OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO OAA?EIIEOeOAA

AI?ENIANUeEEE AIEIAeEIE? AIAOIE?EIAE*

OAeE 636.22/.28.082.026

IIOEI?CAOe?ss NAEAEOe?EIIAI I?IOeANO A IIIOEssOe??

AE?OE?NUeEI? OOAeIAE OE?A?IE

06.02.01 – ?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? oaa?eiieoeoaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??
aa?a?ieo iaoe

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee : eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Aaaoiiia Ai?en Ieaenaiae?iae/,

?inoeooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI,
caa?aeoaa/

eaai?aoi???th i?aai?caoe??
ieai?iii? ni?aae

a iiei/iiio neioa?noa? a?aeae?eo
oaoiieia??

ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

?oaai TH??e Aeieo?iae/,
Oa?e?anueeee

ciiaaoa?eia?iee ?inoeooo,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith

e?oiiiai oaa?eiieoeoaa

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
iaoe, i?ioani?

?oaeee ?aai Aaeaiiae/,
A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee

aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa : ?inoeooo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI,

a?aeae?e ?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe??
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae,

n.*oaeinueea Ai?eni?euenueeiai
?-io Ee?anueei? iae.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 “ aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 10
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 65.356.01
?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe ca
aae?anith : 312120, i.Oa?e?a, i/a Eoeeie/?, aoe.7-? Aaa?ae?enueei?
A?i??, 3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI (312120, i.Oa?e?a, i/a Eoeeie/?, aoe.7-?
Aaa?ae?enueei? A?i??, 3).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 15 “ aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Oaaoia A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

I?ioean cai?ie iaeieo ii??ae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei ?ioeie,
a?eueo aenieii?iaeoeoeaieie oa eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeieie, ? oe?eeii
caeiiii??iei oa c iiceoe?e aeiiii?ee aeioe?eueiei yaeuai, i?ioa aiii ia?
? iaaaoeai? noi?iie. Ca ?aooiie iiaeeiaiiy i?noeaaeo ii??ae
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaiaaeaiiy caaaeueiiai aaiioiiaeo, ciaioo?oueny
/enaeuei?noue ii??ae, cieea? aaaaoi oe?iieo aaiioei?a. I?e oeueiio i?ae
caa?ico cieeiaiiy i?aeiaaeathoue ia?o ca ana ii?iaee iaei/enaeuei?
(i?noeaa?, eieaeuei?).

A?aoiaoth/e ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th, yea ?aaeueii neeaeany,
oyaey?oueny aeioe?eueiei aaaaeaoe iniiaiei niiniaii caa?aaeaiiy
aaiioiiaeo oaeeo ii??ae ? caiia?aaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei eaoaai??? cieeath/eo
i?aeo?eieo oa i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ae?iaie/i? eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiino?
eiiieaenii i??ii?e?inoa, na?aae yeeo ia inoaii? i?noea caeia?
?ioaineo?eaoe?y naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia no/aniiio aoai? iniiao aaeineiiaeaiiy ii??ae oa
iiioeyoe?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei neeaaea? aaeeeiianooaaia
naeaeoe?y. O i?aeoeoe? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa ye aaaaoueio
aeniei?icaeiaieo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, oae ? Oe?a?ie, oe?iea canoinoaaiiy
ciaoiaeyoue i?eeiie iioei?caoe?? naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai aaeeeeo ii??aeieo
ianea?a ooaeiae. I?ioa, aiie ? i?eaeaoieie eeoa aeey aeineoue
aaaaoi/enaeueieo ii??ae oa iiioeyoe?e. Ia?aaaae aaeeeiianooaaii?
naeaeoe?? i?e ?iaio? c ieie ia aeeeeeathoue noii?ao, aea aeieea? oe?eee
?yae ieoaiue oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai ieaio, noiniaii naeaeoe?eii?
?iaioe a aeaieo oiiaao c iaei/enaeueieie iiioeyoe?yie, ye? ua ia
ao?aoeee ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/ii? eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiino?, aea
ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae caa?icith oeueiai oaeoi?a. ssne?aaei i?aaenoaaieeii
oe??? eaoaai??? ?, cie?aia, iiioeyoe?y ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie.

A?aoiaoth/e aeao?oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aeacaiiio iai?yieo, oyaey?oueny
aeioe?eueiei i?iaeiaaeeoe ?o c iaoith iiooeo iiaeo niinia?a
?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaii?a naeaeoe?? a oaeeo iiioeyoe?yo, i?aeo?eiee oa
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiino? a no/anieo oiiaao oa
caiia?aaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei eaoaai??? cieeath/eo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? i?aai?caoe?? ieai?iii? ni?aae a iiei/iiio
neioa?noa? a?aeae?eo oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea ?inoeoooo
oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI ye neeaaeiaa /anoeio oaiaoe/iiai ieaio ?inoeoooo,
ca?aeii caaaeaiith I.01.02.01 “Aaeineiiaeeoe i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i?
iniiae naeaeoe?? i?e noai?aii? oa aaeineiiaeaii? noaae, e?i?e oa ii??ae
iiei/ii? ooaeiae” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? UA010001316P).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiaiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue ?
oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ieai?iii? ?iaioe c iiioeyoe??th ae?oe?nueei?
ooaeiae Oe?a?ie oeyoii iioei?caoe?? naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?eioeei?a aaeeeiianooaaii? naeaeoe?? oa o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee iaei/enaeueieo iiioeyoe?e.

Aeinyaiaiith oe??? iaoe ni?eyei ae??oaiiy ne?aeoth/eo eiie?aoieo caaea/
oa ieoaiue :

ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue oaeoe/ii? nenoaie naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe c
iiioeyoe??th ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie o ae?iaie/i–aeiiii?/i?e
neooaoe??, yea neeaeany;

aeyaeoe i?i?iaeueiee “e?eoe/iee” ??aaiue /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe??
iiei/ii? ooaeiae, yeee e?i?oo? aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy caaaeueieo
i?eioeei?a ?ic?iaee i?ia?ai aaeeeiianooaaii? naeaeoe?? i?e ??cieo
cia/aiiyo ia?ai?iieo oaeoi??a;

anoaiiaeoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa oaeoi?e, ye? aecia/athoue aaiaoe/io
? aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?ai aaeeeiianooaaii? naeaeoe?? a
iaei/enaeueieo iiioeyoe?yo iiei/ii? ooaeiae oa iiaeeeaino? ?o
iioei?caoe??;

aecia/eoe iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai
oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy oaii?a (?ioaineaiino?) aeiai?o aoaa?a-e?aea??a c
o?aooaaiiyi iaiaaeaiue, coiiaeaieo aeiiaaie e?i?eii? ?ioaoe?? oa
?ici??ii iaei/enaeueii? iiioeyoe??;

iioei?coaaoe aeiaaino?ieiao i?ia?aio aaeeeiianooaaii? naeaeoe??
iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie;

iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? i?eioeeie iioeiaeueii? ?ioaoe?? e?i?e oa
a?aeoai?aiiy e?i?eieo ie?aeiee?a o oe?e iiioeyoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee
i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueiiai “e?eoe/iiai” ??aiy /enaeueiino?
iiioeyoe?? iiei/ii? ooaeiae, yeee e?i?oo? aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
caaaeueieo i?eioeei?a ?ic?iaee i?ia?ai naeaeoe?? oa eaaeeoue a iniia?
a?aeianaiiy ii??ae aei eaoaai??? iaei/enaeueieo aai cieeath/eo.
Anoaiiaeaii oaeo iaaeo /enaeueiino? a oiiaao iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei?
ooaeiae Oe?a?ie.

Aia?oa ciaeaeaii i?eioeeiiaa ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?eii? noi?iie
iiaoaeiae ?ioaoe?? e?i?e i?e i?i?iaeuei?e ?o e?eueeino? oa ?ic?iaeaii
iiaee niin?a ?ioaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a, yeee a?aee?eaa?
iiaeeea?noue aeeth/aoe o ianiaa a?aeoai?aiiy noaae nei?a eeoa iaeiiai
aoaay-e?aea?a aac c?inoaiiy ianooaa?a ?ia?eaeeiao a oiaa?i?e /anoei?
iiioeyoe??. Aaeineiiaeaii nenoaio ieai?iii? ?iaioe c iiioeyoe??th
ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie oeyoii iioei?caoe?? aeiaaino?ieiai?
i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? ?c caeo/aiiyi aei ia? iniiaieo ?ic?iaeaieo i?eeii?a
oa iaoiae?a, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia iiaeaeueoo ?ioaineo?eaoe?th naeaeoe?eiiai
i?ioeano oa i?aeaeuaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?aae?caoe?y iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaieo aa??aio?a i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? iiioeyoe??
ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie a?aee?eaa? iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy oaii?a
?? ui??/iiai aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano ca iaaei?i o 3,4 ?ace (ia 26,6 ea
iieiea ia iaeio ei?iao) oa ca?eueoaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
naeaeoe?eieo i??ii?e?inoa o 6,5 ?ace ii a?aeiioaiith aei
?acoeueoaoeaiino? oaeoe/ii? nenoaie ieai?iii? ?iaioe c oe??th
iiioeyoe??th.

Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue ?aae?ciaaii o aeiaoiae? “Niin?a
a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea”, ia yeee iaea?aeaii iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 13910 A.
?ic?iaeaiee niin?a a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea noaiiaeoue iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeey
iiioeyoe?e a?aeiinii iaei/enaeueieo, o iaaeao yeeo aaeineiiaeeoe
(?ai?aai?coaaoe) nenoaio ?ioaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a a
i?aai?caoe?eiiio a?aeiioaii? cia/ii i?ino?oa, i?ae o iiioeyoe?yo
oe?ieiai a?aaeo oa aaeeei? /enaeueiino?. C o?aooaaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaiiai
niiniao iiaeaii eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iioeiaeueii?
e?i?eii? ?ioaoe?? a oiiaao iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie.

