EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i. OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

EAA?OOAIEI ETHAeIEEA OAAeI??AIA

OAeE 576. 345 : 591. 133. 1

IEENI? I?IOeANE A I?OIOIIAe??ssO

I?Ae AIEEAII ENAIIA?IOEE?A OA ?O

AE?IAIOA?IA EI?AEOe?ss

03.00.04 — a?io?i?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? a?io?i?? AAO «Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
oa?/oaaiiy».

IAOEIAEE

EIINOEUeOAIO: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe

AEe?iia A?eoi? Aaeaioeiiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee eaai?aoi???th iieaeoey?ieo iaoai?ci?a ee?oeiii?
neaiae?caoe??

?inoeoooo a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa iaooio?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Aeiia?aaeiaa ?oo?ia Iao??aia, i?ioani? eaoaae?e a?io?i?? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, n.i.n.

Aeieo?aiei Ieeiea Iao?iae/,

caa?aeoth/ee eaai?aoi???th a?io?i?? ?inoeoooo aeia?a??ie ? oieneeieia??
?i. E.?. Iaaeaaaey IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, n.i.n.

Ooaae Aaneeue Aiae??eiae/,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo a?io?i?? i(yc?a ?inoeoooo
a?io?i??

?i. I. A. Iaeeaae?ia IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a

I?IA?AeIA ONOAIIAA: ?inoeooo oa?iaeieia?? ? oieneeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie,
Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «15» a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.24 i?e Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252127, i. Ee?a, i?iniaeo
Aeooeiaa, 2, ei?ion 12 (a?ioae), aoae. 215.

Iiooiaa aae?ana: 252033, Ee?a-33, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64, niaoe?aaea

Ae 26.001.24, a?ieia?/iee oaeoeueoao.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa?neoaoo,
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «13» eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? I. A. A?aeii

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Ia i?ioyc? aeeooy i?aai?ci ethaeeie i?aeeyaa?
aieeao cia/ii? e?eueeino? oiene/ieo ?a/iaei ye i?e?iaeiiai, oae ?, a
iniiaiiio, aio?iiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? iaaeoiaeyoue c aoiinoa?iei
iia?o?yi, ieoiith aiaeith, i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy, a oaeiae i?e eiioaeo?
c ieie a oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aei enaiia?ioee?a iaeaaeaoue ??ci? a?oie oiene/ieo ?a/iaei. I?o?aoe–
iino?ei? noiooieee ethaeeie ( aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ?ineei ye i?iaeoeoe
?o iaoaaie?cio (A. I. ?aooia oa ?i., 1997). Inoaii?i /anii aieea ?o ia
i?aai?ci ethaeeie cia/ii iineeeany, ui iaoiiaeaii aeei?enoaiiyi
?ioaineaieo oaoiieia?e o ?ineeiieoeoa?, ye? iio?aaothoue aianaiiy aei
a?oioo aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea. Iio?aieyth/e aei a?oioo
c acioieie aeia?eaaie oa ?c noieaie oaa?eiieoeueeeo eiiieaen?a, i?o?aoe
eaaei i?a?othoue o aa?oi? oa?e a?oioiaeo aiae (I. ?. Oeeaaiaiei, 1994).
I?e oeueiio aeieeathoue cia/i? ciie caa?oaeiaiiy, ui noai?th? i?iaeaio c
ieoiith aiaeith aeey n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Aaaaeathoue, ui a
na?aaeiueiio 17 % i?o?ao?a iaaeoiaeeoue aei i?aai?cio naia c ieoiith
aiaeith.

E??i i?o?ao?a iaaio caa?ico noai?ththoue oaeiae ooi?eno? niieoee,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy yeeo iaoiiaeaii ia o?eueee cia/ieie aeeeaeaie
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa ? i?enooi?noth ?o o oinoi?ieo i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?eaao, aea e iayai?noth a Oe?a?i? a?iaaio?i?/ieo i?ia?ioe?e c
iaaeeeoeii iai?aai?/ieo niieoe ooi?o a ieoi?e aiae? oa i?iaeoeoao
oa?/oaaiiy, iaea?eueoith c yeeo ? Ao/aenueea (A. I. Ieoi?a oa ?i.,
1987). Niieoee ooi?o c oa?/iaei ?aoe?iiii iio?aieythoue aei i?aai?cio
ethaeeie, ui ni?ey? ?icaeoeo neiioii?a o?ii?/ii? ooi?enoi?
?ioieneeaoe?? – oethi?ico (I. N. Ean(yiaiei oa ?i., 1993). Iaaeeeoie
ooi?o iniaeeai iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia i?aai?ci ae?oae. O ?aa?iiao, aea
?aoe?iie oa?/oaaiiy iathoue i?aeaeuaiee ai?no ooi?o, caei?iaeo ae?oae o
3,5 ?ace iaioa, i?ae o eiio?ieueieo ?aa?iiao (A. I. Aeueii?i oa ?i.,
1994).

?nio? oaeiae i?iaeaia caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey aaeiaaicai?uaieie
aoaeaaiaeiyie, a naia, oao?aoei?iaoaiii. Onoaiiaeaii, ui oa?i?i
iai?a?ic-eeaaeo eiai a aeiae?ee? noaiiaeoue 40 ?ie?a (G. N. Peterson et
al., 1994). I?i aeooaeuei?noue oe??? i?iaeaie na?ae/eoue ?nioaaiiy o NOA
i?aeia?iaeieo i?ia?ai, ye? ?ic?iaeythoue iaoiaee aoaeoeaiiai
ciaca?aaeaiiy a?oioiaeo aiae oa i/euaiiy ?o a?ae NNL4.

Aeeeeea? o?eaiao iioe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie – ?a/iaei, ye?
aeiaaaeythoue aei ?ae? i?ae /an ?? i?eaiooaaiiy, aieea yeeo ia i?aai?ci
inoaoi/ii ia c(yniaaii. Oea a?iiaoecaoi?e, eiina?aaioe, aa?aieee,
aioeieneaeaioe, i?aenieiaeaeoaa/? oa aaaaoi ?ioeo. Iniaeeai? oaaae
iio?aaothoue oa?/ia? aeiaaaee neioaoe/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Aeey ?o
iaea?aeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoue ia o?eueee iaoo?aeuei? ?a/iaeie, aea e
o?i?/i? niieoee, oae? ye nie?oe, a?iiaoe/i? aoaeaaiaei?, eaeoiie,
oo?aie, oeeee?/i?, aoeeee?/i? oa ea?aii?euei? niieoee (Ae. In. Gill,
1990, E. E. Aaa??anueeee, 1990, E. N. Seitz, 1990, A. E. Oeoia oa ?i.,
1993). ??ciiiai?oi?noue oa neeaaeia aoaeiaa oeeo ?a/iaei, ?o caeaoi?noue
?aaaoaaoe c a?eeaie, aoaeaaiaeaie, aee?aie oa ?ioeie ?a/iaeiaie
oa?/iaiai ?aoe?iio ? ia?aoai?thaaoenue i?e oeueiio ia ?a/iaeie ?c
iaa?aeiieie aeanoeainoyie, niiioea? a?aeiineoenue aei ?o oe?ieiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?c iaaecae/aeiith inoi?iaith, ine?eueee i?aai?ci ethaeeie
?ai?oa c ieie i?eiee ia ni?oeaany ? oiio ia ia? nenoaie aeey ?o
aeaoieneeaoe??. Aei oiai ae i?iaeaia oneeaaeith?oueny canoinoaaiiyi
eiia?iaoe?? oeeo ?a/iaei o oa?/iaiio ?aoe?ii?, ine?eueee noia?iee aieea
?o ia i?aai?ci ia aeine?aeaeaii. E?euee?noue oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny o oa?/ia?e i?iieneiaino? e?a?i ?a?iie ? NOA,
ia?aaeuo? 1500. Iaaeineiiae?noue aea?aeaaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie
i?eaiaeeoue aei i?iieeiaiiy ia ?eiie oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie, iaoai?ci ae??
yeeo ia i?aai?ci aeaoaeueii ia aea/aiee. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy no/anieo a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao
enaiia?ioee?a ia iaoaaie?/i? i?ioeane a i?aai?ci?.

sse aeiaaaeaii, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue enaiia?ioee?a aeeeeea? ii?ooaiiy
ieenieo i?ioean?a a ee?oeiao aeeaiai i?aai?cio. A?aeiii, ui a?eueo?noue
iaoaaie?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue cae?enith?oueny a i?e?iniiao ia/?iee oa a
i?oioiiae??yo (I. ss. Aieiaaiei, 1981). ?aaeoe?eii caeaoi?
?ioa?iaae?aoe, ui i?e oeueiio ooai?ththoueny, iiaeooue aeeeeeaoe ci?io
no?oeoo?e iaia?ai, ii?ooaiiy aeoeaiino? iaia?aiica(ycaieo oa?iaio?a oa
no?oeoo?iii?aai?ciaaieo eiiieaen?a. I?ioeane, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a iniia?
oeeo ii?ooaiue, ?o iine?aeiai?noue oa /a?aia?noue aei oeueiai /ano ia
c(yniaai?.

Ca oeeo ianoaaei iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei
c(ynoaaiiy iaoai?ci?a aieeao enaiia?ioee?a ia iaoaaie?/i? i?ioeane, a
oaeiae ?ic?iaea caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia iaiaaeaiiy i?iieeiaiiy ?o o
aioo??oi? na?aaeiaeua i?aai?cio, i?enei?aio ae?i?iaoe?th ?o c i?aai?cio,
?, c?aooith, iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ii?ooaiue iai?io ?a/iaei,
?iaeoeiaaieo enaiia?ioeeaie.

A iao /an aaaaea?oueny ia?niaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaioa?ieo oaeoi??a
ye aioeieneaeaio?a, ui coiiaeaii o/anoth ?o a a?io?i?/ieo i?ioeanao, ye?
aecia/athoue ee?oeiio ?acenoaioi?noue aei eenith oa aeicaieythoue
oe?eani?yiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?ioeieeni? aeanoeaino? ?a/iaei.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo oaeoi??a ? iaiao?aeiei aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ie?aieo a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe o neeaae?
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, aeyaeaiiy ?o iioeiaeueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue o
?aoe?ii? aeey ?ic?iaee cania?a ae?iaioa?ii? i?io?eaeoeee iaoieia?/ieo
noai?a, ye? aeeeeeathoue enaiia?ioeee, ? noai?aiiy i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy
ni?yiiaaii? ae??. Caeiiii??iei o oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ? ?ioa?an aei oaeeo
ioo?e?io?a ye ?aoeiie ? oieioa?ie, ye? iiaeooue ni?eyoe noaa?e?caoe??
no?oeoo?e i?oioiiae??aeueii? iaia?aie ? oei naiei ii?iae?coaaoe i?ioeane
aia?aicaaacia/aiiy oeaiei.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei anoaiiaeoe a?io?i?/i?
iaoai?cie ae?? ??cieo eean?a enaiia?ioee?a oa iacaaeainiaaiiai
oa?/oaaiiy ia ieeni? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo ? e?i?aeiee neeaae
aaiaoioeeo?a oa iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeei?a ae?iaioa?ii?
i?io?eaeoeee aeaieo i?ioean?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aei caaaeaiiy ?iaioe aoiaeeei:

aea/aiiy aieeao oiene/ieo ?a/iaei (ooi?eae iao??th, i?o?aoe,
oao?aoei?iaoai) ia i?ioeane ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo
ia/?iee;

aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?? oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie (ye iaoo?aeueieo, oae ?
neioaoe/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy) ia ieeni? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee;

aea/aiiy aieeao ia i?aai?ci iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieo aeae?a
iacaaeainiaaiiai oa?/oaaiiy (??ci? e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aee??a o ?aoe?ii?, aieea oinoie?i?ae?a);

anoaiiaeaiiy ca(yceo i?ae ci?iaie o neeaae? oa?/iaiai ?aoe?iio oa
iaoaaie?ciii o aaiaoioeeoao;

noai?aiiy iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei ae?iaioa?iiai caoenoo i?aai?cio a?ae
iani?eyoeeaiai aieeao oiene/ieo ?a/iaei ? iacaaeainiaaiiai oa?/oaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?e i?iaaaeaii?
aeine?aeaeaiue aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui a iaoiaaiac? caaaeueiioiene/ii?
ae?? aaaaoueio enaiia?ioee?a iniaeeai aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? ii?ooaiiy
ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee, iaoiiaeaia
iaeiie/aiiyi i?iaeoeo?a IIE, ui aaaea aei ooeiaeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii?
oe?e?niino? i?oioiiae??aeueii? iaia?aie, aeoeaiino? ca(ycaieo c iath
oa?iaio?a, a oaeiae cieaeaiith ai?noo aaeaiiceio?eoinoaoo. I?e oeueiio
oa?/oaaiiy aeyaey? iiaeeo?eoth/ee aieea ia ieeni? i?ioeane a ee?oeiao
ia/?iee.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?/ia? aeiaaaee ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy ? i?ecia/aiiy
(a?iiaoecaoi?e, cai?iieee oeoe?o) iiaeooue iaaaoeaii aieeaaoe ia
ieenii-a?aeiiai? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo iiae?aii aei oaeeo oiene/ieo
?a/iaei, ye ooi?eaee, i?o?aoe, oao?aoei?iaoai. Nooi?iue aieeao ia ieeni?
i?ioeane caeaaeeoue a?ae aeice ? o?eaaeino? ?o ae?? ia i?aai?ci.

