’yce?a i?ae ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueeeie ia?oia?aie, caaacia/oth/e
eiieo?aioe?th.

O i?noao Oe?a?ie oi?io?oueny aaaaoi??aiaaa i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a
oi?aae?iiy, ui aeaeii ia i?eeeaae? i?ano?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy i.Aeiiaoeueea
(noaia 1). Aiia aeeth/a?: i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei
aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy i?noii (oi?aae?iiy ? a?aeae?ee
aia?aoo, ye? o?iainothoueny c athaeaeaoo); nenoaio aini?ic?aooieiaeo
i?aai?caoe?e, ui caaacia/othoue aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue i?noa ? ?
naiino?eieie th?eaee/ieie iniaaie; i?aai?caoe?? ? onoaiiae iiaea?eiiai
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy, ui ooieoe?iiothoue ye ?aa?iiaeuei? i?ae?icae?ee
aea?aeaaieo oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo?; i?aai?caoe?? ? onoaiiae,
ae?yeuei?noue yeeo eii?aeeio?oueny i?nueeith aeaaeith.

I?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy iiaeiia caaacia/oaaoe: oi?aae?iiy
i?noii ye ?aeeiei oe?eei; oi?aae?iiy an?ia naeoi?aie aeiiii?ee /a?ac
a?aeiia?aei? ooieoe?iiaeuei?, aaeocaa? ? oa?eoi??aeuei? i?aaie;
i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue; caeo/aiiy ianaeaiiy aei oi?aae?iiy
i?noii /a?ac nenoaio i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy; aeiiiiia aeo?a/aiiy
athaeaeaoo i?noa. I?e iiooeo iioeiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?
oi?aae?iiy i?noaie iaiao?aeii aeoiaeeoe ?c iaoeiaeo i?eioeei?a iiaoaeiae
no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy aaeeeeie nenoaiaie, caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ? i?aaeiaoii? eii?aeeiaoe??. I?e oeueiio iio??aii
oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe aeiiae /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ano?oeoo?, a oaeiae a?aoe aei oaaae ?aaeuei? ianoaaeie
? niaoeeo?/i? aeiiae oa iiaeeeaino? eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai ia’?eoo
oi?aae?iiy.

I?e aea/aii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?no, ye? yaeythoue
niaith neeaaei? ?aa?iiaeuei? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie, iaiao?aeii aeoiaeeoe ?c
a?aooaaiiy oaeeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a aeine?aeaeaiiy: o?aeooaaiiy
i?noa ye aeeiai?/iiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?ioeano, i?io?eath/iai a
iaaiiio i?inoi?iaiio na?aaeiaeu?; a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?noa ye
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie; iacaiaeeiino? oe?eiai aei noeoiiino?
neeaaeiaeo eiai /anoei; aca?iia?aeiinei i?noa ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai
oa ???a?o?/iino? i?aai?caoe??; oe?e?niino? ooieoe?iiaeueieo eiiiiiaio?a
i?noa; eiiieaeniino?; aeieia?/iino?; i?iii?oe?eiino? ? caaeainiaaiino?.

Noaia 1. I?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy i. Aeiiaoeueeii

Ia iniia? aiae?co iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a ?icaeoeo i?no iiaeia
anoaiiaeoe eiino?oeoeai? aeanoeaino? i?nueei? nenoaie: oe?e?ni?noue,
iaca?aei?noue oe?eiai aei noeoiiino? /anoei; a?aeiineie ?c ciai?oi?i
na?aaeiaeuai oa ???a?o?/i?noue i?aai?caoe??; oe?e?ni?noue
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a, oe?eani?yiiaai?noue — ?icaeoie, aaiethoe?y,
aaeaioaoe?y. Oiio aaaeeeaeie ia?aaeoiiaaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?noa-i?aai?cio ?: ocaiaeaeai?noue ?icaeoeo iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeaiaio?a;
??aiicia/i?noue an?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a, ine?eueee a i?no? ia
iiaea aooe «aeueo» ? «ieae/eo» ooieoe?e, a oaeiae aeii?ioaaiiy i?noeue
aeoea?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy ? ca’yce?a, aeieeath/eo i?ae ieie.

2. Oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii noaa?e?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ?aa?iio

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui nooo?aith ?enith Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? ?
iaaecae/aeii aeniea ?? ?ioaa?iaai?noue a ?aeeio aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie.
AEeoo?ae?yeuei?noue i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Aeiia//eie caeaaeeoue a?ae
aeeth/aiiy ?? a ?aeeio aia?aaoe/io nenoaio, nenoaio aiaeiiinoa/aiiy oa
iinoa/aiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco. A ?ioeo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie ciaoiaeyoueny
aaaeeea? naeoi?e ne?iaeiii? aace iaoaeo?a?eieo caaiae?a. C on??? Oe?a?ie
Aeiiaan io?eio? i?iaeoeoe?th n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ia?a?iaii?
i?iieneiaino?, oiaa?e ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy.

C ?ioiai aieo, a Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? neiioeaio?iaai? i?aei?e?inoaa
oaeeo aaciaeo oaoiieia?/ieo eiiieaen?a ye «aoa?eey-aia?aaoeea» oa
«aoa?eey-eien-iaoae». O ca’yceo c oeei, eeoa ca oiiae ?icaeoeo oeeo
eiiieaen?a ye ooiaeaiaioo, iiaeeeaa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy an??? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie ia iia?e aenieioaoiieia?/i?e iniia? oa c no/aniei no?oeoo?iei
iaee//yi.

?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia iniia? i?eioeei?a
?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, ye? neeaeeny ua o ii/aoeiaiio ia??iae?
aoae?aieoeoaa eieeoiueiai N?N?, i?ea?a ia o?eueee aei iaaei??ii?
iane/aiino? iaeano? i?iieneiaeie ia’?eoaie, a e aei ?o ia??aiii??iiai
?ici?uaiiy. Iieiaeia i?iieneiaiai iioaioe?aeo iaeano? cina?aaeaeaia a
/ioe?ueio e?oiieo i?noao. No?oeoo?a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui
neeaeanue, coiiaeea a?eueo aino?a aeyaeaiiy a iaeano? iaaaoeaieo
iane?aee?a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece. Caaaeueiee ianya
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ca 1997 ??e o ii??aiyiieo oe?iao aei ??aiy
1991 ?ieo nei?ioeany ia 49,9 %.

Caeiath/e iaeia c ia?oeo i?noeue a Oe?a?i? ii aeiiii?/iiio iioaioe?aeo
iaeanoue cia/ii a?aenoa? o nioe?aeueiiio ?icaeoeo. Oae, caaacia/ai?noue
ianaeaiiy e?ea?iyie, na?aaei?ie iaaee/ieie onoaiiaaie a ?ic?aooieo ia 10
oen. ianaeaiiy cia/ii ieae/?, i?ae a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i?. Iia??oeany noai
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, cia/ii nei?ioeeenue iiaeeeaino?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo iaoiaeee oa oaoiieia?e ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeieo
cae?aiinoae ae?oae. I?ae aieeaii e?eciaeo yaeu a aeiiii?oe? i?iaeiaaeo?
iia??ooaaoenue aeaiia?ao?/iee noai. Iaeiie/othoueny i?aeaaeocaa? oa
aioo??oiueiaaeocaa? aeeni?iii?oe??. Ieoiia aaaa aia?ai-, iaoa??aei- oa
eai?oaei?iieo ae?iaieoeoa (aeaeo?iaia?aaoeea, aoa?eueia, o?i?/ia,
eienio?i?/ia, iaoaeo?a?eia i?iieneia?noue) c?inoa? ? neeaaea? iei? 78%
caaaeueiiai ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa a iaeano?. Oea iaoiiaeth? aenieo
aeo?aoi?noue oa iecueeo aoaeoeai?noue aeiiii?ee iaeano?. Aia?ai?ii?noue
i?iaeoeoe?? a 4 ? a?eueoa ?ace ia?aaeuo? iieacieee i?iieneiai ?icaeioieo
e?a?i.

Aacia? i?aei?e?inoaa ao?a/athoue ae?iaie/ee oa aenii?oiee iioaioe?ae, ia
caaacia/othoue noaeo oa eiieo?aioini?iiiaeio ae?yeuei?noue ia
aioo??oiueiio ? ciai?oiueiio ?eieao. Oiaa?ia no?oeoo?a aenii?oo
i?aaenoaaeaia a iniiaiiio iaoaeo?a?eiith oa o?i?/iith i?iaeoeoe??th,
ie?aieie aeaeaie i?ia?aeueii? ne?iaeie. Iinoa/aiiy iaoai?/ieo,
aeaeo?e/ieo, aeaeo?iiieo iaoei oa onoaoeoaaiiy neeaaea? a caaaeueiiio
ianyc? aenii?oo eeoa 8%. E?ioeaaa i?iaeoeoe?y i?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaoeueei?
iaeano? ia na?oiaeo ?eieao /anoi neoiiao?oueny ca aeaii?iaiaeie oe?iaie.
??aaiue oe?i na?oiaiai ?eieo ia iaeiieiaiio i?iaeoeoe?th ia?aaaaeii ia
20-50% ieae/ee, i?ae ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo ca aeo?aoieie oe?iaie.
Nooo?aei oaeiae caeeoa?oueny a?aenoaaaiiy ca ye?nieie iieacieeaie.

Iecueea ieoiia aaaa aaeocae, ui ae?iaeythoue oiaa?e ia?iaeiiai
niiaeeaaiiy (eeoa 17%), ? aieiaiith i?e/eiith iecueeiai caaacia/aiiy
ieie ianaeaiiy iaeano?, a oea i?aei?e?inoaa c? oaeaeeith a?aeaea/ath oa
iaa?oii eai?oaeo. sseui ca aeioneii i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia aeooo
ianaeaiiy iaeanoue ciaoiaeeoueny a /ene? i?ia?aeieo, oi ca aeioneii
niiaeea/eo oiaa??a — na?aae inoaii?o iaeanoae a Oe?a?i?.

No?aoaa?/iith iaoith aioee?eciaeo caoiae?a iiaeiii noaoe noai?aiiy oiia
aeey caaacia/aiiy ?eoi?/ii? ?iaioe oaoo i?e ?aaeeeaeueiiio cieaeaii?
aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa, aeinyaiaiiy o?iainiai? noaa?eueiino? i?aei?e?inoa.
?aae?caoe?y oe??? iaoe iiaeeeaa ca oiia ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo caaea/:
cia/iiai nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao c aoaeaaeaeiaooeo aaciina?aaeiuei a i?ioean?
ae?iaieoeoaa c aaaaeaiiyi iaoai?cio iaiaaeaiiy aa?oino? aoa?eey caa?oo;
i/euaiiy aa?oino? aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe?? a?ae aeaeaoe?a, ye?
aaciina?aaeiuei ia iia’ycai? c aoaeaaeaeiaooeii oa aoaeaia?a?iaeith
(aeaeaoee ia oo?eiaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e, caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueieo
aa?aio?e i?aoe?aieeai ? iain?iia?ai aaeoc?); aaaaeaiiy iaoai?cio
eiiiainaoe?? aeiaeaoeiaeo, iiiaae ?eieiao oe?io, ia’?eoeaii iaoiiaeaieo
aeo?ao ia aoaeaaeaeiaooie; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio,
yeee caaacia/o? iiaio nieaoo a?aeaaioaaeaii? niiaeeaa/aa? aoa?eueii?
i?iaeoeoe??, aeaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei ia ?eieo aoa?eey c
o?i?, aii?yaeeoaaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy oaoo ca
aoaeoeaieie oe?iaie, i?iaeaae aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe?? niiaeeaa/aa? ca
oe?iaie, ui caaacia/othoue eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue e?ioeaai?
i?iaeoeoe?? (aeaeo?iaia?a?y, iaoae).

Aeinyaoe oeueiai iiaeia ca ?aooiie cae?eooy iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo oa
aeaaaeaiiy c aenieoaoaoe?? iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo eaa, cina?aaeaeaiiy
ethaenueeeo, o?iainiaeo, iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ia i/enieo aeaiyo, aea
iiaeia aeinyaoe iaaaioaaeaiiy 1000 ? a?eueoa oiii aoa?eey ia aeiao. Aei
2000 ?. caaaeueia e?euee?noue ae?th/eo i/enieo aeai?a iiaea aooe
nei?i/aia ia 15-20%, aea na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eiaeiee c
ieo ia? c?inoe aei 300 o, i?ioe 215 o o 1996 ?.

Aeioe?euei?oa ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iaoai?ci aii?yaeeoaaiiy oaooiiai oiiaeo,
ca yeei iaia?niaeoeai? oaooe ia ia?oiio aoai? aaei?i?no?aoeaii
i?e?aeiothoueny aei iaei??? /e a?oie oaoo, ui iathoue ia?niaeoeao
?icaeoeo oa noaei? ?iaioe. Aeae? o?eaa? iaaiee ia??iae ia?aaiaeo
?ia?oiee?a oa ia?ai?uaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ia i?iaeoeoeai? eaiee
ae?iaieoeoaa. O?eueee i?ney oeueiai oaooa, ui cae?eaa?oueny,
ia?aaea?oueny aei eiiiai?? «Oe?aoaea?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y» aeey inoaoi/iiai
cae?eooy ? ae??oaiiy ieoaiue nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo o?oaeyueo, ui
caeeoeeenue ia oeueiio i?aei?e?inoa?.

