15

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA`ss OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? I.I.AIAIIIEUeOess

I?ueeia aaea??e aiaoie?eiae/

OAeE 614.2:362.11:65.011.46 (-21)

IIOEI?CAOe?ss OI?AAE?IIss NEOAEAITH OAEAeEI? IAAeE*II? AeIIIIIAE A
I?NOAO C NA?AAeIUeITH *ENAEUeI?NOTH IANAEAIIss

14.02.03 – “Nioe?aeueia iaaeeoeeia oa ioi?iia caei?ia`y” (iaaee/i?
iaoee)

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai??.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EAOAI AAEA??ss IEEEO?AIA

Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia
iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith
nioe?aeueii? iaaeeoeeie, i?aai?caoe?? oa

oi?aae?iiy ioi?iiith caei?ia’y

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

OAETHAEAIEI AIAOIE?E
IEAEN?EIAE*

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith nioe?aeueii? a?a??ie oa i?aai?caoe??
ioi?iie caei?ia’y c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ea??aieo eaae??a

-aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AACIIEOAe?IA AAEEIA AANEE?AIA

Eoaainueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith nioe?aeueii? iaaeeoeeie

oa i?aai?caoe?? ioi?iie caei?ia’y

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oe?a?inueeee ?inoeooo a?iiaaenueeiai caei?ia’y,

a?aeae?e iaaeeei-nai?oa?ii? aeiiiiiae ianaeaiith

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 29 » ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 13-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.003.01 i?e
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I.Aiaiiieueoey ca
aae?anith: 252057 i.Ee?a — 57, i?.Ia?aiiae, 34, iaaeeei-i?io?eaeoe/iee
ei?ion IIO, aoaeeoi??y ?2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I.Aiaiiieueoey ca aae?anith: 252057,
i.Ee?a -57, aoe. Ciieia?/ia, 3.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 16 » aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

ae.i.i., i?ioani? _______________
I.I.ssai?ianueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Iia??oaiiy iieaciee?a caaaeueiiai noaio
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy a oiiaao ??ceiai nei?i/aiiy aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao
ia ioi?iio caei?ia’y aiane?aeie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece a
Oe?a?i? iaaecae/aeii i?aeaeuo? aeiiae aei aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy ia
an?o ??aiyo ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie. Neoaeaa oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae ? iaei??th c iaea?eueo i??i?eoaoieo a ioi?ii? caei?ia’y,
ine?eueee a?ae yeino? oa aoaeoeaiino? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy cia/iith
i??ith caeaaeaoue /enei iioaioe?eieo ao?ao ?ie?a aeeooy oa nia?oi?noue
aiane?aeie eiio?ieueiaaieo ioi?iiith caei?ia’y caoai?thaaiue oa o?aai
[TH.I.Eiia?ia, 1994; A.I.Eaoai, A.A.?iaoia, A.A.I?ueeia,1998].

I?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae a no/anieo oiiaao ia
caaeiaieueiy? ianaeaiiy i? ca oa?i?iaie aeeiiaiiy aeeeee?a, i? ca
ye?noth iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae [A.I.Aieioei,1995] oa ii?aeio?oueny c ??
iecueeith aeo?aoiith aoaeoeai?noth [I.?.Aaeae, Oe.A. ssneinueeee,1996].

Aaaaoiianooaai? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy oaeaeeith
iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith aoee i?iaaaeai? o 60-o, 70-o ?ieao iei?oiueiai
noie?ooy, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
?iaioao I.A. Iannaey [1968], A.Ae.Eiia?iaa [1979].

A inoaii? ?iee i?iaeiaaeothoueny iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai
?icaeoeo neoaeae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, aaeaioaoe?? ?? aei iiaeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aae?e a e?a?iao NIAe. ?ic?iaeaii ieceo
aaaeeeaeo, aea aeineoue ie?aieo ieoaiue oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe??
aeno?aii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, aeeneooo?oueny ieoaiiy i?i
aeioe?euei?noue oa aeeaeio niaoe?ae?caoe?? ae?cieo a?eaaae
[A.A.Aiaianaiei c? ni?aaao.,1989;1991; A.I.Iaaiea?aea c? ni?aaao.,1997;
A.A.Aaiaaoeaa, 1996], canoinoaaiiy aeai?eoi?a iaaeaiiy oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, yeino? ?iaioe nenoaie. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
iaoiae?a a i?aeoeeo oi?aae?iiy ioi?iiith caei?ia’y cia/iith i??ith
aeooae?coaaei i?iaeaio ia?aaeyaeo ooieoe?e oaeaeei? oa iaa?aeeeaaeii?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae aai aeioe?euei?noue ?ic’?aeiaiiy oeeo neoaea [
Aiaianaiei A.A. c? ni?aaao., 1992 ].

Eiiieaenieo nenoaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeno?aiith
iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith, ?? ieaioaaiiy oa caaacia/aiiy yeino? o
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie acaaae? ia
i?iaiaeeeiny.

Aeuaiaaaaeaia aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe i?iaeaio iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
oi?aae?iiy oa i?aai?caoe?? neoaeae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, ??
oa?i?iiaa, a?aeno?i/aia oa aeiaaino?ieiaa i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaa ieaioaaiiy
a no/anieo oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aaeoc? ioi?iie caei?ia’y aaaeeeaei
caaaeaiiyi, ui e iaoiiaeei aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiai iaoo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeeiiaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? iaaeeoeeie, i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy ioi?iiith
caei?ia’y Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? “Iaoeiaa
iaa?oiooaaiiy no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae ioi?iie caei?ia”y
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianueea o no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao” ( ? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 0196U012646).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe nenoaio iioei?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy oaeaeeith iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith o i?nueeeo iinaeaiiyo c
na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy ( a?ae 100 aei 500 oeny/ aeeoae?a).

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oa ae??oai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

· I?iaanoe aiae?c caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao oa
aeyaeoe /eiieee, ye? iaea?eueoa aieeaathoue ia ?? aeeiai?eo oa
no?oeoo?o;

· Aeine?aeeoe caaacia/ai?noue ianaeaiiy aeno?aiith iaaee/iith
aeiiiiiaith oa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy a?eaaae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae;

· Iaa?oiooaaoe no?oeoo?o i?aai?caoe?? neoaeae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae aeey i?no c /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy a?ae 100 aei 500 oeny/
aeeoae?a;

· Aecia/eoe ii?iaoeae caaacia/aiino? a?eaaaeaie oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae i?no c na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy;

· ?ic?iaeoe oa ia?aa??eoe a aenia?eiaio? aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie
caaacia/aiiy oa i?aai?caoe?eii? i?aeo?eiee yeino? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa:

· anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io
aeiiiiiao oa aeyaeai? iaea?eueo aieeaia? /eiieee
nioe?aeueii-a?a??i?/iiai oa aiaeiaaiiiai ci?noo;

· iaa?oioiaaii iioei?ciaaio iiaeaeue ooieoe?iiaeueii-no?oeoo?ii?
i?aai?caoe?? noaioe?? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae aeey i?noa c
na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy;

· aecia/aii ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy oai??? ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue caaacia/aiiy a?eaaaeaie oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae
i?no c /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy a?ae 100 aei 500 oeny/ aeeoae?a;

· ?ic?iaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii a oiiaao i?aai?caoe?eiiai aenia?eiaioo
nenoaio caaacia/aiiy oa aecia/aii oeyoe aacia?a?aii? i?aeo?eiee
aeiaea?aeaiiy ci?noo, ianyao ? yeino? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae;

· ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaiaaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeii?
e?eueeino? a?eaaae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiai ?acoeueoaoe
noaee i?aenoaaith aeey:

· ia’?eoea?caoe?? ieaioaaiiy neoaeae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae,
aeoiaey/e c iiieoo ianaeaiiy ia oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao;

· aecia/aiiy ?aaeueieo ii?iaoea?a caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy ae?cieie
a?eaaaeaie;

· canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie
iii?oi?eiao c iaoith a?aenoaaeaiiy uiaeaiii? ae?yeueiino? noaioe??
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, ?? i?ae?icae?e?a, ia?niiaeo;

· iaoeiaiai caaacia/aiiy ae??oaiiy aaaaoianiaeoieo oi?aae?inueeeo
ieoaiue uiaei yeino?, ianyao ? iaaeaiiy aeno?aii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae
ianaeaiith i?noa, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeinue;

· canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae a ?ioeo i?noao e?a?ie c
na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo cae?eniaii ia
aea?aeaaiiio ? ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoaii i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? iinoaiia Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie “ I?i ooai?aiiy
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae iaaeeoeeie eaoano?io” ( ?343 a?ae 14 ea?oiy 1997), “
I?i caoaa?aeaeaiiy ii?yaeeo aea?aeaaii? ae?aaeeoaoe?? caeeaaeo ioi?iie
caei?iacy” (? 765 a?ae 15 eeiiy 1997), “ I?i aaeineiiaeaiiy Ii?yaeeo
iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ?iicaiiei a?iiaaeyiai, ye? oei/aniai
ia?aaoaathoue ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie” ( ? 1021 a?ae 17 aa?aniy 1997), “I?i
caoaa?aeaeaiiy caoiae?a uiaei ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae iaaeeoeeie
eaoano?io ia 1998 — 2001 ?iee” ( ?1379 a?ae 9 a?oaeiy 1997), iaeac?a IIC
“ I?i caoiaee uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae” ( ?
175 a?ae 19 /a?aiy 1996), “ I?i aecia/aiiy o neeaae? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae
iaaeeoeeie eaoano?io iaaee/ieo nee, cania?a ? e?eoaaeueieo caeeaae?a” (
?334 a?ae 20 eenoiiaaea 1997 ), “ I?i caoaa?aeaeaiiy noaiaea?o?a
aea?aeaaii? ae?aaeeoaoe?? ( ? 2 a?ae 12 n?/iy 1998), eiiieaenii?
i?ia?aie “Caei?iacy eeyi : 1999 — 2005”.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? ia eaoaae?? nioe?aeueii? iaaeeoeeie, i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy
ioi?iiith caei?iacy Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai??.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai iniaenoiai aianeo a ii?aoethaaiiy iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. Aeena?oaioii iniaenoi aecia/aii
iaoo ? i?ia?aio aeine?aeaeaiue, c?a?aii iaoa??aee io?oe?eii? noaoenoeee
uiaei caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao, ae?yeueiino?
caeeaae?a oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, cai?o oa iaeiie/aiiy io?oe?eii?
aeieoiaioaoe??, ea?oie aeeeeeo oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae oa
a?ae?eaieo oaeii?a noi?iaiaeaeoaaeueieo eenoe?a.