Iiaee niin?a i?aai?caoe?? ?ioaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a oa
iioeiaeueiee aa??aio iine?aeiaiino? aeei?enoaiiy e?i?e a oiaa?i?e
/anoei? iiioeyoe?? i?eeiyo? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iiei/ieo noaaeao
ae?oe?nueei? ii?iaee Oa?e?anueei? oa Iieoaanueei? iaeanoae, ye?
aoiaeyoue aei ciie ae?yeueiino? noaioe?? ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy
aeine?aeiiai ainiiaea?noaa “Oe?a?iea” Oa?e?anueeiai ?aeiio oa
Eoaainueeiai ieaii?aei?e?inoaa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniaenoee aianie o aeeiiaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o ne?aeoth/iio : noai?aiiy eiii’thoa?ii?
aace aeaieo i?i iiioeyoe?eii-aaiaoe/i?, naeaeoe?ei? ? aeiiii?/i?
ia?aiao?e iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie; aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
oaeoe/ii? nenoaie naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe c iath o ?nioth/?e
ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe??; aeayea iiaeeo?eaoe?y ie?aieo aeai?eoi?a
A.?.Aeaniaa (1984), I.C.Aanianueeiai, A.I.Eociaoeiaa (1977, 1982), ye?
aoei acyoi ca iniiao i?e ?ic?iaoe? aaiaoeei-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? oa aeeth/aiiy aei ia? cai?iiiiiaaii? oi?ioee
?ic?aooieo ?ici??o aeoeaii? /anoeie iiioeyoe??; ?ic?iaea eiii’thoa?ii?
?iai/i? i?ia?aie (neeaaeaiiy oaoi?/iiai caaaeaiiy oa oaoi?/iiai i?iaeoo
ia i?ia?aioaaiiy, eiio?ieueiiai i?eeeaaeo; ia?aa??ea oa a?aei?aoethaaiiy
i?ia?aie ia ?iai/iio iaoa??ae?) oa iiaeaethaaiiy c ?? aeei?enoaiiyi
a?eueo i?ae 55 oen. aeiiii?/ii aea?aeieo ? ?aaeueii iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a
i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie; ioe?iea a
iiioeyoe?? 14 e?i?e oa ?iaeeiieo a?oi ca iiei/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth
a?eueo i?ae 6,6 oen. ei??a (aeanyoe c ieo – ca ieai?iieie yeinoyie 45
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a), aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? 18 aa??aio?a
aioo??oiueie?i?eiiai i?aeai?o oa i?aee?i?eieo e?in?a; noaoenoe/ia
ia?iaea iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa
ioi?ieaiiy ?oeiieno aeena?oaoe??.

Aeiao?ae “Niin?a a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea” (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 13910 A)
?ic?iaeaii o ni?aaaoi?noa? (A.I.Aaaoiiia, N.TH.?oaai). Iniaenoee aianie
iieyaa? o oiio, ui ca iniiao aeiaoiaeo aoei acyoi ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aeei?enoaiiy i?eioeei?a aaeeeiianooaaii?
naeaeoe?? i?e iioei?caoe?? naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano a iaei/enaeueieo
iiioeyoe?yo iiei/ii? ooaeiae, a oaeiae o i?iaaaeaii? ?ic?aooie?a,
ia?aa??oe? oa eiai ii??aiyeuei?e aaiaoeei-aeiiii?/i?e ioe?ioe? c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaii? eiii’thoa?ii? ?iai/i? i?ia?aie ia iniia?
noi?iiaaii? aace aeaieo. A oe?eiio iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a neeaaea?
a?eueoa aeaio o?aoei caaaeueiiai ianyao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeeeaaeai? oa iaea?aeaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia : I
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo oa niaoe?ae?no?a
??AO OAAI “Naeaeoe?eii-a?ioaoiieia?/i? iaoiaee aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoe/iiai
iioaioe?aeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei” (Ee?a, ethoee 1994 ?.);
Anaoe?a?inuee?e tha?eaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? ??AO OAAI
“Aaiaoeea i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei”, i?enay/ai?e 90-??//th c aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy I.Eieanieea (Ee?a, a?oaeaiue 1994 ?.); iaoeiai-ae?ia-ie/?e
eiioa?aioe?? ??AO OAAI “Oai?aoe/i? e i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe
ii?iaeiooai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano o iiei/iiio oa i’yniiio neioa?noa?”
(Ee?a, aa?acaiue 1995 ?.); iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e eiioa?aioe?? OAeAO,
i?enay/ai?e 100-??//th c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy E.Oaeaoaea “?ioaineo?eaoe?y
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeiaieue/iai
?eieo Oe?a?ie a iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy” (Oa?e?a, 1995 ?.);
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e eiioa?aioe?? ?O OAAI “Aoaeoeai?noue
iaoiae?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeo?a oaa?eiieoeoaa” (Oa?e?a,
1996 ?.); eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo ?O OAAI c ieoaiue a?aeoai?aiiy
iiaie?a’y oa aeiiii?ee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa (Oa?e?a,
ethoee 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 8
?ia?o, o oiio /ene? 3 iaoeiaeo noaoo? o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 5 oac
aeiiia?aeae ? iaoa??ae?a iaoeiai-i?aeoe/-ieo eiioa?aioe?e, iaea?aeaii 1
iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, caaaeueii? iaoiaeeee oa iniiaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue,
?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoao.
Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe neeaaea? 252 noi??iee ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo,
i?noeoue 49 oaaeeoeue, 21 ?ethno?aoe?th, 2 aeiaeaoee (ye? caeiathoue 64
ie?aieo noi??iee), nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a?
384 iaeiaioaaiue, o oiio /ene? 119 ?iicaiieo aeaeaiue ? caeia? 41
noi??ieo.

CAAAEUeIA IAOIAeEEA OA INIIAI? IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoea iiioeyoe?y ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie,
ca?? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i naeaeoe?ei? ? aeiiii?/i? ia?aiao?e yei? i?iaiaeeany
ia aeaio ianooaaieo ??aiyo — iiioeyoe?eiiio oa ia ??ai? ie?aieo
ieai?iieo noaae iniiaieo ainiiaea?noa-?ai?iaeoeoi??a (“Oe-?a?iea”,
“Eaae/?aea” Oa?e?anueei? oa ?i. Aeaeaa?eno?a Iieoaanueei? iae.) c
iieacieeaie ei?-iicaaacia/aiino? 45-60 oe ei?i. iae. ia ei?iao ia ??e.
Iiioeyoe?eii-aaiaoe/i? ia?aiao?e ?i-c?aoiaoaaeeny ?c canoinoaaiiyi
no/anieo aaiaoeei-noaoenoe/ieo iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei ?o ioe?iee oa
aeei?enoaiiy o ieai?ii?e ?iaio? I.C.Aanianueeiai c ni?aaao. (1974, 1994)
oa ?i.

sse iaoiaee/ia iniiaa i?e ?ic?aooieao iioeiaeueieo aa??aio?a
naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?ic?iaee a?o/eciyieo oa
ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeoaa/?a c aaiaoeei-aeiiii?/ii? iioei?caoe?? i?ia?ai
aaeeeiianooaaii? naeaeoe?? (H.Skjervold, 1965; P.H.Petersen et al.,
1974; I.C.Aanianueeee, A.I.Eociaoeia, 1977, 1982; A.?.Aeania, 1984 oa
?i.).

I?e neeaaeaii? aaiaoeei-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? ca
iniiao aoei acyoi aeai?eoie, ?ic?iaeai? I.C.Aanianueeei, A.I.Eociaoeiaei
(1977, 1982) oa A.?.Aeaniaei (1984), c aeayeith ?o iiaeeo?eaoe??th, yea
aeeeeeaia ia?o ca ana ne?aeoth/eie oiiaaie : 1) aeaui ?io? ia?ae?e oa
e?euee?noue ia?ai?iieo oaeoi??a, ye? aaiaeyoueny a iiaeaeue, ?o ieaei?
oa aa?oi? iaae?, a oaeiae a?aaeaoe?? cia/aiue o oeeo iaaeao; 2)
i?eeiyooy oaeeo naeaeoe?eieo oaeoi??a, ye /enaeuei?noue aeoeaii? /anoeie
iiioeyoe?? oa ?ici?? nia?iiaaieo ia eiaeiiai iieiaeiai aoaay,
aaee/eiaie, ye? ?ic?aoiaothoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae ao?aeieo cia/aiue
?ioeo iieaciee?a.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?ic?iaeaiith aaiaoeei-iaoaiaoe/iith iiaeaeeth (ui
neeaaea?oueny c 64 aca?iiiia’ycaieo i?ae niaith ??aiyiue) aoei noai?aii
eiii’thoa?io ?iai/o i?ia?aio, c aeiiiiiaith yei? i?iaiaeeeiny
iiaeaethaaiiy oeyoii aaaaoiaa??aioieo ?ic?aooie?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
aa??thaaiiy iniiaieie ia?ai?iieie oaeoi?aie, ye? aaiaeyoueny a iiaeaeue,
a?ae i?i?iaeueieo aei iaeneiaeueieo ?o cia/aiue.

Ca ia?ai?ii? ia?aiao?e, ye? iaea?eueoa aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue
i?ia?aie naeaeoe??, aoei acyoi : /enaeuei?noue iiioeyoe?? (10 oen. – 1
iei. aie.); /anoea ei??a aeoeaii? /anoeie iiioeyoe??, yeeo in?iaiythoue
nia?iith ia?aa??thaaieo aoaa?a (0,10 – 0,70); e?euee?noue a?ae?a?aieo
iie?iooaa/?a (1 – 200 aie.); e?euee?noue aaouee?a ?aiiioieo aoaa?a (1 –
200 aie.); /enei aoaeoeaieo aei/ie ia eiaeiiai iieiaeiai aoaay (10 – 100
aie.) oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaie?a’y ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a aei /enea
iie?iooaa/?a (2:1 – 7:1).