Aeao?oeeo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ia cae?eniaiiy aioee?eciai? i?ia?aie
aeiaaa?, aae aoee ?aae?ciaai? ae?eni? caoiaee uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eii? i?eaaaeeaino? i?aei?e?inoa aoa?eueii? aaeoc? anueiai
Aeiiaanueeiai ?aa?iio. Oea aeicaieeoue caeo/eoe ?iicaiiee oa
iaoe?iiaeueiee eai?oae, i?enei?eoe ?icaeoie oaooa?nueeeo eieaeoea?a,
i?aeaeueoe caeiyo?noue ianaeaiiy, i?enei?eoe ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane,
ai?iaaaeeoe aaca?aeoiaei? oaoiieia??, cieceoe aeieia?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia ?aa?ii.

Ca iai?yiaie aeei?enoaiiy cia/ieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a, a ia?oo
/a?ao, iio?aaothoue ae?iaieoeoaa c a?aeiinii ei?ioeei ia??iaeii
iiaa?iaiiy eai?oaeo: n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, ia?a?iaia i?iieneia?noue,
oiaa?iae?iaie/ee naeoi?, noa?a iineoa, ?icaeoie ?io?ano?oeoo?e. Aea ia
iaio, i?ae 50% ?iaanoeoe?e iathoue aooe ni?yiiaai? a aacia? aaeoc?:
aoa?eueio, o?i?/io i?iieneia?noue, aia?aaoeeo, /i?io iaoaeo?a?th. Aac
aeiaaaeaiiy ??aiy oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai noaio i?aei?e?inoa oeeo aaeocae
aei eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiiai ia na?oiaiio ?eieo, iie?ioaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio a Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? iaiiaeeeaa.
Iaiao?aeii iaaeaoe i??i?eoaoiiai cia/aiiy caeo/aiith ?iaanoeoe?e a
iaoeiiaoae?aiee eiiieaen.

Noai?aiiy ia?aaeoiia aeey oi?ioaaiiy ia iniia? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo iaeano? aoaeoeaii?
nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ?eieiaiai oeio c
iaiao?aeiei i?aaiaei, aeiiii?/iei oa i?aai?caoe?eiei caaacia/aiiyi
ia?aaeaa/a?: iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii? i???ioiaaiino? aeiiii?ee ?
?ica’ycaiiy ia oe?e iniia? eiiieaeno nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai, a
naia: caaacia/aiiy a?eueo iiaii? ? aoaeoeaii? caeiyoino?, i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a oa nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ia iniia?
noaa?e?caoe?? oa icaei?iaeaiiy aeiiii?ee, ?icaeoeo niiaeea/iai ?eieo ca
?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a oiaa??a aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa, caaacia/aiiy
aoae?aieoeoaa nioe?aeueii aaaeeeaeo ia’?eo?a; oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueii?
no?oeoo?e ainiiaea?noaa iaeano?, caaeainiaaiino? ?iaioe iniiaieo
i?aeaaeocaaeo eiiieaen?a, aaeocae ? ae?iaieoeoa ca ?aooiie caa?aaeaiiy
oa ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a, a oiio /ene? ? i?aeia?iaeieo;
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?th i?aei?e?inoa, eiina?aaoe?? iniiaieo oiiae?a o ?ac?
i?eieiaiiy ae?iaie/i? oa ?ioi? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? c iaoith
iiaeeeaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy o iaeaooiueiio; cieaeaiiy
aia?ai- oa ?ano?ni?iiino? iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ca ?aooiie
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia?aaeiaeo oaoiieia?e, iinooiiaiai aeaaaeaiiy c
aenieoaoaoe?? aia?ai?iieo oa aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa, aeo?ae
ia na?oiaee ?eiie; i?enei?aiiy ?icaeoeo aaeocae, ye? caaacia/othoue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy anueiai ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, ? ia?o ca
ana oeo, ye? iinoaaeythoue aenieiye?nio i?iaeoeoe?th (?iaioe, iineoae)
ia aioo??oi?e niiaeea/?e ?eiie ? ia aenii?o; iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/iiai
noaiiaeua, ciaioaiiy oaoiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia i?e?iaeo c aieo
aeieiaiiaaacia/ieo ae?iaieoeoa; oi?ioaaiiy oa oaeineiiaeaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy, caniiaaiiai ia ia?oia?noa?
i?aei?e?ioe?a, o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee, yeee
aeicaieeoue ae?iaie/?e oa nioe?aeuei?e noa?ai aaeaiooaaoeny aei oiia
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee; oe??ieaiiy o?iainiai? aace iaeano?, iiooe oa
caeo/aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaea?ae o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, a oiio /ene?
?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e aeey ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio ?, ia?o ca ana, aeey
caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?ni?iiiaeiino? oaooa?nueeeo i?no oa naeeu.

C iaoith caeo/aiiy ciai?oi?o ?iaanoeoe?e o ?aa?iie, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny
e?ea?aeaoe?y aoa?eueieo oaoo, iaiao?aeii iaaeaoe oeei ?aa?iiai noaoon
oa?eoi??e i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo. Oeae noaoon ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iaaeaoe
oaeei i?noai ? naeeuai: Aoaeaaea?o, Ni?aeiiio, Oi?aco, Oaooa?nueeo,
Aeca?aeeinueeo, Ai?e?aoe?, E??ianueeiio, AEaeai?aoe?, Iae??aoe?,
Aeiiaoeueeo, E?aniia?i?enueeo, Aeeieo?iao, Naeeaeia?, Iiaia?iae?aoe?,
Ia??oiieth, Aeia?ii?eeth, ?iae??ao. Aea?? oeeo ?aa?ii?a coiiaeaiee,
ii-ia?oa, iaea?eueoith iai?oaeai?noth nioe?aeueii? neooaoe??, ii-ae?oaa,
a?aenooi?noth aeinoaoi?o ?ano?n?a aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ?iaioe
a ianooaaao on??? iaeano?. ?ic?iaeaiee i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee
iaoai?ci oa aecia/ai? caoiaee, ye? caaacia/aoue ?aaeueiee aoaeo.

Eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei i?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee noi?iiaai? ia iniia? aiae?co aeiiii?/ieo ?
nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o i?iieneiaino? ?aa?iio, no?aoaa?? ? i??i?eoao?a
?? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo, aeai?o iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai ? ?eieiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee ?aa?iio, i?iaiico o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a.

O no/anieo oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ia ci?io
ieaiiai-?iciiae?eue/iio oi?aae?iith i?eoiaeeoue aeiiii?/ia ?aaoethaaiiy.
? oi/a ?ieue oaeiai ?aaoethaaiiy, yea iiaeiii a?aoiaoaaoe ??ciiiai?oi?
?ioa?ane, a oaeiae iiiaeeii?noue i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy, ??cei c?inoa?,
i?ioa oea ia icia/a? iiaiiai cieeiaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
i?yiiai aieeao ia ainiiaea?thth/? ia’?eoe. I?aeoeea ?icaeiooeo e?a?i
aiai?eoue i?i ii?aeiaiiy, aeiiiaiaiiy ?eieiaeo ?aaoeyoi??a ieaiiaeie,
iae?iaeiiii?/ieie iaoiaeaie ?aaoethaaiiy c aieo iaee?oii?oeo aeaniee?a,
o oiio /ene? ? aea?aeaae.

Noiniaii i?iieneiaino? iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? aniaeoe ?aa?iiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy: aca?iica’ycie ?aa?iio ? ?anioae?eainueeiai oeaio?o o
aecia/aii? i??i?eoao?a ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno ?aa?iio ?
ii?aoethaaii? a?aeiia?aeieo eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai
??aiy; caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno ?aa?iio ye ?aeeiiai
oe?eiai; iiaeieaiiy iaa?aeiia?aeiino? ?eieiaiai ca ci?noii ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ? ia?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua i?aei?e?inoa.

Aieiaiee e?eoa??e i?e ?ic?iaeaii? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai i?iieneiaiai
?icaeoeo oa iaiao?aeieo ?iaanoeoe?e — i/?eoaaia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue
i?aei?e?inoa. O?iainiaa aeiiiiiaa iiaeiia iiaeaaaoenue naeaeoeaii ? aooe
i?ecia/aiith aeey noeioethaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a c aenieei
?eceeii, aeine?aeaeaiiy a noa?? ?ic?iaeaiiy ? i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
iiaeo oaoiieia?e .

Iiaeaeue aioee?eciaiai no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth ?aa?iio
aaco?oueny ia no?aoaa?/iiio ieaioaaii?, aecia/aii? iioi/ii? i?n??
i?aei?e?inoaa, aiae?c? na?aaeiaeua a?ciano, oi?ioaaii? no?aoaa?/ieo
aeueoa?iaoea aeoiaeo i?aei?e?inoaa c e?ece ? aeai?? iaei??? c ieo.

3. Oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii oaooa?nueeeo i?no ? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??th ?o
aeiiii?/ii? aace

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? noai?aiee
iiooaeiee aoaeaaeaeiaoaiee eiiieaen, ia yeiio caeiyoi a?eueoa 320 oen.
?ia?oiee?a. O?eaaea ?iaioa a?eueoino? oaoo aac ?aeiino?oeoe??, o?iainiaa
iacaaeainiaai?noue i?ecaaee aei oiai, ui o?eueee 14 (11,6%) oaoo iathoue
ae?iaie/o iiooaei?noue, a?aeiia?aeio no/aniiio ??aith eiioeaio?aoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa — 1 iei.o ia ??e ? a?eueoa. O oie aea /an ae?iaie/a
iiooaei?noue o?aoeie oaoo ia ia?aaeuo? 300 oen.o ia ??e. Iecueeee
oaoi?/iee ??aaiue aaeoc?, neeaaei? a??ie/i-aaieia?/i? oiiae
iaoiiaeththoue aenieo nia?aa?o?noue aoaeaaeaeiaooeo ? oe?io aoa?eey, yea
a 1,5 — 1,8 ?ace aeua ca na?oiaee ??aaiue.

?eieiaa oe?ia ia aoa?eueio i?iaeoeoe?th ?aaeueii ? ia’?eoeaii ? cia/ii
iaioith iaiao?aeii? aa?oino? aeaeiaooeo aoa?eey a Oe?a?i?, iniaeeai a
Aeiiaan?. *a?ac oea, an? iaiao?aei? oaeoi?e iaa?oue i?inoiai
a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ia iiaeooue aooe iiai?noth oa a iaiao?aei?e
i?iii?oe?eiino? caaacia/ai? o?iainiai ii?iaeueiei oeyoii. Ae?o/ee a?ae
?aae?caoe?? aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe?? ca ?eieiaeie oe?iaie ? iaaeinoaoi?ie
ia iie?eooy aeo?ao oaoo c aoaeaaeaeiaooeo.

?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui i?aei?e?inoaa iaeano? caeaoi? caaacia/eoe an?
iio?aae ainiiaea?noaa o aoa?ee?. C oe??th iaoith iaiao?aeii i?enei?eoe
no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? ? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?th
oaooiiai oiiaeo, caaacia/eoe aei iiaiiai o?iainiaiai caaeainoaaiiy
aaeoc? i?aeo?eieo aoaeaaeaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa c aea?aeathaeaeaoo,
ni?yioaaaoe oeth i?aeo?eieo ia?aaaaeii ia eai?oaeueia aoae?aieoeoai oa
oaoi?/ia ia?ainiauaiiy oaoo. sse iieaco? i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae,
no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa aaeoc? ia caaaeaee eoea aeaaeei ? o an?o
aeiaaeeao ?? ?icaeoie i?ioiaeea iaci?iii o iai?yieo cieaeaiiy ianooaa?a
ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ? cina?aaeaeaiiy
aeaeiaooeo ia e?aueo i?aei?e?inoaao.

?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y i?aei?e?inoa — oea i?ioean, noi?iaiaeaeoaaiee
ei??iieie ci?iaie a ?o ae?yeueiino? ? oi?aae?ii?, o eiai ?iai/?e nee? ?
a no?oeoo?? o?iain?a c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy i?eaooeiaino?, nei?i/aiiy
aeo?ao ? iie?ioaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe??. No?oeoo?ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y
aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? aeeeeeaia iaiao?aei?noth nei?i/aiiy
ia?aioaaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa ? e?eueeino? caeiyoeo o aoa?euei?e
i?iieneiaino?, ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ?
noai?aiiy iiaeo aaeocae aeiiii?ee o oaooa?nueeeo i?noao, ia?aoiaeii a?ae
eiiaiaeii? aei ?eieiai? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Iniaeeainoyie ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? a Oe?a?i? ?:
oe?ieiianooaai?noue cae?eooy; iaiao?aei?noue ?noioii? ?aeiino?oeoe??
aaniethoii? a?eueoino? aoa?eueieo oaoo; neeaaei?noue ae??oaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai; iaaeinoaoiy o?iainiaa i?aeo?eiea ye c aieo o?yaeo,
oae ? i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e.

Oaooe, ui e?ea?aeothoueny, ?icoaoiaai? o 8 iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie, a oiio
/ene? a oaeeo i?noao, ye Oe?a?iea, Oa?oeecuee, Iae??aea, ?iae??ai,
Ni?aeia, Aeiiaoeuee, Aio?aoeeo, E?aniiaeii, Noaoaiia, A?yiea, Ci??inuee,
*a?aiiia?aae, Aeaenaiae??y, Iiaiaieeinuee.