Iiooea/ a?aa o/anoue a i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaii? ca niaoe?aeueii
a?aei?aoeueiaaiith i?ia?aiith aenia?oii? ioe?iee yeino? aeno?aii?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae; ? aaoi?ii iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeii?
e?eueeino? a?eaaae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, iaa?oiooaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e noaioe?? oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae aeey i?noa c
na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy. Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aiae?c oa
iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, cae?eniaii ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, noi?ioethaaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iiaeaeueoiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “ Iioe?aiiy aeina?aeo
?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ioi?iie caei?iacy a Oe?a?i?” ( Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1996), i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaii?
ae?aaeeoaoe?? e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie” ( E?ei,
1998), ?aa?iiaeueieo ia?aaeao aenia?o?a AIIC c i?iaeai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ioi?iie caei?ia”y EASTNET ( Ee?a, 1997, I?inuee,1998),
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ia?oia?e a ioi?ii? caei?iacy” (
Ee?a,1997), 11 Anaoe?a?inueeiio cc?cae? o??o?a?a ( Aeiiaoeuee, 1998),
Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? aianoac?ieia?a oa ?aai?iaoieia?a ( Euea?a,
1998), Anaoe?a?inueeiio cc?cae? oa?aiaao?a oa ?aaiaoieia?a (Ee?a, 1998).

Ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe i?iaaaeaii ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii?
iaaeeoeeie, i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy ioi?iiith caei?ia”y
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ( i?ioieie ?1 a?ae 5
n?/iy 1999 ?ieo), can?aeaii? ai?iaaoe?eii? ?aaee c nioe?aeueii?
iaaeeoeeie ? ioi?iie caei?iacy Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey (i?ioieie ? 1 a?ae 3 ethoiai 1999 ?ieo ).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a 12
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo ( a oiio /ene? a oeaio?aeueieo aeo?iaeao — 4 ), c ieo
2- naiino?ei?.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 156
noi??ieao ae?oea?nueeiai oaenoo ( c ieo aeania oaenoo – 115 noi??iie),
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, 5 aeiaeaoe?a.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 165 ?ia?o a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a oa
aea?aeaa NIAe ? 72 ?iicaiieo aeaea?aea. Aeena?oaoe?y
?ethno?iaaia 23 oaaeeoeyie ? 14 ?enoieaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

I?ia?aia, iaoiaee, ia`?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia`?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy aoea
neoaeaa oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?noa c /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy
a?ae 100 aei 500 oeny/ aeeoae?a ( ia i?eeeaae? i.E?aiaoi?nueea
Aeiiaoeueei? iaeanoi ). I?ia?aio aeineiaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii ia iniia?
iinoaaeaii? iaoe oa caaaeaiue, iaiaoiaeieo aeey ?? aeinyaiaiiy .

I?aaeiao aeineiaeaeaiiy: iaoa?iaee ioioeieii? noaoenoeee ca 8- ??/iee
ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiiy ( 1990-1997 ?iee), a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe
niaoeiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io
aeiiiiiao o aca?iica’yceo c iieacieeaie ae?yeueiino? noaioe??
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae a 1992 — 1997 ?ieao.

Iioi?iaoeieia aaca aeineiaeaeaiiy noi?iiaaia ca iaoa?iaeaie aea?aeaaii?
oa aaeocaai? noaoenoe/ii? caioiinoi uiaei ae?yeueiino? neoaeae oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae: o. 22 “ Ca?o noaioe?? (a?aeae?eaiiy, ia’?aeiaiiy )
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae”, ca??iee?a iniiaieo iieaciee?a
ae?yeueiino? neoaeae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae a Oe?a?i?, aeaieo
noaoenoe/ieo ui??/iee?a “Iieacieee caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy oa ae?yeueiino?
caeeaae?a ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie”, “Iieacieee caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy oa
ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ioi?iie caei?ia’y Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?”,
iaoa?iaeia eiii’thoa?ii? aace aeaieo caa?oaiue a?iiaaeyi oa ae?yeueiino?
noaioe?? oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae i.E?aiaoi?nueea.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii eiiieaen no/anieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy —
noaoenoe/iee, aia?ao oai??? ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy, iaoiaee
i?aai?caoe?eiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?eiiai aenia?eiaioo,
aenia?oieo ioe?iie, oioio?iiiiao?aaeo (?en.1).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny o 3 aoaie. Ia ia?oiio aoai? aecia/aeany
/anoioa ? no?oeoo?a caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao.
Ae?oaee aoai iieyaaa a iaa?oiooaaii?

i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oa ii?iaoeao caaacia/aiiy a?eaaaeaie oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae aeey i?no c /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy a?ae 100 aei 500
oeny/. Ia o?aoueiio aoai? aoei ?ic?iaeaii oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii
i?aai?caoe?eio nenoaio caaacia/aiiy oa aecia/aii oeyoe aacia?a?aii?
i?aeo?eiee yeino? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae.

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea aeaieo i?iaiaeeeany ia AII ?AI AO-486 c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaeao?a i?ia?ai ia?iaee aac aeaieo “FoxPro» ?
noaoenoe/ieo i?ia?ai “Stadia».

Iaoaiaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe nenoaio iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy oaeaeeith
iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith o i?nueeeo iinaeaiiyo c na?aaeiueith
/enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy ( a?ae 100 aei 500 oeny/ aeeoae?a).Caaaeaiiy:

Aea/eoe iiieo ianaeaiiy ia aeno?aio iaaee/io aeiiiiiao oa eiai
caaacia/ai?noueIaa?oiooaaoe i?aeoiaee aei ieaioaaiiy caaacia/aiiy iio?aa
o oaeaee?e iaaee/-i?e aeiiiiic? ?ic?iaeoe oa ia?aa??eoe a aenia?eiaio?
aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie caaacia/aiiy oa i?aeo?eiee yeino? oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae

Caa?iaiiy

Caaacia/a-

i?noue

a?eaaaeaie

Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy a?eaaae

Iiaeaethaaiiy ??cieo aa??aio?a iaai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e

Aecia/aiiy ii?iaoeao caaacia/aiino? oaeaeeith iaaee/iith

aeiiiiiaith

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

Noaoenoe/iee

Aenia?oieo ioe?iie

Oioio?iiiiao?a-aeo

Aia?ao oai??? ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy

Noaoenoe/ieeI?aai?caoe?eiiai i?iaeooaaiiy I?aai?caoe?eiiai aenia?eiaioo

Noaoenoe/iee

?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca aeaieo

Aeai? aea?aeaaii? noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?

Eiii’thoa?ia aaca aeaieo

i?i caa?iaiiy ianaeaiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue noaioe?? oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae
i.E?aiaoi?nueea.

Ea?oe aenia?oii? ioe?iee i?io?eueiino? caa?iaiue

Eiii’thoa?ia aaca aeaieo i?i aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? noaioe?e
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae

Ea?oe aenia?oii? ioe?iee yeino? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae

Ianya aeine?aeaeaiue

8 o. 22

288560 o.110/i

15 caaaeaieo “Ea?o aenia?oii? ioe?iee i?io?eueiino? caa?iaiue”288560
“Ea?o aenia?oii? ioe?iee yeino? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae”