Aea/aii caeiiii??iino? ci?i iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a e?i?aeii? oace —
caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a, oinoie?i?ae?a, oieanoa?ieo oa eiai ao???a,
aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo ne?iaaoee e?ia? ? oeaiei ia/?iee, i?iaeoeo?a
ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a — a ca(yceo c ??ciei ye?niei ?
e?euee?niei neeaaeii ?aoe?iio oa?/oaaiiy.

Aecia/aii oi?aa?naeueiee iaoai?ci ae?? o?i?/ieo oieneeaio?a ?
enaiia?ioee?a ?ae? ia ieeni? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo.
Iaeiini?yiiaai?noue ii?ooaiue i?ioean?a ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy
coiiaeaia ci?iaie aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a oeeeeo E?aana ? aeeoaeueiiai
eaioethaa, ci?iaie e?i?aeiiai neeaaeo ? no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? iaia?ai
i?oioiiae??e.

Aeyaeaii, ui ?niothoue caeiiii??iino? i?ae ye?niei ? e?euee?niei
e?i?aeiei neeaaeii ?aoe?iio ? nooiaiai aeoeaaoe?? i?ioean?a
ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a oa ci?iaie aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo
oeaiei i?aai?cio. Iieacaii, ui ?aae?caoe?y iaoai?cio ae?? iioeiaeueiiai
ca neeaaeii e?i?aeiiai eiiiiiaioo ?aoe?iio cae?enith?oueny /a?ac
noaa?e?caoe?th no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? iaia?ai
i?oioiiae??e.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy ?aoe?ii?a,
caaaa/aieo a?oai?iaie, ye i?e?iaeieie aioeieneaeaioaie, ?
iie?iaiane/aieie aee?ieie eeneioaie, i?e ii?ooaii? i?ioean?a ieeniiai
oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ca oiia ae?? oiene/ieo ?a/iaei.

C(yniaaii, ui caaeainiaai?noue oa?/oaaiiy aeicaiey? iii(yeoeoe iane?aeee
oiene/ii? ae?? ia i?aai?ci ie?aieo enaiia?ioee?a, cie?aia, ooi?eaeo
iao??th ? oao?aoei?iaoaio.

?ic?iaeaii iaoeia? i?aeoiaee aei nenoaie ae?iaioa?iiai caoenoo i?aai?cio
a?ae oiene/ii? ae?? enaiia?ioee?a, iniiaieie iieiaeaiiyie yei? ?
caaeainiaai?noue ?aoe?iio, eiai e?iio?iii?noue ? aioeieneaeaioia
ni?yiiaai?noue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie
noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy aeey ei?aeoe?? ?aoe?ii?a c
iaoith onoiaiiy iane?aee?a oiene/ii? ae?? enaiia?ioee?a, ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue cieceoe ?ioaineai?noue i?ioean?a IIE ? iiaeeo?eoaaoe
e?i?aeiee neeaae ee?oei ia/?iee, ii?iae?coaaoe ieenii-a?aeiiai? i?ioeane
a i?oioiiae??yo.

Aecia/aiiy noaio nenoaie “no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y
iaia?ai i?oioiiae??e – i?ioeane IIE – aioeieneaeaioiee caoeno i?aai?cio”
cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye ia(?eoeai? e?eoa??? aeey ioe?iee
nooiaiy oyaeeino? ii?ooaiue i?e ae?? enaiia?ioee?a aai aeenaaeaino
oa?/iaiai ?aoe?iio ia i?aai?ci.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao ?aoe?ii?a ?c niaoe?ae?ciaaieie
i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy ia noai e?i?aeiiai iai?io ? ooieoe?th
aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie a i?aai?ci?, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy i?e ae?? ia i?aai?ci oiene/ieo
?a/iaei.

Noai?aii iiaee oa?/iaee i?iaeoeo «Aoeao», yeee ai?iaaaeaeaii ye
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iee. Ca iaoa??aeaie ?iaioe iaea?aeaii iaoaio ia
aeiao?ae “Oa?/iaee i?iaeoeo “Aoeao” (? 9300611Oe a?ae 15. 07. 97 ?.).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoaii aeey iaienaiiy ? aeaeaiiy
iiiia?ao?? “Iaoiaaiac, i?io?eaeoeea ? e?eoaaiiy ooi?enoi?
?ioieneeaoe??”; Ee?a: Caei?ia(y, 1987. — 147 n. (a ni?aaao. ?c A. I.
Ieoi?aei ? A. ?. Niiey?ii).

Iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno

Onoaiiaeaiee caaaeueiee iaoai?ci ii?ooaiue iaoaaie?cio a ee?oei?
aiane?aeie ae?? ??cieo enaiia?ioee?a, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ca o?i?/ii?
no?oeoo?e.

Iaoai?ci caaaeueiioiene/ii? ae?? enaiia?ioee?a, iaoiiaeaiee
noeioeyoe??th i?ioean?a ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, ui aaaea aei
ci?ie e?i?aeiiai eiiiiiaioo ee?oei ia/?iee, ii?ooaiiy aeoeaiino? ieenieo
oa?iaio?a oa i?ioean?a ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy o i?oioiiae??yo ?
cieaeaiiy ai?noo aaeaiiceio?eoinoaoo.

Ci?ie iaoaaie?cio a ee?oei? i?ae aieeaii iacaaeainiaaiiai oa?/oaaiiy,
ye? iathoue oaeo ae ni?yiiaai?noue, ye ? i?e ae?? enaiia?ioee?a, ?
iiaeooue ei?aaoaaoeny niaoeeo?/ii ni?yiiaaiei oa?/oaaiiyi.

Iniiai? i?eioeeie ae?iaioa?iiai caoenoo i?aai?cio, ui aeeth/athoue
caaeainiaai?noue ?aoe?iio ca iniiaieie oa?/iaeie eiiiiiaioaie, eiai
e?iio?iii?noue ? aioeieneaeaioio ni?yiiaai?noue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe
aeeeaaeaii ia V Ananithciiio a?io?i?/iiio c(?cae? (Ee?a, 1986); 14
Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? ii o?aaeaiith oa aniieooaaiith (Oa?iii?eue,
1986); ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeieiai-a?a??i?/i?
i?iaeaie oa?/oaaiiy ianaeaiiy» (Ee?a, 1992); V Iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an?
c oa?/oaaiiy (Ieiaae?a, I?A, 1993); ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? aniaeoe ?ic?iaee i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy»
(Ee?a, 1993); I I?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiaiio eiia?an? «O?aaeeoe?eia
iaaeeoeeia ? oa?/oaaiiy» (Iineaa, 1994); 5-io Eiia?an? na?oiai?
oaaea?aoe?? Oe?a?inueeeo e?ea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1994); VII Oe?a?inueeiio a?io?i?/iiio c(?cae? (Ee?a, 1997); IV
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «O?aioe?y oa Oe?a?ia, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee
aeina?ae o eiioaeno? ae?aeiao iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?»
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997); Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«?aaa?e?oaoe?y oai?eo iioeeiai a?eo ?c caoai?thaaiiyi na?oeaai-noaeeiii?
nenoaie e oea?aa?aeueii-noaeeiiith iaoieia??th» (Ee?a, 1997);
Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aeia?a??ie ?
oieneeieia??» (Ee?a, 1998).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe caeiaoaa/ aoa iaoeiaei ea??aieeii oa a?aeiia?aeaeueiei
aeeiiaaoeai ie?aieo IAe?, ni?aaeeiiaaoeai o?aaiaio?a ?ia?o.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao enaiia?ioee?a ia aeoeai?noue
noeoeeiaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace oa i?ioeane ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a
i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee uo??a, a oaeiae i?ae?icae?ee 3.3, 3.4 ? 3.5
aeeiiai? caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi. Iieacieee e?i?aeiiai iai?io i?ae aieeaii
ooi?eaeo iao??th aeine?aeaeoaaee ?acii ?c ae.i.i. AEe?iiaei A. A.; ae?th
oao?aoei?iaoaio ia iieacieee iai?io e?i?ae?a aea/aee ?acii c ae.a.i.
O?iaa?iei E. E. ?ioiieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia a?eeo ieoao
i?iaiaeeee ?acii c /eai-ei?. IAIO, AII Oe?a?ie ? ?AII O?ieiaei A. O., ia
oai?eo ?c na?oeaai-noaeeiiith iaoieia??th – ?acii c e.a.i. Ae?icaeiaith
?. A.; iniaeeaa iiaeyea e.a.i. Io?aoei N. A. ca iaaeaio oaoi?/io
aeiiiiiao i?e aea/aii? aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo oeaiei.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 22 iaoeia? ?iaioe, a
oiio /ene? iaeia iiiia?ao?y ? iaeei iaoaio ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??ae?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a, nieneo
e?oa?aoo?e, ui neeaaea?oueny c 351 ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia
220 noi?., ia? o nai?io neeaae? 35 oaaeeoeue, 1 noaio.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ca ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Ee?anueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo a?a??ie oa?/oaaiiy (EIAe?AO).

IAOA??AEE ? IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeey noai?aiiy iiaeae? ooi?enoi? ?ioieneeaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaee ooi?eae
iao??th, yeee a i?aai?ci? oaeaeei aeenioe?th? c ooai?aiiyi ?iio ooi?o
(I. I. A?anoe?i oa ?i., 1971).

Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee ia a?eeo uo?ao-naioeyo. Aiaeiee ?ic/ei ooi?eaeo
iao??th uiaeaiii aaiaeeee oaa?eiai o oeoiie ca aeiiiiiaith ciiaea. A
aenia?eiaio? aeei?enoiaoaaee oiene/i? aeice ooi?enoiai iao??th – 35 ia/
ea iane o?ea ia i?ioyc? 3 ae?a, a oaeiae 2,4 ia/ ea (1/100 EAe50) aai
0,35 ia/ ea ia i?ioyc? 180 ae?a, ui a?aeiia?aea? o?e e?eueeino? ooi?o,
yea iae/ano?oa iaaeoiaeeoue aei i?aai?cio i?aoe?aiee?a i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa, caeiyoeo o ae?iaieoeoa? aethi?i?th oa oinoaoieo aeia?ea,
aai aeeoae?a ?aeii?a c eiioeaio?aoe??th ooi?o o ieoi?e aiae? a iaaeao
4-6 ia/ e, ui niinoa??aa?oueny a Ao/aenuee?e a?iaaio?i?/i?e
i?ia?ioe?? E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie (I. N. Ean(yiaiei
oa ?i., 1993). *anoeia oaa?ei a oiiaao o?eaaeiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a
i?aai?ci ooi?eaeo iao??th iaea?aeoaaea o oa?/iaiio ?aoe?ii?
?aoeiie-aoeaoao /e oieioa?ie aoeaoao o aeicao 70 iea/ea aai 5 iea/ea
iane o?ea a?aeiia?aeii. C iaoith c(ynoaaiiy iaoai?cio ae?? ooi?eaeo
iao??th a aeine?aeao in vitro aea/aee eiai aieea ia aeoeai?noue
noeoeeiaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace o i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee a caeaaeiino? a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? oa oa?i?io ae??.

Aieea ia?ieneaeo aiaeith ia ieenia oinoi?eethaaiiy aea/aee a oiiaao
aeiaeaaaiiy eiai a eiioeaio?aoe?? 1 — 5 ieI I2I2 aei noniaic??
i?oioiiae??e.