A i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiio a?aeiioaii? i?e iaa?oiooaaii? no?oeoo?ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? aeae?ey?oueny 4 aeiee i?iaeai:
?aoi?ioaaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth a
i?aai?caoe?eii-no?oeoo?iiio ? ooieoe?iiaeueiiio aniaeoao; cae?eniaiiy
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? oaooiaiai oiiaeo; ?c aeae?eaiiy a?oi oaoo ia iniia?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ca nooiaiai caeoeiaino?, iayaiino? i?iieneiaeo caian?a,
oaoi?/iiai noaio oa ?o a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia; ?ic?iaeaiiy i?ia?aie
cae?eooy oaoo.

?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? a oe?eiio, ye ? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y
oaooiaiai oiiaeo cie?aia iiaeii? cae?enithaaoeny eiiieaenii ?
ae??ooaaoeny ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?, i?iaiaeeoenue i?iaeoiaii, caaaeaii ?
aac iini?oiino?.

Iniiaieie ?iaeeeaoi?aie i?e ae??oaii? ieoaiiy i?i aeeth/aiiy aei
ia?ae?eo iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo aeey ?icaeyaeo ?o cae?eooy ?: aeiiii?/ia
noaiiaeua eiaeii? oaooe; iaiaaeai?noue i?iieneiaeo caian?a oa ?o
iaeiiaeeoe?ei?noue ca ye?noth ? iiooaei?noth ieano?a; neeaaei?
a??ie/i-aaieia?/i? oiiae ?iaeiaeua; iecueeee oaoi?/iee ??aaiue
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. Ia iniia? oeacaieo ?iaeeeaoi??a aecia/aia a?oia
iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo ? ?ic??c?a o e?eueeino? 103 oaoi?/ieo iaeeieoeue.

A iniiao iaoiaeeee aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ?iaioe aenieicaeoeiaeo oaoo
iieeaaeai? ianooii? i?eioeeie: iiaoaeiaa ?yae?a i??i?eoaoiino?
aenieicaeoeiaeo oaoo ca iniiaiei iieacieeii — eiao?oe??ioii aaniethoii?
aoaeoeaiino?; ia?aa??ea ia iniia? oaeoi?iiai aiae?co i?e/ei ?
aeiaaeeiaino? aenieeo aeo?ao ii aeaiaioao nia?aa?oino?; a?aeiia?aei?noue
iioiai? oe?ie ??aith noni?eueii iaiao?aeieo aeaeaoe?a; niiaeea/i?
oe?iiino? ia?ee aoa?eey.

Aeoea?caoe?y no?oeoo?ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? aeiaaa?
ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue: ?ic?iaee ? iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy iiai?
nenoaie ? ii?yaeeo o?iainoaaiiy eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue noiniaii aei ?eieiaeo
oiia; i?eeiyooy caeiio i?i a??ie/o ?aioo ? ?ic?iaeaiiy iaoai?cio
?aea?ceoe?? ?aioiiai iiaeaoeo; ciaoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a ia aoae?aieoeoai
iiaeo ai?eciio?a, ?aeiino?oeoe??, iiaea?i?caoe?? ae?th/eo ?
aoae?aieoeoai iiaeo oaoo.

Cae?eooy aoa?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ia? noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny ci?iith
aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e iinaeaiue. I?e oeueiio ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y
oaooa?nueeeo i?no iiaeiia iineoe no?aoaa?/iee iai?yi, aecia/aiee a
eiioaeno? ?aoi?ioaaiiy an??? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. ?? iaiao?aeii
cae?enithaaoe ia iniia? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ?
?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee. O oeueiio ca’yceo a Oe?a?i? iaiao?aeii
aoei a noai?eoe nenoaie ?aa?iiaeueiiai iae?iaeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy,
ye? a ae??ooaaee aeiaaeuei? oa?eoi??aeuei? i?iii?oe?? ? i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?
ca’ycee, oaeineiiaethaaee oa?eoi??aeuei? no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee ia iniia?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee,
cae?enithaaee ?aa?iiaeueia oe?eueiaa i?ia?aioaaiiy, ?ic?iaeyee
oa?eoi??aeuei? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?iaiice, ui ni?eyei a
iiia?aaeaeaiith ? e?ea?aeaoe?? ?aa?iiaeueieo aeeni?iii?oe?e.

A aeiiii?/iiio aniaeo? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y oaooa?nueeeo i?no ia?aaeaa/a?
iine?aeiaia aaeeooy noeoiiino? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo,
i?aaiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo caoiae?a, iai?aaeaieo ia onoiaiiy
noia?a/iinoae i?ae aeiiaaie ?eieo ? iaaeineiiaeith nenoaiith oi?i oa
iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy i?noaie. Oe? caoiaee iiaeii? cae?enithaaoeny oeyoii
ci?ie aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e i?no ? ae?th/i? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anieo oi?i iaiaaeaeiaioo, caaacia/oth/eo
i?aei?e?inoaai i?noa eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue i?iaeoeoe?? oa iineoa ia
aioo??oiueiio ? ciai?oiueiio ?eieao.

I?enoinoaaiiy i?no aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iia’ycaia c oi?ioaaiiyi
aoaeoeaii? i?nueei? iie?oeee ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue
na?oiaiai ia?eaoeiao, noai?aiiy iaoai?ci?a ?iiiaaoe?eii-?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. Cae?eniaiiy ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? i?no aeiaaa? /anoeiaiai
cae?eooy ia?aioaaaeueieo ae?iaieoeoa, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? aeiiii?/ii? aace
? oi?aae?iiy, ye? aeaaeooue ciiao aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe o?iainia?
?ano?ne, ui ni?eyoeia i?aeaeuaiith iioaioe?eii? i?eaaaeeaino? i?no aeey
caeo/aiiy a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e. Oea aeiaaa?
iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aaaa ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? i?no, aeae?eaiiy i??i?eoaoieo
i?iaeai, ye? aecia/aoeiooue ia?niaeoeaio o?a?eoi??th ?icaeoeo i?nueeiai
iinaeaiiy. ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y i?no ye niin?a aaeaioaoe?? ?o aeiiii?/ii?
aace aei aeeiai?/ieo oiia ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aeiaaa? ioe?iee ?aaeueii?
?eieiai? neooaoe?? c iaoith aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaieo cania?a
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ?o aeiiii?/ii? aace c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
eiie?aoiiai i?nueeiai iinaeaiiy.

No?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo oaooa?nueeeo i?no, aea cae?eaathoueny aoa?euei?
i?aei?e?inoaa, iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia aea?aeaaieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo
(iaeanieo) i?ia?aiao, a yeeo aecia/ai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? aace
oeeo i?no. Oa?eoi??aeuei? i?aaie aeaaee iiaeii? eii?aeeioaaoe ?ic?iaee
i?ia?ai caeiyoino? ? ?icaeoeo oaooa?nueeeo i?no, a oaeiae ?aae?caoe??th
oeeo i?ia?ai. O niaoe?aeueieo i?ia?aiao noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue
aeey ?aeii?a cae?eooy oaoo iiaeii? ae??ooaaoeny ia eeoa aeooaeuei?
caaaeaiiy i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy aea?eueiaieo oaooa??a, a e ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo oaooa?nueeeo iinaeaiue. Eiie?aoi? i?ia?aie aeeaa?neo?eaoe??
aeiiii?/ii? aace oaooa?nueeeo i?no iiaeii? ?ic?iaeyoe eiaeia i?noi. Oe?
i?ia?aie a?ae??ciyoeiooueny ca o?eaae?noth, ianyaii o?iainoaaiiy,
aeiiii?/iith ni?yiiaai?noth. Aea an? aiie iiaeii? cae?enithaaoeny ia
iniia? iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie, aeeaaeaiiy cia/ieo eioo?a.

Caeiyo?noue aea?eueiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a ? caa?aaeaiiy oaooa?nueeeo
iinaeaiue aoaea ae??ooaaoeny ia?aaaaeii ia iniia? noai?aiiy iaeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano, i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy ia aeecueeeo
aoa?eueieo i?aei?e?inoaao. Aaaeeeaei iai?yiii ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
oaooa?nueeeo i?no ? noai?aiiy a ieo oaoiiia?e?a, ye? ni?eyee a
ae?iaieoeoao eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe??. Aeey caeo/aiiy
?iaanoeoe?e a oaooa?nuee? i?noa iaiao?aeii cai?iaaaeeoe iiaeaoeia?
i?eueae, noai?eoe ni?eyoeeaee aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaee ee?iao ia ia??iae
noaiiaeaiiy iiaeo i?aei?e?inoa.

?aae?caoe?y i?ia?aie ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? oaooa?nueeeo i?no iiaeeeaa ca
aeiiiiiaith eioo?a oeaio?aeueiiai athaeaeaoo, i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a,
aoa?eueieo eiiiai?e ? oeyoii caeo/aiiy i?eaaoiiai eai?oaeo (i?noeaaiai,
a?o/eciyiiai, ca?oa?aeiiai), a oaeiae aea?aeaaieo ? iaaea?aeaaieo
e?aaeeo?a. ?ic?iaeaii ?yae niaoe?aeueieo i?ia?ai ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?? oa
noai?aiiy iiaeo ae?iaieoeoa o oaooa?nueeeo i?noao ?a?iiaenueeei Nithcii,
yeee aa?a o/anoue o ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? i?iieneiaino? oeeo i?no.

Aeey cae?eniaiiy i?ia?aie ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? oaooa?nueeeo i?no iaiao?aeii
i?aai?coaaoe iaoai?ci ?? ?aae?caoe??. Oe? caaea/? a iiai?e i??? ia
iiaeooue aooe aeeiiai? Oe?a?inueeith aoa?eueiith eiiiai??th
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??, yea ia? aaeocaaee oa?aeoa?. C oe??th iaoith
aeioe?eueii oi?ioaaoe oa?eoi??aeuei? nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? iiaeo ?iai/eo
i?noeue, a caaea/? yeeo aoaea aoiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo ?iai/i? neee
? oiaa??a, i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oece oa ioe?iee ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, a
oaeiae caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e. Noai?aiiy iii?oi?eiao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua ianaeaiiy o oaooa?nueeeo i?noao, aea
cae?eaathoueny aoa?euei? i?aei?e?inoaa, aeicaieeoue aeaoe ia’?eoeaio
?ioi?iaoe?th aeey i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

Aoa?euei? i?aei?e?inoaa ?ici?uai? o a?eueo i?ae 40 i?noao ? i?eeyaath/eo
aei ieo naeeuao, ye? iathoue iecueeee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e. Aeo?aoe ia oo?eiaiiy a?aeii/iai aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo ii
I?i?noa?noao aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie neeaaeathoue 10% o
nia?aa?oino? eiaeii? oiiie aeaeiaooiai aoa?eey. ?noioiei iiiaioii o
ae??oaii? i?iaeai oo?eiaiiy a?aeii/iai aeeoea ? cieaeaiiy aeo?ao ia
ae?iaieoeoai aoa?eey ? ia?aaea/a oeeo ia’?eo?a o eiioiaeueio aeani?noue.

Ia?eaoeia i?noa — oea i?ioean noai?aiiy iaoiaeaie ?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
ni?eyoeeaiai i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua aeey ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a ? iineoa oa
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy ia iniia? aeyaeaiiy, noai?aiiy ?
?aae?caoe?? oaeoi??a aeieia?/ii ? nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? i?noeaai?
iie?oeee ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. A?i ia?aaeaa/a? ye c?iaeoe i?noi
iaea?eueo i?eaaaeeaei aeey aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ? ae?iaieoeoaa ?
?aae?caoe?th oe??? i?eaaaeeaino?, caaacia/oth/e oei naiei i?eieea
?iaanoeoe?e ? aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy. Iniiaieie ?ino?oiaioaie ia?eaoeiao
i?noa ? ia?eaoeiaiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ieaioaaiiy, ?ic?iaea a?cian-ieai?a
? oe?eueiaeo eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai, iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo, aeoeaia ?aeeaia i?noa ye ianaeaiiai ioieoo, c?o/iiai aeey
aeeooy ? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Aeieia?/iee iaiaaeaeiaio ?icaeoeo i?no

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai a?ia?o?aai?ciaaieo ?aa?ii?a, iniaeeai oeo, ui ?icaeaathoueny ia
iniia? a??ie/iaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?, ne?ae a?aeianoe: aaeee? ianyae
? neeaaeio no?oeoo?o caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (a
aoiinoa?o i?no aeeeaea?oueny aeecueei 40 caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei,
cie?aia aaaeeeo iaoae?a); aeniea ?ioaineai?noue caa?oaeiaiiy a
?ic?aooieo ia iaeiiai /ieia?ea aai ia 1 aa oa?eoi??? (oae, o 15 i?noao
Oe?a?ie aeeeaee oe?aeeeaeo ?a/iaei a aoiinoa?o nyaathoue 1 oiiio ?
a?eueoa ia ??e o ?ic?aooieo ia aeooo ianaeaiiy); cia/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y ?
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y aeaea?ae caa?oaeiaiiy; aca?iiae?y iniiaieo
caa?oaeithaa/?a oa ?o neia?aaoe/iee aieea ia ethaeeio ? i?e?iaeo.