6160 aeiaaee?a aini?oae?caoe?? a?eaaaeaie

2898 aeiaaee?a nia?o? aei i?eaoooy a?eaaae

154 aeiaaeee nia?o? o i?enooiino? a?eaaae

28652 aeiaaeee ianeoaiaoaaiiy o?ii?/ieo oai?eo ae?cieie a?eaaaeaie

46169 o.114/i ?en.1.I?ia?aia ? ianya aeine?aeaeaiue

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. Caaaeueiee ??aaiue
caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao o 90-o ?ieao aeyaey?
no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy, ui a?aeca?eaeth?, ia iaoo aeoieo, ia
no?eueee noai ni?aa a aaeoc?, ne?eueee ianoaaeie, ye? aeieeathoue ca
iaaeaie ?? i?yii? eiiiaoaioe??, cie?aia nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai oa
iaaeeei-aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo.Ca ia??iae c 1990 aei 1997 ?ieo /anoioa
caa?oaiue ciaioeeany a Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio ia 18,5%, o Aeiiaoeueeiio
?aa?ii? ia 24,2%, o i. E?aiaoi?nueeo ia 21,2%. Aeine?aeaeaiiy /anoioe
oa no?oeoo?e aeeeee?a iieacaei, ui aeeiai?ea caa?oaiue c ??cieo
i?eaiae?a ii??aiyeueii ??ciyoueny i?ae niaith. Iae/ano?oa ianaeaiiy
caa?oa?oueny ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao c i?eaiaeo ??ciiai ?iaeo
aino?eo (?aioiaeo) caoai?thaaiue ? noai?a, ye? iio?aaothoue
iaa?aeeeaaeiiai ao?o/aiiy. Ca 5-??/iee ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiiy (1992 —
1996??.) aeyaeaii c?inoaiiy ?o ?ioaineaiino? ii i. E?aiaoi?nueeo ia
13,8%, ii Aeiiaoeueeiio ?aa?iio a oe?eiio ia 5,1%. O caaaeuei?e
no?oeoo?? caa?oaiue ieoiia aaaa ?aioiaeo caoai?thaaiue ca?eueoeeany o
i.E?aiaoi?nueeo c 51,0% aei 61,2%, o Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? — c 51,7% aei
56,0%. A Oe?a?i? /anoioa caa?oaiue c i?eaiaeo aino?i? iaoieia??
i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ieeanue, aea a no?oeoo?? ?o /anoea oaeiae ca?eueoeeany.
Ca?eueoaiiy /enea caa?oaiue c i?eaiaeo aino?eo caoai?thaaiue ? iaeiei
c i?iya?a caaaeueii? oaiaeaioe?? aei iia??oaiiy caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy a
Oe?a?i? ? na?ae/eoue i?i iaoyaeiaiiy ia?aa?ao iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o
ianaeaiiy.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy /eiiee?a oa ?o eiiieaen?a nioe?aeueii-a?a??i?/iiai
oa aiaeiaaiiiai ii?yaeeo, ui oi?iothoue iiieo ianaeaiiy ia oaeaeeo
iaaee/io aeiiiiiao, aeine?aeaeaii iieacieee caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy
i.E?aiaoi?nueea aei neoaeae oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae o 1996 ?ioe?.Caaaeueiee
??aaiue caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy ii aeno?aio iicae?ea?iyio aeiiiiiao ca an?ia
eeanaie oai?ia neeaaeaa 241,5 caa?oaiue ia 1000 ianaeaiiy. *anoioa
caa?oaiue ae?iie aei neoaeae oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae c i?eaiaeo caoai?thaaiue
oa o?aai o 1,4 ?aco ia?aaeuoaaea aiaeia?/i? aeai? na?aae /ieia?e?a
(276,0 ? 200,9 caa?oaiue ia 1000 ianaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? noaoaai?
a?oie). Iieacieee caa?oaiue ?noioii a?ae??ciyeenue a ??cieo a?eiaeo
a?oiao:iaeaeuee ??aaiue caa?oaiue ?a?no?oaaany ia ia?oiio ?ioe? aeeooy
(844,4%0), o ae?oae 2-7 ?ie?a oeae iieaciee ciaiooaaany iaeaea o 6
?ac?a, iaeieae/ei aoa ??aaiue caa?oaiue o a?oe? 8-14 ?ie?a (63.6%0) c
oaiaeaioe??th aei iinooiiaiai c?inoaiiy c a?eii aei 337,5%0, i?ioa a
noa?oeo a?eiaeo a?oiao a?i iaa?oue ciaiooaaany (292,4%0). A?eueo i?ae
3/4 (76,0%) an?o caa?oaiue i?eiaaea? ia o?noue eean?a oai?ia: oai?iae
nenoaie e?iaiia?ao, i?aai?a aeeoaiiy, ia?aiai? nenoaie oa i?aai?a /oooy,
o?aaie oa io?o?iiy, oai?iae i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy oa iaoi/ii aecia/ai?
noaie.

Ianeoaiaoaaiiy iioieo caa?oaiue cae?enithaaeinue ye
caaaeueiii?io?eueieie, oae ? niaoe?ae?ciaaieie a?eaaaeaie oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. Aenia?oaie ( e?ea?yie aeui? eaoaai??? ca oaoii
“iaaeeoeeia iaa?aeeeaaeieo noai?a”) aecia/aii noa?o eiiiaoaioe??
iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo ae?cieo a?eaaae ??ciiai i?io?eth oa
eaae?o?eaoe?eii? eaoaai???. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a no?oeoo?? caa?oaiue a
caeaaeiino? a?ae i?io?eth iaiao?aeii? aeno?aii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae o
i.E?aiaoi?nueeo iaea?eueoo /anoeo (59,2%) neeaaeaee caa?oaiiy, ye?
aeiaaaee ao?o/aiiy ia ??ai? na?aaeiueiai iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo. *anoioa
aeeeee?a, ui iiaeooue ianeoaiaoaaoeny oaeueaeoa?nueeeie a?eaaaeaie,
aei??aithaaea 157,4 ia 1000 ianaeaiiy. O 2,4 ?aco iaioei aeyaeany
??aaiue caa?oaiue, a?aeianaieo aei i?io?eth a?eaaae ?ioaineaii? oa?ai??
— 66,0 %0. A no?oeoo?? caa?oaiiy oeueiai i?io?eth iin?aeaee ae?oaa
i?noea, ?o ieoiia aaaa na?aae on?o caa?oaiue neeaaeaea 24,8%. Cia/ii
iaioa e?euee?noue aeeeee?a, ui iaeaaeaee aei noa?e eiiiaoaioe??
ea?ae?ieia?/ieo, iaae?ao?e/ieo, ineo?ao?e/ieo a?eaaae: ieoiia aaaa yeeo
a no?oeoo?? caa?oaiue neeaaeaea a?aeiia?aeii 9,0%, 4,1%, 2,9%; /anoioia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ia 1000 ianaeaiiy — 23,8%0, 11,0%0, 7,6%0 .

Naciii? eieeaaiiy caoai?thaaiino? cia/iith i??ith iaoiiaethaaee
iii?ny/io aeeiai?eo caa?oaiue ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao. Aiae?c
naciiiino? caa?oaiue ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao ia i?ioyc? o?ueio
?ie?a aeicaieea aecia/eoe iaea?eueo iai?oaeaieie ia??iaeaie a?oaeaiue
oa n?/aiue, eiee /anoioa caa?oaiue ia 14,9% oa 11,7% ia?aaeuo?
na?aaeiueii?ny/i? ??ai?, a /anoea a no?oeoo?? neeaaea? 10%. I?i?iaeueia
/enei aeeeee?a i?eiaaeaei ia eeiaiue ? aoei ia o?aoeio (30,6%) ieae/a
aecia/aiiai na?aaeiueii?ny/iiai ??aiy. Ae?aiacii eieeaaiue /anoioe
caa?oaiue a ??ci? aei? oeaeiy ia a?aecia/aany aeinoia??ieie
a?aei?iiinoyie. Aeineoue ??aiii??ia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeeeee?a ca aeiyie
oeaeiy ? iiina?aaeeiaaiei na?ae/aiiyi aeinoaoiuei a?aei?aoeueiaaieo
caoiae?a uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oa aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
aiaoeaoi?ii-iie?ee?i?/ieo caeeaae?a i?noa o aeo?aei? aei?.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae aeyaeaii iaai? caeiiii??iino?
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeeeee?a oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?ioyaii aeiae.
Iaeiaioa ?ioaineai?noue aeeeee?a i?eiaaeaea ia i?/iee ia??iae – c 0
aei 6 aiaeei, eiee iaaeoiaeeoue aeecueei 10% an?o aeeeee?a (11,1%) – ia
55,3% iaioa ?o na?aaeiueiaeiaiaeo cia/aiue. A ?io? ia??iaee aeiae
caa?oaiiy ?iciiae?eythoueny a?aeiinii ??aiii??ii.

Aeyaeai? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? caeiiii??iino? caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy ii
oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao ca eeanaie oai?ia, ie?aieie caoai?thaaiiyie
oa neiioiiieiiieaenaie c a?aooaaiiyi a?eo, noao? oai?eo oa
iino?aaeaeaeeo ? aaciaith ?ioi?iaoe??th, aiae?c yei? aeicaiey?
aeeiai?/ii aecia/eoe oa nai?/anii ioe?ieoe iio?aae ianaeaiiy o
aeno?ai?e iicae?ea?iyi?e aeiiiiic? ? noai?eoe oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eieo iniia ae??oaiiy ??ciianiaeoieo ieaiiai-ii?iaoeaieo
caaaeaiue neoaeae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. O i.E?aiaoi?nueeo
iieaciee caaacia/aiino? a?eaaaeaie oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae o 1991
?ioe? aoa iaeiei c iaeieae/eo a Oe?a?i? ? noaiiaea 0,63 ia 10 000
ianaeaiiy i?e na?aaeiueiaeiaia?e caaaioaaeaiino? a?eaaaee 12,4 ae?caeo.
Ia aaciina?aaei? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeeeee?a a?eaaaeith o 1991 ?ioe?
aeo?a/aeiny a na?aaeiueiio 38% ?iai/iai /ano ? 62% ?iai/iai /ano
a?eaaaee ciaoiaeeeeny o ?aaeei? i/?eoaaiiy aeeeee?a. Aeey
caaaeueiii?io?eueieo a?eaaae ?ioaineai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/iai /ano
ae?ciei iaaee/iei ia?niiaeii neeaaeaea 40%, aeey niaoe?ae?ciaaieo —
37%. Aieea caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e oa i??i?eoaoiee ?icaeoie aeno?aii?
aeiiiiiae oai?ei c na?oeaai-noaeeiiith iaoieia??th (ia?o ca ana c
?ioa?eoii i?iea?aea) coiiaeee o i.E?aiaoi?nueeo ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a
??aaiue niaoe?ae?caoe?? a?eaaae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, yeee
ia?aaeuoaaa aiaeia?/i? iieacieee ye a Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio, oae ? a
Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? cie?aia. ?c caaaeueiiai /enea a?eaaae
niaoe?ae?ciaai? neeaaeaee 26,6% (a Oe?a?i? – 10,5%, Aeiiaoeuee?e
iaeano? – 17,6%), caaaeueiii?io?euei? e?ea?nuee? – 26,7% (a Oe?a?i? –
38,1%, Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? – 34,2%), oaeueaeoa?nuee? — 46,7% (a
Oe?a?i? – 51,4%, Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? – 48,2%).