Ca iniiao ioe?iee aaiaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? i?eeiaany
?ic?aooiie i/?eoaaiiai na?aaeiuei??/iiai aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano iiioeyoe??
ca iaaei?i (G), ca?aeii c oi?ioeith J.M.Rendel, A.Robertson (1950),
aeiiiaiaii? P.H.Petersen et al. (1974), I.C.Aanianueeei, A.I.Eociaoeiaei
(1977) :

Iss + (1 – a) * Ipb + Ids + Idd
f * Fx * P

G =
* (S + S1 * rg) – ,
(1)

Lss + a * Lyb + (1 – a) * Lpb + Lds + Ldd
L

aea Iss, Ipb, Ids, Idd – aaiaoe/ia ia?aaaaa a?aeiia?aeii aaouee?a
aoaa?a, aaouee?a ei??a, . iaoa??a aoaa?a oa
iaoa??a ei??a;

a – /anoea ei??a aeoeaii? /anoeie iiioeyoe??, yeeo in?iaiythoue
iieiaeeie aoaayie;

Lss, Lyb, Lpb, Lds , Ldd – aaia?aoe?ei? ?ioa?aaee a?aeiia?aeii aeey
aaouee?a aoaa?a, iieiaeeo aoaa?a, aaouee?a ei??a, iaoa??a aoaa?a oa
iaoa??a ei??a;

S, S1 – /anoea o iiioeyoe?? a?aeiia?aeii ia?a?noie oa ei??a ae?oaiai
ioaeaiiy ? noa?oeo;

rg – eiao?oe??io aaiaoe/ii? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae iaaei?i ia?a?noie oa iaaei?i
aei?ineeo ei??a;

f – ?ia?aaeia aeai?an?y ca iaaei?i ia eiaeai % i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioo
?ia?eaeeiao;

Fx – eiao?oe??io ?ia?eaeeiao a iiioeyoe??;

P – na?aaei?e iaae?e ei??a iiioeyoe??;

L – na?aaei?e aaia?aoe?eiee ?ioa?aae aeey an?o eaoaai??e ieai?iieo
oaa?ei.

A iniiao aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? aoei iieeaaeaii
aecia/aiiy ?? aoaeoeaiino? oeyoii ?ic?aooieo caaaeueieo aeo?ao oa
/enoiai i?eaooeo a?ae ieai?iii? ?iaioe, ye ??cieoe? i?ae i?eaooeii,
io?eiaiei ca ?aooiie aaiaoe/iiai iie?ioaiiy iiioeyoe?? oa aeo?aoaie ia
naeaeoe?eio i?ia?aio, ye? caaaeaii aei iaeiiai iniiaiiai ?ieo ca
aeiiiiiaith oi?ioee neeaaeieo i?ioeaio?a. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee, cai?iiiiiaai? P.Petersen et al. (1974),
I.C.Aanianueeei, A.I.Eociaoeiaei (1977, 1982), A.?.Aeaniaei (1984) oa
?i. Eaeueeoeyoe?y aeo?ao i?iaiaeeeany ia iniia? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?
ieaii?aei?e?inoa c o?aooaaiiyi ??aiy oe?i e?ioey 1998 ?.

Aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue (E) i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca
oi?ioeith :

E = N * G * Q’
* D’ * Dn / Szi , (2)

aea N — /enaeuei?noue iiioeyoe??;

G — na?aaeiuei??/iee aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i;

Q’ – aeiiii?/ia cia/aiiy 1 % aaiaoe/iiai iie?ioaiiy;

D’ oa Dn – iiiaeiee i?eaaaeaiiy aaiaoe/iiai iie?ioaiiy ne?aeoth/eo
eaeoaoe?e aei ia?oiai ?ieo iaea?aeaiiy aoaeoo a?ae i?ia?aie naeaeoe??
a?aeiia?aeii o iaei??? ei?iae oa an??? iiioeyoe??;

Szi — noia an?o eaoaai??e caaaeaieo aeo?ao.

I?e ioe?ioe? aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a i?ia?aie naeaeoe??
aeei?enoiaoaaany iieaciee ?o a?aeiinii? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?,
ae?aaeaiee o a?aenioeao ii a?aeiioaiith aei oaeoe/iiai aa??aioo.

O i?ioean? aea/aiiy ie?aieo ieoaiue oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeiny i?iaaaeaiiy
na??e iaeii- oa aaaaoioaeoi?ieo aeenia?n?eieo, ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eieo
aiae?c?a, a oaeiae i?e ia?iaoe? aeaieo canoiniaoaaeeny ?io?
caaaeueiia?aeii? aaiaoeei-iaoaiaoe/i? oa a?iiao?e/i? iaoiaee, aeeeaaeai?
o i?aoeyo ?.Ia?eo?’?ai? (1964), I.Ieio?inueeiai (1980), A.Eae?ia (1990),

?ACOEUeOAOE I?IAAAeAIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Caeaaei?noue aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai a?ae /enaeueiino?
iiioeyoe??, o ye?e aaaeaoueny naeaeoe?y. Aeey ae??oaiiy oeueiai
ieoaiiy aoei ciiaeaeueiaaii 144540 aeiiii?/ii aea?aeieo aa??aio?a
naeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aie c ??ciith /enaeuei?noth iiioeyoe??. Ia ae?aa?aiao
?en.1 i?i?ethno?iaaii oa?aeoa? aeyaeaii? caeaaeiino?, yea na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui /ei /eneaii?oa iiaie?a’y ioiieaii ?aeeiith i?ia?aiith naeaeoe??,
oei aeuith ? ?? aaiaoeei-aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ? oei a?eueoo
e?euee?noue aa??aio?a i?ia?aie iiaeia iaea?aeaoe i?e iiaeaethaaii? a i?e
naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano.

I?e ?ici??? iiioeyoe?? 10000 aie. an? iiaeeea? eiia?iaoe?? ia?ai?iieo
oaeoi??a, ui

?en. 1 – Caeaaei?noue aoaeoeaiino? i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? a?ae
/enaeueiino? iiioeyoe??

ci?iththoueny o anoaiiaeaieo iaaeao, aeathoue ciiao ciiaeaethaaoe eeoa
iaeei ?aaeueii iiaeeeaee oa aeiiii?/ii aea?aeiee aa??aio, yeee
caaacia/o? ?? aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i ia ??ai? 22,9 ea iieiea ia
ei?iao ca ??e i?e a?aeiini?e aeiiii?/i?e aoaeoeaiino? 298 %.

A oie aea /an oeyoii a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae aaee/ei ieaei?o oa aa?oi?o iaae
eieeaaiue aeayeeo ia?ai?iieo oaeoi??a (?o “e?eoe/ieo cia/aiue”),
anoaiiaeaieo, aeoiaey/e c ?nioth/eo ii?iaoeaieo iieiaeaiue oa
aeieoiaio?a, aoei i?iaaaeaii iiaeaethaaiiy iiaeaeueoiai ciaioaiiy
/enaeueiino? iiioeyoe??, Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iieacaee, ui i?e ??
?ici??? 1 oen. aie. iiaeeeaei ? eeoa iaeei aeiiii?/ii aea?aeiee aa??aio
(oi/a c aeoaea iecueeith a?aeiiniith aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth 0,2 %),
yeee ni?ey? ui??/iiio io?eiaiith aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano ca iaaei?i o
?ici??? 17,9 ea iieiea ia ei?iao, A?i ?ic?aoiaaiee ia in?iai?iiy
nia?iith ia?aa??y?ieo aoaa?a 60 % ei??a aeoeaii? /anoeie iiioeyoe??,
aeia?? ca ye?noth iauaaee?a 6 iie?iooaa/?a (eio?? iaeii/anii aoaeooue ?
aoaayie-e?aea?aie) i?e ioe?ioe? ?o ca i?iaeoeoeai?noth 5 aei/ie.

Oaeei /eiii, i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeao iaaeo /enaeueiino?, yea aeicaiey?
canoiniaoaaoe caaaeuei? i?eioeeie ?ic?iaee i?ia?ai naeaeoe?? aeey
iaea?aeaiiy aeiiii?/ii aea?aeieo ?o aa??aio?a, ? aeioe?eueiei i?eeiyoe
e?eoa???i aecia/aiiy “e?eoe/iiai” ??aiy, ui eaaeeoue a iniia?
a?aeianaiiy ii??ae oa iiioeyoe?e aei eaoaai??e iaei/enaeueieo aai
cieeath/eo. Oaeith iaaeath /enaeueiino? a oiiaao iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei?
ooaeiae Oe?a?ie i?e aeio?eiaii? “e?eoe/ieo” cia/aiue ia?ai?iieo oaeoi??a
? 10000 aie., i?e a?aeoeeaii? a?ae oeeo cia/aiue a?i cieaeo?oueny aei
1000 aie. (oi/a ? c iaaiei caeoeii aeey naeaeoe?? c iiceoe?e ??
aoaeoeaiino?).

Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? oaeoe/ii? nenoaie naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe
c iiioeyoe??th ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie. C aeei?enoaiiyi
iiioeyoe?eii-aaiaoe/ieo, naeae-oe?eieo oa aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao??a, ye?
neeaeeny a cii? ?icaaaeaiiy iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie aoei
i?iaaaeaii aaiaoeei-aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? oaeoe/iiai aa??aioo
i?ia?aie ?? naeaeoe?? (oaae. 1). Aiae?c iieacaa, ui nenoaia
naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe, yea ca-

Oaaeeoey 1

Ia?aiao?e oaeoe/iiai aa??aioo i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei?
ooaeiae Oe?a?ie

INIIAI? IIEACIEEE I?IA?AIE Cia/aiiy

*enaeuei?noue iiioeyoe??, oen. aie. 18,7

?ici?? aeoeaii? /anoeie iiioeyoe??, oen. aie. 10,6

E?euee?noue aaouee?a ?aiiioieo aoaa?a, aie. 30

E?euee?noue iaoa??a ?aiiioieo aoaa?a, aie 115

E?euee?noue ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a, aie. 29

E?euee?noue ia?aa??y?ieo aoaa?a, aie. 21

Ia?aa??i/ia /anoeia iiioeyoe??, aie. 1600

Aaie nia?ie ia 1 aoaay, oen. aeic. 9,5

*enei aoaeoeaieo aei/ie ia 1 aoaay, aie. 15

E?euee?noue a?ae?a?aieo iie?iooaa/?a, aie. 9

Ia??iae aeei?enoaiiy nia?ie, i?n. 60

Aeeaae a aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i, % : aaouee?a aoaa?a —

iaoa??a aoaa?a 35,7

aaouee?a ei??a 57,9

iaoa??a ei??a 6,4

Aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i, ea 11,16

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie naeaeoe??, % 422

noiniao?oueny a aeaiee /an c oe??th iiioeyoe??th, caaacia/o? ??
aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i o ?ici??? 11,2 ea iieiea ia ei?iao ca ??e,
a oea ? o 4-5 ?ac?a ieae/ei a?ae oai?aoe/ii iiaeeeaiai. Iiaeia aeae?eeoe
oe?eee ?yae i?e/ei oaeeo iecueeeo oaii?a i?aeaeuaiiy aaiaoe/iiai
iioaioe?aeo iiei/iino?, i?ioa aiie o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?
caaaeueiia?aeiieie oa aeanoeaeie a oe?eiio anueiio iiei/iiio neioa?noao
Oe?a?ie, oiio ne?ae coieieoeny eeoa ia iaeaaaeeea?oeo c ieo a oiiaao
iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae :

– ?? a?aeiinia iaei/enaeuei?noue (18,7 oen. aie.) c oaiaeaioe??th aei
iiaeaeueoiai ciaioaiiy iiaie?a’y oa oa?eoi??aeueia ?icae??aiai?noue i?e
iaiaa?oioiaaii aenie?e aaiaaeia?/i?e ??ciiiai?oiino? (iaoi/iee neeaae
iiioeyoe?? i?aaenoaaeaii 25 e?i?yie oa ?iaeeiieie a?oiaie, a eiaeia
noaaei – 10-15 oa a?eueoith ?o e?euee?noth), ui cia/ii oneeaaeith?
i?aai?caoe?th oeai-o?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie naeaeoe??;

– iecueea ?ioaineai?noue aeei?enoaiiy iie?iooaa/?a (ia ??ai? 10–20 %
a?ae ?aaeueii iiaeeeai?) i?e iaaei??ii aaeee?e e?eueeino? aaouee?a
?aiiioieo aoaa?a – o a?aeoai?aii? noaae iiioeyoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny
ie?aeieee, ye? ? neiaie 30 aaouee?a a?eueo i?ae 10 e?i?e, i?e oeueiio a
na?aaeiueiio eiaei? 1-2 aoaa? iioiaeyoue a?ae ?ioiai iie?iooaa/a. *anoea
aeiai?o e?aea??a i?aeoe/ii aei??aith? iaeeieoe?, a ?ioaineai?noue
naeaeoe?? – ioeth, aiane?aeie /iai aiie ia aieeaathoue iani?aaae? ia
aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an iiioeyoe??;

– aeiaaa o?eaae?noue aaia?aoe?eieo ?ioa?aae?a an?o eaoaai??e ieai?iieo
oaa?ei (a na?aaeiueiio – 8 ?ie?a, a ie?aeiee?a – 10 ?ie?a), yea
aeeeeeaia ia?o ca ana o?eaaeei ia??iaeii aeei?enoaiiy nia?ie
iie?iooaa/?a aeey in?iai?iiy ei??a iiioeyoe?? – aeecueei 5 ?ie?a.

O naith /a?ao iniiai? aeuacaaaeai? i?e/eie iicia/athoueny ia aeiiii?/i?e
aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eieo i??ii?e?inoa oa na?ae/aoue i?i aeaeaei ia
ae/a?iai? iiaeeeaino? oaeineiiaeaiiy oe??? iiioeyoe?? a oiiaao Oe?a?ie.

Aieea iniiaieo ia?ai?iieo oaeoi??a ia aaiaoe/io oa aeiiii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai. C iaoith iiooeo ?aca?a?a
i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a aaiaoe/iiai iie?ioaiiy iiioeyoe?? oa aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eieo i??ii?e?inoa aoei i?iaaaeaii aaaaoioaeoi?iee
aeenia?n?eiee aiae?c, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo iaaaaeaii a oaae. 2.

Oaaeeoey 2

?acoeueoaoe aaaaoioaeoi?iiai aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co aieeao
ia?ai?iieo oaeoi??a ia

aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i (G) oa aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue
i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? (A)

IA?AI?II? OAEOI?E % aieeao ia

G A

A – *enei aaouee?a ?aiiioieo aoaa?a 4,57 1,55

B – E?euee?noue a?ae?a?aieo iie?iooaa/?a 38,80 15,61

C — % ei??a aeoeaii? /anoeie, yeeo in?iai. nia?iith iieiaeeo aoaa?a 0,97
1,38

D – *enei aoaeoeaieo aei/ie ia 1 ia?aa??y?iiai aoaay 14,44 35,11

E – Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaie?a’y ?aiiio. aoaaeoe?a aei /enea iie?iooaa/?a
22,40 30,41

AB + AC + AD + AE + BC + BD + BE + CD + CE + DE 5,65 5,99

Iai?aai?ciaai? oaeoi?e 13,17 10,05

??aaiue a??ia?aeiino? P > 0,999

Aoei c’yniaaii, ui iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai
caciathoue iaiaeiaeiaiai aieeao c aieo ??cieo ia?ai?iieo oaeoi??a. Oae,
ia oaii aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano iiioeyoe?? ca iaaei?i iaeneiaeueii aieeaa?
e?euee?noue a?ae?a?aieo iie?iooaa/?a (38,8 %), ia aeiiii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie — /enei aoaeoeaieo aei/ie ia eiaeiiai
ia?aa??y?iiai aoaay (35,11 %). A oe?eiio ae, ci?ia aoaeoeaiino?
naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai a caeaaeiino? a?ae cia/aiue ??cieo ia?ai?iieo
oaeoi??a iineoue e?eaie?i?eiee oa?aeoa?.

sse na?ae/aoue iieacieee oaae. 3, i?e ca?eueoaii? /anoee ei??a aeoeaii?
/anoeie iiioeyoe??, yeeo in?iaiythoue nia?iith ia?aa??y?ieo aoaa?a,
c?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ia?aie a?aeaoaa?oueny aei iaaii? iaae?.
Iaeneiaeueiee aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i (32,6 ea) iaea?aeothoue ca
oiiae in?iai?iiy nia?iith iieiaeeo aoaa?a 60 % ei??a aeoeaii? /anoeie
iiioeyoe??. I?e oeueiio iniiaiee aoaeo aeinyaa?oueny ye ca ?aooiie
c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? naeaeoe?? aaouee?a aoaa?a (oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy
a?eueoi? e?eueeino? iie?iooaa/?a), oae ? ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino?
ioe?iee ?o ieai?iii? oe?iiino? o ca’yceo ?c caeo/aiiyi aeey oeueiai
a?eue-oiai /enea aoaeoeaieo aei/ie. Aeae? i?ia?an cieaeo?oueny
aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy o??? /anoeie iiioeyoe??, yea iiaeiia in?iaiyoeny
nia?iith iie?iooaa/?a. Iaeneiaeueio ae a?aeiinio aei-iii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie? (537 %) caaacia/o? in?iai?iiy nia?iith iieiaeeo
aoaa?a 30 % ei??a aeoeaii? /anoeie iiioeyoe??. A oe?eiio ae aeua
aaiaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue niinoa-??aa?oueny ca oiiae ioe?iee a?eueoi?
e?eueeino? aoaa?a ca iaioei /eneii aei/ie. Oea ii-a’ycaii c oei, ui
c?inoath/a oi/i?noue ioe?iee ieai?iii? oe?iiino? ia iiaea eiiiainoaaoe
iaiaaeaiue iiaeeeainoae

Oaaeeoey 3

Aieea /anoee ei??a aeoeaii? /anoeie iiioeyoe??, yeeo in?iaiythoue
nia?iith iieiaeeo aoaa?a (Ai) ia no?oeoo?o oa aoaeoeai?noue
i?ia?aie naeaeoe??

INIIAI? IIEACIEEE I?IA?AIE Ai

0,1 0,3 0,4 0,6 0,7

AA??AIOE C IAENEIAEUeIEI AAIAOE*IEI I?IA?ANII CA IAAeI?I

E?euee?noue, aie. : iie?iooaa/?a 4 6 7 9 10

aaouee?a aoaa?a 2 2 2 2 2

aoaeoeaieo aei/ie ia 1 aoaay 15 30 35 40 40

Ni?aa?aeiio. /enea ?ai. aoaa?a aei iie?iooaa/?a 7:1 7:1 7:1 7:1 7:1

Aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i, ea 26,3 31,2 32,1 32,6 32,5

A?aeiinia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie, % 166 211 216 210 200

AA??AIOE C IAENEIAEUeIITH AEIIII?*IITH AOAEOEAI. I?IA?AIE

E?euee?noue, aie. : iie?iooaa/?a 5 5 6 6 6

aaouee?a aoaa?a 2 2 2 2 2

aoaeoeaieo aei/ie ia 1 aoaay 35 100 100 100
100

Ni?aa?aeiio. /enea ?ai. aoaa?a aei iie?iooaa/?a 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1

Aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i, ea 21,3 26,0 26,7 25,7 25,7

A?aeiinia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie, % 445 537 525 500 488

aeiai?o i?e aei?iaoaaii? iaaaeeeiai iiaie?a’y ie?aeiee?a. I?ioa,
aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue naeaeoe?eieo i??ii?e?inoa ? cia/ii aeuith a
inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo.

Aeyaeeiny, ui ca?eueoaiiy /enea aoaeoeaieo aei/ie ia iaeiiai aoaay c 10
aei 100 aie. i?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue ioe?iee ieai?iii? oe?iiino?
iie?iooaa/?a a 1,5 ?ace (oaae. 4). I?e oeueiio

Oaaeeoey 4

Aieea /enea aoaeoeaieo aei/ie (Ni) ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie
naeaeoe?? i?e iino?ei?e e?eueeino? iie?iooaa/?a (8 aie.)