Aeey aea/aiiy ae?? i?o?ao?a ia i?ioeane ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a
i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee aeei?enoiaoaaee i?o?ao iao??th. Aeine?aee
aeeiioaaee ye ia iiaiia?iaeaeaieo, oae e ia aei?ineeo uo?ao. O
aeine?aeieo a?oiao iiaiia?iaeaeaiei uo?aiyoai aioo??oiueioeoieiai
aaiaeeee ia i?ioyc? 14 ae?a ?ic/ei i?o?aoo iao??th o aeicao 1/2 EAe50 —
1089,5, 1/4 EAe50 ( 544,0, 1/8 EAe50 ( 272,4 ia/ea NO3- ia 1 ea iane
o?ea a?aeiia?aeii. Aei?ine? uo?e io?eioaaee i?o?ao o a?iaea?aaeaioieo
aeicao: 1/2 EAe50 ( 2250,0; 1/4 EAe50 ( 1125,0; 1/8 EAe50 – 562,5 ia/ea.
Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii (I. ?. Ia?eia,
E. ?. Iieyeia, 1974), aea roo iacaeaaeii a?ae ciaeo i?eeiaee ca aaee/ei
a?ae 0 aei 0,29 – ye iaeo; 0,30 — 0,69 – ye na?aaeith; 0,70 — 1,0 – ye
neeueio ei?aeyoe?th.

Aeine?aee ii aea/aiith aieeao oao?aoei?iaoaio ia iieacieee ieeniiai
oinoi?eethaaiiy o i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee oa noai aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie
i?aai?cio aeeiioaaee ia a?eeo uo?ao-naioeyo. Iioeiaeaeaiiy ia/?iee o
uo??a aeine?aeieo a?oi aeeeeeaee oeyoii o?ueio?aciaiai
aioo??oiueioeoieiaiai aaaaeaiiy 4 ie/ea iane o?ea 40 % ?ic/eio
oao?aoei?iaoaio o niiyoieeia?e ie??. O uo??a III oa IV a?oi iieiaeio
e?i?aeiiai eiiiiiaioo a ?aoe?ii? cai?ithaaee ia niiyoieeiaee aai ni?aee
oinoaoeaeiee eiioeaio?ao a?aeiia?aeii.

I?aenieiaeaeoaa/ naoa?ie, aeeo/aiee c aeaieenoieea nieiaeeiai, o 300
?ac?a nieiaeoee a?ae naoa?ice. Aieiai? ?a/iaeie naoa?ieo neeaaeathoue
aeeoa?iaiia? ae?eiceaee noaa?iceae (60 %) oa ?aaaoae?iceaee A ? A (30
%). Ca iaeneiaeueii ia?aiineio aeico naoa?ieo aoea i?eeiyoa oaea, ui a
noao?ii?/iiio aenia?eiaio? ia aeeeeeaea caaeaae? oaa?ei ? aaeueioaaea
ca?eueoaiiy iane o?ea ia a?eueo i?ae ia 10 % o ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieueieie oaa?eiaie. Aeine?aei? uo?e iaea?aeoaaee naoa?ie o
e?eueeino? 3,6 ia/ea iane o?ea, ui ca nieiaee?noth aaeaeaaoii
o?c?ieia?/iiio ii?iaoeao oeoe?o, a oaeiae ca?eueoaio o 10 oa 50 ?ac?a
e?euee?noue naoa?ieo (36 oa 180 ia/ea iane o?ea a?aeiia?aeii) i?ioyaii 5
i?nyoe?a.

Aeey aea/aiiy aieeao naoa?ieo ia i?ioeane ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy o
i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee aeei?enoiaoaaee a?eeo uo??a-naioe?a c ?iaeoeiaaiei
oeoe?iaei ae?aaaoii. Ae?aaao aeeeeeaee oeyoii aioo??oiueioeoieiaiai
aaaaeaiiy aeienaio o aeic? 150 ia/ea iane o?ea i?ney 48-aiaeeiiiiai
aieiaeoaaiiy. *a?ac aeaa oeaei? o oaa?ei aecia/aee ai?no aetheice o
ne?iaaooe? e?ia?. A aenia?eiaio a?aee o?eueee oeo oaa?ei, o yeeo
eiioeaio?aoe?y aetheice a ne?iaaooe? aoea i?aeaeuaiith a?ae 12 aei 25
iiieue/e.

Aea/aiiy aieeao neioaoe/iiai i?aenieiaeaeoaa/a ioeciio (eae??aa n?eue
6-e?o?e-3,4-aeaa?ae?i-1,2,3-ieneo?acei-4-II-2,2-aeeieneaeo)
cae?enithaaee ia a?eeo uo?ao-naioeyo. Oaa?eie iaea?aeoaaee ioecii o
aeicao, ui neeaaeaee 1/50 EAe50, III a?oie – 1/100 EAe50, IV a?oie –
1/1000 EAe50 (160, 80 ? 8 ia/ea iane o?ea a?aeiia?aeii). Iieacieee
ci?iaee /a?ac 4 i?nyoe? a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo.

A?aoiaoth/e aeinoaoiuei aenieee ??aaiue naiii?i?a o i?iaeoeoao
oa?/oaaiiy oa iaiaeiicia/i?noue aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e i?i ?o oiene/i?noue
aea/aee aieea oaeeo niieoe ia i?aai?ci o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo a a?a??i? oa?/oaaiiy oa oa?/ia?e oieneeieia??
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. A?aeiinii aeai?o e?eueeino? naiii?i?a aeoiaeeee c aeice,
yeo aeei?enoiaothoue a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa oaeae (300 ia/ea). Aeico
?ic?aoiaoaaee ia iaeeieoeth iane o?ea ethaeeie, aacoth/enue ia
?aaeueiiio aaeeaaii? i?iaeoeoo (0,5 ea ia aeiao). O oae?e e?eueeino?
oaeae i?noeoueny 150 ia naiii?i?a, oiaoi 2,2 ia naiii?i?a ia 1 ea iane
o?ea. E??i oiai aeine?aei? a?oie oaa?ei io?eioaaee a 50 ? 100 ?ac?a
ca?eueoaio aeico naiii?i?a (110 oa 220 ia/ea iane o?ea a?aeiia?aeii).
Iieacieee ci?iaee /a?ac 2, 5 oa 10 i?nyoe?a a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo.

Ca ia(?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei oaeiae aeei?enoaii a?iiaoe/i? eiiiiceoe??,
ui ?i?oothoue caiao i(yna oa yaeythoue niaith eiia?iaoe?th a?iiaoe/ieo
?a/iaei a?n(oo?oo?ie)aeenoeueo?aeo, 2-iaoee-2-i?iiaio?ieo,
a?n(2-iaoeeae?e)noeueo?aeo, 2-o?ioaio?ieo. Oaa?eie uiaeaiii ia i?ioyc? 4
i?nyoe?a iaea?aeoaaee oe? i?aia?aoe o aeicao, ui neeaaeaee 1/20 EAe 50,
oiaoi 249 ia/ea iane o?ea. Ia i?ioyc? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ia??iaeo
noia?ia aeica neeaaeaea 4,5 EAe50.

Aieea noi?o? ai?iieeneio ia i?ioeane ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy aea/aee ia
a?eeo uo?ao i?ioyaii 10 i?nyoe?a. Oaa?ei o?eiaee ia ?aoe?ii?, o yeiio 25
% a?ee?a cai?ithaaee ia noi?o ai?iieeneio, iaea?aeaio ?c a?aeoiae?a
i(ynii? i?iieneiaino? /e ?c e?ia? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae.

Ca?aeii c ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie Anana?oiuei? i?aai?caoe?? ioi?iie caei?ia(y
e?euee?noue aee??a iiaeiia neeaaeaoe a?ae 15 % (ieaeiy iaaea) aei 30 %
(aa?oiy iaaea) aeiaiai? aia?aaoe/ii? oe?iiino? ?aoe?iio ethaeeie. Oiio
i?e i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioo aeei?enoaii naia oae? e?eueeino?, a oaeiae
23 % – na?aaei? cia/aiiy aaee/eie aee?o o neeaae? ?aoe?iio.

Aea/aiiy aieeao ia i?aai?ci ??cii? e?eueeino? oa ??cieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue
aee??a ?ineeiiiai oa oaa?eiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy o ?aoe?ii? i?iaiaeeee o
o?ii?/iiio aenia?eiaio? ia 240 a?eeo uo?ao-naioeyo, ye? iaea?aeoaaee
?ciaia?aaoe/i? ?aoe?iie, caaeainiaai? ca ai?noii oa?/iaeo eiiiiiaio?a.
Oaa?ei iiae?eyee ia 3 a?oie, ye? iaea?aeoaaee 15, 23 /e 30 % aee?o c
oa?/iaei ?aoe?iiii.

Neeaae ?aoe?iio, % I a?oia II a?oia III a?oia

AEe? 15 23 30

A?eie 18 18 18

Aoaeaaiaee 67 59 52

Eiaeia c oeeo a?oi oaa?ei a naith /a?ao aoea iiae?eaia ia 3 i?aea?oie
(A, A, N), ye? iaea?aeoaaee ie?th ? ey?ae a?aeiia?aeii o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo 1 : 3,3; 1 : 2; 1 : 1,3. Aecia/aiiy i?iaiaeeee /a?ac 1,
3, 6 ? 10 i?nyoe?a a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo.

Aieea oinoie?i?aeiiai eiioeaio?aoo aea/aee ia 200 a?eeo uo?ao. Oaa?eie
aeine?aeieo a?oi iaea?aeoaaee 5, 50 /e 100 % oinoaoeaeiiai eiioeaio?aoo
cai?noue a?aeiia?aeii? e?eueeino? niiyoieeiai? ie?? ? ey?aeo a?ae ?o
aia?aaoe/ii? oe?iiino?. Aia?aaoe/ia oe?ii?noue eiio?ieueiiai ?aoe?iio
(1,696 iAeae/100 a) aoea anueiai ia 4,5 % a?eueoa a?ae ?aoe?iio ?c 100
% cai?iith (1,620 iAeae/100 a) aiane?aeie oiai, ui aia?aioe?ii?noue
oinoaoeaeiiai eiioeaio?aoo iaioa, i?ae o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a ? neeaaeaea
a?ey 27,21 eAeae/a. Iieacieee ci?iaee /a?ac 1 oa 6 i?nyoe?a a?ae ii/aoeo
aenia?eiaioo.

?ic?iaeaiee iaie ?acii c ni?a?ia?oieeaie ?inoeoooo o?i?? oa oaoiieia??
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a AII Oe?a?ie aeno?oc?eiee i?iaeoeo «Aoeao»
neeaaea?oueny c 55 % e?oi(yii? ne?iaeie (ioaieoey, eoeo?oaeca, ?en,
ai?io, iaan), aaaaoi? ia a?oai?i ?, 14 % nooiai iieiea, ui i?noeoue
a?oai?i A, 10 % niiyoieeiai? ie??, ui i?noeoue oieioa?iee, 16 % oeoe?o,
5 % noi?o? ai?iieeneio a?ae?ie?caoii?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao i?aia?aoo “Aoeao” ia ?ioiio a?aeiia?aeue i?aai?cio
cae?enithaaee ia a?eeo ieoao e?i?? NAA. O ia?o?e na??? aeine?ae?a
i?aeaeine?aeia a?oia iaea?aeoaaea i?aia?ao “Aoeao” o e?eueeino? 40 ia ia
1 a iane o?ea i?ioyaii 5 ae?a, o ae?oa?e na??? – o oae?e nai?e
e?eueeino? ia i?ioyc? 18 ae?a. Ii cae?i/aii? no?ieo aenia?eiaioo
aecia/aee ai?no o naeac?ioe? ?ioiieo ?i-caoeiooai?thth/eo ee?oei (? –
?OE), a oaeiae oeo? aaiie?cei?a oa aaiaaethoei?i?a o ne?iaaooe?
ia?eoa?e/ii? e?ia?.

C iaoith aea/aiiy aieeao i?aia?aoo “Aoeao” ia ?ioiio a?aeiia?aeue o
ethaeae ianoaaeaii aeaaaeoeyoue /ieia?e?a, oai?eo ia ?oai?/io oai?iao
na?oey (?ON) aac ?ioa?eoa i?iea?aea, na?aaei?e a?e yeeo neeaaeaa 52,6 (
2,8 ?iee, noaae i?aoe? ia ae?iaie/iio ia(?aeiaii? “I?aaeaiiee
iaoeiiaoae?aiee caaiae” – 22,3 ( 7,6 ?ie?a, o?eaae?noue caoai?thaaiiy –
8,3 ( 1,5 ?iee. Oai?eo aoei iiae?eaii ia aea? a?oie. Aei ? a?oie oa?eoee
aeanyoue /ieia?e?a, ye? a aiaoeaoi?ieo oiiaao iaea?aeoaaee ii 100 a
i?iaeoeoo “Aoeao” ia aeiao. Aeanyoue /ieia?e?a, ye? neeaaeaee
eiio?ieueio a?oio, ciaoiaeeeeny ia aeiiaoiueiio ?aoe?ii?. Ia i?ioyc?
iaeiiai i?nyoey i?iaiaeeee o?aaeeoe?eia iaaeeeaiaioicia e?eoaaiiy on?o
oai?eo ? oa ?? a?oi. I?ney cae?i/aiiy ia??iaeo e?eoaaiiy aea/aee a ?o
e?ia? ai?no O- oa A-e?ioioeeo?a, a oaeiae ai?no ?, A oa
I-?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a.