Iaeiae iiaeeaeaiiy niaoe?ae?caoe?? a?eaaae ? caoaeaiiy ?o i?io?eth
iaei ia eeoa iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe, aea e noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny aeayeeie
iaaaoeaieie iane?aeeaie. Cie?aia, aeei?enoaiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?eaaae
ca ?o i?yiei i?ecia/aiiyi i?ecaiaeeei aei cia/iiai ciaioaiiy ?o
na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Ni?iae ?ioaineo?eoaaoe ?iaioo
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?eaaae iaoiiaeee c?inoaiiy /enea oae caaieo
“iai?io?eueieo” ae?cae?a, eiee niaoe?ae?ciaai? a?eaaaee
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ye caaaeueiii?io?euei?. Iaei??th c aaaiieo i?e/ei
iai?io?eueiiai aeei?enoaiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?eaaae ? iaiaaeai?
iiaeeeaino? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai a?aeai?o a?eaaae aeeniao/a?ii oa
/a?aiaei e?ea?ai. Ae?oaith i?e/eiith, yea a?aeiineoueny aei /enea
ea?iaaieo, ? iai?aaeaiiy ia aeeeee ca oiia aeniei? oa?i?iiaino?
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? a?aenooiino? a?eueii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a?eaaaee
iaiao?aeiiai i?io?eth aoaeue-yei? a?eaaaee.

O aeine?aeaeoaaeueiiio i?no? ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a iieacieee
i?io?eueiino? ae?cae?a a?eaaae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae aoee ae?ae
iecueeeie: eeoa aeecueei /aa?o? ae?cae?a niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?eaaae
a?aeiia?aeaei ?o i?io?eth: ea?ae?ieia?/ii? – 26,1%, ineo?ao?e/ii? –
24,3%. Iaa?oue i?io?euei?noue ae?cae?a oaeueaeoa?nueeeo oa
caaaeueiii?io?eueieo e?ea?nueeeo a?eaaae aoea iaioith ca 50% (47,8% oa
37,2%). Iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii aeei?enoiaoaaeany o?eueee iaae?ao?e/ia
a?eaaaea – 71,4%.Oaeei /eiii, o 1991 ?ioe? i?nueea neoaeaa oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae aoea caaacia/aia a?eaaaeaie oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae iaioith i??ith, i?ae caaaeii ii Oe?a?i? oa cie?aia ii
Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano?, aiaeii/an 60% ?iai/iai /ano iaaee/iee iia?eueiee
ia?niiae ciaoiaeeany a noai? i/?eoaaiiy. A oie aea /an ??aaiue
niaoe?ae?caoe?? a neoaea? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, aeoiaey/e c
iieaciee?a i?io?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy a?eaaae, aoei ioe?iaii ye
iaaei??iee. Iaaoaeoeai?noue i?aai?caoe?? ieaioaaiiy neoaeae oaeaeei?
aeiiiiiae aoea oeiiaith aeey na?aaei?o oa iaeeo i?nueeeo iinaeaiue
e?a?ie, noai?thth/e caa?ico iaaa?acae?a yeino? oa ca?eueoaiiy ieoiieo
aeo?ao i?e iaaeaii? aeno?aii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae.

A oiiaao iaiaaeaiiy ?ano?n?a, ui aeae?eythoueny ia ioi?iio caei?ia’y,
ia?oi/a?aiaith i?aai?caoe?eiith i?iaeaiith aeey neoaeae oaeaeei?
aeiiiiiae noaee iiooee oeyo?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ?? ?iaioe ia iniia? iaoeiai
— iaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a uiaei eaae?iaiai ? ?ano?niiai ieaioaaiiy.
Ia?oei e?ieii ia oeueiio iai?yieo noaea ?aoe?iiae?caoe?y
ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e a?eaaae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, nooue
yei? iieyaaea a iaa?oioiaaiiio a?aeoiae? a?ae aocueei? niaoe?ae?caoe?? c
iaeneiaeueiei caa?aaeaiiyi iiceoeaieo i?ioean?a, iia’ycaieo c?
niaoe?ae?caoe??th aeno?aii? aeiiiiiae (ca?eueoaiiy ianyao oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eiaaiino? aeiiiiiae ia aeiaini?oaeueiiio aoai?).

Oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy neoaeaith oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae o
i?no?, ooieoe?iiaeueii-no?oeoo?ia ?ai?aai?caoe?y a ii?aeiaii? c
caoiaeaie, ni?yiiaaieie ia i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ?iaioe iia?aoeaiiai
a?aeae?eo, i?ecaaee aei ciaioaiiy /anoee aocueeiniaoe?ae?ciaaieo
a?eaaae ia 5,8% ? i?aeaeuaiiy i?io?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy a?eaaae
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae an?o i?io?e?a. I?ioeaio ae?cae?a, aeeiiaieo
a?eaaaeaie a?aeiia?aeii aei ?o i?io?eth, ca?eueoeany na?aae
oaeueaeoa?nueeeo a?eaaae ia 17,3%, a?eaaae ?ioaineaii? oa?ai?? a
ii??aiyii? c caaaeueiii?io?eueieie e?ea?nueeeie — ia 19,7%,
ea?ae?ieia?/ieo — ia 15,2%, ineo?ao?e/ii? — ia 20%. I?ioa i?aai?caoe?ei?
ci?ie, ui a?aeaoeeny o neoaea? oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae iii?oii ia aieeioee
ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?th ?iaioe iia?eueiiai iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo. I?ioyaii
anueiai ia??iaeo niinoa?aaeaiiy (1992 — 1997??.) na?aaei? /enei ae?cae?a
ia iaeio a?eaaaeo a?eaaae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ca aeiao
ia?aaeuoaaei aiaeia?/i? ?aa?iiaeuei? oa ?anioae?eainuee? iieacieee ye a
oe?eiio, oae ? aeey a?eaaae ??cieo eaae?o?eaoe?eieo ??ai?a oa i?io?e?a.
Oaeei /eiii, ca anoaiiaeaiee ?iai/ee aeaiue (6,5 aiaeeie) ae?ciee
iaaee/iee ia?niiae e?i?eieo a?eaaae oa a?eaaae ?ioaineaii? oa?ai??
ianeoaiaoaaa 4 — 5, niaoe?ae?ciaaieo – 2 — 3 oai?eo. Aea/aiiy aeo?ao
/ano ia?niiaeii a?eaaae ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeeeee?a iieacaei, ui o
athaeaeao? ?iai/iai /ano iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo a?eaaae /anoea iniiaii?
ae?yeueiino? neeaaeaea aeecueei 0,38 (o oaeueaeoa?neeo oa ?ioaineaii?
oa?ai?? aeecueei 0,40, o niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?eaaae iaioa — 0,30 — 0,36)
? aeyaeyea iiaeaeueoo oaiaeaioe?th aei nei?i/aiiy. Oiio ianooiiei
e?ieii, ni?yiiaaiei ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae, noaei ieaioaaiiy neoaeae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae, ui ia?aaeon?i ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo iio?aa o
a?eaaaeao oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. Aeey noaioe?? oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae aaaeeeaei ? aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? e?eueeino?
a?eaaae ??ciiai i?io?eth, uia eiia??i?noue ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeeeee?a c
cai?ciaiiyie ia ia?aaeuoaaea aecia/aii? caaeaii? aaee/eie. Eeth/iaeie
ia?ai?iieie, ye? a?aoiaoaaeenue aaoi?aie an?o iaoiaeee, ui aacothoueny
ia oai??? ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy, ? na?aaei?e /an ianeoaiaoaaiiy
iaeiiai aeeeeeo oa ?ioaineai?noue iioieo aeeeee?a [A.O.Oa?aneei,1976,
I.?.Aaeae, Oe.A. ssneinueeee,1996], i?ioa oaeee ia?aiao?, ye
ia??aiii??i?noue iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeeeee?a, a?aoiaoaaany iaaeinoaoiuei. Ie
aaaaea?ii, ui oaeei ia?aiao?ii, yeee ?aaeueii a?aoiao? aeiaaeeiaee
oa?aeoa? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeeeee?a, ? eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy a?eaaae. Iaiao?aeia e?euee?noue ae?cieo a?eaaae (E) ca?aeii
c ii?aoeueiaaiith aaoi?ii iaoiaeeeith ia/eneth?oueny ca oi?ioeith
[A.A.I?ueeia,1998]:

tian * Q

K = ———— , aea

365 * 24* i

tian — /an ianeoaiaoaaiiy iaeiiai aeeeeeo;

Q — e?euee?noue aeeeee?a ca ??e;

?– eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? aeei?enoaiiy a?eaaae.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? aecia/aoe iaiao?aeia /enei a?eaaae
aeey aoaeue-yeiai i?ii?aeeo /ano (i?nyoeue, aei? oeaeiy, ia??iaee
aeiae) oa aoea aeei?enoaia aeey ia/eneaiiy iaiao?aeii? e?eueeino?
a?eaaae a o?ueio i?aai?caoe?eieo iiaeaeyo oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae:
1) niaoe?ae?ciaaia iiaeaeue – i?aai?caoe?y iaaeaiiy aeno?aii? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae a ?aieao ?nioth/i? eaae?o?eaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e a?eaaae i?e
??ai? niaoe?ae?caoe??, ui noi?ioaaany a inoaii? ?iee; 2)
ianiaoe?ae?ciaaia aac ?iciiae?eo ca eaae?o?eaoe?eieie ??aiyie -iaaeaiiy
oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae aeeeth/ii iaeiii?io?eueieie a?eaaaeaie
(caaaeueiii?io?eueieie e?ea?nueeeie aai a?eaaaeaie ?ioaineaii? oa?ai??);
3) ianiaoe?ae?ciaaia c ?iciiae?eii ca
eaae?o?eaoe?eieie ??aiyie – iaaeaiiy oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae
oaeueaeoa?nueeeie a?eaaaeaie oa a?eaaaeaie ?ioaineaii? oa?ai?? (
oaaeeoey 1).