Caaino?aiiy i?iaeai oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee a
a?ia??iaeono??ae?ciaaieo ?aa?iiao iaoiiaeaii : iiyaith ana a?eueo
iiooaeieo oa iaaacia/ieo aeey ianaeaiiy ? iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua aeaea?ae oaoiiaaiiiai ?eceeo; c?inoaiiyi /anoee canoa??eeo
oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy, a?aenoaaaiiyi i?ioean?a iiiaeaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa; eiioeaio?aoe??th ??cii??aeieo i?iieneiaeo ia’?eo?a, ?o
aca?iiee aieea o aeiaaeeo iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e. Cieaeaiiy ??aiy
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee a?ia??iaeono??ae?ciaaieo oa?eoi??e
iaoiiaeaii e?ecith a aeiiii?oe?, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi
canoa??eeo oaoiieia?e ? iaeaaeiaiiy, caaaeueioaaiiyi i?ioean?a
iiaea?i?caoe?? ? iiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aeieia?/iee iaiaaeaeiaio — oea no?aoaa?y ? oaeoeea caaacia/aiiy
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a noa?? aeieia?? ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co
oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia ieo. A?i yaey? niaith i?ioean aeei?enoaiiy
ethaenueeeo ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a (ieaioaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?y,
eii?aeeiaoe?y, i?eaaaeaiiy a ae?th ? o.ae.) aeey ae??oaiiy iai?/aieo
caaaeaiue, eiiieaen ?aeaieia?e, no?aoaa?e, i?eioeei?a, iaoiae?a,
cania?a, oi?i oi?aae?iiy aeieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
aoaeoeaiino?.

O ae??oaii? i?iaeaie noaeiai ?icaeoeo ? i?aeo?eiee aeiaaeueii?
aeieia?/ii? ??aiiaaae iniaeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue Aeiiaano, yeiio ca
??aiai caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua iaeaaeeoue
iaeii ?c ia?oeo i?noeue ia ieaiao?. Iiooaeiee ??no i?no ? i?nueeeo
i?iieneiaeo aaeiia?aoe?e a Aeiiaan? i?eca?a aei iaaei??iiai iiaeeiaiiy
caiaeueieo oa?aeue, aei aeaa?aaeaoe?? aaaaoueio i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaoo?a.
O ?acoeueoao? oeueiai ii?ooeany i?noeaaee ? ?aa?iiaeueiee aeieia?/iee
aaeain, iino?aaeaeaea i?e?iaea, ui aeeeeeaei caaino?aiiy aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai.

Aeey ae??oaiiy oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai a?ia??iaeono??ae?ciaaieo
?aa?ii?a, caiia?aaiiy ianooio aeieia?/ii? eaoano?ioe, a a iaeaooiueiio ?
iie?ioeoe aeieia?/iee noai, iaiao?aeii: aaeineiiaethaaoe no?oeoo?o
aeiiii?ee oeyoii i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii? aaae ae?iaieoeoaa c aenieei ??aiai
aeieia?/iino?; cae?enieoe ia?ao?ae aei iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui
ni?eythoue eiiieaeniiio ? iiaiiio aeei?enoaiith i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a;
iie?ioeoe iaoiaee i/euaiiy ? ooee?caoe?? oe?aeeeaeo a?aeoiae?a ?
aeeeae?a; noai?eoe i?aei?e?inoaa aeieia?/ii? ?iaeono???, ui
ia?a?iaeyoeiooue a?aeoiaee; ?aoe?iiae?coaaoe aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a c iaoith ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai i?no, cie?aia caoenoo iia?o?y, aiaee,
a?oio?a, icaeaiaiiy oa?eoi??e, cieaeaiiy aeonoe/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy,
iio?aao?: ia?aoiaeo aei e?oeaic?e ? oaoiieia?/ieo ii?iaoea?a; ?icaeyaeo
ieoaiiy i?i aaaaeaiiy aeieia?/iiai iiaeaoeo a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy; aaaaeaiiy nenoaie iacaeaaeiiai aeieia?/iiai aoaeeoo i?e
ae??oaii? ieoaiue aoae?aieoeoaa /e ?aeiino?oeoe?? i?iieneiaeo ia’?eo?a;
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeieia?/ii? na?oeo?eaoe?? iaeaaeiaiiy, ui ae?iaey?oueny a
Oe?a?i?; ia?aoiaeo aei aeieia?/iiai no?aooaaiiy, noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
oiiaeiaeo ? aaie?anueeeo no?oeoo?.

Iie?ioaiiy yeino? i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua aeeth/a? oe?ieee eiiieaen
caoiae?a, na?aae yeeo aaaeeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue i?nueeiio ieaioaaiith,
iie?oeoe? aeeoeiai? caaoaeiae, oi?aae?iith aei?iaei?i ?ooii,
niiaeeaaiith aia?a?? ? aeei?enoaiith a?aeoiae?a, ai?iouea? ?c
caa?oaeiaiiyi ? o.ae. I?ioa a Oe?a?i? a?aenooi? i?ia?aie i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua. Caoiaee eiio?ieth ca aaeocaaith
ae?yeuei?noth, ui ia? aieea ia ioi/oth/a i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua, ia
eii?aeeiothoueny. Oiio aoaeoeaia ii?aeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a
aaeocaai? ae?yeueiino?, ye? aieeaathoue ia ye?noue aeeooy ? ioi/oth/a
na?aaeiaeua a i?noao, iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo a
ieaioaaii?, aoae?aieoeoa? ? oi?aae?ii? i?noaie c iaoith icaei?iaeaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? ni?eyiith aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae no?eeiai
aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

O ca’yceo c ?nioaaiiyi iaaiiai i?ioe??//y i?ae ia?aaaaeii aaeocaaith
iaeaaei?noth aeaea?ae iaaaoeaieo aieea?a ia ioi/oth/a na?aaeiaeua ?
oa?eoi??aeueiei oa?aeoa?ii aeieeath/eo iane?aee?a i?e ae?iaeaii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy noaiii ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua a ?aa?ii? iaiao?aeii
aeo?eioaaoe ?icoiia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aaeocaaei ? oa?eoi??aeueiei
i?aeoiaeii a oi?aae?ii?, iiaeieaoe oa?eoi??aeueii-a?aeii/? aa?’??e,
oiaoi, ii noo?, aeey ?ic?iaee ?aeeii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee a
i?e?iaeiioi?iii?e ?iaio? ia ??ai? i?noa aeioe?eueiee
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaee i?aeo?ae.

Ine?eueee aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo caoiae?a ? caaacia/aiiy
? ci?oeiaiiy caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, naia oeae oaeoi? aea?aiee noa?aeiaaei
iiiaioii an??? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ye?noth ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aea?? noa? canoinoaaiiy iniiaieo coneeue,
o?oaeiaeo, o?iainiaeo ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, aecia/aiiy /a?aiaino?
cae?eniaiiy icaei?ia/eo caoiae?a iiaeii? caeaaeaoe a?ae cia/eiino?
aieeao oeo /e ?ioeo oaeoi??a ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

Aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae noaeiai ?icaeoeo iio?aao? oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeaiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a ii?aeiaii? ?c ci?iith no?oeoo? niiaeeaaiiy. A oeueiio
ca’yceo aaaeeeai ae?iaeoe iie?oeeo, yea aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe aeiiii?/ia
c?inoaiiy i?e iaeii/aniiio ciaioaii? aeo?ao ?ano?n?a. Oiio a i?noao
Aeiiaano ne?ae aeoeaii ?aae?coaaoe iiaoaiio aeieia?caoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa,
i?iaiaeeoe ia?ai?io?ethaaiiy i?iieneiaino?, cae?enithaaoe ia?aaoaeiao
oaoiiaaiiiai na?aaeiaeua, oaoi?/ia ia?aica?i?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa ia iniia?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano,
aia?ai-?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e, aaca?aeoiaeieo oa aeieia?/ii
/enoeo i?ioean?a. Na?aae caaaeaiue, ui noiyoue ia?aae i?noaie Aeiiaano,
c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ia?aoiaeo aei noaeiai ?icaeoeo, aieiaieie ?:
i?iaaaeaiiy eo?no ia iiaeieaiiy a aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?ao i?nueeeo
iinaeaiue, ianaiia?aae aaeeeeo i?no, iaaei??ii? eiioeaio?aoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa ? noaaiaoe?? aaaaoueio iaeeo i?no.

Noaeee ?icaeoie i?no iiaeiai ni?yiiaoaaoeny ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
eiiieaeniino? ?o aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?. Aaeee? i?noa iaiao?aeii ?icaeaaoe
ia iniia? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? iiaea?i?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, i?enei?aiiy
?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
i?nueeeo oa?eoi??e, aeieia?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa. Ieaioaaiiy oa ?icaoaeiaa
ianaeaieo ioieo?a iiaeii? yeiaeiiai?oa a?aeia?aaeaoe ?aeath oe?a?inueei?
niai?iino? e aea?aeaaiino?, naiiaooi?noue eoeueoo?e ? o?aaeeoe??
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? i?aeaeuaiiy
aeieiai-i?noiaoae?aaeueieo aeiia o aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a.

O caaacia/aii? noaeiai ?icaeoeo i?no iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi aea?aeaae a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? noai?aiiy ?aaoethth/i? no?oeoo?e o an?o
a?aeiia?aeieo aaeocyo, oaeeo ye caiaeueia iie?oeea, oa?eoi??aeueia
ieaioaaiiy ? aoae?aaeuei? ii?ie. ?ioei aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi aea?aeaae ?
noai?aiiy i?aaiai? iniiae aeey eiio?aeoieo a?aeiinei i?ae ??cieie
noi?iiaie. Aea?aeaaa oaeiae eiio?ieth? ?ino?oiaioe aeiiii?/ii? ?
iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, aeeth/ath/e iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ni?ey? aeinooio aei
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a aeey aoae?aieoeoaa aeeoea oeyoii iaaeaiiy i?yieo
e?aaeeo?a ? i?ioeaioieo noaneae?e aai o oi?i? aea?aeaaieo aa?aio?e. Aiia
iiaea cieaeoaaoe aeeoeia? aeo?aoe oeyoii canoinoaaiiy ??cieo
?ino?oiaio?a, oaeeo ye iaaeaiiy aeeoeiai? aeiiiiiae c a?aooaaiiyi
eiie?aoieo niiaeeaa/?a.

Aoaeoeaiei ?ino?oiaioii ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai i?no ? ?ic?iaea
eiiieaenieo oe?eueiaeo i?ia?ai ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.
I?iaeaiii i???ioiaai? iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaa/athoue iaai? ae?? ?
caoiaee, iai?aaeai? ia no?eueee ia ?icoe?aiiy e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a
i?nueeeo iinaeaiue, ne?eueee ia a?aeaeooy iiaiai ci?noo ? ia’?eoeaieo
oaiaeaioe?e a ?o i?ia?an?. I?iaeaiii-i???ioiaaia iie?oeea ni?yiiao?oueny
ia eiioeaio?aoe?th nee ? ?ano?n?a i?e ae??oaii? iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai
aeieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo ? aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeieo caoiae?a ii caaacia/aiith
aeinyaiaiiy ia?niaeoeaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oe?eae.

Eeth/iao ?ieue o caaacia/aii? noaeiai ?icaeoeo i?no iiaeii? a?ae?a?aaaoe
i?noeaa? i?aaie a neeo nai?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oa?eoi??aeueia
ieaioaaiiy oa ?iaanoeoe?? a ?io?ano?oeoo?o. Ca aeiiiiiaith aeoeaii?
caiaeueii? iie?oeee i?nuee? aaei?i?no?aoe?? ? i?nuee?aaee iiaeooue
aoaeoeaii iai?aaeyoe ?icaeoie i?no. Oeyoii ae??oaiiy ieoaiue ina?oe,
caoenoo ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, ioi?iie caei?ia’y ? nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee iiaeooue cia/iith i??ith aieeaaoe ia
aeeooy i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy
?icaeoeii i?no

Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iciae noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ono?ith
aoaeue-yei? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae na?oo ? iayai?noue i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Eiai i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie a e?a?iao ??ci? ? caeaaeaoue
a?ae ?noi?e/ieo, aaia?ao?/ieo, iaoe?iiaeueieo oa ?ioeo iniaeeainoae
aea?aeaae. Aea, ia aeeaey/enue ia ianoiae?noue oi?i naiia?yaeoaaiiy a
??cieo e?a?iao, nooi?noue eiai caaaeaee caiaeeoueny aei aa?aioiaaiiai
aea?aeaaith i?aaa oa?eoi??aeueieo ni?eueiio a?iiaaeyi oa oeo i?aai?a,
ye? aiie iae?athoue, ae??ooaaoe naiino?eii, i?ae naith
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ieoaiiy i?noeaaiai cia/aiiy, ae?th/e a iaaeao
Eiinoeoooe?? ? caeii?a a?aeiia?aeii? aea?aeaae. Noaiiaeaiiy
naiia?yaeoaaiiy o an?o e?a?iao a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii ii?iaoeaiiai
?ica’ycaiiy ? aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae ?icaeoeo i?noeaaeo a?iiaae, c iaeiiai
aieo, ? aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie i?noeaai? aeaaee, ui ia?ane?aeothoue
caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? oe?e?, c ?ioiai aieo. Aei oiai ae iino?eii aeieea?
ieoaiiy i?i oa, /e cae?enith? oa?eoi??aeueia a?iiaaea niaoeeo?/i?,
a?aei?ii? a?ae aea?aeaaieo, ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy, /e aiia (a?iiaaea)
aeeiio? iiaiiaaaeaiiy i?aai?a aea?aeaae. Ine?eueee iaeiicia/ii?
a?aeiia?ae? ia oe? caieoaiiy iiee iaia?, oi aaiethoe?y naiia?yaeoaaiiy,
cie?aia, ? a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia? oaeeo o?ueio oai?aoe/ieo
oa/?e: aea?aeaaieoeueei?, a?iiaae?anueei? ? i?ii?aeii? i?ae ieie — oae
caaii? aea?aeaaii-a?iiaae?anueei?, aai oai??? ioi?oeeiaeueiiai
aeoae?cio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui noaiiaeaiiy i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a
Oe?a?i? a iai?yieo a?ae aea?aeaaieoeueei? eiioeaioe?? aei
a?iiaae?anueei?. Nueiaiaei? i?ae oeeie iai?yieaie anoaiiaeany iaaiee
aeoae?ci, aea c oaiaeaioe??th aei a?iiaae?anueei? eiioeaioe??. No/aniee,
oi/a ? iao?eaaeee, aeina?ae ?icaeoeo naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?
na?ae/eoue, ui ci?uaiiy aeoeaio?a aei iacaeaaeiiai a?ae aea?aeaaieo
no?oeoo? ? aa?oeeaeueii? iiaoaeiae aeaaee i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeaeeeie (a ?noi?e/iiio ieai?) oaiiaie. Oey oaiaeaioe?y
i?eoaiaiia Oe?a?i? c aeaai?o /an?a ? ia? i?ae niaith ?noi?e/i?
o?aaeeoe?? ieioeiai oa aeiiii?/i?, i?aaia?, o?iainia?, i?aai?caoe?ei?
canaaee nueiaiaeaiiy. Oe? oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny
oaeiae i?aeoeeith naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Aeiiaoeueeo ? Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano?.

Naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ye aanei, ye ?eooaeueia yaeua, ui oa?aeoa?ia nueiaiaei?
aeey Oe?a?ie, oei oaeaeoa ia?aoai?eoueny ia ae?eiaee can?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ci?i, /ei nei??oa i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee ?
i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy io?eiathoue a?aeiia?aei? aaaeae? oi?aae?iiy o
aeaeyae? aeiiii?/ieo, o?iainiaeo, iaoa??aeueieo ? aeaaeieo ?ano?n?a.

Na?aae inoaii?o, ia?o ca ana, o?aaa iacaaoe eiioiaeueio aeani?noue. ??
oi?ioaaiiy nueiaiaei? a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeineoue iaaecia/aiiio
oai?aoe/iiio iie? ? cae?enith?oueny ia i?aeoeoe? o?aaiaioa?ii, cia/iith
i??ith iaoiaeii ni?ia ? iiieeie. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaeiei c
?acoeueoao?a yeiai ? ?ic?iaea eiioeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy
eiioiaeueii? aeaniino? a i?no?, na?ae/eoue: iaoiae ia?a?iciiae?eo, a
a??i?oa, “ia?aienoaaiiy” aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? a eiioiaeueio, oi/a ?
iiaeeeaee, ? aei?aaaeaiee ia iaaieo aoaiao no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae, ana
ae oaee ? iae?aoeaiei; ?aaeeeaeueiei niiniaii oi?ioaaiiy eiioiaeueii?
aeaniino? iiaea noaoe ?? noai?aiiy ca ?aooiie i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a.
Ae?oaee aeniiaie — eiioiaeueia aeani?noue iaoeia ia?niaeoeae aeey naiai
?icaeoeo eeoa ca oiia ?aioaaaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa
eiioiaeueii? aeaniino?. Iiaa ia eaea i?i oa, ui an? aaeoc? eiioiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa iiaeii? ?nioaaoe ca ?aooiie naiiieoiiino?. Iaai? c ieo
caaaeaee ?nioaaee ? aoaeooue ?nioaaoe ca i?aeo?eiee i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a. Aea a oe?eiio eiioiaeueia ainiiaea?noai iiaeiii aooe
i?eaooeiaei. Aeiaea?aeaiiy oe??? oiiae — iaia’yceiaee iiiaio i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ii??aiyii iacaeaaeiiai oi?ioaaiiy i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a.

I?noeaaee athaeaeao ? oaeiae aieiaiei /eiieeii noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ?aaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii
i?no. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?noeaa? iiaeaoee ? cai?e iiaeii?
noaoe iniiaiei aeaea?aeii iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a. C
4-6% iaaeoiaeaeaiue c i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a aei i?nueeeo
athaeaeao?a, ui niinoa??aathoueny nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i?, ?o /anoea
iiaeiia c?inoe. sse na?ae/aoue aeeiiai? oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee ? i?aeoe/i?
?ic?aooiee ?o ieoiia aaaa iiaeiia noaiiaeoe 40-60% iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei
i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a.

Eiioiaeueia aeani?noue a Oe?a?i? ? ??ciiaeaeii aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?.
I?noeaa? i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia noaee ua iiaiii?aaieie aeanieeaie
iaeia. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ioi?oeeiae?caoe?y a Oe?a?i? i?iaaaeaia
eeoa oi?iaeueii. Oiio ianooiiei e?ieii o i?iaaaeaii? ioi?oeeiae?caoe??
iiaeiii noaoe oi?ioaaiiy eiioiaeueii? aeaniino? ye ?aaeueii? aeiiii?/ii?
iniiae i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Iniiaieie niiniaaie oi?ioaaiiy eiioiaeueii? aeaniino? iiaeooue aooe:
aeeoi aai aacieaoia ia?aaea/a iaeia aea?aeaaith /e ?ioeie noa’?eoaie
i?aaa aeaniino?; noai?aiiy iiaeo ia’?eo?a aeaniino? a ?acoeueoao?
?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?inoeoooo eiioiaeueii?
aeaniino? aoaea ni?eyoe /?oeino? aca?iia?aeiinei ?aae ?c ?ioeie
noa’?eoaie aeaniino?, ye oea ia? i?noea a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao.

?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe?y ? iaeiei c iaea?eueo ae?eiaeo cania?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy neeaaeo oa no?oeoo?e eiioiaeueii? aeaniino?. ?acii c oei
niaoeeo?/i? oiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiioiaeueii? aeaniino? aei?noei
iaiaaeothoue i?yio i?eaaoecaoe?th eiioiaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa ? ia?aaea/o
?o o iiaia ?icii?yaeaeaiiy i?eaaoieo aeaniee?a. A?eueo?noue eiioiaeueieo
ia’?eo?a, ye? iaaeathoue ianaeaiith aaceiooiai? iineoae, iiaeii?
iacaaaeaee caeeoeoeny a eiioiaeuei?e aeaniino? ? ia iiaeooue aooe
i?eaaoeciaai?.

Oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii i?no, iniaeeai
oaooa?nueeeo, a oiiaao iiaoaeiae aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae iiaeeeai eeoa
i?e na?aeii?e ? aeia?ia?euei?e o/ano? a oeueiio i?ioean? ianaeaiiy.
I?e/iio, ia aeaeea?iaaiiio, a ?aaeueiiio. Oea iio?aao? ia eeoa aanae a
caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, a noai?aiiy iiaiai aeey iaoi? aea?aeaae
iaoai?cio o/ano? ianaeaiiy a oi?aae?ii? i?noaie.

sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy (nioe?ieia?/i? iieooaaiiy, aeaniee aeina?ae
?iaioe) aeia??a ianaeaiiy aei aeaaee nueiaiaei? aeoaea iecueea. O
e?euee?niiio aei??? aiia aecia/a?oueny 2-3% (a iaaeao iiieeee). Oiaoi
aeia??a a?aenooiy. Aac iiaa?iaiiy aeia??e ianaeaiiy aei aeaaeieo
no?oeoo? aoaeue-ye? caoiaee inoaii?o i?e?a/ai? ia iaaaea/o. ?ic?iaea
ieaio iiaa?iaiiy aeia??e ianaeaiiy aei o?yaeo, i?noeaai? aeaaee,
noai?aiiy iaoai?cio ?? ?aae?caoe?? ? aeey oaooa?nueeeo i?no
iaei??i?eoaoi?oei caaaeaiiyi. Aeey oeueiai iio??aii ni?eyiiy noai?aiith
??cieo no?oeoo? naiii?aai?caoe?? ianaeaiiy: ia oi?iaeueieo, a ?aaeueii
ae?th/eo. Aeia??a — nueiaiaei? aaciina?aaeiy i?iaeoeoeaia neea. O?aaa
caaaeeoe ia oa, ui o ianaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny ?i?aeae an??? aeaaee /a?ac
ni?eeoaaiiy c i?noeaaith. C oeueiai ? o?aaa aeoiaeeoe: iiaa?iaiiy
aeia??e ianaeaiiy aei aeaaeieo no?oeoo? /a?ac ae?yeuei?noue i?noeaaeo
?aae, i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy ?
aeey oaooa?nueeeo a, iaaooue, ? aeey an?o ?ioeo i?no Oe?a?ie
iaeaeooaeuei?oei caaaeaiiyi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??.

Aiae?c ?nioth/iai i?aaiaiai oa ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy eiioiaeueiith aeani?noth aaeeeiai i?noa na?ae/eoue
i?i iayai?noue o oe?e noa?? nooo?aeo iaaeie?e?a oa iaaei?iaie.

Ii-ia?oa, /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie i?noeoue ?yae i?ioe??/, ye?
iaoiiaeththoue iaaecia/ai?noue uiaei naii? eiioiaeueii? aeaniino? oa
iayai?noue aeoaethaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e uiaei ia’?eo?a
eiioiaeueii? aeaniino?. Ii-ae?oaa, ia ??ai? i?nueeeo i?aai?a aeaaee ua e
aein? a?aenooi?e ?yae ii?iaoeaieo, onoaiia/eo oa iaoiaee/ieo
aeieoiaio?a, ye? a /?oei ?aaeaiaiooaaee i?ioean oi?aae?iiy ia’?eoaie
eiioiaeueii? aeaniino?. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeoaethaaiiy ooieoe?e
oi?aae?iiy, iaocaiaeaeaiino? ia ??cieo ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy ? o.?. Ia aeey
an?o no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a i?nueeeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy
(aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??, aeeiieiie) ?ic?iaeai? iieiaeaiiy, ye?
?aaeaiaioothoue eiie?aoi? ooieoe??, i?aaa oa iaia’ycee oi?aae?iue,
a?aeae?e?a oa a?aoiaothoue ci?ie a /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. Nooo?a? iaaeie?ee iathoue
oaeiae noaoooe eiioiaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa oa eiio?aeoe, ui oeeaaeathoueny
i?ae i?aaiaie i?nueei? aeaaee oa ea??aieeaie eiioiaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa,
i?aai?caoe?e oa onoaiia. Aeoiaey/e c nueiaiaeaiieo ?aae?e aeiiii?/iiai
aeeooy c o?aooaaiiyi ?nioth/eo iaaeie?e?a, aeieeea iaaaeueia iio?aaa
?ic?iaee oa oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano
oi?aae?iiy eiioiaeueiith aeani?noth aaeeeeo i?no. O ia?oo /a?ao oea
noino?oueny i?eeiyooy iia?oi?o caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a ia ??ai? Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/eie eiioiaeueieie no?oeoo?aie aaeeeiai i?noa
— oea nenoaia caoiae?a, iaoiae?a oa onoaiia, oe?eani?yiiaaia ae?y yeeo
caaacia/o? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ae?iaie/eo eiioiaeueieo no?oeoo? o
ainiiaea?noa? i?noa c o?aooaaiiyi eiai niaoeeo?ee. A?i a?aeia?aaea?
aeeiai?/iee noai nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, iaoiiaeth? nooi?iue ?? aio/eino?,
ni?eeiyoeeaino? aei ci?ie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo aaeeeiai
i?noa. Oea iio?aao? aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy, /?oeiai ?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e ia an?o ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy,
canoinoaaiiy iaea?eueo aeioe?eueieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy.

No?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy eiioiaeueiith aeani?noth aaeeeiai i?noa iiaea
?icaeyaeaoeny c aeaio oi/ie ci?o. Ia?oa — oea a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia
oi?aae?iiy, ?iciiae?e ooieoe?e ? aca?iiae?y i?ae i?aaiaie
i?aaenoaaieoeueei? ? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ii aa?oeeae? ? ai?eciioae?.
Ae?oaa — aaei?i?no?aoeaii-aeiiii?/ia oi?aae?iiy, ?iciiae?e ooieoe?e oa
aca?iiae?y i?ae niaoe?aeueieie, ooieoe?iiaeueieie i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee.

Aaaeeeaei ?ino?oiaioii ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo i?noa a oiiaao ?eieo
noathoue aeiiii?/i? iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy. Aoaeoeaia canoinoaaiiy
iiaeaoeiaiai, e?aaeeoiiai, aeioaoe?eiiai oa noaaaioe?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy,
a oaeiae ?iaanooaaiiy, i?eaaoecaoe?y oa ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy iiaeii? noaoe
aaaeaeyie i?enei?aiiy oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo, ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
oa ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e aaeeeeo i?no, a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee.

Oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/eie eiioiaeueieie ia’?eoaie i?noa, eiai no?oeoo?e
iiaeii? aoaeoaaoenue oaeei /eiii, uia aeeiiaoe aeai?aeeio caaea/o. C
iaeiiai aieo, caaacia/eoe aeinoaoith iaoa??aeueio ?io?ano?oeoo?o
i?nueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, caoenoeoe ?ioa?ane eiiieaeniiai ?icaeoeo
i?noa ye aaeeeiai ?aeeiiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?aai?cio, ni?eyoe
caaacia/aiith nioe?aeueii-aa?aioiaaiiai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy. C
ae?oaiai aieo — caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaia ea??aieoeoai iaeiiaeie ae?iaie/eie
eiiieaenaie a oiiaao noia?a/eeaino? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, aeoiaey/e c iiaii? ainiiaea?nueei? naiino?eiino? o/aniee?a
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, iaiao?aeiino? ni?eyiiy i?aei?e?iieoeoao, iioe?aiiy
ae?eiai? aeoeaiino?.

I?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy ia’?eoaie eiioiaeueii? aeaniino?
aaeeeiai i?noa, ?? aioo??oiy aoaeiaa iio?aao? ni?iuaiiy. Aiia iiaeiia
aacoaaoeny ia ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? aca?iica’yce?a i?ae i?ae?icae?eaie, ia
ooi/iaii? noa? oa iai?yie?a ?o ae?yeueiino?, ia iiaeieaii?
iaiaa?oioiaaii? oeaio?ae?caoe?? aeayeeo ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy, ia
e?ea?aeaoe?? caeaeo oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo?.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?no ne?ae aoei a a?eueo /?oei
?iciaaeoaaoe eiiiaoaioe?th, ooieoe?? oa iaia’ycee aea?aeaae ? i?aai?a
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, a oaeiae iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe aeaea?aea aeey
o?iainoaaiiy aeeiiaiiy aeanieo iiaiiaaaeaiue, aeaeaaiaaieo ?i
aea?aeaaith. Iio?aao? i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a, ui
aeiaaa? ?icoe?aiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy
uiaei ?o ia?ae?eo ? ?ici???a.

Aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoieo a?aeiioaiue aeioe?eueii ?icoe?eoe
ia?ae?e i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a. Anoaiiaeaiiy aeaio iaae eiaeiiai
iiaeaoeo — i?i?iaeueio ? iaeneiaeueio, — aeanoue iiaeeea?noue i?noeaaei
?aaeai aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe ie?ai? noaaee iiaeaoe?a. Aeioe?eueii oaeiae
aecia/eoe iaia’yceiaee ia?ae?e iiaeaoe?a, yeee iiaeiai aooe aaaaeaiee ia
eiaei?e oa?eoi???. Ne?ae aoei a iaae?eeoe i?noeaa? ?aaee i?aaii
aaaaeaiiy ia nai?e oa?eoi??? iiaeaoe?a, ia ia?aaeaa/aieo Aeae?aoii i?i
i?noeaa? iiaeaoee oa cai?e, yeui aiie iathoue aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?
ia ca/?iathoue nioe?aeuei? i?aaa a?iiaaeyi. Noai?aiiy i?e
i?nueeaeeiieiiao a?aeae?e?a i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a, ye? caeiaeeny
a ieoaiiyie eiio?ieth ca iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a,
aeicaieeoue iie?ioeoe neooaoe?th a athaeaeaoieo a?aeiioaiiyo i?no.

Ca?aae caoiae?a, ye? iiaeooue aooe a?aeianai? aei oiia ni?eyiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeia? Aeiiaoeueea oa ?ioeo oaooa?nueeeo
i?no Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?, iaiao?aeii iacaaoe:

Aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ??aiy nioe?aeueieo iio?aa ia aeooo ianaeaiiy,
iaiao?aeiiai aeey ?ic?aooieo i?i?iaeueiiai ?ici??o i?nueeeo athaeaeao?a;

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo ii?yaeeo, i?e yeiio aeeo/aiiy aeioiae?a ?c
athaeaeao?a oaooa?nueeeo i?no cae?enith?oueny eeoa o oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee
aiie (aeioiaee) ia?aaeuothoue i?i?iaeueiee ?ici?? i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo.

I?e?iaeii, ui ?iciianthaeaeoaaoe oaeo i?aeoeeo ia an? aac aeiyoeo
oa?eoi??aeueii-aaei?i?no?aoeai? i?ae?icae?ee Oe?a?ie iaaeioe?eueii. Oea
— cao?ae oei/aniaee ? eieaeueiee. Eiai aeei?enoaiiy aei?aaaeaii eeoa i?e
ae??oaii? aino?eo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo e?eciaeo
neooaoe?e a ?aa?ii?. Naia oaea neooaoe?y neeaeany nueiaiaei? a
Aeiiaoeuee?e i?nuee?e aaeiia?aoe??.

?icaeyaeath/e a?euei? aeiiii?/i? ciie c oi/ee ci?o ?ici?uaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee iaiao?aeii iaoe ia oaac?, ui, aecia/ath/e oo /e ?ioo
/anoeio oa?eoi??? e?a?ie a yeino? a?eueii? aeiiii?/ii? ciie aeey
aeinyaiaiiy eiie?aoii? iaoe, aea?aeaaa aeinyaa? ??, ?icaeaath/e oai
eiie?aoi? aaeoc? aeiiii?ee. I?e oeueiio aiia aeei?enoiao? iayai? oai
oaeoi?e ae?iaieoeoaa ? caeo/a? iaaeinoath/? ye ?c nai?? oa?eoi???, oae ?
c ?ioeo e?a?i. ?acoeueoaoii oaei? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae iaieio/a ?
ci?ie a ?ici?uaii? i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, aeiiii?/ieo iioaioe?ae?a ie?aieo
?aa?ii?a ? e?a?ie a oe?eiio.

Iaoith noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Aeiiaoeuee?e
iaeano? ? caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e o i??i?eoaoi? aaeoc? ae?iaieoeoaa aeey
i?aai?caoe?? iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue oa i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy ia?niiaeo, ui
aea?eueiythoueny o ca’yceo ?c cae?eooyi, ia?ai?io?ethaaiiyi
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo oa ?ioeo i?aei?e?inoa, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
oaoiieia?e, iiaea?i?caoe?y ae?th/eo ae?iaieoeoa, ?icaeoie
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a, ca?eueoaiiy iinoaaie ia aioo??oi?e ?eiie
aenieiye?nieo oiaa??a oa iineoa, noai?aiiy no/anii? ae?iaie/i?,
o?ainii?oii? oa ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

?ic?iaeo i?iaeoo noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii oa
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
cae?eniaii ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo: anoaiiaeaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai
ieoiiai ?aaeeio oa iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea ia ie?aieo oa?eoi??yo, ciioaaiiy
oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai ?aaeeio aeey ie?aieo, ianaiia?aae
iiainoai?thaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iaaiei e?eoa??yi
(ye-oi ?aae?caoe?y ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo a i??i?eoaoieo aaeocyo
(i?aeaaeocyo), ae?iaieoeoaao, ianya ?iaanoeoe?e, i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy
aea?eueiaieo c a??ie/iaeiaoaieo oa ?ioeo i?aei?e?inoa ?ia?oiee?a). Ca
?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co cae?eniaii aea?? oa?eoi??e oa
niaoe?ae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo cii. C iaeyaeo ia aeinoaoiuei aenieee
??aaiue iaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo, i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oiee?a oa
niaoe?ae?no?a, iayaiino? ?icaeiaii? ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ?, a
ia?oo /a?ao, aeecueeino? aei i?aeia?iaeiiai aa?iii?oo, i?iiiio?oueny
noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueii? aeiiii?/ii? ciie «Aeiiaoeuee» o i. Aeiiaoeueeo.
Oa?eoi??y, yea aecia/aia aeey noai?aiiy cacia/aii? ciie, iacaaoaeiaaia ?
ca?aeii c ieaiii ?icaeoeo i?noa, a?aeaaaeaia aeey i?iieneiai? caaoaeiae.
Noai?aiiy ia oe?e oa?eoi??? oaoiiia?eo ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie iiaeo
no/anieo aenieioaoiieia?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa aeey ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a ia
aenii?o oa iinoaaie ia aioo??oi?e ?eiie, a oaeiae ?iii?oicai?ithth/eo
ae?iaieoeoa.

Aea?? i?noey aeey noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueii? aeiiii?/ii? ciie «Acia» o i.
Ia??oiie? coiiaeaii ni?eyoeeaeie oiiaaie aeey ?icoaooaaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? ciie. Noai?aiiy oe??? ciie aoaea ni?eyoe
a?aeiiaeaiith ao?a/aieo ianya?a aaioaaeiia?aaacaiue, ianaiia?aae
o?aiceoieo. Ia oa?eoi??? niaoe?aeueii? aeiiii?/ii? ciie «Acia» aoaeooue
cae?enithaaoeny iia?aoe?? c ianeoaiaoaaiiy o?aiceoieo aaioaae?a,
caa??aaiiy, ni?ooaaiiy, eaeoaaiiy, aei?iaee, iaaeaiiy
o?ainii?oii-aaaionueeeo oa aeniaaeeoi?nueeeo iineoa, oi?a?ae?,
ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a, a oaeiae ?ici?uaiiy i?aei?e?inoa, ye?
canoiniaothoue iia?oi? oaoiieia?? c iaoith ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a aeey ?o
aenii?oo oiui.

Niaoe?aeueiei oiiaiiaaaeaiei i?aaiii oi?aae?iiy niaoe?aeueieie
aeiiii?/ieie ciiaie oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai ?aaeeio
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ? ?aaea c ieoaiue niaoe?aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo
cii oa niaoe?aeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, yea
ooai?th?oueny Aeiiaoeueeith iaeaniith ?aaeith.

Noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o Aeiiaoeuee?e
iaeano? aeicaieeoue cae?enieoe oaoi?/ia ia?aica?i?iiy aaciaeo
i?iieneiaeo eiiieaen?a, ye? ? iniiaith aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, caaacia/eoe ?o
noaa?eueio ?iaioo oa ci?oeieoe iiceoe?? ia ciai?oi?o ?eieao.
A?aeoai?aiiy ?iaioe aaeocae iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno ni?eyoeia
iineaaeaiith aia?aaoe/ii? e?ece a e?a?i?, ii?iae?caoe??
aeaeo?iiinoa/aiiy i?iieneiaeo, eiioiaeueii-iiaooiaeo niiaeeaa/?a oa
ianaeaiiy.

Iioeiaeueia iio?aaa o ?iaanoeoe?yo ia 1998-2025 ?iee noaiiaeoeia iiiaae
59 ie?ae. a?i., a oiio /ene? ia noai?aiiy iiaeo ae?iaieoeoa — a?ey 10
ie?ae. a?i., ?aooa iaiao?aeia aeey iiiiaeaiiy, oaoi?/iiai ia?aica?i?iiy
oa iiaea?i?caoe?? ?nioth/eo ia oa?eoi??yo i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo
i?aei?e?inoa ca i?ia?aiith ?aeiino?oeoe??.

O iaeaeeae/? 10 ?ie?a aoaea noai?aii a?ey 200 oen. iiaeo ?iai/eo
i?noeue, ui caaacia/eoue ia?ao?e ?iai/i? neee c i?aei?e?inoa aaciaeo
aaeocae, ye? ?ano?oeoo?ecothoueny. I?iaiico?oueny i??i?eoaoia
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e a iaoeiiaoae?aiee eiiieaen aeey inai?iiy
i?eioeeiiai iiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy c ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei,
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey iaoaeo?a?eii?, o?i?/ii?, iaooio?i?/ii?, iaooiai? oa
aaciai? i?iieneiaino?, n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa neeaaeii? iiaooiai?
oaoi?ee. Iniaeeao aaaeeea?noue aeey Aeiiaano aoaeooue iaoe ?iaanoeoe??
ia a?aeiiaeaiiy oa ioi?iio iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Caeo/eoe ?iicaiiee eai?oae o iaiao?aeiiio ianyc? iiaeeeai eeoa ca oiia
iaaeaiiy nooo?aeo i?euea oa aeinoaoi?o aa?aio?e ii?iaeueii? ?iaioe. Ana
oea aeicaieeoue aeinyaoe ianya?a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa aeie?eciaiai
1990 ?ieo i?e i?ia?aneaieo aaeocaaeo no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiiyo.
Aeia?aaeaeath/eie oaiiaie c?inoaoeia ae?iaieoeoai oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai
niiaeeaaiiy, ??/iee ianya yeiai o 2025 ?ioe? ca?eueoeoueny i?ioe 1997
?ieo iaeaea o 8 ?ac?a.

Iaea?eueoee na?aaeiuei??/iee i?e??no ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa — a?eueoa 900
iei.a?i., aai 4,4 a?aen. ia ??e (a 2011-2025??. — 1,6 % ia ??e) aoaea
aeinyaiooee a ia??iae c 2001 aei 2010 ?ieo. I?eaooie on?o iiainoai?aieo
ae?iaieoeoa i?e oeueiio ia?aaeueoue 135 iei.a?i. ia ??e.

Caaaeueia noia iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeao?a an?o ??ai?a ca i?iaiicieie
ioe?ieaie c o?aooaaiiyi i?euea, ye? i?iiiiothoueny, neeaaea iiiaae 20
ie?ae.a?i. ca 1998-2025 ?iee, a oiio /ene? c iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie
noaiiaeoeia 1,7 ie?ae.a?i., iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue (c
o?aooaaiiyi aenii?oo i?iaeoeoe??) — 3,8 ie?ae.a?i., i?eaooeiaiai
iiaeaoeo c a?iiaaeyi — 11,2 ie?ae.a?i.