I?oioiiae??? ?c ia/?iee uo??a aeae?eyee ca iaoiaeii D. Jonson, H. Lardy
(1967). Aecia/aiiy noeoeeiaoaeaa?ae?iaaiacii? aeoeaiino? i?iaiaeeee ca
iaoiaeii T. P. Singer (1974). Oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy eenith
i?oioiiae??yie aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii B. Chance, G. R. Williams, 1955; A.
Ae. Aeiia?aaeia c ni?a. (1978). Aeoeai?noue AO?-ace aecia/aee ca
iaoiaeii H. Bradford (1976). E?euee?noue a?eea aecia/aee ca a?o?aoiaith
?aaeoe??th (A. Gornall et all, 1949). Aaeai?eia? ioeeaioeaee aiae?coaaee
iaoiaeii aeaeo?ioi?aco (O. A. Aaenoa?i, I. I. Aa?a, 1957),
eiioeaio?aoe?th ?o aea/aee niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ii (I. Ni???i, 1957).
Aeno?aeoe?th e?i?ae?a ?c ia/?iee i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii G. Folch et al.
(1957). Aiae?oe/iee iiae?e noia?ieo e?i?ae?a cae?enithaaee
o?iiaoia?ao?/ii (A. Ooaeue, 1965). ??aaiue a?eueiiai oa ca(ycaiiai
oieanoa?ieo a e?i?aeieo aeno?aeoao aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii A. J.
Courchaine et al. (1959) oa M. J. Yasuda (1932). Aecia/aiiy ai?noo
oieanoa?ieo e?iii?ioa?i?a aeniei? u?eueiino? (EIAU) oa ?iaeaeno
aoa?iaaiiino? i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii I. I. Eeeiiaa oa ?. ?. Aaiae?ii?
(1975). Ai?no noia?ieo oinoie?i?ae?a aecia/aee ca iiaeeo?eiaaiei
iaoiaeii R.J.L. Allen (1940). Ai?no oinoi?o a e?i?aeieo o?aeoe?yo
aei??thaaee iaoiaeii (I. Eaeon, 1975). ?ioaineai?noue i?ioean?a
ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a ioe?ithaaee ca ai?noii ae??iiaeo
eii(thaao?a (R. A. Klein, 1970). ?iaeaen ieeneaiiy aecia/aee ye
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaeeiaiiy c?aceo e?i?ae?a i?e aeiaaeei? oaee? 233 ii
aei aeiaaeeie oaee?, i?e ye?e iiaeeiaiiy i?iii?oe?eia aei noia?ii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? e?i?ae?a o c?aceo – 216 ii. E?euee?noue iaeiiiaiai
ae?aeueaeaa?aeo aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii H. Ohkawa (1979). Ai?no ?aoeiieo a
ia/?ioe? o uo??a aei??thaaee oethi?iiao?e/ii ca iaoiaeii B. D. Druyan
(1971). Aeaeo?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?neieieo oinoie?i?aeieo iaia?ai
ci?iaee ia i?eeaae?, i?eioeeiiaa noaia yeiai iienaia E. ?. Aieoaen
(1971). AEe?iieeneioiee neeaae oeaiei aea/aee ia o?iiaoia?ao?
«?ioa?niao?» GC 121 DFL n aeaoaeoi?ii Ae?I. Iaoeethaaiiy aee?ieo eeneio
i?iaiaeeee ii iaoiaeo Eaie?ia A.C., Naaeiai?eiaie I.I. (1971). Oeo?
aaiie?cei?a oa aaiaaethoei?i?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ieoae aecia/aee ca
iaoiaeii I. A. A(yciaa (1967). Ai?no ?ioiieo ?icaoeiooai?thth/eo ee?oei
o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ieoae aeine?aeaeoaaee ca iaoiaeii E. Aai (1979).
E?euee?noue ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a aecia/aee iaoiaeii ?aae?aeueii?
?ioiiaeeooc?? ca Manchini, e?euee?noue O- oa A-e?ioioeeo?a
aeine?aeaeoaaee iaoiaeii niiioaiiiai oa eiiieaiaioa?iiai
?icaoeiooai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii (A. O?eiaeue, 1987). Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeee ca No(thaeaioii — O?oa?ii ?
aaaaeaee ?o a??ia?aeieie i?e p < 0,05. ?ACOEUeOAOE OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss Ieeni? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo ca ae?? ooi?eaeo iao??th Caaacia/aiiy aia?a??th aeeaeo ee?oei o?nii iia(ycaia c aacia?a?aiei iinoa/aiiyi a?aeiiaethaaeueieo aea?aaeaio?a ?c oeeeeo o?eea?aiiiaeo eeneio noeoeeiaoaeaa?ae?iaaiacith (EO 1.3.99.1) oa NADH-aeaa?ae?iaaiacith (EO 1.6.99.3) a aeeoaeueiee eaioetha, eieae?ciaaiee o aioo??oi?e iaia?ai? i?oioiiae??e. ?ai?oa iaie aoei c(yniaaii, ui ooi?eae iao??th iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a oeeeeo E?aano ? aeeoaeueiiai eaioethaa, oiaoi ia ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue i?oioiiae??e (E. O. Eaa?ooaiei, 1984). Nooi?iue iaaaoeaiiai aieeao caeaaeeoue a?ae aeice oa oa?i?io ae?? enaiia?ioeea ia i?aai?ci oaa?ei. Aeine?aee aoei aeeiiaii ia oe?e?niiio i?aai?ci?, a yeiio ia aeoeai?noue noeoeeiaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii aieeaa? cia/ia e?euee?noue oaeoi??a. I?iaaaeai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui /a?ac 5 oa ?ieoaaoe?? noniaic?? i?oioiiae??e a i?enooiino? 1 iI NaF niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy noeoeeiaaeaa?ae?iaaiacii? aeoeaiino? ia 21 %, yea caa??aa?oueny ia oiio ae naiiio ??ai? i?ioyaii 20 oa. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ooi?eaeo iao??th o na?aaeiaeu? ?ieoaaoe?? c 1 aei 5 iI aeeeeea? i?eai?/aiiy noeoeeiaoaeaa?ae?iaaiacii? aeoeaiino? o 2 ?ace. I?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? NaF aei 10 iI ciaioaiiy oa?iaioaoeaii? aeoeaiino? aoei iacia/iei (6 %). Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao noeoeeiaoo ia aeoeai?noue noeoeeiaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace a i?enooiino? 10 iI ooi?eaeo iao??th iieacaee, ui aeoeai?noue oa?iaioo aeaui i?aeaeuoaaeanue (ia 10 %) i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? noeoeeiaoo 40 ieI. Iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy oa?iaioaoeaii? aeoeaiino? a?aeaoaaeiny i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? noeoeeiaoo 50 ieI. Oaeei /eiii, noeoeeiao o iaai?e eiioeaio?aoe?? ni?ey? iiaiiio a?aeiiaeaiith ia?aeiii? aeoeaiino? oa?iaioo. Aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a, cie?aia noeoeeiaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace, a ee?oei? caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae e?eueeino? oa aeanoeainoae oa?iaioaoeaiiai a?eea, nooiaiy iane/aiino? eiai eioa?iaioii, aea e a?ae iayaiino? aeoeaaoi??a, ?ia?a?oi??a, aeinooiiino? noano?aoo, ui a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae noaio iaia?aie. Iiaeeeai, ui a i?aai?ci? ae?y ?ii?a ooi?o iiaea aooe iai?aaeaia ia i?oioiiae??aeueio iaia?aio, ui aeeeeea? ci?io ?? no?oeoo?e, aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a oa iia(ycaieo c ieie i?ioean?a ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy. Aei??e, i?iaaaeai? iaie ia ieineeo a?neieieo oinoie?i?aeieo iaia?aiao, iieacaee, ui ai?iie ooi?o ia iiaeeo?eothoue i?ia?aei?noue e?i?aeiiai a?neith ? inoaiiy caeeoa?oueny ia ??ai?, ui i?eoaiaiiee ?ioei iaeiiaaeaioiei ?iiai. Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i a?aenooi?noue aaciina?aaeiuei? aca?iiae?? ?iio ooi?o c oinoie?i?aeiei eiiiiiaioii a?iiaia?ai, oiaoi eiai aieea iiina?aaeeiaaiee ?ioeie i?ioeanaie. C iaeiiai aieo, aoaeo enaiia?ioeea iiaea cae?enithaaoenue /a?ac aaciina?aaei?e aieea i?iaeoeo?a ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (IIE) ia oa?iaioe oeeeeo E?aana, a c ae?oaiai aieo ( ia iaia?aio iiaeooue aieeaaoe ia?ieneaee, ii?oooth/e ?? no?oeoo?io oe?e?ni?noue ? oaeei /eiii ni?eythoue cieaeaiith ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? i?oioiiae??e. Iieacaii, ui ia?ieneae aiaeith a eiioeaio?aoe?? 5 ieI ii?ooo? iaoai?ci ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy (oaae. 1). Oaaeeoey 1 Ieenia oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee i?ae aieeaii ia?ieneaeo aiaeith, M(m Oiiae aeine?aeo Oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy eenith, ieiieue/oa ia 1 ia a?eea Aeeoaeueiee eiio?ieue, Oaeaee?noue oinoi?eeth-aaiiy, [AAe?] ieiieue/oa ia 1 ia a?eea Eiao?oe??io oinoi?eeth-aaiiy, Eiio?ieue 0,044(0,003 0,017(0,001 2,68(0,23 0,065((0,005 1,93(0,11 +5 ieI I2I2 0,022(0,001* 0,019(0,001 1,16(0,12* 0,028*(0,003 0,90(0,08* % aaeueioaaiiy (50 +11 (57 (57 (53 Ooo ? aeae? * - a?aei?iiino? a??ia?aei? o ii??aiyi? c eiio?ieai, ? < 0,05. I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii aoaeo ciaioaiiy nooiaiy ni?yaeaiiy ieeneaiiy noeoeeiaoo c oinoi?eethaaiiyi a i?oioiiae??yo aiane?aeie ??ceiai (ia 50 %) cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? aeeoaiiy a iaoaaie?/iiio noai? 3 (V3). Oea aea? i?aenoao aaaaeaoe, ui ii?ooaiiy aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a oeeeeo E?aana e aeeoaeueiiai eaioethaa, a oaeiae i?ioean?a ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee ni?e/eith?oueny ia?ieneaeaie, ye? ooai?ththoueny o ee?oei? i?ae ae??th enaiia?ioee?a. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, i?aaenoaaeai? a oaae. 2, na?ae/aoue, ui ?iaeaen ieeneaiiy aee?ieo eeneio noia?ieo e?i?ae?a ia/?iee o a?eeo uo??a, yeei aaiaeeee uiaeaiii ii 0,35 ia/ea ooi?eaeo iao??th i?ioyaii 180 ae?a, a??ia?aeii aeua, i?ae o eiio?ieueieo oaa?ei. Oea iiaeeeai, oi/a a /anoeiai, iia(ycaii c? anoaiiaeaiei iaie cieaeaiiyi ??ai?a oinoaoeaeeeoie?io e oinoaoeaeeeaoaiieai?io – iaea?eueo iaiane/aiiai oinoie?i?aeo (oaae. 3). Oaaeeoey 2 Ai?no oieanoa?ieo, ?aoeiieo oa ?iaeaen ieeneaiino? e?i?ae?a o ia/?ioe? uo??a i?e aaaaeaii? ooi?eaeo iao??th, M(m Oiiae aeine?aeo Oieanoa?ie, ia/ a ne?i? oeaieie ?aoeiie, iea/ a ?iaeaen ieen- noia?iee a?eueiee c(aycaiee ne?i? oeaieie eaiino? Eiio?ieue 5,52 ( 0,20 3,36 ( 0,06 2,20 ( 0,21 126,3 ( 9,4 0,29 ( 0,013 Ooi?eae iao??th, 0,35 ia/ ea, 180 ae?a 4,91 ( 0,11* 1,56 ( 0,04* 3,35 ( 0,12* 114,9 ( 8,9 0,34 ( 0,011* Ooi?eae iao??th, 2,4 ia/ ea, 180 ae?a 5,19 ( 0,28 1,12 ( 0,04* 4,07 ( 0,28* 101,2 ( 7,5* 0,36 ( 0,01* Oaaeeoey 3 Ai?no oinoie?i?ae?a o ia/?ioe? uo??a i?e aaaaeaii? ooi?eaeo iao??th, M(m Oiiae aeine?aeo Caaaeueiee ai?no oinoie?i?ae?a No?iaii?ae?i+oinoaoeaeee-?iiceo Oinoaoeaeee-oie?i Oinoaoeaeee-aoaiieai?i Aeeoinoaoeaeee-ae?oea?ei +oinoaoeaeia eeneioa iea e?i?aeiiai oinoi?o ia 1 a ne?i? oeaieie Eiio?ieue 1255,0 ( 93,0 214,6 ( 9,2 542,2 ( 17,1 384,0 ( 12,2 62,8 ( 2,5 Ooi?eae iao??th, 0,35 ia/ ea, 180 ae?a 1098,0 ( 61,0 196,5 ( 9,9 486,4 ( 16,3* 322,8 ( 11,4* 52,7 ( 2,7* Ooi?eae iao??th, 2,4 ia/ ea, 180 ae?a 890,0 ( 47,0* 154,0 ( 5,7* 407,6 ( 13,7* 252,8 ( 7,9* 47,2 ( 3,6* Cieaeaiiy ai?noo ?aoeiieo, ye iaeiiai ?c eiiiiiaio?a aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie, ui aeyaeaii a oeaieiao oaa?ei, iiaeeeai iia(ycaii c a?eueo ?ioaineaiei eiai aeei?enoaiiyi a oiiaao ooi?enoi? ?ioieneeaoe??,. I?e ca?eueoaii? aeice ooi?eaeo iao??th aei 2,4 ia/ea ciaioo?oueny ia o?eueee caaaeueiee ai?no oinoie?i?ae?a, aea e an?o eiai o?aeoe?e (P < 0,05). Ai?no noia?iiai oieanoa?ieo ciaioo?oueny o ia/?ioe? uo??a o?eueee i?e aeic? 0,35 ia/ ea ia 180 aeiao, aea ia?a?iciiae?e eiai o?aeoe?e ia? oaeo ae naio ni?yiiaai?noue, ui e i?e aeic? 2,4 ia/ ea, oiaoi a?aeaoaa?oueny a??ia?aeia ciaioaiiy a?eueiiai oieanoa?ieo ? ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ca(ycaiiai. Aeacai? ci?ie aeanoea? aeey ianiaoeeo?/ii? a?aeiia?ae? i?aai?cio ia iaia?aiiooeiaeaeoth/o ae?th oiene/iiai aaaioa. A?aeiii, ui i?aeo?eiaiiy ii?iaeueii? ??aeeiiino? a?ieia?/ieo iaia?ai caaacia/o?oueny o cia/i?e i??? aee?iieeneioiei neeaaeii oinoie?i?ae?a. Ciaioaiiy caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ? ci?ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo oinoie?-i?aeieo o?aeoe?e ni?ey? eiiiainaoi?iiio ca?eueoaiith ai?noo oieanoa?ieo a i?oioiiae??aeuei?e iaia?ai?, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iaie ?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeanoeainoae, aiane?aeie /iai a ee?oeiao oaa?ei aeieea? aeao?oeeo iae?ia?a?/ieo niieoe. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui ooi?eae iao??th o aeic? 0,35 ia/ea iane o?ea /a?ac 180 aei?a aeeeeea? ??cea cieaeaiiy ai?noo AO? a oeaieiao ia/?iee a?eeo uo??a o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai (? < 0,05). I?e oeueiio c?inoa? o 2,5 ?aca e?euee?noue AAe?, iiaeeeai, ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy AO?-acii? aeoeaiino? (oaae. 4). Oaaeeoey 4 Ai?no aaeai?eiaeo ioeeaioeae?a oa aeoeai?noue AO?-ace a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee uo??a i?e aaaaeaii? ooi?eaeo iao??th, M(m Oiiae aeine?aeo Ai?no aaeai?eiaeo ioeeaioeae?a, ieiieue/ia a?eea Aeoeai?noue AO?-ace, ieaoii ?i/ia AI? AAe? AO? a?eea Eiio?ieue 0,369 ( 0,068 0,285 ( 0,007 0,502 ( 0,023 0,70 ( 0,10 Ooi?eae iao??th, 0,35 ia/ ea, 180 ae?a 0,186 ( 0,006* 0,696 ( 0,018* 0,219 ( 0,004* 1,14 ( 0,09* Oaeei /eiii, ca ae?? ooi?eaeo iao??th a ia/?ioe? uo??a niinoa??aa?oueny noeioeyoe?y i?ioean?a IIE, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie ?? e?i?aeii? eiiiiiaioe, a oaeiae ii?ooaiiy aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a, iia(ycaieo c iaia?aiith, ? ni?e/eith? aeao?oeeo aaeaiiceio?eoinoaoo o oeaieiao. I?e oeueiio ia? cia/aiiy ia o?eueee aeica ooi?eaeo, aea e oa?i?i eiai ae?? ia i?aai?ci. Ieeni? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo a oiiaao aieeao ie?aieo i?iieneiaeo oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oieneeaio?a I ? o ? a o e. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aieeao i?o?aoo iao??th ia aei?ineeo oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo uo??a i?aaenoaaeai? a oaae. 5. Oaaeeoey 5 Ieenia oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee uo??a i?e aaaaeaii? i?o?aoa iao??th, M(m Oiiae aeine?aeo Oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy eenith, ieiieue/oa ia 1 ia a?eea Eiao?oe??io aeeoaeueiiai eiio?ieth, Oaeaee?noue oinoi?eethaai-iy, [AAe?] ieiieue/oa ia 1 ia a?eea Eiao?oe??io oinoi?eeth- 0,034(0,005* 0,015(0,002 2,14(0,20 0,036(0,004 1,040(0,09* r/oo ( ( 0,82 ( 0,71 0,036(0,003* 0,020(0,002 1,75(0,098* 0,056(0,005 1,48(0,06* r/oo ( ( 0,03 ( 0,03 Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy i?o?aoa iao??th o aeicao, ye? neeaaeathoue 1/2, 1/4 aai 1/8 EAe50 i?ioyaii 14 ae?a, aeeeeea? a??ia?aeia ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioo aeeoaeueiiai eiio?ieth, oaeaeeino? oa eiao?oe??ioo oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee ye aei?ineeo, oae ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo uo??a. I?e oeueiio o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo uo?aiyo anoaiiaeaia /?oea caeaaei?noue ii?ooaiue ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? i?oioiiae??e a?ae aeice i?o?aoo iao??th, oiae? ye o aei?ineeo oaa?ei oaei? /?oei? caeaaeiino? ia aeyaeaii. Oaeei /eiii, i?e io?o?ii? i?o?aoaie ci?ith?oueny ia o?eueee neeaae ? ooieoe?? aaiiaeia?io (?. ?. E?eaeoeueea, ?. A. AEoe, 1994), aea ? ciaiueoo?oueny ooieoe?iiaeueia aeoeai?noue i?oioiiae??e, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeao?oeeoo a oeaieiao iae?ia?a?/ieo niieoe. O a o ? a o e i ? i a o a i. Iaea?aeai? iaie aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui aaaaeaiiy oao?aoei?iaoaio a i?aai?ci aeeeeea? ??cea ?ic(?aeiaiiy i?ioean?a aeeoaiiy ? oinoi?eethaaiiy oa cieaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aeeoaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo (oaae. 6). Oaaeeoey 6 Ieenia oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee uo??a i?e aaaaeaii? oao?aoei?iaoaio, M(m Oiiae Oaeaee?noue oinoi?eethaaiiy, [AAe?] Eiio?ieue 0,037(0,005 0,014(0,003 2,80(0,12 0,074(0,008 2.02(0,15 Aeine?ae 0,023(0,002* 0,012(0,002 1,94(0,06* 0,043(0,004* 1,51(0,09* ?acii c oeei, o ia/?ioe? niinoa??aathoueny ci?ie iieaciee?a e?i?aeiiai iai?io: noaoenoe/ii a??ia?aeia c?inoaiiy ai?noo noia?ieo e?i?ae?a, iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo, ae??iiaeo eii(thaao?a (oaae. 7). Oaaeeoey 7 Ai?no noia?ieo e?i?ae?a, iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo, ae??iiaeo eii(thaao?a oa noia?iiai oieanoa?ieo a ia/?ioe? uo??a i?ae aieeaii oao?aoei?iaoaio, M(m Oiiae aeine?aeo Noia?i? e?i?aee, ia/a Iaeiiiaee ae?aeueaeaa?ae, ieiieue/a Ae??iia? eii(thaaoe, ieiieue/a Noia?iee oieanoa?ie, ia/a Eiio?ieue 61,9 ( 7,8 0,90 ( 0,03 0,15 ( 0,02 3,91 ( 0,34 Aeine?ae 229,8 ( 53,7* 15,96 ( 2,67* 0,73 ( 0,03* 5,13 ( 1,18 Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui ?ioaineo?eaoe?y IIE ? aaaeeeaei eaioethaii o iaoiaaiac? o?aaeaiiy ia/?iee oao?aoei?iaoaiii. Ca?aeii ?c aeaieie G. Poli et al. (1992), oao?aoei?iaoai iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia nae?aoe?th e?i?ae?a o eiiieaen? Aieueaeae?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ni?eueiee iaoai?ci ae?? oao?aoei?iaoaio oa ooi?eaeo iao??th (E. O. Eaa?ooaiei, 1982). Ieeni? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo a oiiaao aeei?enoaiiy oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy A ? i i a o e c a o i ? e. Aaaaeaiiy oaa?eiai eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a, ui neeaaeathoue i(yniee a?iiao, o aeicao 1/20 EAe50 i?ioyaii 4 i?nyoe?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei noaoenoe/ii a??ia?aeiiai ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioo aeeoaeueiiai eiio?ieth, oaeaeeino? oa eiao?oe??ioo oinoi?eethaaiiy (oaae. 8). Oaaeeoey 8 Ieenia oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee uo??a, ye? io?eioaaee eiiiiiaioe a?iiaoecaoi?o c caiaoii i(yna, M ( m Oiiae aeine?aeo Oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy eenith, ieiieue/oa ia 1 ia a?eea Eiao?oe??io aeeoaeueiiai eiio?ieth, Oaeaee?noue oinoi?eeth- aaiiy, [AAe?] ieiieue/oa ia Eiio?ieue 0,061 ( 0,009 0,021 ( 0,002 2,90 ( 0,19 0,137 ( 0,014 2.16 ( 0,29 A?n(2-iaoeeae?e)aee-noeueo?ae 0,076 ( 0,014 0,040 ( 0,004* 1,87 ( 0,24* 0,076 ( 0,022* 1,44 ( 0,19* 2-Iaoee-2-i?iiaio?ie 0,053 ( 0,007 0,038 ( 0,006* 1,44 ( 0,12* 0,094 ( 0,009* 1,12 ( 0,11* 2-O?ioaio?ie 0,066 ( 0,012 0,048 ( 0,009* 1,39 ( 0,13* 0,064 ( 0,008* 1,31 ( 0,30* A?n(oo?oo?ie)aee-noeueo?ae 0,075 ( 0,002 0,052 ( 0,007* 1,47 ( 0,21* 0,065 ( 0,008* 1,21 ( 0,019* ?ia?aoth/ee aieea a?iiaoecaoi??a ia ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue i?oioiiae??e iiaea aooe coiiaeaiee, c iaeiiai aieo, aaciina?aaeiuei ca ae?? a?iiaoecaoi??a c aaoa?ioeeee?/iith no?oeoo?ith – a?n(oo?oo?ie)aeenoeueo?aeo oa 2-o?ioaio?ieo) ia aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a, a naia AO?-ac, a, c ae?oaiai aieo, iane?aeeii aeoeaaoe?? i?ioean?a IIE o ia/?ioe? uo??a i?ae aieeaii oaeeo a?iiaoe/ieo ?a/iaei, ye ia?eaioaie oa a?noeueo?aee. Ia ei?enoue inoaiiueiai na?ae/aoue aeai? i?i iiyao ia?ieneaeo aiaeith a a?eo?ioeeoao uo??a ca ae?? a?iiaoe/ieo a?noeueo?ae?a (J. Ford et al., 1983). N a o a ? i e. Aaaaeaiiy naoa?ieo uo?ai i?ioyaii 5 i?nyoe?a o aeicao, ui ia?aaeuothoue “ii?iaeuei?” o 10 oa 50 ?ac?a, aeeeeea? aoaeo ciaioaiiy ni?yaeaiiy ieeneaiiy noeoeeiaoo c oinoi?eethaaiiyi o i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee aiane?aeie cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? aeeoaiiy o iaoaaie?/iiio noai? 4 (V4). Iaea?aeai? aeai? ocaiaeaeothoueny c aeine?aeaeaiiyie A. Bracht et al. (1985), ye? a aeine?aeao in vitro iieacaee, ui iaoo?aeuei? i?iaeoeoe ?c noaa?? iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ieenia oinoi?eethaaiiy oa aeoeai?noue aeeoaeueieo oa?iaio?a. I o e c i i. A?o/eciyiee aiaeia aoeanoeueoaia E - ioecii o an?o aeei?enoaieo aeicao (1/1000, 1/100 ? 1/50 EAe50, ui neeaaeaei 8, 80 oa 160 ia/ea a?aeiia?aeii) i?ioyaii 6 i?nyoe?a ia aieeaaa ia iieacieee ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee uo??a. N a i i i ? i e. Niiaeeaaiiy i?ioyaii 2 i?nyoe?a oaa?eiaie naiii?i?a o aeicao, ye? a 50 oa 100 ?ac?a ia?aaeuothoue aeico, yea iiaea iaaeoiaeeoe a i?aai?ci c i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy, i?ecaiaeeei aei cieaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? i?oioiiae??e. *a?ac 5 i?nyoe?a a??ia?aeia ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioo aeeoaeueiiai eiio?ieth, oaeaeeino? oa eiao?oe??ioo oinoi?eethaaiiy a?aeaoaaeinue eeoa ca 100 e?ao ca?eueoaii? aeice naiii?i?a. *a?ac 10 i?nyoe?a o oaa?ei, ye? io?eioaaee ca?eueoai? o 50 oa 100 ?ac?a aeice naiii?i?a, a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ic(?aeiaiiy i?ioean?a aeeoaiiy e oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee, ui iia(ycaii c ??ceith aeoeaaoe??th aeeoaiiy o iaoaaie?