I?e o?eniaai?e a??ia?aeiino? a?aeiiae a iaaaeiiio ianeoaiaoaaii? (4%)
aeey i?noa c na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
a?eaaae iaiao?aeia i?e i?aai?caoe?ei?e no?oeoo??, ui ia? a nai?io
neeaae? niaoe?ae?ciaai? a?eaaaee. ?ic?aooieiaee ??aaiue caaacia/aiino?

i?e oeueiio neeaaea? 0,66-0,67 ia 10 000 ianaeaiiy. I?e oae?e iiaeae?
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e ae?aiacii eieeaaiue na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia a?eaaaee ??ciiai i?io?eth ? eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai ??aiy
aeoaea cia/iee: a?ae 17,9 o oaeueaeoa?nueeeo aei 3,7 o ineo?ao?e/ieo.

Oaaeeoey 1

Iaiao?aeia ?ic?aooieiaa e?euee?noue a?eaaae i?e ??cieo iiaeaeyo
no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae (ia i?eeeaae?
i.E?aiaoi?nueea o 1997?).

I?io?eue a?eaaaeeIiaeaeue no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiaeNiaoe?ae?-ciaaia Ianiaoe?ae?ciaaia aac ?iciiae?eo ca
eaae?o?eaoe?eieie ??aiyieIaniaoe?ae?ciaaia c ?iciiae?eii ca
eaae?o?eaoe?eieie ??aiyie?ioaineaii?
oa?ai??3,268,334,55Oaeueaeoa?nueea5,59-5,59Iaae?ao?e/ia1,39—Ea?ae?ieia?
/ia2,15—Ineo?ao?e/ia1,31—?acii13,78,3310,14

?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeyaeaieo iniaeeainoae iaoiiaeaia oei, ui a
aaaaoieaiaeuei?e nenoai? ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy c i/?eoaaiiyi
ca?eueoaiiy /enea eaiae?a ianeoaiaoaaiiy i?e a?aeiinii iaeiaeia?e
o?eaaeino? na?aaeiueiai /ano i/?eoaaiiy ii/aoeo ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?
na?aaeiueiai /ano ianeoaiaoaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy ?o
caaaioaaeaiiy. Iio?e i?io?eueieo aeeeee?a o i?noao c ianaeaiiyi aei 500
oeny/ a?aeiinii iaaaeeeee, oiio aeiaaeeiaee oa?aeoa? oa ??aee?ni?noue ?o
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iio?aao? ca?eueoaiiy /enea aia?ao?a caaacia/aiiy
(a?eaaae), c iaoith iaiaaeaiiy /ano i/?eoaaiiy ianeoaiaoaaiiy aei ??aiy
eiai e?eoe/iiai ia?aaeuaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii c?inoa? oaeiae o?eaae?noue
/ano, i?ioyaii yeiai aia?ao (a?eaaaea) caeeoa?oueny o noai? i/?eoaaiiy.
Ciaioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy, ye aeyaeeinue, iaoiiaethaaei c?inoaiiy
caaaeueii? aa?oino? nenoaie. I?e canoinoaaii? ?ioiai i?aeoiaeo —
caaaioaaeaiiy ae a?eaaaee iai?io?eueieie aeey ia? aeeeeeaie
noai?th?oueny caa?ica aeey yeino? aeno?aiiiai iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
oa ?o ?icaaeainiaaiino?. Eiiiaoaioi?noue iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo,
iai?eeeaae, ineo?ao?e/ii? a?eaaaee i?e iaaeaii?
e?eoaaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/ii? aeiiiiiae oai?iio ia ?ioa?eo i?iea?aea cia/ii
iaioa ca a?aeiia?aeio eiiiaoaioi?noue caaaeueiii?io?eueii? a?eaaaee.
Iaeiaioa e?euee?noue a?eaaae aeey caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ianaeaiiy o
oaeaee?e iaaee/i?e aeiiiiic? i?e oaeiio ae /ene? aeeeee?a, ui
ianeoaiaothoueny c cai?ciaiiyi, iio??aia i?e eiiieaeoaoe?? noaioe??
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae caaaeueiii?io?eueieie e?ea?nueeeie
a?eaaaeaie aai a?eaaaeaie ?ioaineaii? oa?ai??. I?e oeueiio
?ic?aooieiaee ??aaiue caaacia/aiino? neeaaea? 0,39-0.41 ia 10 000
ianaeaiiy c na?aaeiueiaeiaiaei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia iaeio a?eaaaeo 20,3
ae?caeo. Oaea iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?? caaacia/o? aenieo ?ioaineai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy a?eaaae, aea eaae?o?eaoe?eiee ??aaiue ianeoaiaoaaiiy
a?eueoi? /anoeie aeeeee?a aoaea aeuee ca iaiao?aeiee – ine?eueee 59,2%
oaeeo aeeeee?a c iaiaioei oni?oii ni?iiiaei? caaacia/eoe
oaeueaeoa?nuee? a?eaaaee.

I?aai?caoe?eia ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a noaioe?? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae, ui ii?aeio? a nai?io neeaae? a?eaaaee ??ciiai
eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai ??aiy: oaeueaeoa?nuee? oa e?ea?nuee?, aac ?iciiae?eo
inoaii?o ia niaoe?ae?ciaai? oa caaaeueiii?io?euei?, iio?aao? oaei?
e?eueeino? a?eaaae, ui a?aeiia?aea? ??aith caaacia/aiino? 0,47 — 0,50
ia 10 000 ianaeaiiy. I?ioyaii aeiae iaeia oaeueaeoa?nueea a?eaaaea
ciiaea aeeiiaoe (i?e 4% ?ic?aooieia?e a??ia?aeiino? cai?ciaiue a
ianeoaiaoaaii? aeeeee?a) -17,9, a a?eaaaea ?ioaineaii? oa?ai?? – 15,2
ae?caeo. Iiae?aia no?oeoo?a a?eaaae i?e oe?ie?e aaaaoii?io?euei?e
i?aeaioiaoe? iia?eueiiai ia?niiaeo aeicaiey? aeinyaoe aaeaino i?ae
aeiiii?/ieie ? iaaee/ieie e?eoa??yie: caaacia/eoe aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
yeino? iaaeaiiy oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e iioeiaeuei?e
?ioaineaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a.

Ia?ao?ae aei aeuaiaaaaeaii? i?aai?caoe?eii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
no?oeoo?e iaaeaiiy oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae a i?noao c na?aaeiueith
/enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy aeicaieeoue ciaioeoe ii?iaoea caaacia/aiiino? c
0,7 aei 0,5 ia 10 000 aeeoae?a oa caaaeyee ia?ai?io?e?caoe??
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?eaaae o caaaeueiii?io?euei? nei?ioeoe a Oe?a?i?
caaaeuei? aeo?aoe ia oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao i???ioiaii ia 10,3
i?eueeiia a?eaaiue.

I?ia?aeia i?noea na?aae /eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue ??aaiue yeino?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, iin?aeathoue i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inuee? oaeoi?e.
Oeaio?aeueiei aeaiaioii cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? neoaeae
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae noaea nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ye?noth
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. Aeey iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie caaacia/aiiy ?
i?aeo?eiee yeino? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ia iniia? iaoiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eiiai ieaioaaiiy i?iaiaeeany i?aai?caoe?eiee aenia?eiaio,
yeee a?oiooaaany ia no/ani?e eiioeaioe?? aacia?a?aii? i?aeo?eiee
yeino? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae [Betelden,1991; I.A?anna?,1993]. Eiai
neeaaeiaeie ? nenoaiia ia’?aeiaiiy o?ueio a?oi oaeoi??a: 1)iia?
oa aaeaioiaai? oi?ie i?aai?caoe??; 2) iaae?ei?noue iaoiae?a eiio?ieth
yeino?; 3) aaoiiaoecaoe?y aeeiiaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo oaoiieia?e.
Ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aeiaaaei ae??oaiiy ianooiieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeeo caaaeaiue: a) i???ioaoe?y eaae?iaiai
ia?niiaeo ia aaca?aeiiaia ianeoaiaoaaiiy; a) noaiaea?oecaoe?y oa
?aaeaiaioaoe?y i?ioean?a i?aai?caoe?? ? iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae;
a) iinoaae?eiee eiio?ieue aeio?eiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a oa
nooe?eueiee noaoenoe/iee aiae?c ae?yeueiino? iniiaieo ? aeiiii?aeieo
i?ae?icae?e?a; a) aeyaeaiiy i?e/ei aeaoaeo?a iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae ? iine?aeiai?noue caoiae?a uiaei ?o onoiaiiy; ae)
i?aai?caoe?y cai?ioiiai ca’yceo ( iino?eia ?ioi?ioaaiiy an?o
neoaea ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo eaoaai??e ia?niiaeo noaioe?? oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?i ?acoeueoaoe ?o ae?yeueiino?); ?) iaa?oiooaaiiy
i??i?eoaoiino? oa aoaiiino? ?ia?o ii i?aeaeuaiith yeino? aeno?aii?
aeiiiiiae; ae) i???ioaoe?y nenoaie iaoa??aeueiiai noeioethaaiiy
eaae?iaiai caioi/aiiy aei aacaeaoaeoii? ?iaioe; c)
iioeaaoe?eii-ineoieia?/ia i?aeneeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeoeaiino?.