Aeniiaee

I?iaaaeaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo
iniia oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii i?no aeaei iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe ?yae
aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ui iathoue oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, a naia:

I?noa — oea ina?aaeee oa?eoi??aeueii-ae?iaie/eo nenoai ? aeaiaioe
oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeey ?o i?ciaiiy iaiao?aeii
i?enei?eoe oi?ioaaiiy oaei? iaoeiai? aeenoeeie?ie ye i?noiciaanoai.

Aaiethoe?y i?no ia? iaai? caeiiii??iino?, iniiaieie c yeeo ? iaooeeueia
c?inoaiiy ?ie? i?no o noni?euenoa?, eiioeaio?aoe?y i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy o
aaeeeeo i?noao, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y ooieoe?e i?nueeeo iinaeaiue ?
noaiiaeaiiy na?oiaeo i?no, ui aeeiiothoue aeiaaeuei? ooieoe??.

Nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ooieoe?iiaeueii-i?inoi?iaei ?icaeoeii i?no yaey?
niaith niaoe?aeueii i?aai?co?io noeoii?noue iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ieo,
i?aaiaeo ? aeiiii?/ieo ae?e ia oiiae, i??i?eoaoe ? iaiaaeaiiy
ia?aoai?aiue ie?aieo i?nueeeo i?aenenoai c iaoith onoiaiiy i?ioe??/ ?
caaacia/aiiy ia oe?e iniia? eiiieaeniiai ? caaeainiaaiiai ?icaeoeo i?no.

I?e aea/aii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?no, ye? yaeythoue
niaith neeaaei? ?aa?iiaeuei? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie, iaiao?aeii aeoiaeeoe ?c
oaeeo i?eioeei?a aeine?aeaeaiiy: o?aeooaaiiy i?noa ye aeeiai?/iiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?ioeano; a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?noa ye
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie; iacaiaeeiino? oe?eiai aei noeoiiino?
neeaaeiaeo eiai /anoei; aca?iia?aeiinei i?noa ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai
oa ???a?o?/iino? i?aai?caoe??; oe?e?niino? ooieoe?iiaeueieo eiiiiiaio?a;
eiiieaeniino?; aeieia?/iino?, i?iii?oe?eiino? ? caaeainiaaiino?.

No?aoaa?/iith iaoith aioee?eciaeo caoiae?a iiaeiii noaoe noai?aiiy oiia
aeey caaacia/aiiy ?eoi?/ii? ?iaioe oaoo i?e ?aaeeeaeueiiio cieaeaii?
aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa, aeinyaiaiiy o?iainiai? noaa?eueiino? i?aei?e?inoa,
cae?eooy iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo oa aeaaaeaiiy c aenieoaoaoe??
iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo eaa.

?ano?oeoo??caoe?y oaooa?nueeeo i?no yaey? niaith aaeeooy noeoiiino?
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, i?aaiaeo,
?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo caoiae?a, iai?aaeaieo ia onoiaiiy noia?a/iinoae
i?ae aeiiaaie ?eieo ? iaaoaeoeaiith nenoaiith oi?i oa iaoiae?a
oi?aae?iiy i?noaie. Aiia iiaeiia iineoe no?aoaa?/iee oa?aeoa?,
aecia/aiee a eiioaeno? ?aoi?ioaaiiy an??? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ?
cae?enithaaoeny ia iniia? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ?
?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee.

Noaeee ?icaeoie i?no iiaeiai ni?yiiaoaaoeny ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
eiiieaeniino? ?o aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?. Aaeee? i?noa iaiao?aeii ?icaeaaoe
ia iniia? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? iiaea?i?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, i?enei?aiiy
?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
i?nueeeo oa?eoi??e, aeieia?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa. Ieaioaaiiy oa ?icaoaeiaa
ianaeaieo ioieo?a iiaeii? yeiaeiiai?oa a?aeia?aaeaoe ?aeath oe?a?inueei?
niai?iino? e aea?aeaaiino?, naiiaooi?noue eoeueoo?e ? o?aaeeoe??
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? i?aeaeuaiiy
aeieiai-i?noiaoae?aaeueieo aeiia o aeei?enoaii? i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a.

O?aai?noe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y ianaeaiiy oa ae?iaieoeoaa ?iaeoue i?nuee?
caie? oi?eaeueiei ?ano?nii. Aeey ?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
aeioe?eueii ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe cii?iaia? i?aaeea, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue
aeei?enoaiiy oa caaoaeiao caiaeueieo ae?eyiie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaiethoe?y i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a
Oe?a?i? a iai?yieo a?ae aea?aeaaieoeueei? eiioeaioe?? aei
a?iiaae?anueei?. No/aniee, oi/a ? iao?eaeee, aeina?ae naiia?yaeoaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? na?ae/eoue, ui ci?uaiiy aeoeaio?a aei iacaeaaeiiai a?ae
aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? ? aa?oeeaeueii? iiaoaeiae aeaaee i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeaeeeie (a ?noi?e/iiio ieai?) oaiiaie.
Aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo naiia?yaeoaaiiy iaiao?aeii, uia i?aaie
naiia?yaeoaaiiy io?eiaee a?aeiia?aei? aaaeae? oi?aae?iiy o aeaeyae?
aeiiii?/ieo, o?iainiaeo, iaoa??aeueieo aeaaeieo ?ano?n?a.

Aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy i?noaie iiaeiii aacoaaoeny ye ia
aaeineiiaeaii? i?aai?caoe?eieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy, oae ? aeiiii?/ieo
iaoiae?a ea??aieoeoaa, a oaeiae aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aieeao ia ?o
?icaeoie.

Noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? aenooia? ye iaoai?ci
aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia ie?aieo oa?eoi??yo
Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? oa ianooiiiai iiceoeaiiai aieeao a?aeiia?aeieo
c?ooaiue ia ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee ?aa?iio oa e?a?ie a oe?eiio. O
niaoe?aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo ciiao oa ia oa?eoi??yo i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo
noai?th?oueny nenoaia oi?aae?iiy oa eiio?ieth ca aeei?enoaiiyi iniiaieo
?ano?n?a (caie?, ?iai/i? neee, eai?oaeo, ?io?ano?oeoo?e) oa iaaeaiiyi
ieoieo, iiaeaoeiaeo oa ?ioeo i?euea. Iniiaia caaaeaiiy oaei? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy — ni?yioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e o i??i?eoaoi? ae?iaieoeoaa,
?icaeoie nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee, aeieia?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa.

III. Iniiai? ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Iiiia?ao??

1.Aaeaiia A.?. I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iniiae oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii
i?no. — E.: A?io, 1998. — 215 n.

A?ioo?e

2.Aaeaiia A.?. Aeiiii?/ia nooi?noue i?noa ? caeiiii??iino? aaiethoe??
i?nueeeo iinaeaiue. IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino?. —
Aeiiaoeuee, 1996.-25n.

3.Aaeaiia A.?. Oaeineiiaeaiiy ieaiiai-athaeaeaoieo a?aeiioaiue i?noa oa
i?nueeeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a. IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino?. — Aeiiaoeuee, 1996.-25n.

4.Aaeaiia A.?. Oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy eiioiaeueieie no?oeoo?aie i?noa
oa i?nueeeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a. IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino?. — Aeiiaoeuee, 1996.-36n.

5.Aaeaiia A.?., Eaaaaeeinueeee TH.I. Aeieueiaa o/anoue i?aei?e?inoa o
o?iainoaaii? ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e i?no ? ?aeii?a.
IAI Oe?a?ie, ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee. — E., 1997.-11n. (o
ni?aaao.: aianie aaoi?a – iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, iaoiaee aecia/aiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai oiiaeo,
iaa?oiooaaiiy noaaee ieaoaae?a i?aei?e?inoa ia ioi?iio aeiae?eey a
i?noao ? i?nueeeo ?aeiiao).

6.Aaeaiia A.?. ?icoe?aiiy aace ? iie?ioaiiy i?aai?caoe?? i?noeaaiai
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a i?no?. IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino?. —
Aeiiaoeuee, 1997.-46n.

7.Aaeaiia A.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea athaeaeaoa ai?iaeneiai ?aeiia. IAI Oe?aeiu,
Einoeooo yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. — Aeiiaoee, 1997.-51n.

8.Aaeaiia A.?., ?eaae A.A. Oai?aoe/i? canaaee oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii i?no.
IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino?.-Aeiiaoeuee, 1997.-41n.(o
ni?aaao.: aianie aaoi?a – nooi?noue ? ooieoe?? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
i?noaie, i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e ? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy
i?noaie, noaiiaeaiiy i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy).

9.Aaeaiia A.?. Aeieia?/iee iaiaaeaeiaio ?icaeoeo i?no. IAI Oe?a?ie,
?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino?. — Aeiiaoeuee, 1997.-67n.

10.Aaeaiia A.E., Ei?ieaa A.TH. Eioi?iaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou
i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaiai oi?aaeaiey ?acaeoeai ?aaeiia. IAI Oe?aeiu, Einoeooo
yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. — Aeiiaoee, 1998.- 18n.(o ni?aaao.: aianie
aaoi?a – nooi?noue ? iniaeeaino? ?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy,
?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? iaiaaeaeiaioo ?aa?ii?a, ?aae?caoe?y i?ia?ai
ia?eaoeiao ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?).

11.Aaeaiia A.E., Eoeeo A.A. Aiaeec e i?iaiice?iaaiea ninoiyiey iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee ?aaeiia a oneiaeyo ?uiea. IAI Oe?aeiu, Einoeooo
yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. — Aeiiaoee, 1998.- 16n.( o ni?aaao.: aianie
aaoi?a – aiae?c iai?ioieo eioo?a ? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?o
i?iaiicoaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei).

12.Aaeaiia A.E., ?annoaeaeae E.I. I?iaeaiu auaiaea ec e?ecena oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu ia ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia. IAI Oe?aeiu, Einoeooo
yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. — Aeiiaoee, 1998.- 24n.( o ni?aaao.: aianie
aaoi?a – aeae?eaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai
aeoiaeo aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? ?c e?ece, iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie ioe?iee
aeiiii?/iiai iieiaeaiiy oaoo, oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie eiia?oe?eiiai
?ic?aooieo a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? aoa?eueii? aaeoc?).

13.Aaeaiia A.E., Iienaaa A.A. I?iaeaiu ?aaeecaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeee. IAI Oe?aeiu, Einoeooo yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. —
Aeiiaoee, 1998.-24n. (o ni?aaao.: aianie aaoi?a – eiioeaiooaeuei?
i?aeoiaee aei i?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? ?aa?iiaeueii? i?iieneiai? iie?oeee,
oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth ?aa?iia,
i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, iiaeaeue
aioee?eciaiai no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy).

14.Aaeaiia A.E., Aao/aiei E.A. Iiaeaioiaea oi?aaeaioeaa ?uii/iie
i?eaioaoeee eae oaeoi? onei?aiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i. IAI Oe?aeiu,
Einoeooo yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. — Aeiiaoee, 1997.- 21n. (o ni?aaao.:
aianie aaoi?a – oai?aoeei-i?eeeaaei? canaaee i?aeaioiaee oi?aae?ioe?a
?eieiai? i???ioaoe??, noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie iaiaaeaeiaioo, ca’ycie
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo c oaeineiiaeaiiyi oi?aae?iiy ia iniia?
ia?a?iciiae?eo iayaiiai eai?oaeo ? ?iai/i? neee c iaio aoaeoeaii? noa?e
aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aei a?eueo aoaeoeaii?).

15.Aaeaiia A.E, Ae?aiaa?a A.I. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia
Oe?aeiu. IAI Oe?aeiu, Einoeooo yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. — Aeiiaoee,
1998.- 28n. (o ni?aaao.: aianie aaoi?a – aiae?c nioe?aeueiiai ?
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie oa athaeaeaoiiai caaacia/aiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai, oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a oi?ioaaiiy aeioiae?a
i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, iai?yie iie?oeee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?aa?ii?a).

16.Aaeaiia A.?. I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy i?noaie.
IAI Oe?a?ie, ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee.- E.: A?io, 1998.-
48n.

17.Aaeaiia A.E., Aoaa?iay A.E., *eeeeei A.E. Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey
oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu. IAI Oe?aeiu, Einoeooo yeiiiieee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. – Aeiiaoee, 1999. – 20n. (o ni?aaao.: aianie aaoi?a –
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?, aeaaaeaiiy ?c aenieoaoaoe??
a?oi oaoo ? ?ic??c?a, o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy i?ia?aie e?ea?aeaoe?? oaoo,
nioe?aeueiee caoeno aea?eueiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a, iiaea?i?caoe?y aaeoc?).

Noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

18.Aaeaiia A.?., Eiae?oeia A. Athaeaeao i?nueeiai ?aeiio // Aeiiii?ea
Oe?a?ie.-1998.-? 4.-N.20-25. (o ni?aaao.: aianie aaoi?a – aiae?c
aeaea?ae aeioiae?a ? aeo?ao athaeaeaoo ?aeiio, i?iiiceoe?? ii
oaeineiiaeaiith o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy i?nueeeo ?aeii?a Oe?a?ie).