/iiio noai? 4. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue na?ae/eoe i?i iaia?aiiooeiaeaeoth/o ae?th naiii?i?a, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie i?i cieaeaiiy iniioe/ii? ?acenoaioiino? a?eo?ioeeo?a o e?ia? oaa?ei, ui io?eioaaee cia/io e?euee?noue naiii?i?a (I. Dourmaskin, 1962). Oaeei /eiii, ?a/iaeie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny ye oa?/ia? aeiaaaee, aieeaathoue ia i?ioeane ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee. Nooi?iue aieeao caeaaeeoue a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, aeice oa o?eaaeino? ae?? oeeo ?a/iaei ia i?aai?ci. Iaei? c ieo o a?eueoeo aeicao (a?iiaoecaoi?e), ?io? o iaio cia/ieo (naoa?ie) iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue i?oioiiae??e, ?ic(?aeiothoue i?ioeane aeeoaiiy – oinoi?eethaaiiy, oa ciaioothoue aia?aaoe/io aoaeoeai?noue aeeoaiiy. ?acii c oeei, neioaoe/iee i?aenieiaeaeoaa/ ioecii a aeine?aeaeaieo aeicao ia aieeaaa ia ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue i?oioiiae??e. A i ? i i e e n e i o e. Iaaeinoaoiy e?euee?noue /e iaaeeeoie ?o o oa?/iaiio ?aoe?ii? ethaeeie i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo iaoieia?/iiai noaio (E. Abras, M. Walser, 1982). Aeanieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui niiaeeaaiiy uo?aie i?ioyaii 10 i?nyoe?a ?aoe?ii?a, a yeeo 25 % a?eea aoei cai?iaii ia noi?o ai?iieeneio, iaea?aeaieo oeyoii a?ae?ie?co a?aeoiae?a i(yniiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ia aieeaaei ia ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue i?oioiiae??e o ia/?ioe? oaa?ei. Aieea ??cieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue oaa?eiieo oa ?ineeiieo aee??a o ?aoe?ii? ia aeaye? noi?iie e?i?aeiiai iai?io ?iciianthaeaeaiiy o?ii?/ieo ia?ioaeoe?eieo caoai?thaaiue ei?aeth? c iaaei??iei niiaeeaaiiyi aee??a, iniaeeai aee??a oaa?eiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae c aeao?oeeoii a?oai?i?a, iie?iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio, aeayeeo i?e?iaeaiaio?a. Aecia/aii, ui enaiia?ioeee ni?eythoue aeoeaaoe?? i?ioean?a IIE a i?aai?ci?, ui ? oaeoi?ii ?eceeo na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaoieia?? (W. Waissman, L. Ras Anjos, 1995, ?. N. Aeiaaeainueeee oa ?i., 1996). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao oa?/iaeo ?aoe?ii?a c ??ciei ai?noii ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi oaa?eiieo ? ?ineeiieo aee??a na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui o oaa?ei a a?oiao 1A ? 1A oa 3A ? 3N iaee i?noea a?aei?iiino?, ye? ae?aaeaeeny a a?eueo aenieiio ai?no? noia?ieo e?i?ae?a ne?iaaoee e?ia? uo??a, ui iaea?aeoaaee ia i?ioyc? 3 i?nyoe?a aenieiaee?iao ae??oo. I?i oea na?ae/eoue caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy na?aaeiueiai ??aiy e?i?ae?a ne?iaaoee e?ia? c ?inoii noia?ii? e?eueeino? aee?o a ae??o? a ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiiy. Oaeoi?, yeee iaaiai?th?oueny, iaaooue ia ? ?aeeiei, a a?oiao 2A ? 2A a?aeiiniee ai?no e?i?ae?a ia? aeinoia??io ??cieoeth, ui iiaea aeacoaaoe ia iaaiee aieea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iane/aieo ? iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio o ?aoe?ii?. Ai?no oinoie?i?ae?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? uo??a o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a caeaaeaa a?ae e?eueeino? ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ey?aeo ? niiyoieeiai? ie??. A?aei?iiino? i?iyaeythoueny /a?ac 1 ? 3 i?nyoe? a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo ? iinyoue a?eueo ae?aaeaiee oa?aeoa? a?aeiinii iiia?aaeiueiai iieacieea. *a?ac 1 i?nyoeue niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ia 56,8 % ieoiiiai ai?noo oinoie?i?ae?a o a?oi? 1N o ii??aiyii? c a?oiith 3N, a /a?ac o?e i?nyoe? ( eiai cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy (a 1,5 - 2,1 ?ace) o uo??a an?o a?oi, ye? iaea?aeoaaee iecueeiaee?iao ae??oo, ? a?oie 3A. Inoaii?, ii?yae c a?aenooi?noth aeinoia??ii? ??cieoe? cia/aiue oeueiai iieacieea i?ae ?ioeie a?oiaie oa o a?aeaeaeai? no?iee (/a?ac 6 ? 10 i?nyoe?a), iaea?eueo a??ia?aeii na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui oaeoi?e, ye? aea/athoueny, ia ? i?ia?aeieie a ?aaoeyoe?? ??aiy oinoie?i?ae?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? uo??a. Aiaeia?/i?, a ieai? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??, aea a?eueo neeaaei? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy niinoa??aathoueny ? i?e ii??aiyii? aieeao aee??a ?aoe?iio ia ??aaiue caaaeueiiai oieanoa?ieo a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? uo??a. Noaoenoe/ii a??ia?aei? ci?ie iathoue i?noea o?eueee /a?ac 3 i?nyoe? a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo, a a ?io? no?iee ia aeyaeythoueny. O oaa?ei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeiiniee ai?no oieanoa?ieo ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aee??a ?ineeiiiai ? oaa?eiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy o ae??o?. O ae?oa?e ( eiioeaio?aoe?y oieanoa?ieo i?i?iaeueia a a?oi? 2A ? a??ia?aeii ieae/a (ia 28 %), i?ae a a?oi? 2A, a a o?ao?e ( oeae iieaciee iaeieae/ee o oaa?ei a?oie 3A ? neeaaea? 68 % ? 56 % a?ae eiai aaee/ei a a?oiao 3A ? 3N a?aeiia?aeii. Oaea ae ea?oeia aeyaey?oueny ? i?e ii??aiyii? ai?noo oieanoa?ieo a a?oiao c ??cieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie ey?aeo ? niiyoieeiai? ie?? oa ??ciith e?euee?noth aee?o a ?aoe?ii?. Oae, a a?oiao c aenieei ai?noii ey?aeo i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue oieanoa?ieo aoa o oaa?ei, ye? iaea?aeoaaee ae??oo c i?ii?aeiei ai?noii aee?o (23 %). O uo??a, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia ?aoe?ii? c i?i?iaeueiith e?euee?noth ey?aeo, oeae iieaciee a??ia?aeii ieae/ee o a?oiao c iecueeei ? na?aaei?i ??aiyie niiaeeaaiiy aee?o. I?ioa o oaa?ei c i?ii?aeiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aee?iaeo ?ia?aae??io?a o ?aoe?ii? (ey?ae : ie?y, ye 2 : 1) eiioeaio?aoe?y oieanoa?ieo aoea iaeiaioith a a?oi?, ui iaea?aeoaaea iaeneiaeueio e?euee?noue aee?o. O an?o i?iaiae?ciaaieo aeiaaeeao a?aeoeeaiiy cia/aiue oeueiai ia?aiao?o i?ae a?oiaie ciaoiaeeeinue o iaaeao 22 - 32 %. Iiiaeeiiee ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c iaea?aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo oaeiae na?ae/ea i?i a?aenooi?noue ?noioiiai ca(yceo i?ae aea/aieie iieacieeaie ? aeine?aeaeaieie oaeoi?aie ?aoe?iio. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui a a?eueoino? a?oi oaa?ei /a?ac 1 i?nyoeue ai?no noia?ieo e?i?ae?a ia/?iee iaei caeaaeaa a?ae aea/aieo oaeoi??a, ca aeiyoeii a?oie 3N, o yei? cia/aiiy oeueiai iieacieea aoei a??ia?aeii ieae/ei a ii??aiyi? c a?oiaie 1A ? 3A, ui iiaea aooe ?acoeueoaoii aieeao aenieiai aaniethoiiai ai?noo ?ineeiii? ie??. Oaeee ca(ycie i?inoaaeo?oueny ? na?aae ?cieaei??eieo ca ai?noii aee?o a?oi ( iaeieae/a eiioeaio?aoe?y e?i?ae?a niinoa??aa?oueny a i?aea?oiao N a?oi 1 - 3, ye? io?eioaaee aee? o ni?aa?aeiioaii? ey?aeo ? niiyoieeiai? ie?? 1,3 : 1, oiae? ye aeey i?aea?oi A ? A aiii neeaaeaei 2 : 1 ? 3,3 : 1 a?aeiia?aeii. I?ioa /a?ac 3 ? 6 i?nyoe?a oey oaiaeaioe?y ia i?iyaey?oueny. *a?ac 10 i?nyoe?a aeyaey?oueny ae?acia caeaaei?noue ai?noo noia?ieo e?i?ae?a ia/?iee a?ae e?eueeino? aee?o a ?aoe?iiao. Oae, a i?aea?oiao A ? A ia? i?noea aacia?a?aia ca?eueoaiiy oeueiai iieacieea c ?inoii ??aiy aee?o a ?aoe?ii?. A?aei?iiino? iathoue noaoenoe/ii a??ia?aeia cia/aiiy i?ae a?oiaie 1A ? 3A, a oaeiae na?aae i?aea?oi A a?oi 1 - 3. A i?aea?oiao N oey caeaaei?noue caa??aa?oueny ye oaiaeaioe?y aeey uo??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee iecueei- ? aenieiaee?ia? ?aoe?iie. Iaaaaeai? aeai? iiaeooue na?ae/eoe i?i cieaeaiiy c a?eii oaa?ei oiea?aioiino? i?aai?cio aei aenieiai niiaeeaaiiy aee?o c ?aeath. Ci?ia ai?noo oinoie?i?ae?a o ia/?ioe? uo??a ??cieo a?oi aoea iaeiaeiaith ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? oinoie?i?ae?a /a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a o ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?ie oa?i?iaie a 1,5 - 1,9 ?ace c caa?aaeaiiyi oeueiai ??aiy aei 10-ai i?nyoey aenia?eiaioo. Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe io?eiai? aeey iieaciee?a oieanoa?ieo a ia/?ioe? uo??a, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia ?aoe?iiao c ??ciei ye?niei ? e?euee?niei ai?noii aee?o. ?aeeiith a?aei?iith a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai iieacieea ? a??ia?aeia cieaeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? oieanoa?ieo ( ia 20 - 40 % o ia/?ioe? uo??a, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia iecueeiaee?iaiio ?aoe?ii? c iaeneiaeueiei ??aiai ey?aeo. Ai?no oieanoa?ieo a EIAU /a?ac 1 i?nyoeue a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo a on?o aeiaaeeao, ca aeiyoeii a?oie 3N, ciaoiaeeoueny ia iaeiiio ? oiio ae ??ai?. Cia/ia cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? oieanoa?ieo a oe?e a?oi? (a 1,7 - 2,0 ?ace) iiaeia aoei a?aeianoe ca ?aooiie aenieiai aaniethoiiai ??aiy niiyoieeiai? ie?? o ?aoe?iiao (iaeneiaeueiiai ?c aeine?aeaeaieo, 13 % ca eaei??ei?noth). I?ioa, oiae? ne?ae aoei ia?aaeaa/eoe iayai?noue ii?iaiaiai aoaeoo, oae ye a?oie 3A ? 