I?aai?caoe?eia nenoaia iioei?caoe?? yeino? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae
?ic?iaeaia c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo a?ao?/ii? aeaeiiiiceoe??. Iiaoaeiaa
“aea?aaa oe?eae” aeicaieeea aeae?eeoe i’youe iniiaieo aeie?a, ye?
i?e/aoi? aei oi?ioaaiiy iieaciee?a yeino? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ( ?en.2 ).
Ia?oee aeie nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ye?noth — iie?ioaiiy oi?aae?iiy
ianeoaiaoaaiiyi aeeeee?a oa i?aeaeuaiiy iia?aoeaiino? ?iaioe noaioe??.

E?eoa??yie ioe?iee yeino? ?iaioe iia?aoeaiiai a?aeae?eo aoee aecia/ai?:
/an a?ae iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeeeeeo aei iai?aaeaiiy a?eaaaee ia ae?cae; /an
a?ae iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeeeeeo ia noaioe?th aei i?eaoooy a?eaaaee ia
i?noea aeeeeeo; /enei eaoaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a, ui ianoaee aei i?eaoooy
a?eaaae. Ae?oaee aeie nenoaie caaacia/aiiy yeino? noino?oueny
iia?eueiiai iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo – ae?cieo a?eaaae. Aeey ioe?iee yeino?
?iaioe ae?cieo a?eaaae aecia/ai? o?e a?oie iieaciee?a: 1) iieacieee
e?aei?o aeiaaee?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aecia/athoueny na?eici?,
iaaaaeai? ? ia iaia’yceiai iaieio/? ?acoeueoaoe ao?o/aiue (eaoaeuei?
aeiaaeee o i?enooiino? a?eaaaee oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae); 2) /anoioi?
iieacieee aeey aecia/aiiy iaaaaeaieo oaiaeaioe?e (/anoioa ?icoiaeaeaiue
ae?aaiic?a i?e aini?oae?caoe??, /anoioa iiaoi?ieo aeeeee?a); 3)
iaaee/iee aoaeeo — aeey aeyaeaiiy a?aeoeeaiue a?ae caoaa?aeaeaii?
noaiaea?oii? oaoiieia?? iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. O?ao?e aeie
nenoaie caaacia/aiiy yeino? — iioei?caoe?y aca?iiae?? noaioe??
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae c aiaoeaoi?ii-iie?ee?i?/ieie oa
noaoe?iia?ieie caeeaaeaie. *aoaa?oei aeieii, yeee ia’?aeio? an? aeaiaioe
o nenoaio, ? iii?oi?eia yeino? ? i?aeaioiaea oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue
c ?? caaacia/aiiy oa i?aeo?eiee. Aiae?co oa ioe?ioe? i?aeeyaa?
ae?yeuei?noue an?o iniiaieo oa aeiiii?aeieo i?ae?icae?e?a, eiaeii?
ae?cii? a?eaaaee, ie?aiiai i?aoe?aieea. I?aeo?eio? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oeueiai aeieo ?ic?iaeaia iaie aaoiiaoeciaaia ?ioi?iaoe?eia nenoaia
(A?N), iniiaia i?ecia/aiiy yei? — caaacia/aiiy ia eiaeiiio ??ai?
oi?aae?iiy a?ae aieiaiiai e?ea?y noaioe?? aei iaaee/iiai i?aoe?aieea
a?eaaaee oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ?aeaaaioii? ?ioi?iaoe?? uiaei
yeino? iaaeaii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. I’yoee aeie nenoaie —
noeioethaaiiy, ni?yiiaaia ia iioeaaoe?eia caioi/aiiy aei aacaeaoaeoii?
?iaioe.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai i?aai?caoe?eiiai aenia?eiaioo aeiaaee, ui
oaeoi? /ano ia? i?ia?aeia cia/aiiy aeey iaaeaiiy nai?/anii? ? ye?nii?
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ia aeiaini?oaeueiiio aoai? oa
?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye iaeaaaeeea?oee /eiiee ciaioaiiy /enea eaoaeueieo
aeiaaee?a. *anoea aeeeee?a, aeey ianeoaiaoaaiiy yeeo cae?eniaii ae?cae
i?ioyaii 4-o oaeeei c iiiaioo eiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy, noaiiaeea aeecueei
90% (1994?. – 94,0%; 1995?. – 89,6%; 1996?. – 90,1%; 1997?. – 91,9%).
Ioe?iea yeino? ae?aaiinoeee i?iaiaeeeany i?e ni?anoaaeaii?
ae?aaiic?a, anoaiiaeaieo ia?niiaeii oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae
oai?ei, aini?oae?ciaaiei o noaoe?iia?.

Aeey ciaioaiiy aieeao aeiaaeeiaeo /eiiee?a ia iieacieee /anoioe
aini?oae?caoe?? aea/aeeny na?aaei? aeai? ca 2 ?iee aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? oa ea?oaaiiy ye?noth aeno?aii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae
(1991 — 1992??.) oa ca 2 ?iee i?ney noaa?e?caoe?? oa oii?yaeeoaaiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie (1995 — 1996??.). Anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeueia
/enei iai?aaeeueii anoaiiaeaieo ae?aaiic?a iia?eueiei ia?niiaeii
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ca oeae ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiiy
nei?ioeeiny o 2,7 ?aco (c 18,2% aei 6,6%). Ia’?eoeai?noue
ae?aaiinoeee i?aeaeueeany

?en.5.1. Nenoaia caaacia/aiiy yeino? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae

——— — ooieoe?iiaeuei? ae?? — — — — — — — -?ioi?iaoe?ei?
iioiee ? ? ? ? ??iainia? iioiee

ye na?aae e?ea?nueeeo, oae ? na?aae oaeueaeoa?nueeeo a?eaaae, ciaioaiiy
?icoiaeaeaiue ae?aaiic?a niinoa??aaeiny iaeaea ii an?o iicieia?/ieo
oi?iao, ye? eiio?iethaaeeny. Iaea?eueo ae?aaeai? iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy
aeyaeaii a ae?aaiinoeoe? ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea (ciaioaiiy /anoioe
?icoiaeaeaiue o 4,3 ?aco), ia?oi?aoeaii? ae?acee oeoiea (o 4,3 ?aco),
cia/ii iie?ioeeany ae?aaiinoeea aiaiaeeoeeoo (o 2,6 ?aco), caoai?thaaiue
oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo oa?aiaaoe/iiai i?io?eth (o 2,5 ?aco),
oieaoeenoeoo (o 2,3 ?aco), eeoeiai? iai?io?aeiino? (o 2,3 ?aco),
iaie?aaoeoo (o 1,4 ?aco).

Aeey aenia?oece oa aeyaeaiiy iiieeie, aeiiouaieo iaaee/iei
ia?niiaeii aeei?enoiaoaaeanue iaoiaeeea ?ioaa?iaaii? ioe?iee yeino?, yea
aaco?oueny ia aea/aii? iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo: ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iaoe??ioa,
ae?aiinoeeo, e?eoaaiiy, caaacia/aiiy ianooiiino? c iiaeaeueoeie aoaiaie
(eaieaie) iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. Iaoa??aee aenia?oii? ioe?iee
yeino? iaaeaiiy oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae cana?ae/eee, ui /anoioa
iaaeie?e?a o ?iaio? a?eaaae (ia 1000 aeeeee?a ) ?noioii ciaioeeiny.
Nooo?aa cieaeaiiy iieaciee?a iaei i?noea a 1994 — 1996??. a ii??aiyii?
c 1991-1992??. a?aeiia?aeii 11,2 oa 24,0 ia 1000 aeeeee?a.
Aaoiiaoeciaaiee iii?oi?eia iiieeie, cai?iaaaeaeaiee c 1994 ?ieo, ni?eya
ii?yae c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?ioeo caoiae?a nioe?aeueiiai, iaaee/iiai,
ineoieia?/iiai ci?noo iiya? no?eei? oaiaeaioe?? aei o?ainoi?iaoe??
nenoaie a?ae e?euee?nii-aenoaineaiiai aei ye?nii-ci?noiaiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Oiaoi nooe?eueiee iaaee/iee aoaeeo iiceoeaii aieeaaa
ia /eiieee, ea?iaai? ia ??ai? caeeaaeo, ui iaoiiaeei ciaioaiiy
iaaeie?e?a ? iaaa?acae?a i?aai?caoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo.

Oaeei /eiii, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie caaacia/aiiy oa i?aeo?eiee yeino?
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae aeicaiey? caa?aaoe noaa?euei?noue
caaaeueieo iieaciee?a iia?aoeaiino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeeeee?a;
oo?eioaaoe iieacieee nia?oiino? aei i?eaoooy ? a i?enooiino? a?eaaae
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ia iino?eiiio ??ai?; i?aeaeueoe
ia’?eoeai?noue ae?aaiinoeee; iie?ioeoe ye?noue iaaeaiiy oaeaeei?
aeiiiiiae, na?ae/aiiyi /iai noaei nei?i/aiiy /anoioe iiaoi?ieo aeeeee?a
o 1,5 ?aco; iie?aueoe ianooii?noue a ?iaio? noaioe?e oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae oa aiaoeaoi?ii-iie?ee?i?/ieo caeeaae?a.

AENIIAEE

1. Iaaeinoaoiy ye?noue oa iecueea aeo?aoia aoaeoeai?noue oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae — iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy neoaeaith
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia
iaiao?aei?noth ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?iiy neoaeaith oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? ye
iaei??? c iaea?eueo i??i?eoaoieo a ioi?ii? caei?ia’y, a?ae
ooieoe?iioaaiiy yei? cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue /enei iioaioe?eieo
ao?ao ?ie?a aeeooy oa nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy aiane?aeie eiio?ieueiaaieo
ioi?iiith caei?ia’y caoai?thaaiue oa o?aai.