INIIAI? IIEACIEEE I?IA?AIE Ni

10 40 60 100

AA??AIOE C IAENEIAEUeIEI AAIAOE*IEI I?IA?ANII CA IAAeI?I

% ei??a aeoeaii? /anoeie, yeeo in?iai. iieiaeeie aoaayie 10 55 70 65

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy /enea ?aiiioieo aoaa?a aei iie?iooaa/?a 5:1 7:1 6:1 3:1

?ioaineai?noue naeaeoe?? iie?iooaa/?a 1,45 1,60 1,53 1,23

Oi/i?noue ioe?iee ieai?iii? oe?iiino? iie?iooaa/?a 0,59 0,82 0,87 0,92

I/?eoaaia aaiaoe/ia ia?aaaaa ca iaaei?i : aaouee?a ei??a 236 179 120 118

aaouee?a aoaa?a 376 548 562 521

Aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i, ea 25,5 32,4 31,8 29,5

A?aeiinia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie, % 177 216 277 437

niinoa??aa?oueny ??no iioeiaeueii? /anoee ei??a aeoeaii? /anoeie
iiioeyoe??, yeeo in?ia-iythoue nia?iith iieiaeeo aoaa?a, ui aeicaiey?
i?aeaeueoe ?ioaineai?noue naeaeoe?? ie?aeiee?a. I?ioa, i?e ?o e?eueeino?
a?eueoa 40 aie. iaae?a? /eiiino? i?ioe??//y i?ae c?inoaiiyi oi/iino?
ioe?iee ieai?iii? oe?iiino? aoaa?a oa cieaeaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? ?o
naeaeoe??, yea na?ae/eoue ia ia ei?enoue ia?oiai. Oea a naith /a?ao
ciaioo? i/?eoaaio aaiaoe/io ia?aaaao aaouee?a ei??a oa aoaa?a ? aeeeeea?
iaae?iiy aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano iiioeyoe?? ca iaaei?i.

E?ea? ?en. 2 na?ae/aoue, ui iioeiaeueia c iiceoe?e aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano
ca iaaei?i /enei iie?iooaa/?a eieeaa?oueny a?ae 5 aie. i?e ioe?ioe? ?o
ca i?iaeoeoeai?noth 80 aei/ie aei 30 aie. i?e ioe?ioe? ca
i?iaeoeoeai?noth 10 aei/ie. A naith /a?ao, i?e aoaeue-ye?e e?eueeino?
aoaeoeaieo aei/ie c?inoaiiy /enea iie?iooaa/?a a?eueoa 5 aie. aeeeeea?
??cea iaae?iiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? i?ia?aie naeaeoe??. Oea
iia’ycaii c oei, ui aeo?aoe, coiiaeai? aeei?enoaiiyi /eneaii?oiai
iiaie?a’y ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a, ia?anoathoue eiiiainoaaoeny i?eaooeii,
yeee io?eiothoue ca

?aooiie c?inoaiiy aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano iiioeyoe?? ca iaaei?i.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ci?i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaie?a’y ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a
aei /enea iie?iooaa/?a c 2:1 aei 7:1 iniiaiee aoaeo aeinyaa?oueny ca
?aooiie c?inoaiiy a 1,5 ?ace ?ioaineaiino? naeaeoe?? ie?aeiee?a, ui a
naith /a?ao ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith ?o i/?eoaaii? aaiaoe/ii? ia?aaaae oa, ye
ne?aenoai, aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano iiioeyoe?? ca iaaei?i. Aea i?e oeueiio
nooo?ai ca?eueoothoueny aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c aeei?enoaiiyi a?eueoi?
e?eueeino? ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a, ye? aeeeeeathoue iaae?iiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? i?ia?aie naeaeoe??.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c ieoaiiy aieeao iniiaieo ia?ai?iieo oaeoi??a
ia aaiaoeei-aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? iaei/enaeueii?
iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie ia aeyaeee nooo?aeo
a?aei?iiinoae uiaei ?acoeueoao?a aiaeia?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy a?aeiinii
aaeeeeo ianea?a iiei/ii? ooaeiae. I?ioa, anoaiiaeaii, ui a
iaei/enaeueieo iiioeyoe?yo cia/ii caoaeothoueny iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe??, coiiaeai? iaiaaeaiei ?ici??ii ?o aeoeaii?
/anoeie, ui aeeeeea? aeiooaia cieaeaiiy ye oi/iino? ioe?iee, oae ?
?ioaineaiino? naeaeoe?? ??cieo eaoaai??e ieai?iieo oaa?ei, ia?o ca ana –
aaouee?a iiaiai iieie?iiy ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a (aoaa?a-e?aea??a).

?aaoethaaiiy e?eueeino? aoaa?a-e?aea??a ye iaeei ?c niinia?a
iioei?caoe?? naeaeoe?e-iiai i?ioeano. sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaeiei ?c iae?acoeueoaoeai?oeo niinia?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?? (ia?o ca ana a?aeiinii iaei/enaeueieo
iiioeyoe?e iiei/ii? ooaeiae) ? nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino? aoaa?a-e?aea??a aei
aeioe?eueiiai i?i?ioio, yeee ye c iiceoe?e iioeiaeueieo aa??aio?a
naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai, oae ? c iiceoe?e caiia?aaiiy ?ia?eaeeiao a
oiaa?i?e /anoei? iiioeyoe?? oeyoii /?oei? oanoee?i?eii? ?ioaoe??
neeaaea? 6 aie. (ii iaeiiio o eiaei?e c ?ioaoe?eieo e?i?e), i?i ui
na?ae/eoue a?ao?e ?en. 3.

Oae, i?e ciaioaii? /enea aoaa?a-e?aea??a aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an iiioeyoe??
ca iaaei?i c?inoa?, aea i?e aeei?enoaii? 5-6 oa iaioi? e?eueeino? e?aueo
ie?aeiee?a, ye aaouee?a ne?aeoth-/iai iieie?iiy ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a,
no??iei i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ia?aaeia aeai?an?y ca iaaei?i, yea “c’?aea?”
aeiaie? cia/io /anoeio aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano, ui i?ecaiaeeoue o naith
/a?ao aei cieaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aie.
I?ioa, a oiiaao iaei/enaeueieo iiioeyoe?e aeei?enoaiiy iaa?oue oaei?
e?eueeino? iie?iooaa/?a ? iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaiei a naeaeoe?eiiio oa
aeiiii?/iiio a?aeiioaii?, ine?eueee aeey iie?eooy ??/ii? iio?aae
iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie a nia?i? oe?eeii aeineoue 1-2
ie?aeiee?a. Aea oea aeeeeea? i?ioe??//y i?ae ia?aaaaaie noai?iai aeiai?o
oa iaaaoeaieie i?iyaaie ?ia?eaeeiao, yea i?e ?nioth/?e nenoai?
a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea (ui a?oioo?oueny ia iaeii/aniiio ?ioaoe?eiiio
aeei?enoaii? aoaa?a aaeeei? e?eueeino? ianii??aeiaieo i?ae niaith
aaiaaeia?/ieo a?oi) i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai ?ica’ycaoe.

?aeoa?enoeeo aoaeoeaiino?

aa??aio?a i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi ?nioth/iai oa ?ic?iaeaiiai
niinia?a a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea, yea na?ae/eoue i?i yai? ia?aaaae
inoaiiueiai.

Iioei?caoe?y i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? aeey iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei?
ooaeiae Oe?a?ie. I?e iioei?caoe?? i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? eiaeiee ?c 55288
ciiaeaeueiaaieo ?? aa??aio ?icaeyaeaany ye naiino?eia aeueoa?iaoeaa ?c
cae?i/aiei i?ioeanii on??? nenoaie ieai?iii? ?iaioe oa ioe?ieith
aaiaoe/iiai ? aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano a iiioeyoe??. Oea aeaei ciiao
ii??aiyoe i?ae niaith an? aa??aioe oa aea?aoe aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o? c
ieo, ye? caaacia/othoue ia eeoa io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai aaiaoe/iiai
i?ia?ano ca iaaei?i aai aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eieo
i??ii?e?inoa (ui iiaeiii aooe iniiaiith iaoith naeaeoe?? a oiiaao
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee), aea ? e iaea?eueo i?eaeaoieie aei eiie?aoieo oiia
iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie.

I?e canoinoaaii? caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai niiniao a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea (oaae.
5) ?c aeei?enoaiiyi 6 aoaa?a-e?aea??a cai?iiiiiaai? aa??aioe i?ia?aie c
iaeneiaeueiith aaiaoe/iith oa aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth ca oiiae ?o
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aoaeooue ni?eyoe ui??/iiio i?aeaeuaiith aaiaoe/iiai
i?ia?ano iiioeyoe?? ca iaaei?i aei 31,3 oa 23,8 ea iieiea ia ei?iao,
caaacia/oth/e a?aeiinio aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie naeaeoe?? ia
??ai? 128 oa 466 % a?aeiia?aeii. ?aae?caoe?y ?ic?iaeaiiai niiniao
?ioaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a, yeee aeic-

Oaaeeoey 5

Iniiai? ia?aiao?e aa??aio?a i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? iiioeyoe??
ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy

IIEACIEEE I?IA?AIE NAEAEOe?? AA??AIOE I?IA?AIE

oaeo. A A A* A*

E?euee?noue, aie. : aaouee?a aoaa?a 30 6 6 1 1

?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a 29 191 25 108 21

ia?aa??y?ieo aoaa?a 21 129 17 73 14

iie?iooaa/?a 9 15 6 9 5

aoaeoeaieo aei/ie ia 1 aoaay 15 25 100 40
100

*enei ei??a aeey in?iai. iieiae. aoaayie, oen. aie. 1,6 12,9 6,8 11,7
5,7

?ici?? nia?iiaaiea ia 1 aoaay, oen. aeic 9,5 1,4 6,6 2,8 8,6

Aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i, ea 11,2 31,3 23,8 37,8 31,1

Noia aeo?ao ia 1 ei?iao, a?i. 8,6 20,0 4,7 13,5 4,5

*enoee i?eaooie ia 1 ei?iao, a?i. 36,2 107,8 92,6 141,0 123,8

A?aeiinia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie, % 100 128 466 247 654