2N io?eioaaee ae??oe c aeecueeei ai?noii ie?? (10 % ca eaei??ei?noth), a cia/aiiy oeueiai iieacieea o oaa?ei aeaieo a?oi ia a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae ?ioeo aa??aio?a. sse ? aeey a?eueoino? ?ai?oa i?iaiae?ciaaieo ia?aiao??a, iaea?eueo? ci?ie /a?ac 3 i?nyoe? niinoa??aaeeny uiaei ??aiy oieanoa?ieo a EIAU. A na?aaeei? a?oi, ui io?eioaaee ??cio e?euee?noue aee?o, i?i?iaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y oieanoa?ieo niinoa??aa?oueny o oaa?ei c iaeiaioei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?ae: niiyoieeiaa ie?y (1,3 : 1, i?aea?oie N). Ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui ae?enii ?nio? o?niee ca(ycie i?ae oeei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ? ??aiai oieanoa?ieo a EIAU (0,8 ( r ( 0,9). I?ioa a ianooii? no?iee oaeee ca(ycie ia aeyaey?oueny, ui, iaaooue, aeaco? ia iayai?noue a?eueo ?noioieo oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia ??aaiue oieanoa?ieo a EIAU. Iaaiaee, ??aaiue oieanoa?ieo a e?iii?ioa?iao iecueei? u?eueiino? oa e?iii?ioa?iao aeoaea iecueei? u?eueiino? (EIIU+EIAeIU) /a?ac 3 i?nyoe? aenia?eiaioo i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aoe?iio ? ia?o? ci?ie ianooiathoue o?eueee a i?ci?o? no?iee. *a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a niinoa??aaeinue cia/ia cieaeaiiy oeueiai iieacieea o oaa?ei a?oie 2A, yea a??ia?aeii a?ae??ciyeinue a?aeiinii iaeaea an?o aa??aio?a aeine?aeo. Ia 10-oee i?nyoeue o oaa?ei 2A a?oie, ye? io?eioaaee ?aoe?ii c iaeneiaeueiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?ae: niiyoieeiaa ie?y (3,3 : 1), ??aaiue oieanoa?ieo cao?eniaaii ia 33 - 40 % ieae/ei a?ae oaeiai a a?oiao 2A ? 2N a?aeiia?aeii. O uo??a, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia aenieiaee?iaiio ?aoe?ii?, iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue oieanoa?ieo niinoa??aaany a a?oi? 3N, yea iaea?aeoaaea aee? c i?i?iaeueiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi oeacaieo ?ia?aae??io?a, ui ia 50 % ia?aaeuoaaei cia/aiiy oeueiai iieacieea a?aeiinii a?oie 3A. O ne?iaaooe? e?ia? oaa?ei, ye? io?eioaaee iecueeiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii, ieoiiee ai?no oieanoa?ieo o e?iii?ioa?iao ia caeaaeaa a?ae ae??oe. A i?aea?oiao oaa?ei, ye? iaea?aeoaaee ae??oe c ??aiicia/iei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?aeo oa niiyoieeiai? ie??, iaeiaioee a?aeiiniee ai?no oieanoa?ieo aeyaeyany oaeiae a a?oi? 2A, eio?ee a??iia?aeii cieaeaiee a?aeiinii aiaeia?/iiai iieacieea a a?oiao 1A ? 3A. A i?aea?oiao A (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 2 : 1) ??aaiue oieanoa?ieo a e?iii?ioa?iao ne?iaaoee e?ia? ia caeaaeaa a?ae e?eueeino? aee?o a ?aoe?ii?, a na?aae i?aea?oi N (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 1,3 : 1) ( iaa iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy o oaa?ei, ye? iaea?aeoaaee ?aoe?ii c iaeneiaeueiei ai?noii aee?o (30 %, a?oia 3N). A?aeoeeaiiy aoei noaoenoe/ii a??ia?aeiei a?aeiinii a?oie N ? neeaaeaei 42 %. Oe?eaai, ui na?aaeiueia?oiia? cia/aiiy ??aiy oieanoa?ieo a oeeo /anoeao (na?aaei? a?ae noie na?aaei?o cia/aiue i?aea?oi o eiaei?e a?oi?, oiaoi A+A+N) aeyaeythoue oaiaeaioe?th aei iioei?caoe?? caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? aee?o a ?aoe?ii?. Ae?enii, aaee/eie na?aaeiueiai a?aeiiniiai ai?noo oieanoa?ieo a a?oiao 1, 2 ? 3 noaiiaeyoue: 0,41 ( 0,02; 0,37 ( 0,04 ? 0,47 ( 0,06, ??cieoey i?ae aaee/eiaie oi/ ? iacia/ia, aea iiaea i?iyaeoeny i?e a?eueo ?ai?acaioaoeaieo aeai?eao. ?iaeaen aoa?iaaiiino?, aecia/aiee ye a?aeiioaiiy ??aiy oieanoa?ieo a EIIU oa EIAeIU aei oaeiai a EIAU, ? aieiaiei iieacieeii nooiaiy ?eceeo ?icaeoeo ?oai?/ii? oai?iae na?oey. O oaa?ei on?o a?oi /a?ac 1 i?nyoeue a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo ?iaeaen aoa?iaaiiino? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aoe?iio. *a?ac 3 i?nyoe? o uo??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee iecueeiaee?iao ae??oo, oeae iieaciee i?i?iaeueiee a a?oi? oaa?ei 1A, ui a??ia?aeii (ia 41 %) ieae/ee ca oaeee a a?oi? 1N. Aiaeia?/ia ea?oeia ia? i?noea ? a a?oi? oaa?ei, yea ciaoiaeeeanue ia aenieiaee?iaiio ?aoe?ii?. A a?oi? 2 aaee/eia oaeiai iieacieea ia caeaaeaea a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ey?aeo ? niiyoieeiai? ie?? a ?aoe?ii? ? iaea i?i?iaeuei? aeey oeueiai no?ieo cia/aiiy. *a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a o oaa?ei, ye? iaea?aeoaaee iecueeiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii, ??c-ieoey o aaee/ei? ?iaeaeno aoa?iaaiiino? i?ae i?aea?oiaie i?aaethaaeany. Iaaiaee, o 2-e a?oi? niinoa??aa?oueny eiai cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy o uo??a, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia ?aoe?ii? c iaeiaioei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?aeo ? niiyoieeiai? ie?? (1,3 : 1, a?oia 2N) a??ia?aei? ye a?aeiinii a?oie 2A, oae ? 2A (ia 44 ? 57 % a?aeiia?aeii). O oaa?ei, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia aenieiaee?iaiio ?aoe?ii?, ye ? ?ai?oa, ?iaeaen iaa iaeiaioa cia/aiiy a a?oi? 3A, aea ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai no?ieo, iaeneiaeueia ( a a?oi? 3A. Ia 10-e i?nyoeue o uo??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee iecueeiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii, ?iaeaen aoa?iaaiiino? aeinyaaa iaea?eueoiai cia/aiiy o i?aea?oi? 1A, ui iaea?aeoaaea aee? c iaeneiaeueiei ??aiai ey?aeo. Eiai aaee/eia ia?aaeuoaaea cia/aiiy ?iaeaeno a a?oi? 1A ia 48 %. A a?oi? 3 oaa?ei, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia aenieiaee?iaiio ?aoe?ii?, oeae iieaciee o i?aea?oi? A aoa oaeiae aeuei, i?ae o i?aea?oi? A (ia 55 %). Iaeiae iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy a?i aeinyaaa o i?aea?oi? N, yea ia 22 % ia?aaeuoaaei ?iaeaen aoa?iaaiiino? i?aea?oie A. *a?ac 10 i?nyoe?a o a?oiao uo??a, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia iecueei- ? aenieiaee?iaiio ?aoe?iiao, i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy oeae iieaciee iaa o i?aea?oiao, ye? iaea?aeoaaee aee? o ni?aa?aeiioaii? ey?ae: niiyoieeiaa ie?y, ??aiiio 2 : 1 (1A ? 3A). Ui noino?oueny a?oie 2, ?iaeaen aoa?iaaiiino? aoa iaeiaioei a i?aea?oi? uo??a, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia ae??o? c iaeaeuei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aee??a (3,3 : 1, i?aea?oia 2A). Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui ?iaeaen aoa?iaaiiino? o oaa?ei an?o a?oi iinooiiai iaeiaeiai i?aeaeuo?oueny c a?eii oaa?ei. I?e oeueiio iaeieae/? aaee/eie niinoa??aathoueny o uo??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee ?aoe?iie c na?aaeiueith e?euee?noth aee?o (23 %) ? aenieei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?ae: niiyoieeiaa ie?y (3,3 : 1, i?aea?oia 2A). Aeecuee? aaee/eie ?iaeaeno niinoa??aaee o oaa?ei o??? naii? a?oie, ye? io?eioaaee ?aoe?ii c ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?ae: niiyoieeiaa ie?y, ??aiei 2 : 1 (i?aea?oia 2A). Aeeiiaiee ?aa?aneaiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui o?ae e?eaeo, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue aeeiai?eo ?inoo ?iaeaeno a oeeo a?oiao, a??ia?aeii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oaeeo aeey ?ioeo a?oi (o2 = 3,4). *a?ac 1 i?nyoeue a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo eiioeaio?aoe?y iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo o ia/?ioe? uo??a on?o a?oi ciaoiaeeoueny ia iaeiiio ??ai?, oiaoi e?euee?niee ? ye?niee neeaae aee??a ?aoe?iio o aeaiee ia??iae ?noioii ia aieeaaa ia i?ioeane a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a o oeueiio i?aai?. *a?ac 3 i?nyoe? ai?no iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo o ia/?ioe? uo??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee iecueeiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii ? ?aoe?ii c i?ii?aeiith e?euee?noth aee?o, oaeiae ia ci?ieany. O a?oi? uo??a, yeei caiaeiaoaaee aenieiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii, niinoa??aaee ?noioia cieaeaiiy (ia 41 %) e?eueeino? iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo o oaa?ei i?aea?oie A (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ey?aeo ? niiyoieeiai? ie?? ( 2 : 1) a?aeiinii i?aea?oie A (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 3,3 : 1). Na?aae i?aea?oi A oaa?eie, ye? iaea?aeoaaee aee? c aenieei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?aeo aei niiyoieeiai? ie?? (3,3 : 1), ieoiiee ai?no i?iaeoeo?a IIE o uo??a, ye? aaeeaaee aee? a e?eueeino? 23 % (2A) aoa ia 41 % ieae/ei a?ae oaeiai o i?aea?oi? 3A (30 % aee?o a ?aoe?ii?). Na?aae i?aea?oi A (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaa?eiiiai ? ?ineeiiiai aee??a 2 : 1) iaeieae/ee ??aaiue oeueiai iieacieea aoa o ia/?ioe? uo??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee aenieiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii. Eiai cia/aiiy ia 33 % ieae/a, i?ae a aiaeia?/i?e i?aea?oi? oaa?ei, yeei caiaeiaoaaee iecueeiaee?iao ae??oo. Eiioeaio?aoe?y iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo o i?aea?oiao N ia oeae /an ia caeaaeaea a?ae e?eueeino? aee?o a ?aoe?ii?. *a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a o oaa?ei, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia iecueeiaee?iaiio ?aoe?ii?, i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue i?iaeoeo?a ia?aieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a a?aei?/a?oueny o i?aea?oi? A. Eiai cia/aiiy aoei ia 15 ? 37 % iaioa, i?ae o i?aea?oiao A ? N a?aeiia?aeii (a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo a?aeoeeaiiy a??ia?aeia). O oe?e a?oi? i?inoaaeo?oueny iaaia caeiiii??i?noue, yea iieyaa? o cai?ioi?e caeaaeiino? eiioeaio?aoe?e iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaa?eiiiai ? ?ineeiiiai aee??a, oiaoi oaeoe/ii a?ae nooiaiy iaiane/aiino? inoaii?o. A 2 ? 