2. Aecia/aii aaeaeaaoi? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a
uiaei iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy neoaeaith oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, a
naia: iiaeeo?eiaaia iaoiaeeea aeey ieaioaaiiy iaiao?aeii? e?eueeino?
ae?cieo a?eaaae o a?aeiia?aeii aei iiieoo ianaeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy
ii?iaoeao caaacia/aiino? oaeaeeith iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith, ui aaco?oueny
ia oai??? ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy; iaoiaee i?aai?caoe?eiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?eiiai aenia?eiaioo aeey ?ic?iaee oa
ai?iaaoe?? nenoaie caaacia/aiiy yeino? iaaeaiiy oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae.

3. Anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee ??ai?a oa
no?oeoo?e caa?oaiue ianaeaiiy ii oaeaeeo iaaee/io aeiiiiiao, ca
?acoeueoaoaie yeeo ia iniia? oai??? ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy iaa?oioiaaii
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueio i?aai?caoe?th neoaeae oa iaiao?aeio
e?euee?noue a?eaaae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, ?ic?iaeaii oa
ai?iaiaaii nenoaio caaacia/aiiy oa i?aeo?eiee yeino? oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae

4. Aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?? aei ciaioaiiy caaaeueii? /anoioe caa?oaiue ca
iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith c ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a (ia 20%) ia oii? c?inoaiiy
?ioaineaiino? oa ieoiii? aaae caa?oaiue c i?eaiaeo ?aioiaeo
caoai?thaaiue(ia 13,8% a E?aiaoi?nueeo, ia 5% a Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano?).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ??aaiue caa?oaiue caeaaeaa a?ae a?eiai? oa noaoaai?
no?oeoo?e ianaeaiiy, naciio ?ieo, ia??iae?a aeiae. Iniiaieie i?eaiaeaie
aei aeeeeeo oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae aoee oai?iae nenoaie e?iaiia?ao (27,6%
an?o caa?oaiue), oai?iae i?aai?a aeeoaiiy (19,7%), iauani? aeiaaeee,
io?o?iiy ? o?aaie (9,5%), oai?iae i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy (7,0%), c yeeo
aino?? o??o?a?/i? caoai?thaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie neeaaeaee 75,4%.
Caa?oaiiy, ui iio?aaothoue eiiiaoaioe?? oaeueaeoa?nueeeo a?eaaae
neeaaeaee 59,2%, aaaaoii?io?eueieo (iie?aaeaioieo) e?ea?nueeeo a?eaaae
— 24,8%, niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?eaaae — 16%, a oiio /ene? ea?ae?ieia?/ieo
— 9%, iaae?ao?e/ieo — 4,1%, ineo?ao?e/ieo — 2,9%.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aenieee ??aaiue niaoe?ae?caoe?? a nenoai? oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae o i?no? c na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy ia?
iaaaoeaiee aieea ia i?io?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ae?cieo a?eaaae,
ine?eueee aecia/aiee ??aaiue caaaioaaeaiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?eaaae o
1,5 — 1,8 ?ace ieae/ee ca ??aaiue caaaioaaeaiiy aaaaoii?io?eueieo
a?eaaae. Iniiaia ae?yeuei?noue a athaeaeao? ?iai/iai /ano iia?eueiiai
iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo, neeaaeaea a?aeiinii iacia/io /anoeo: caaaeueiee
eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/iai /ano a?eaaae -0,38,
aaaaoii?io?eueieo – 0,40, niaoe?ae?ciaaieo – 0,30 — 0,36.

6. Aeiaaaeaii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io oa iaaeeei-ineoieia?/io
aoaeoeai?noue i?aai?caoe?eii? iiaeae? noaioe?? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae aeey i?noa c na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy, yea a ciic?
caaacia/eoe aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue yeino? iaaeaiiy aeno?aii? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae i?e iioeiaeuei?e ?ioaineaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a ia iniia?
canoinoaaiiy ii?aeiaiiy a?eaaae ??ciiai eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai ??aiy
(oaeueaeoa?nueeeo oa e?ea?nueeeo) aac ?iciiae?eo inoaii?o ia
caaaeueiii?io?euei? ? niaoe?ae?ciaai?. ??aaiue caaacia/aiino? a?eaaaeaie
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? c o?eniaaiith
a??ia?aei?noth a?aeiiae a iaaaeiiio ianeoaiaoaaii? 4% neeaaeaa 0,47 —
0,50 ia 10 000 ianaeaiiy, na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
oaeueaeoa?nueeo a?eaaaeo — 17,9, a?eaaaeo ?ioaineaii? oa?ai?? — 15,2
ae?caeo. Iaiao?aeia e?euee?noue a?eaaae ca?eueooaaeanue o ia??iaee
“i?eiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue”( c 12 aei 24 aiaeeie) ia 13%, a c 0 aei 6
aiaeei ciaiooaaeanue ia 36% a?aeiinii na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai iieacieea.

7. ?ic?iaeaii i?aai?caoe?eio nenoaio caaacia/aiiy oa i?aeo?eiee yeino?
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, yea aeeth/a? noaiaea?oecaoe?th oa
?aaeaiaioaoe?th i?ioean?a i?aai?caoe?? ? iaaeaiiy iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae,
iii?oi?eia oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a iniiaieo oa aeiiii?aeieo
i?ae?icae?eao, iioei?caoe?th aca?iiae?? c aiaoeaoi?ii-iie?ee?i?/ieie oa
noaoe?iia?ieie caeeaaeaie, iioeaaoe?eia noeioethaaiiy ia?niiaeo,
ni?yiiaaia ia caioi/aiiy aei aacaeaoaeoii? ?iaioe.

8. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie caaacia/aiiy yeino? oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ni?eyei noaa?e?caoe?? caaaeueieo iieaciee?a
iia?aoeaiino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeeeee?a (nai?/ani?noue ianeoaiaoaaiiy
an?o aeeeee?a ia ??ai? 80%, aeeeee?a aei oai?eo i??i?eoaoieo a?oi ia
??ai? 89,2-100%) oa iieaciee?a nia?oiino? aei i?eaoooy ? a i?enooiino?
a?eaaae; i?aeaeuaiith yeino? ae?aaiinoeee (/anoioa ?icoiaeaeaiue
ae?aaiic?a oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ? noaoe?iia??a nei?ioeeany o
2,7 ?aco); nei?i/aiith /anoioe iiaoi?ieo aeeeee?a o 1,5 ?aco;
iie?auaiith ianooiiino? a ?iaio? noaioe?e oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae
oa aiaoeaoi?ii-iie?ee?i?/ieo caeeaae?a ( ciaioaiiy /enea “iai?io?eueieo
aeeeee?a” o 2,8 ?aco).

NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. I?ueeia A.A. Oi?ie i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? oi?aae?iiy oaeaeeith iaaee/iith
aeiiiiiaith o i?noao // Iaaee/i? ia?niaeoeae.- 1998.- O. ???, ?2,-
N.101-103.

2. I??i?eoaoe caei?iacy ? i??i?eoaoe e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ii?
aeiiiiiae o Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e iaeano? / Eaoai A.I., ?iaoia A.A., Aoaa?
?.I., I?ueeia A.A. // Iaaee/i? ia?niaeoeae.-1998.-O.???, ?3,–N.83-86.

3. I?ueeia A.A. Oeyoe iioei?caoe?? ieaioaaiiy neoaeae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae // Iaaee/i? ia?niaeoeae.- 1999.- O. ?O, ?1,- N.95- 98.

4. ?icaeoie nenoaie n?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie ? i?aeaioiaee eaae??a a Oe?a?i?
/ Na?aethe A.I., Aiaaoe?uei- aa ?.A., Ai?iiaiei TH.A., I?ueeia A.A.,
Aieaea I.A. // I?aeoe/ia iaaeeoeeia.-1998.-*.5-6.-N.3-7.

5. Aea?aeaaia neoaeaa iaaeeoeeie eaoano?io Oe?a?ie / ?iuei A.A.,
Aieioei A.I., Ea?oeo A.I., A?aaeoi TH.A., Ao?c?a N.I., Iao?eei A.N.,
Ieoaeeianueeee I.I., Iaai/aiei I.C., I?ueeia A.A. –Ee?a, 1998.-147n.

6. Noaiaea?oe ae?aaeeoaoe?? e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie
/ Aeai/aiei ?.A., I?ue- eia A.A., Iiaeue/aiei A.A., Aoe A.I.,
Eaoai A.I., Aaaia E.Ae., Oiaeiaa ?.I., Ieaen?the O.I. — IIC Oe?a?ie,
Ee?a, 1998.- 100n.

7. I?ueeia A.A. I?noea ? ?ieue ae?aaeeoaoe?? iaaee/ieo caeeaae?a a
?aoi?i? ioi?iie caei?iacy // Oeyoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy ioi?iie caei?iacy ia
iaeaniiio ??ai?: Iaoa??aee eieaa?? IIC Oe?a?ie.- Euea?a, 1998.-N.35-38

AIIOAOe?ss.