A – c iaeneiaeueiei
aaiaoe/iei i?ia?anii ca iaaei?i

AA??AIOE I?IA?AIE: A – c iaeneiaeueiith aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth
i?ia?aie

* – ca oiiae
ai?iaaaeae. ?ic?iaeai. niiniao a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea

aiey? caeo/aoe aei ianiaiai a?aeoai?aiiy noaae nei?a eeoa iaeiiai
iaeoe?ii?oiai a naeaeoe?eiiio a?aeiioaii? aoaay, aea? ciiao ca?eueoeoe
oaii ui??/iiai aaiaoe/iiai iie?ioaiiy iiioeyoe?? ca iaaei?i o 3,4 ?ace
(aei 37,8 ea iieiea ia ei?iao), a aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie o
6,5 ?ace ii a?aeiioaiith aei oaeoe/iiai aa??aioo. I?e oeueiio nii-

noa??aathoueny aeaye? ci?ie iioeiaeueieo aaee/ei ?ioeo ia?ai?iieo
naeaeoe?eieo oaeoi??a

Oi/a cai?iiiiiaaieie aa??aioaie i?ia?aie ia?aaeaa/aii aeineoue
iai?oaeai? oaiie iie?ioaiiy naeaeoe?eieo ia?aiao??a, a ieo caeeaaeai?
aeaye? ?aca?ae, ye? aeicaieythoue ua a a?eueo?e i??? i?ae-aeueoe ?o
aaiaoeei-aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue. Oae, ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui
caeo/aiiy aei naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano a aeoeai?e /anoei? iiioeyoe??
iaoiaeo aia??io?ainieaioaoe?? aea? ciiao ciaioeoe iio?aao a iaoa?yo
?aiiioieo aoaa?a, ye i?i?ioi, o aeaa ?ace. Aiane?aeie oeueiai oaea?/?
c?inoa? ?ioaineai?noue aeiai?o na?aae cacia/aii? eaoaai??? ieai?iieo
oaa?ei c on?ia aeo?eath/eie ca?aene iane?aeeaie.

Iniiai? i?eioeeie iioeiaeueii? e?i?eii? ?ioaoe?? a iiioeyoe??
ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie. Aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i oa, ye? e?i??
caeeoeoe aeey ia?aaaaeiiai a?aeoai?aiiy oa ?ioaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy a
iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie, aoei i?iaaaeaii ?o ioe?ieo ca
iaoiaeeeith, cai?iiiiiaaiith I.?.Aauaiei ?c ni?aaao. (1985). ?acoeueoaoe
ioe?iee (oaae. 6) na?ae/aoue, ui ia?o? o?noue ?aia?a ca iaaei?i ei??a ii
I eaeoaoe?? caeiyee a?aeiia?aeii e?i?? Oaiioeai ssthney??, ???o?a??aeai
O?oi ??., E?ia ???aioa, THooa?i ?iiai, Aeii AEoa-ia oa E?ooienoai Oieea.
Aiae?c iieacaa, ui e?i??, aeciai? e?aueie i?e ?o ii??aiyeuei?e ioe?ioe?
ca iiei/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth ei??a, iaeii/anii oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
aenieeie ieai?iieie yeinoyie ie?aeiee?a, ye? aei ieo iaeaaeaoue. Oea
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aeioe?euei?noue iiaoaei

Oaaeeoey 6

Ioe?iea e?i?e iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie ca iaaei?i
ei??a ii I eaeoaoe??

E?I?ss, ?IAeEIIA A?OIA *enei ei??a Iaae?e, ea Cv, % Iii?aai/. ?iaeaen
A?aeiinia oe?ii?noue ?aia

Aeii AEoai 7960 1383 3820 17,9 4168 7988 5

THooa?i ?iiai 15710 1286 3930 16,6 4409 8339 4

E?ia ???aio 12656 1025 3985 16,0 4509 8494 3

E?ooienoai Oiee 11666 770 3720 14,9 4092 7812 6

???o?a??aeai O?oi ??. 13093 442 4119 11,6 4823 8942 2

Oaiioeai ssthney?? 23000 791 4371 17,4 5027 9398 1

A??ieoaee?i THiea? 15635 203 3675 12,2 3758 7433 7

???o?a??aeai Ooi 13926 275 3609 23,6 3294 6903 8

Eaoi?a?n Iaeoi? 14537 149 3118 19,2 2483 5601 11

Oiineeai A?aoia 11489 102 3839 26,3 2921 6760 9

Oa??i 4791 33 2473 9,0 — 2473 14

Ae?ea 768 64 3648 20,6 2335 5983 10

E?ooienoai Ai??aae? 15617 38 3292 23,1 963 4255 12

Iaooe EOA-4 823 56 2904 25,7 1206 4110 13

ae nenoaie e?i?eiiai ?icaaaeaiiy a iiioeyoe?? ia iniia? oanoe cacia/aieo
e?i?e.

Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aioo??oiueie?i?eiiai i?aeai?o oa i?aee?i?eieo
e?in?a o iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie, iaaaaeaii? a oaae. 7,
ca iniiao aoei acyoi a?aeiinio oe?ii?noue

ca iaaei?i ii I eaeoaoe?? a?oi aei/ie a?ae ii?aeiaiue i?aaenoaaiee?a
??cieo e?i?e. ?o ?aiae ?ic iiae?eeeeny oae, ui ia?o? i?noey caeiyee
a?aeiia?aeii iauaaeee : 1) e?i?? THooa?i ?iiai a?ae

Oaaeeoey 7

Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aioo??oiueie?i?eiiai i?aeai?o oa i?aee?i?eieo
e?in?a o iiioeyoe??

ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie

E?I?ss, ?IAeEIIA A?OIA N Iaae?e ca I eaeo., ea Cv, % A?aeiinia
oe?ii?noue ?aia

AAOUeEA IAOA??

THooa?i ?iiai THooa?i ?iiai 154 4567 25 8485 1

THooa?i ?iiai Oaiioeai ssthney?? 46 4681 22 8465 2

THooa?i ?iiai ???o?a??aeai O?oi ?. 32 4460 26 7444 8

THooa?i ?iiai Aeii AEoai 16 4590 25 6837 11

THooa?i ?iiai E?ia ???aio 18 4647 31 6965 9

Oaiioeai ssthney?? THooa?i ?iiai 46 4640 24 8276 5

Oaiioeai ssthney?? Oaiioeai ssthney?? 52 4615 24 8259 6

Oaiioeai ssthney?? ???o?a??aeai O?oi ?. 35 4441 27 7464 7

Oaiioeai ssthney?? Aeii AEoai 9 4427 16 5108 15

Oaiioeai ssthney?? E?ia ???aio 17 5212 20 8441 3

???o?a??aeai O?oi ?. THooa?i ?iiai 21 4580 35 6919 10

???o?a??aeai O?oi ?. Oaiioeai ssthney?? 28 3678 26 5583 14

???o?a??aeai O?oi ?. ???o?a??aeai O?oi ?. 57 4742 29 8369 4

???o?a??aeai O?oi ?. E?ia ???aio 11 4225 38 5085 16

E?ia ???aio THooa?i ?iiai 16 4155 24 5936 13

E?ia ???aio Oaiioeai ssthney?? 11 3616 37 4033 18

E?ia ???aio ???o?a??aeai O?oi ?. 13 3774 30 4696 17

E?ia ???aio E?ia ???aio 32 4185 28 6747 12

aioo??oiueie?i?eiiai ?icaaaeaiiy; 2) a?ae aaouee?a e?i?? THooa?i ?iiai
oa iaoa??ae?i?? Oaiioeai ssthney??; 3) a?ae ie?aeiee?a e?i?? Oaiioeai
ssthney?? oa ei??a e?i?? E?ia ???aioa; 4) e?i?? ?,O,???aioa a?ae
aioo??oiueie?i?eiiai i?aeai?o; 5) a?ae aaouee?a e?i?? Oaiioeai ssthney??
oa iaoa??a e?i?? THooa?i ?iiai ? 6) e?i?? Oaiioeai ssthney?? a?ae
aioo??-oiueie?i?eiiai ?icaaaeaiiy. A?oiooth/enue ia iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoaoao, ne?ae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeuacaaaeai? aa??aioe aei
ia?aaaaeiiai aeei?enoaiiy a oiiaao iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae
Oe?a?ie oa i?iaiaeeoe iiaeaeueoo ?iaioo c aeyaeaiiy e?aueo ii?aeiaiue
e?i?e o e?inao.

AENIIAEE

1. Nenoaia naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe c iiioeyoe??th ae?oe?nueei?
ooaeiae Oe?a?ie, yea canoiniao?oueny a aeaiee /an, caaacia/o? ??
aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i o ?ici??? 11-12 ea iieiea ia ei?iao ca
??e.

2. Iniiai? i?e/eie iecueei? aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eieo i??ii?e?inoa :
iaei/enaeue-i?noue iiioeyoe?? (18,7 oen. aie.) i?e iaiaa?oioiaaii
aenie?e aaaaoie?i?eiino? (25 e?i?e oa ?iaeeiieo a?oi, a o eiaeiiio
noaaea – 10-15 ? a?eueoa e?euee?noue); iecueea ?ioaineai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy iie?iooaa/?a (ia ??ai? 10–20 % a?ae ?aaeueii iiaeeeai?) i?e
iaaei??ii aaeee?e e?eueeino? aoaa?a-e?aea??a (30 aie.) oa i?aeoe/i?e
a?aenooiino? ?o naeaeoe??; aeiaaa o?eaae?noue aaia?aoe?eieo ?ioa?aae?a
an?o eaoaai??e ieai?iieo oaa?ei (a na?aaeiueiio – 8 ?ie?a).

3. ?acoeueoaoeai?noue naeaeoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe??
iiei/ii? ooaeiae, o ye?e aaaeaoueny naeaeoe?y – i?e ciaioaii? ?? ?ici??o
c 1 iei. aei 10 oen. aie. ui??/iee aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i
cieaeo?oueny ia 64 % (12,6 ea iieiea o ?ic?aooieo ia iaeio ei?iao), a
aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie – ia 61 %.