19.Aaeaiia A.E., Ae?aiaa?a A.I. Eiioeaiooaeueiua iiaeoiaeu e
oi?ie?iaaieth iieeoeee aic?iaeaeaiey ?aaeiiia. / I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey
i?iiuoeaiiiai ?aaeiia. IAI Oe?aeiu, Einoeooo yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. —
Aeiiaoee, 1998. — 21n. (o ni?aaao.: aianie aaoi?a – iaoeia? canaaee
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?aa?ii?a, oeyoe aeoiaeo Oe?a?ie ?c aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ia
iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae ?aa?ii?a, ?o ?ano?n?a ? ?aca?a?a).

20.Aaeaiia A.E., Iiiia A.A. ?oeiaiaenoai e eeaea?noai / Iaiaaeaeiaio.-
Aeiiaoee: Aiae?iiaaea, 1998.-16n. (o ni?aaao.: aianie aaoi?a – ?ice?eooy
ci?noo ?iaioe ea??aieea ii oi?aae?iith i?aai?caoe??th, noee?
ainiiaea?nueeiai ea??aieoeoaa, aecia/aiiy i?eaeaoiino? aei
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?, ?ieue e?aea?noaa a nenoai? ea??aieoeoaa).

21.Aaeaiia A.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea athaeaeaoa ai?iaeneiai ?aeiia e iooe aai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey / Ai?iae, ?aaeii, ainoaea?noai: I?iaeaiu
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeanoe. Iaoa?eaeu iaaeae. iao/ii-i?aeo. eiio. Aeiiaoee.
1997.- 3n.

Aeaiiiiaai? noaoo?

22.Aaeaiia A.E. Aii?inu aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeanna i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee ii i?eaaoecaoeee aeeeuey / Ooieoeeiiaeueiay e eioi?iaoeeiiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaioieeia aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey a oneiaeyo ?acaeoey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Nai?iee Oe?IEEOE ? 1422 — Oe92 io 16.09.1992 a.
-5n.

Aiioaoe?y

Aaeaiia A.?. I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iniiae oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii i?no
(ia i?eeeaae? i?nueeeo iinaeaiue Aeiiaano). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.10.01 – ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ? ?aa?iiaeueia
aeiiii?ea. ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie,
Ee?a, 1998.

Aena?oeai? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii i?no, ?ice?eoa aeiiii?/ia nooi?noue
i?noa, aecia/ai? iciaee i?noa ye neeaaeii? aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie,
aeae?eai? aoaie ?icaeoeo i?no o aca?iica’yceo ?c noaae?yie o?aai?caoe??
? caeiiii??iinoyie ?o aaiethoe??, aeine?aeaeai? nooi?noue,
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie ? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?noaie. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oi?aae?iith i?ioeanii
noaa?e?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno ?aa?iio ? ?icaeoeo oaooa?nueeeo i?no, ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ?o
aeiiii?/ii? aace. ?ice?eo? iaoeia? canaaee ia?eaoeiao i?noa, iniaeeaino?
aeieia?/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo ?icaeoeii i?no o a?ia??iaeono??ae?ciaaieo
?aa?iiao, ia?aoiaeo i?nueeeo iinaeaiue ia iiaeaeue noaeiai ?icaeoeo,
iaa?oioiaai? iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii i?no ia nenoaii?e iniia?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?noi, oi?aae?iiy, noaeee ?icaeoie, aeieia?/iee
iaiaaeaeiaio, naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ia?eaoeia i?noa,
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci, ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y,
oaoiiaaiii-aeieia?/ia aaciaea, aoaeoeai?noue

Annotation

B.I.Adamov. Organizational/economical basis of cities’ development
management (at the example of Donbass Region towns). — Manuscript.

Dissertation for obtaining of Economical Sciences Doctorate by
speciality 08.10.01 — Location of Productive Forces and Regional
Economy. Council for Analysis of Productive Forces of Ukraine. National
Academy of Science of Ukraine. Kyiv, 1998.

The treatise describes theoretical/methodological grounds of management
of social-economical development of cities, explains economical essence
of a city, determines characteristics of a city as a sophisticated
dynamic system, outlines phases of development of cities in connection
with stages of urbanization and regularities of their evolution,
researches nature, methodological principles and
organizational-economical mechanism of cities’ management system.
Considerable attention is paid to management of the process of
stabilization of social-economical development of industrial complex of
the region and to development of miners’ cities, restructuring of their
economical basis. The work clears up scientific principles of city
marketing, particular features of ecological management of a city
development in hyper-industrialized regions, conversion of towns to the
model of permanent development, grounds areas of improvement of
organizational-economical mechanism of cities’ development management,
founded on systematic basis.

Key words: city, management, permanent development, ecological
management, self-administration, city marketing,
organizational-economical mechanism, restructuring,
technogenic/ecological security, efficiency.

Aiiioaoeey

Aaeaiia A.E. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea iniiau oi?aaeaiey ?acaeoeai
ai?iaeia (ia i?eia?a ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee Aeiiaanna). –?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.10.01 – ?aciauaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e
?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea. Niaao ii eco/aieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
Oe?aeiu IAI Oe?aeiu. – Eeaa, 1998.

Inaauaiu oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea iniiau oi?aaeaiey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei ?acaeoeai ai?iaeia; ?ane?uoa yeiiiie/aneay
nouiinoue ai?iaea eae caaia oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea,
ioaa/athuaai yeiiiie/aneei e nioeeaeueiui iio?aaiinoyi iauanoaa;
ii?aaeaeaiu i?eciaee ai?iaea eae neiaeiie aeeiaie/aneie nenoaiu, a
eioi?ie auaeaeythony neaaeothuea iniiaiua iiaenenoaiu:
a?aaeiia?acothuay, a?aaeiianeoaeeaathuay, ianaeaiea e
a?oeoaeoo?ii-a?aaeino?ieoaeueiay. Auaeaeaiu yoaiu ?acaeoey ai?iaeia
(ae?aaiea ai?iaea – n?aaeiaaaeiaua ai?iaea – i?iiuoeaiiua ai?iaea –
iinoeiaeono?eaeueiua ai?iaea) ai acaeiinayce ni noaaeeyie o?aaiecaoeee e
caeiiiia?iinoe eo yaiethoeee, au?aaeathueany a iaoeeiiiii iiauoaiee ?iee
ai?iaeia a iauanoaa, eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao,
noaiiaeaiee ie?iauo ai?iaeia, ia?aoiaea io oi/a/iiai ai?iaea e nenoaiai
?annaeaiey. Enneaaeiaaiu nouiinoue e ooieoeee nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
ai?iaeaie, eo i?aaiecaoeeiiii — yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci, aeeth/athuee
i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o oi?aaeythuae nenoaiu e i?aaiecaoeeth
i?ioeanna aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey n aeiieie?iaaieai yeiiiie/aneeo iaoiaeia
?oeiaiaenoaa, iieacaoaeyie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe eioi?iai yaeythony
eiaeaen /aeiaa/aneiai ?acaeoey, ea/anoai aeecie e onoie/eainoue
?acaeoey. ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey ai?iaeaie,
iicaieythuea ii?aaeaeeoue eiino?oeoeaiua naienoaa ai?iaeia, no?aoaaeth e
oaeoeeo oi?aaeaiey eie.

Eceiaeaiu i?iaeaiu oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii noaaeeecaoeee
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena ?aaeiia,
iieacaiu aai ianoi e ?ieue a yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu, iainiiaaiu i?ei?eoaoiua
ia?ii?eyoey ii noaaeeecaoeee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a
?aaeiia e ia?aii/a?aaeiua caaea/e ii ?aaeecaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeee n oeaeueth i?aiaeieaiey iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee
e?eceniuo yaeaiee. Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii oi?aaeaieth ?acaeoeai
oaooa?neeie ai?iaeaie e ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeeae eo yeiiiie/aneie aacu. N yoie
oeaeueth inaauaiu aii?inu ?aaoee?iaaiey ?acaeoey oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe eae a?aaeioi?ie?othuae io?anee, ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea
iieiaeaiey ioeaiee yeiiiieee oaoo a eiioaenoa aiciiaeiiai eo auaiaea ec
yenieoaoaoeee e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea iniaaiiinoe eeeaeaeaoeee
oaieueiuo i?aaei?eyoee a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea. ?ac?aaioaiu nenoaia
oic?an/aoa a nioeeaeueiie noa?a oaooa?neeo iinaeaiee e iao/iua iniiau
ia?eaoeiaa ai?iaeia eae iiaie i?ia?anneaiie oi?iu oi?aaeaiey ai?iaeneie
n?aaeie.

?ane?uoi niaea?aeaiea yeieiae/aneiai iaiaaeaeiaioa a ?acaeoee ai?iaeia,
iieacaiu iniaaiiinoe i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneie
aaciianiinoe a aeia?eiaeono?eaeece?iaaiiuo ?aaeiiao, a oaeaea
yeieiaecaoeeth yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iooai no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee
yeiiiieee, ?acaeoey iaeiiooiaeiuo e ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee,
i?yiuo i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Ii?aaeaeaiu iooe eiiieaeniiai
?aoaiey i?iaeaiu io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e ia?aoiaea ai?iaeia ia
iiaeaeue onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey ia iniiaa ?aaeecaoeee oe?ieiai eiiieaena
ia?ii?eyoee, n?aaee eioi?uo ia?aii/a?aaeiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
oi?ie?iaaieth yooaeoeaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a ni/aoaiee ni niaiie no?oeoo?
iio?aaeaiey, iaania/aiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii
oiaiueoaiee ?anoiaeia ?ano?nia. Eeth/aaay ?ieue a iaania/aiee
onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey ii?aaeaeaia ianoiui i?aaiai a neeo eo
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oa??eoi?eaeueiia ieaie?iaaiea e eiaanoeoeee a
eio?ano?oeoo?o.

?ac?aaioaiu iai?aaeaiey niaa?oainoaiaaiey
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey ?acaeoeai ai?iaeia.
Iieacaii noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey eae
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oi?aaeai/aneie iniiau niaa?oainoaiaaiey o?iaiy
?oeiaiaenoaa ?acaeoeai ai?iaeia, ii?aaeaeaiu iai?aaeaiey iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey eiiioiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth e?oiiiai
ai?iaea, ?ac?aaioaiu eiioeaioeey oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie
eiiioiaeueiuie no?oeoo?aie a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea e iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey
ieaiiai-athaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee ai?iaea e ai?iaeneeo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
?aeiiia. Eceiaeaiu yeiiiie/aneea iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey ?acaeoeai ai?iaeia
ia iniiaa yooaeoeaiiai i?eiaiaiey iaeiaiaiai, e?aaeeoiiai,
aeioaoeeiiiiai e noaaaioeeiiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, a oaeaea eiaanoe?iaaiey,
i?eaaoecaoeee e ?acainoaea?noaeaiey nianoaaiiinoe. Iainiiaaiu
iai?aaeaiey niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey oi?ie?iaaieai e ?acaeoeai
niaoeeaeueiuie yeiiiie/aneeie ciiaie e niaoeeaeueiui ?aaeeiii
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe. ?an/aou
iieacuaatho, /oi nicaeaiea yoie ciiu e aiaae?aiea niaoeeaeueiiai ?aaeeia
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iicaieyo a aeeaeaeoea 10 eao nicaeaoue
ieiei 200 oun. iiauo ?aai/eo iano, iiaea?iece?iaaoue yeiiiie/aneee
iioaioeeae, iiauneoue oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ai?iae, oi?aaeaiea, onoie/eaia ?acaeoea, yeieiae/aneee
iaiaaeaeiaio, naiioi?aaeaiea, ia?eaoeia ai?iaea,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci, ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey,
oaoiiaaiii-yeieiae/aneay aaciianiinoue.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 11.05.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o60/16.

Oiia.ae?oe.a?e.2,0. Iae.-aeae.a?e.2,0 Cai.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Aaceiooiaii

i.Ee?a-5, aoe.*a?aiiia?i?enueea, 57/3, e.201.

Oiaa?enoai «Ciaiiy» Oe?a?ie.

Aeaeaaieoeoai oa iia?aoeaia iie?a?ao?y

227-41-23, 294-71-27.

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PAGE 39

Oa?eoi??aeueia a?iiaaea

Aia?ao i?nueei?

?aaee

Ooieoe?iiaeuei? oi?aae?iiy, i?aeca?oi? i?nuee?e ?aae?

Nae?aoa? i?nueei? ?aaee

Canooiiee i?nueeiai aieiae c ieoaiue i?aoe? aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a

Aeeiiaa/ee eii?oao i?nueei? ?aaee

?aeiiia o i?no? ?aaea

Aeeiiaa/ee eii?oao ?aeiiii? ?aaee

Aeeiiaa/? i?aaie

Aieiaa ?aeiiii? ?aaee

I?aei?e?inoaa eiioiaeueii? aeaniino? i?nueei? ?aaee

Aeeiiaa/? i?aaie oi?aae?iiy, a?aeae?ee (ooieoe?iiaeuei?, aaeocaa?,
oa?eoi??aeuei?)

I?aaie naiii?aai?caoe?? ianaeaiiy

Aeiiaoeueea i?nueea ?aaea

Aeiiaoeueeee i?nueeee aieiaa

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