I?ueeia A.A. Iioei?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy neoaeaith oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae a i?noao c na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.02.03 – Nioe?aeueia iaaeeoeeia oa ioi?iia
caei?ia’y.- Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, Ee?a,1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy neoaeaith oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae a i?noao c
na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy (a?ae 100 aei 500 oeny/ aeeoae?a).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oiiaith aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe noaioe?e oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae ? ii?aeiaiiy ieaioaaiiy neoaeae ia i?aea?oio? iiaeeaeaiiai
aea/aiiy iiieoo ianaeaiiy oa nenoaiieo ae?e uiaei caaacia/aiiy yeino?
iaaeaiiy oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. Ca iiaeaeueieie ?ic?aooieaie
iaa?oioiaaii ii?iaoeae caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy ae?cieie a?eaaaeaie
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae oa ?o no?oeoo?o. ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaiaaii a
i?aai?caoe?eiiio aenia?eiaio? nenoaio caaacia/aiiy oa aacia?a?aii?
i?aeo?eiee yeino? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. Cai?iiiiiaaii
aaoiiaoeciaaio ?ioi?iaoe?eio nenoaio aeey iiieoi?eiao ae?yeueiino?
noaioe?e oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo i?e ?aoi?ioaaii? neoaeae oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae a i?noao c na?aaeiueith /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: neoaeaa oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, ae?ci? a?eaaaee,
caa?oaiiy, ?ioaineai?noue aeei?enoaiiy, i?io?euei?noue, ye?noue,
aoaeoeai?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ieueeia A.A. Iioeiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey neoaeaie nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie
iiiiue a ai?iaeao ni n?aaeiae /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey .-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.02.03 – Nioeeaeueiay iaaeeoeeia e io?aia
caei?iauey.- Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?nenoao ei.
A.A.Aiaiiieueoea, Eeaa,1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iao/iiai iainiiaaiey iioeiecaoeee
oi?aaeaiey yeno?aiiie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiuueth ianaeaieth ai?iaeneeo
iinaeaiee n /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey io 100 aei 500 ouny/.

Aia?aua onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe ia?auaaiinoe ianaeaiey ca nei?ie
iaaeeoeeineie iiiiuueth a Oe?aeia, iainiiaaia iioeiaeueiay iiaeaeue
no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee noaioeee nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue aeey
ai?iaea ni n?aaeiae /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey, ii?aaeaeai n iiiiuueth
aiia?aoa oai?ee ianniaiai ianeoaeeaaiey iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue
iaania/aiey a?eaaaeaie nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue ai?iaea ni n?aaeiae
/eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey, ?ac?aaioaiu e ai?iae?iaaiu nenoaiu iaania/aiey
e iai?a?uaiie iiaeaea?aeee ea/anoaa yeno?aiiie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue,
?ac?aaioaia e ai?iae?iaaia iiaeeoeeaoeey iaoiaeeee ii?aaeaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiiai eiee/anoaa a?eaaae nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue. A ?aaioa
eniieueciaai eiiieaen nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey-
noaoenoe/aneee, aiia?ao oai?ee ianniaiai ianeoaeeaaiey, iaoiaeu
i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai yenia?eiaioa,
yenia?oiuo ioeaiie, oioio?iiiiao?aaea.

Enneaaeiaaiea i?iaiaeeeinue a o?e yoaia. Ia ia?aii yoaia auea
ii?aaeaeaia no?oeoo?a ia?auaaiinoe ianaeaiey ca nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie
iiiiuueth. Ia aoi?ii — iainiiaaia i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a e ii?iaoea
iaania/aiiinoe a?eaaaeaie nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue aeey ai?iaeia n
/eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey io 100 aei 500 ouny/ . Ia o?aoueai yoaia auea
?ac?aaioaia e ai?iae?iaaia nenoaia iaania/aiey e iai?a?uaiie
iiaeaea?aeee ea/anoaa yeno?aiiie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue.

Neiaeeaoeeny a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia o?iaaiue niaoeeaeecaoeee neoaeau
nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue ia iniiaaiee iieacaoaeae i?ioeeueiinoe
a?eaaae ioeaiai eae ecauoi/iue, aunieicao?aoiue, ia iaania/eaathuee
aaeaeaaoiiai ea/anoaa. A oneiaeyo nie?auaiey ?ano?nia io?anee
ia?aii/a?aaeiie oi?aaeai/aneie i?iaeaiie aeey neoaeau nei?ie
iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue noaea i?iaeaia iioeiecaoeee e ieaie?iaaiey. A
?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiie ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey no?oeoo?u a?eaaae nei?ie
iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue, oniaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey neoaeaie nei?ie
iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue, aiaae?aiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai eiio?iey
ea/anoaa oiaiueoeeanue /anoue oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo a?eaaae i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii iiauoaiee i?ioeeueiinoe eniieueciaaiey, oeo/oaiee
naiaa?aiaiiinoe ianeoaeeaaiey.

Aaoi?ii ?ac?aaioaia e ai?iae?iaaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiiai
/enea auacaeiuo a?eaaae aeey ?acee/iuo i?iiaaeooeia a?aiaie (ianyoe,
aeie iaaeaee, ia?eiaeu nooie). ?ac?aaioaiiay iaoiaeeea auea
eniieueciaaia aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiiai eiee/anoaa a?eaaae i?e
o?ao iiaeaeyo no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue: 1)
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay iiaeaeue-i?aaiecaoeey ieacaiey yeno?aiiie
iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue i?e noi?ie?iaaiiii o?iaia niaoeeaeecaoeee e
nouanoaothuae eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a a?eaaae, 2)
ianiaoeeaeece?iaaiiay — aac ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiui
o?iaiyi-ieacaiea nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue iaeiii?ioeeueiuie (iauaai
i?ioeey a?a/aaiuie eee a?eaaaeaie eioaineaiie oa?aiee) a?eaaaeaie, 3)
ianiaoeeaeece?iaaiiay — n ?ani?aaeaeaieai ii eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiui o?iaiyi —
ieacaiea nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue oaeueaeoa?neeie a?eaaaeaie eee
a?eaaaeaie eioaineaiie oa?aiee.

I?aaeeiaeaia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia aeey
inouanoaeaiey iiieoi?eiaa aeayoaeueiinoe noaioeee nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie
iiiiue.

Aeieacaii, /oi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie iiaeaeueth no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee
noaioeee nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue aeey ai?iaea ni n?aaeiae
/eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey, iaania/eaathuae aeinoaoi/iue o?iaaiue
ea/anoaa ieacaiey yeno?aiiie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue i?e iioeiaeueiie
eioaineaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia, yaeyaony ni/aoaiea a?eaaae
?acee/iiai eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiai o?iaiy : oaeueaeoa?neeo e a?a/aaiuo aac
aeaeaiey ia iauai?ioeeueiua e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua.Iaiaoiaeeiue ?an/aoiue
o?iaaiue iaania/aiiinoe a?eaaaeaie nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue i?e
aeaiiie iiaeaee n oeene?iaaiiie aa?iyoiinoueth ioeaca 4 % ninoaaeyao
0,47-0,50 ia 10 000 ianaeaiey, n?aaeianooi/iay iaa?ocea ia
oaeueaeoa?neoth a?eaaaeo-17,9, a?eaaaeo eioaineaiie oa?aiee-15,2
auacaea. Iaiaoiaeeiia eiee/anoai a?eaaae oaaee/eaaaony ai a?aiy
“ieeiauo” iaa?ocie (12-24 /ana) ia 13%, oiaiueoaaony ia 36% a ia?eiae
0-6/ania.

Iiaeaeue nenoaie oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaii yeno?aiie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue
aeeth/aao iyoue iniiaiuo yeaiaioia: 1) oeo/oaiea oi?aaeaiey
ianeoaeeaaiey auciaia e iiauoaiey iia?aoeaiinoe ?aaiou noaioeee, 2)
oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa ?aaiou auacaeiuo a?eaaae, 3) iioeiecaoeey
acaeiiaeaenoaey noaioeee nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue e noaoeeiia?iuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, 4) iiieoi?eia ea/anoaa e iiaeaioiaea oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee ii iaania/aieth ea/anoaa, 5) noeioee?iaaiea aacaeaoaeoiie
?aaiou.

Aiaae?aiea nenoaiu iaania/aiey ea/anoaa yeno?aiiie iaaeeoeeineie
iiiiue aeaei aiciiaeiinoue noaaeeece?iaaoue iieacaoaee iia?aoeaiinoe
ianeoaeeaaiey auciaia, nia?oiinoe aei i?eauoey e a i?enoonoaee a?eaaae
nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue , iiauneoue oi/iinoue aeeaaiinoeee,
oeo/oeoue ea/anoai ieacaiey yeno?aiiie iiiiue e i?aainoaaiiinoue a
?aaioa noaioeee nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue e
aiaoeaoi?ii-iieeeeeie/aneeo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea i?e
?aoi?ie?iaaiee neoaeau nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue a Oe?aeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: neoaeaa nei?ie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue, auacaeiua
a?eaaaeu, ia?auaaiinoue, eioaineaiinoue eniieueciaaiey, i?ioeeueiinoue,
ea/anoai, yooaeoeaiinoue.

SUMMARY.

Pischikov V.A. Optimization of ambulance service administration in the
towns with an average number of inhabitants.-Manuscript.

Thesis to be registrated for Higher Medical Degree in speciality
14.02.03.-Social medicine and health protection.- National medical
University named after A.A.Bogomolets,Kiev, 1999.

The thesis covers the problems of scientific substantiation of ambulance
service administration system in the towns with an average number of
inhabitants (from 10000 to 50000). It is determined that a compromise
between scheduling of work based on deep knowledge of peoples
requirements and systemic measures ensuring the quality of emergency
medical service given to patients and victims is the condition for an
effective work of ambulance stations. On the basis of model calculations
the standard of population’s supply with ambulance teams working on-site
and their structure is justified. The system of supply and continuous
support of emergency medical service quality is worked out and approved.
Automated information system for handling of ambulance stations service
monitoring is offered. Basic results of work were taken up in the reform
of ambulance service in Ukraine.

Key words: ambulance service, ambulance teams working on-site, appeal
to, intensity of use, profile, quality, efficacy.

Похожие записи