4. A oiiaao iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie i?i?iaeueii
iiaeeeaith iaaeath /enaeueiino?, yea aeicaiey? aanoe aeiiii?/ii aea?aeio
naeaeoe?th, ? 10000 aie.

5. A iaei/enaeueieo iiioeyoe?yo iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
naeaeoe?? iaiaaeai? ?ici??ii ?o aeoeaii? /anoeie, ui aeeeeea? aeiooaia
cieaeaiiy ye oi/iino? ioe?iee, oae ? ?ioaineaiino? naeaeoe?? ??cieo
eaoaai??e ieai?iieo oaa?ei.

6. Aieea iniiaieo naeaeoe?eieo oaeoi??a (?ici??o ia?aa??i/ii? /anoeie
iiioeyoe??; e?eueeino? iie?iooaa/?a, aoaa?a-e?aea??a, aoaeoeaieo aei/ie
oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaie?a’y ?aiiioieo aoaaeoe?a aei /enea iie?iooaa/?a)
ia aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? neeaaea? 87-90 % oa iineoue
e?eaie?i?eiee oa?aeoa?.

7. Nei?i/aiiy /enea aaouee?a ?aiiioieo aoaa?a c 30 aei 6 aie. i?e
iioei?caoe?? ?ioeo naeaeoe?eieo oaeoi??a aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe ui??/iee
aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an iiioeyoe?? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie ca iaaei?i ia
20,1 ea iieiea ia ei?iao, a aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue naeaeoe?eieo
i??ii?e?inoa — a 4,7 ?ace o ii??aiyii? c oaeoe/iei aa??aioii.

8. A oiiaao iaei/enaeueieo iiioeyoe?e i?e oanoee?i?ei?e ?ioaoe??
aeei?enoaiiy i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeai? e?eueeino? aoaa?a-e?aea??a (6 aie.) ?
iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaiei ye o naeaeoe?eiiio, oae ? a aeiiii?/iiio
a?aeiioaii?.

9. ?ic?iaeaiee iaie iiaee niin?a i?aai?caoe?? ?ioaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ie?aeiee?a aeicaiey? aeeth/aoe a ianiaa a?aeoai?aiiy noaae nei?a eeoa
iaeiiai aoaay-e?aea?a aac c?inoaiiy ?ia?eaeeiao a oiaa?i?e /anoei?
iiioeyoe??.

10. Ui??/ia aeei?enoaiiy ye aaoueea ?aiiioieo aoaa?a iaeiiai ie?aeieea
ni?ey? i?ae-aeuaiith iaeneiaeueiiai aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano iiioeyoe?? ca
iaaei?i aei 37,8 ea iieiea ia ei?iao ca ??e ? iaeneiaeueii? a?aeiinii?
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie naeaeoe?? aei 654%.

I?IIICEOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe c
iiioeyoe??th ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny :

1. ?aae?coaaoe cai?iiiiiaai? aa??aioe i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? oa ?ic?iaeaiee
iiaee niin?a i?aai?caoe?? ?ioaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiee?a, yeee
aeicaiey? aeeth/aoe a ianiaa a?ae-oai?aiiy noaae nei?a eeoa iaeiiai
aoaay-e?aea?a aac c?inoaiiy ?ia?eaeeiao a oiaa?i?e /anoei? iiioeyoe??.

2. Iiaoaeoaaoe nenoaio e?i?eiiai ?icaaaeaiiy ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae ia
iniia? oanoe e?i?e (Oaiioeai ssthney?? 23000, ???o?a??aeai O?oi ???aioa
13093, E?ia ???aioa 12656, THooa?i ?iiai 15710, Aeii AEoaia 7960 oa
E?ooienoai Oieea 11666) c ?oiueith ?ioaoe?eiith cai?iith a oiaa?i?e
/anoei? eeoa o /an? (/a?ac eiaei? aeaa ?iee) a ianooaa? an???
iiioeyoe??.

NIENIE INIIAIEO IOAEIEAOeIE CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOeI?

1. Aaaoiiia A.A., Ai?enianeee A.A. E aii?ino i naeaeoeeiiiuo i?iaeaiao
iaeuo iiioeyoeee e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa // Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee
atheeaoaiue EAE OAAI. — Oa?ueeia, 1994. — ? 63. — N.6-11.

2. ?oaai N.TH., Ai?enianueeee A.A. Ia?niaeoeae noai?aiiy
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo noaae ae?oe?nueei? ii?iaee a oiiaao ainiiaea?noa
Oe?a?ie ia iniiai i?aaiicaoei? ?iaioe ca i?eioeeiii iaei? iiioeyoei? //
Iiei/ii-i’ynia neioa?noai: Iiaeaiaeii/ee oaiaoe/iee iaoeiaee cai?iee. —
Ee?a: O?iaeae. — 1995. — Aei. 86. — N.23-27.

3. Ai?enianeee A.A. Niinia iioei?caoe?? naeaeoeieieo i?ia?ai a
iiei/iiio neioa?noai // Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee atheeaoaiue EAE OAAI.
Oa?ueeia, 1998. — ? 73. — N.7-11.

4. Iao. 13910 A. Oe?a?ia, IEE AI1E67/00. Niinia aiaeoai?aiiy noaaea /
A.I.Aaaoiiia, A.A.Ai?enianueeee, N.TH.?oaai (Oe?a?ia). — ? 94127973;
Cayae. 12.12.94; Iioae. 25.04.97; Athee. ? 2. — 1 n.

5. Ai?enianueeee A.A. Iiaeaeuaiiy aaiaoe/iiai iioaioeiaeo iiei/ii?
ooaeiae // Oace aeiiiaiaeae Anaoe?a?inueei? thaieaeii? iaoe.-i?aeoe/.
eiioa?aioei? «Aaiaoeea i?iaeoeoeaiinoi oaa?ei», i?enay/aii? 90-?i//th c
aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy I.I.Eieanieea. — Ee?a. 1994. — N.57.

6. Ai?enianueeee A.A. I?iaeaia caa?aaeaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy aaiioiiaeo
iaei/enaeueieo iiioeyoeie nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei // Oace
aeiiiaiaeae ia?oi? Iiaeia?iaeii? iaoe. eiioa?aioei? iieiaeeo a/aieo oa
niaoeiaeinoia «Naeaeoeieii-aiioaoiieiai/ii iaoiaee aeei?enoaiiy
aaiaoe/iiai iioaioeiaeo nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei». — Ee?a. —
1994. — N.18.

7. Ai?enianueeee A.A. Iioaineoieaoeiy naeaeoeieiiai i?ioeano a
iiei/iiio neioa?noai // Oace aeiiiaiaeae iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei?
«Iioaineoieaoeiy nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa oi?ioaaiiy
i?iaeiaieue/iai ?eieo a iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy», i?enay/aii?
100-?i//th c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy E.A.Oaeaoaea. — Oa?eia. 1995. — N.86-87.

8. Ai?enianueeee A.A., Oaaey A.I. ?aaeicaoeiy naeaeoeieieo i?ia?ai ye
iaeei ic oaeoi?ia caa?aaeaiiy oa oaeineiiaeaiiy aaiioiiaeo ii?iae //
Iaoa?iaee iaoeiai-ae?iaie/i? eiioa?aioei? «Oai?aoe/ii e i?aeoe/ii
aniaeoe ii?iaeiooai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano o iiei/iiio oa i’yniiio
neioa?noai». — Ee?a: Anioeiaoeiy «Oe?a?ia». — 1995. — N.28-29.

9. Ai?enianeee A.A. Aiciiaeiinoe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe naeaeoeeiiiuo
i?ia?aii // Oace aeiiiaiaeae iiaeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioei? «Aoaeoeaiinoue iaoiaeia iioaineoieaoei? ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeoia oaa?eiieoeoaa». — Oa?eia. 1996. — N.9.

AIIOAOeI?

Ai?enianueeee A.A. Iioeiicaoeiy naeaeoeieiiai i?ioeano a
iiioeyoei? ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 06.02.01 —
?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoeiy oaa?ei. — Iinoeooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI,
Oa?eia, 1999.

Aeena?oaoeiy i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ieaiiiii?
?iaioe c iiioeyoei?th ae?oe?nueei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie oeyoii iioeiicaoei?
naeaeoeieiiai i?ioeano c aeei?enoaiiyi i?eioeeiia aaeeeiianooaaii?
naeaeoei? oa o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeoiee iaei/enaeueieo iiioeyoeie.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui nenoaia ieaiiiii? ?iaioe c iiioeyoei?th, yea
canoiniao?oueny o aeaiee /an, caaacia/o? aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ca iaaei?i o
?ici??? 11-12 ea iieiea ia ei?iao a ?ie. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee eiai
iiaeaeuaiiy aei 32-38 ea iieiea oa caieueoaiiy aeiiiii/ii? aoaeoeaiinoi
naeaeoeieieo ii?ii?e?inoa a 6,5 ?ace ca ?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a
i?aeoeeo iioaineaieo aa?iaioia i?ia?ai naeaeoei? ic canoinoaaiiyi
?ic?iaeaiiai iiaiai niiniao ?ioaoeieiiai aeei?enoaiiy ieiaeieeia, yeee
aeicaiey? aeeth/aoe a ianiaa aiaeoai?aiiy noaae neiia eeoa iaeiiai
aoaay-eiaea?a aac c?inoaiiy iia?eaeeiao a oiaa?iie /anoeii iiioeyoei?.

Eeth/iai neiaa : aaeeeiianooaaia naeaeoeiy, iaei/enaeueia iiioeyoeiy,
ae?oe?nueea ooaeiaa, aoaa?-eiaea?e, naeaeoeieia i?ia?aia, iiaeaethaaiiy,
aaiaoeei-aeiiiii/ia aoaeoeaiinoue, aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an, iioeiicaoeiy.

Borisovsky V.A. Optimization of selection process in the Ukraine
Ayrshire cattle population. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for degree Agricultural sciences candidate
competition in speciality 06.02.01 — animal breeding and
selection. — Institute of Animal Science of UAAS, Kharkov,
1999.

The dissertation is devoted to improvement of the Ukraine Ayrshire
cattle population breeding system by means of selection process
optimization using the large-scale selection principles and taken
peculiarities of small population into account. It has been determined
that population breeding system used in present provides genetic
progress of milk yield 11-12 kg per year. The methods of its raising up
to 32-38 kg and increasing economic efficiency of selection 6.5 times
by application in practice the intensive versions of selection programs
using the new method of sire rotation that allows to include sons of one
leading sire in the mass reproduction without increasing level of
inbreeding are worked out.

Key words : large-scale selection, small population, Ayrshire cattle,
leading sire, selection program, simulation, genetic and economic
efficiency, genetic progress, optimization.

Ai?enianeee A.A. Iioeiecaoeey naeaeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna a
iiioeyoeee ae?oe?neiai neioa Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.02.01 —
?acaaaeaiea e naeaeoeey aeeaioiuo. — Einoeooo aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
OAAI, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oniaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu ieaiaiiie
?aaiou n iiioeyoeeae ae?oe?neiai neioa Oe?aeiu iooai iioeiecaoeee
naeaeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna n eniieueciaaieai i?eioeeiia e?oiiiianooaaiie
naeaeoeee e o/aoii niaoeeoeee iaei/eneaiiuo iiioeyoeee.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia naeaeoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii iieacaei, /oi
eo ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue caaeneo io /eneaiiinoe naeaeoeeiie?oaiie
iiioeyoeee iiei/iiai neioa — i?e nieaeaiee aa ?acia?a n 1 iei. aei 10
oun. aie. aaeaaiaeiue aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann ii oaeith oiaiueoaaony ia 64
% (12,6 ea iieiea a ?an/aoa ia iaeio ei?iao), a yeiiiie/aneay
yooaeoeaiinoue i?ia?aiiu — ia 61 %.

Ieieiaeueii aiciiaeiue i?aaeae /eneaiiinoe iiioeyoeee, iicaieythuee
i?eiaiyoue iauea i?eioeeiu ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aii naeaeoeee aeey iieo/aiey
yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiuo eo aa?eaioia, oeaeaniia?acii i?eciaoue e?eoa?eai
ii?aaeaeaiey «e?eoe/aneiai» o?iaiy, eaaeauaai a iniiaa ioianaiey ii?iae
e iiioeyoeee e eaoaai?ee iaei/eneaiiuo eeai en/acathueo. Onoaiiaeaii,
/oi oaeei i?aaeaeii /eneaiiinoe a oneiaeyo iiioeyoeee ae?oe?neiai neioa
Oe?aeiu yaeyaony 1000 aie.

Eae iieacaea aaiaoeei-yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea i?eiaiyaiie a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy nenoaiu naeaeoeeiiii-ieaiaiiie ?aaiou n aeaiiie iiioeyoeeae, iia
iaania/eaaao aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann ii oaeith a ?acia?a 11-12 ea iieiea
ia ei?iao a aiae, /oi a 4-5 ?ac ieaea oai?aoe/anee aiciiaeiiai.
Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe naeaeoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee
yaeythony iaei/eneaiiinoue iiioeyoeee (18,7 oun. aie.) i?e iaiainiiaaiii
aunieie iiiaieeiaeiinoe (25 eeiee e ?iaenoaaiiuo a?oii, a a eaaeaeii
noaaea — 10-15 e aieaa); ieceay eioaineaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
oeo/oaoaeae (ia o?iaia 10-20 % io ?aaeueii aiciiaeiie) i?e /?acia?ii
aieueoii eiee/anoaa aueia-eeaea?ia (30 aie.) e i?aeoe/aneii ionoonoaee
eo naeaeoeee; aieueoay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aaia?aoeeiiiuo eioa?aaeia
anao eaoaai?ee ieaiaiiuo aeeaioiuo (a n?aaeiai — 8 eao).

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeeyiea iniiaiuo naeaeoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia, acyouo a
ea/anoaa ia?aiaiiuo i?e iiaeaee?iaaiee (aeiee ei?ia aeoeaiie /anoe
iiioeyoeee, inaiaiyaiuo nia?iie i?iaa?yaiuo aueia; eiee/anoaa
oeo/oaoaeae, aueia-eeaea?ia, yooaeoeaiuo aei/a?ae e niioiioaiey
iiaieiauey ?aiiioiuo au/eia e /eneo oeo/oaoaeae) ia yooaeoeaiinoue
i?ia?aiiu naeaeoeee iaei/eneaiiie iiioeyoeee ae?oe?neiai neioa Oe?aeiu
ninoaaeyao 87-90 % e iineo e?eaieeiaeiue oa?aeoa?. I?iaaaeaiiua
enneaaeiaaiey ia auyaeee nouanoaaiiuo ioee/ee ii ioiioaieth e
?acoeueoaoai aiaeiae/iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey, eanathuaainy e?oiiuo ianneaia
iiei/iiai neioa, ii auynieeinue, /oi a iaei/eneaiiuo iiioeyoeeyo
cia/eoaeueii noaeathony aiciiaeiinoe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe naeaeoeee,
iaoneiaeaiiua ia?aie/aiiui ?acia?ii eo aeoeaiie /anoe, aeaeouei
auioaeaeaiiia nieaeaiea eae oi/iinoe ioeaiee, oae e eioaineaiinoe ioai?a
?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee ieaiaiiuo aeeaioiuo.

?an/aou iieacaee, /oi nie?auaiea /enea iooeia ?aiiioiuo aueia n 30 aei
6 aie. i?e iioeiecaoeee inoaeueiuo naeaeoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia iicaieeo
iiauneoue aaeaaiaeiue aaiaoe/aneee i?ia?ann iiioeyoeee ae?oe?neiai neioa
Oe?aeiu ii oaeith ia 20,1 ea iieiea ia ei?iao, a yeiiiie/aneoth
yooaeoeaiinoue naeaeoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee — a 4,7 ?aca ii n?aaiaieth n
oaeoe/aneei aa?eaioii.

Niaeanii i?iaaaeaiiui ?an/aoai, a oneiaeyo iaei/eneaiiuo iiioeyoeee i?e
oanoeeeiaeiie ?ioaoeee eniieueciaaiea ieieiaeueii aiciiaeiiai eiee/anoaa
aueia-eeaea?ia (6 aie.) yaeyaony iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiui eae a
naeaeoeeiiiii, oae e a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee aue ?ac?aaioai iiaue niinia i?aaiecaoeee
?ioaoeeiiiiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeae (iaoaio Oe?aeiu ia
ecia?aoaiea «Niinia aini?iecaiaenoaa noaaea ? 13910 A), iicaieythuee
aeeth/aoue a ianniaia aini?iecaiaenoai noaae nuiiaae eeoue iaeiiai
auea-eeaea?a aac ia?aueaaiey eia?eaeeiaa a oiaa?iie /anoe iiioeyoeee.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aiaea/aiea ?ac?aaioaiiiai niiniaa a naeaeoeeiiiue
i?ioeann n aaeaaiaeiui eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa iooea ?aiiioiuo aueia
iaeiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey niinianoaoao iiauoaieth iaeneiaeueiiai
aaiaoe/aneiai i?ia?anna iiioeyoeee ae?oe?neiai neioa Oe?aeiu ii oaeith
aei 37,8 ea iieiea ia ei?iao a aiae e iaeneiaeueiie ioiineoaeueiie
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe nenoaiu naeaeoeee aei 654 %.

Auyaeaii, /oi eniieueciaaiea iaoiaea o?ainieaioaoeee yia?eiiia a
aeoeaiie /anoe iiioeyoeee iicaieyao nie?aoeoue iio?aaiinoue a
aueii?iecaiaeyueo ei?iaao, eae ieieioi, a aeaa ?aca.

Ioeaiea iniiaiuo eeiee iiioeyoeee ii iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia e
ieaiaiiui ea/anoaai aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae iieacaea, /oi nenoaio
eeiaeiiai ?acaaaeaiey ae?oe?neiai neioa Oe?aeiu oeaeaniia?acii
i?aaieciaaoue ia iniiaa oanoe eeiee (Oaiioeai ssthney?e, ?eeoeaeeaeai
O?oi A??aioa, Eeia A??aioa, THooa?i ?iiai, Aeii AEoaia e Eeooienoai
Oieea) n eo ?ioaoeeiiiie caiaiie a oiaa?iie /anoe oieueei ai a?aiaie
(/a?ac eaaeaeua aeaa aiaea) a ianooaaao anae iiioeyoeee a niioaaonoaee n
?ac?aaioaiiui iiaui niiniaii aini?iecaiaenoaa noaaea.

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia eeiaeiie ni/aoaaiinoe
auynieeinue, /oi a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo aeaiiie iiioeyoeee auee eeiee Eeia
A??aioa e ?.O.A??aioa iaania/eaatho iieo/aiea eo/oeo ii iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aei/a?ae a neo/aa i?eiaiaiey aioo?eeeiaeiiai iiaeai?a,
auee eeiee Oaiioeai ssthney?e — i?e ni/aoaiee n ei?iaaie eeiee Eeia
A??aioa, i?iecaiaeeoaee eeiee THooa?i ?iiai — i?e ni/aoaiee n ei?iaaie
yoie aea eeiee (ii oaeith) e eeiee Oaiioeai ssthney?e (ii iiei/iiio
aee?o). Eeth/aaua neiaa : e?oiiiianooaaiay naeaeoeey, iaei/eneaiiay
iiioeyoeey, aeoe?neee neio, auee-eeaea?u, naeaeoeeiiiay i?ia?aiia,
iiaeaee?iaaiea, aaiaoeei-yeiiiie/an-eay yooaeoeaiinoue, aaiaoe/aneee
i?ia?ann, iioeiecaoeey.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione ?oaai TH.Ae,

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 13.07.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ? 354

Ae?eyiea iia?aoeaiiai ae?oeo ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI

312120, i.Oa?e?a, i/a Eoeeie/?, aoe.7-? Aaa?ae?enueei? A?i??, 3.

PAGE 13

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