3 a?oiao ai?no iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo ia caeaaeeoue a?ae neeaaeo aee?o. Aei e?ioey aenia?eiaioo a a?oi? A ??cei c?inoa? ??aaiue i?iaeoeo?a IIE o uo??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee aee? c i?i?iaeueiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi oaa?eiiiai ? ?ineeiiiai ?ia?aae??io?a (i?aea?oia N), a?aeiinii aei i?aea?oie A (ia 65 %) ? i?aea?oie A (ia 82 %). Aiaeia?/ia ea?oeia niinoa??aa?oueny ? a a?oiao 2 ? 3; aea aiane?aeie cia/iiai ?icn?thaaiiy aeaieo, noaoenoeea, caniiaaia ia ii?iaeueiiio ?iciiae?e?, ia aea? a??ia?aeieo cia/aiue oeeo a?aeoeeaiue. I?ioa aeei?enoaiiy iaia?aiao?e/iiai e?eoa??th O?eeniia-Iaia-O?oi?, a?eueo i?eaeaoiiai aeey aea??ie oaeiai ?iaeo, aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe a??ia?aei?noue ??cieoe? aeaiiai iieacieea i?ae aiae?ciaaieie i?aea?oiaie a?oie 3 (V3 = 10 ( Vt = 9, p ( 0,05 i?e n1 - n2 =6). O a?oi? 2 oeae e?eoa??e oaeiae ia iieacaa iayaiino? nooo?ai? ??cieoe? i?ae i?aea?oiaie. Aiae?c aeaieo i?i ai?no aoi?eiieo i?iaeoeo?a IIE o ia/?ioe? uo??a na?ae/eoue i?i caaaeueio aeey an?o a?oi caeiiii??i?noue i?aeaeuaiiy ?oiueiai ??aiy c a?eii oaa?ei. Iaeneiaeueia ?ioaineai?noue oeueiai i?ioeano niinoa??aa?oueny a i?aea?oiao N iacaeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? aee?o a ?aoe?ii? /a?ac 3 i?nyoe?. Ca ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee oaeaeeino? iaeiie/aiiy i?iaeoeo?a IIE o i?aea?oiao uo??a, yeei caiaeiaoaaee ?aoe?iie c ??aiicia/iei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?aeo ? niiyoieeiai? ie??, aeyaey?oueny caaaeueia aeey an?o oaa?ei i?aea?oi 1A, 1A ? 2A aeanoea?noue ( a?eueo iecueeee ai?no iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo ia e?iaoeue aenia?eiaioo. Iaaiaee, o oaa?ei an?o i?aea?oi, ye? aaeeaaee aenieiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii (a?oia 3), aecia/aii a oeae no?ie iaeneiaeueio e?euee?noue iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo. O ne?iaaooe? e?ia? an?o a?oi oaa?ei ia 3 i?nyoeue aenia?eiaioo ai?no i?iaeoeo?a IIE ia caeaaeeoue a?ae neeaaeo ?aoe?iio. *a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a o a?oi? uo??a, yeo oo?eioaaee ia iecueeiaee?iaiio ?aoe?ii?, aecia/a?oueny a??ia?aeia cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo o i?aea?oi? A (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ey?aeo ? niiyoieeiai? ie?? ( 3,3 : 1) o ii??aiyii? c i?aea?oiith N (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ( 1,3 : 1). A ?ioeo a?oiao oaa?ei, ye ? a iiia?aaei? no?iee, neeaae aee??a ?aoe?iio ia aieeaaa ia oeae iieaciee. Na?aae i?aea?oi A i?inoaaeo?oueny ei?aeyoeaiee ca(ycie i?ae ??aiai i?iaeoeo?a IIE ? neeaaeii aee?o (r = (0,993). Oaea ae caeaaei?noue ia? i?noea a i?aea?oiao A (r = (0,985). A i?aea?oiao N oe? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy ia i?iyaeythoueny. Ia 10 i?nyoeue aenia?eiaioo a a?oi? 1 i?i?iaeueiee ai?no i?iaeoeo?a IIE aecia/a?oueny o uo??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee ?aoe?ii c ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aee?iaeo eiiiiiaio?a 2 : 1, ui cia/ii ieae/a (ia 37 %), i?ae o i?aea?oi? A. Iiae?aia oaiaeaioe?y niinoa??aa?oueny ? a ?ioeo a?oiao. Na?aae i?aea?oi, yeeo oo?eioaaee ia ae??o? c ??aiicia/iei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi oaa?eiiiai ? ?ineeiiiai aee??a, a??ia?aeia ??cieoey a?aenooiy. Aiae?c aeaieo uiaei ai?noo iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo na?ae/eoue, ui c a?eii ?o e?euee?noue c?inoa? o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ? ia/?ioe? uo??a an?o a?oi. I?e/iio a ia?o? 6 i?nyoe?a, iacaeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? aee?o a ?aoe?ii?, iaea?eueoa c?inoaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny o oaa?ei, ye? aaeeaaee aee? c iaeneiaeueiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?aeo aei niiyoieeiai? ie??. *a?ac 1 i?nyoeue a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo niinoa??aathoueny ?noioi? ci?ie o aee?iieeneioi?e oi?ioe? ne?iaaoee e?ia? uo??a, ye? io?eioaaee iecueeiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii c iaeneiaeueiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ey?aeo aei niiyoieeiai? ie?? (i?aea?oia 1A). O oeeo oaa?ei niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia cieaeaiiy a?aeiiniiai ai?noo iaeuei?oeiiai? (16 : 0), noie iea?iiai? (18 : 0) ? e?iieaai? eeneio ia 35 - 44 % ? 25 - 38 % a?aeiia?aeii o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie a?oiaie. Iaeii/anii ca?eueoo?oueny ??aaiue i?ii?ieo aee?ieo eeneio ye iane/aiiai (10 : 0, 20 : 0), oae ? iaiane/aiiai (12 : 1, 20 : 1, 20 : 2 ? 20 : 3) ?yaeo. Oaea iiaeeo?eaoe?y aee?iieeneioiiai niaeo?o aeaco? ia ianoa/o anaioe?eieo aee?ieo eeneio. Ae?enii, eiao?oe??io Oieueiaia, aecia/aiee ye a?aeiioaiiy ??aiy aeeicio???iiai? (20 : 3) ? a?ao?aeiiiai? (20 : 4) eeneio, yeee oa?aeoa?eco? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeinoae ?o neioaco c iea?iiai? ? e?iieaai? a?aeiia?aeii, aei??aithaaa 2,83, oiaoi, aoa ??cei ca?eueoaiee. Ca ii?iaeueii? caaacia/aiino? i?aai?cio iacai?iieie aee?ieie eeneioaie cia/aiiy oeueiai iieacieea ia ia?aaeuo? 0,4. AEe?iieeneioiee neeaae e?i?ae?a ne?iaaoee e?ia? o aeine?aeieo oaa?ei a ?ioeo a?oiao, ye o oeae oa?i?i, oae ? a ianooii? ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao o?c?ieia?/ii? ii?ie. Eiao?oe??io Oieueiaia a oeeo a?oiao oaa?ei oaeiae ia ia?aaeuo? aeiionoeiiai cia/aiiy. Oea ae a?aeiineoueny ? aei aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo oi?ioe e?i?ae?a ia/?iee uo??a o an? no?iee aeine?aeaeaiue. Iiaeeeai, aecia/aiee ca iaaaaeaieie ia?aiao?aie aeao?oeeo anaioe?eieo eeneio o ia?oee i?nyoeue niiaeeaaiiy oaa?eiaie iecueeiaee?iaiai ?aoe?iio c iaeneiaeueiei ??aiai iane/aieo aee??a iineoue c ooieoe?iiaeueii? oi/ee ci?o eiiiainaoi?iee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee ??aaiue a?ao?aeiiiai? eeneioe, yea ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii aeey neioaco aeeicaii?ae?a i?inoaaeaiaeeiiaiai ?yaeo o e?i?aeao ye ne?iaaoee e?ia?, oae ? ia/?iee ia cieaeaiee. Iaoiaee/iee a?oaoaeo iaeia??ia?aeiee, oiio ui o iayaiino? noaoenoe/ii a??ia?aeia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?ii?aeieo i?iaeoeo?a neioaco aeeicao???iiaeo eeneio N20:1 ? N20:2. Oaeei /eiii, aoa?iaaii?noue oa i?iieneaeaioia ni?yiiaai?noue aeine?aeaeaieo ?aoe?ii?a caeaaeeoue a?ae e?eueeino? a ieo aee?o, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaa?eiiiai oa ?ineeiiiai eiiiiiaio?a, a oaeiae o?eaaeino? ?o niiaeeaaiiy. Ca e?eoa???i aoa?iaaiiino? iai?eaeaoiei aeey aeei?enoaiiy ? iecueeiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii c iaeneiaeueiei ai?noii oaa?eiieo aee??a, na?aaeiueiaee?iaee ( c iaeneiaeueiei ai?noii ie?? oa aenieiaee?iaee c iaeneiaeueiith e?euee?noth ye oaa?eiieo aee??a, oae ? ie??. Ca an?ia aea/aieie e?eoa??yie (?iaeaeno aoa?iaaiiino?, ??aiy IIE oa aee?iieeneioii? oi?ioee) iioeiaeueiei ? na?aaeiueiaee?iaee ?aoe?ii ?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi oaa?eiiiai aee?o oa ie?? ye 2 : 1. A?aeiii, ui oinoie?i?aee, i?ii?i? eiiiiiaioe aee??a ?aoe?iio, ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii ?aoe?iiaeueiiai oa?/oaaiiy ethaeeie. Oiio aeooaeueiei aoei i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao ye ie?aieo e?i?ae?a, oae ? ?o noi?o? ia i?ioeane o?aaeaiiy ? ?aaoeyoe?th iai?io ?a/iaei. Oea aeicaieeei a iaa?oiooaaoe aeei?enoaiiy oinoie?i?ae?a ye oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie ca i?aeai?o ae??o aeey i?io?eaeoe/iiai oa?/oaaiiy ie?aieo a?oi ianaeaiiy, ye? caciathoue ?eceeo caoai?thaaiiy aoa?ineea?icii, aeenooieoe?yie ia/?iee oa ?i. Cai?ia 5, 50 aai 100 % e?i?aeiiai eiiiiiaioa ?aoe?iio o uo??a ia oinoie?i?aeiee eiioeaio?ao i?ioyaii 1 i?nyoey ia aieeaa? ia ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai i?oioiiae??e ia/?iee. Ca ai?noo 5 % oinoaoeaeiiai eiioeaio?aoo o neeaae? ?aoe?iio i?ioyaii 6 i?nyoe?a ia a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?i o iieacieeao ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo, oiae? ye i?e 50 %-i?e cai?i? niinoa??aaee cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa oinoi?eethaaiiy. A?aeiii, ui iaaeoiaeaeaiiy c ?aeath cia/ii? e?eueeino? iie?iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio noeioeth? i?ioeane IIE a i?aai?ci? (M. Horwitt, 1991). Oiio a a?oiao c 50 ? 100 %-iith cai?iith e?i?aeiiai eiiiiiaioa ?aoe?iio ia oinoie?i?aeiee eiioeaio?ao ne?ae aoei a i/?eoaaoe aeoeaaoe?th i?ioean?a IIE. Ae?enii, /a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a ai?no iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo a ia/?ioe? a?aeiia?aeieo a?oi uo??a ia?aaeuoaaa oae? iieacieee o eiio?ieueieo oaa?ei (? ( 0,05). A?aenooi?noue ci?i e?eueeino? iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo a ia/?ioe? uo??a /a?ac 1 i?nyoeue iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i aeineoue o?eaaeee ia??iae aaeaioaoe?? i?aai?cio aei ?aoe?iio, ui i?noeoue i?aeaeuaio e?euee?noue oinoie?i?ae?a (oaae. 8). Oaaeeoey 8 Ai?no iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo a ia/?ioe? uo??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee oinoaoeaeiee eiioeaio?ao, M(m Oiiae aeine?aeo Iaeiiiaee ae?aeueaeaa?ae, iiieue/a /a?ac: 1 i?nyoeue 6 i?nyoe?a Eiio?ieue 98,1(6,8 108,8(15,7 5% oinoaoeaeiiai eiioeaio?aoo 105,4(12,1 117,4(11,8 50% oinoaoeaeiiai eiioeaio?aoo 107,5(9,6 182,7(10,0* 100% oinoaoeaeiiai eiioeaio?aoo 126,8(14,1 210,6(12,1* Caoenia ?ieue ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a ?ae? i?e ae?? ia i?aai?ci enaiia?ioee?a Iiooe aoaeoeaieo cania?a caoenoo i?aai?cio a?ae aieeao enaiia?ioee?a - iaeia c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo no/anieo i?iaeai. Iniiaith aeey oeueiai ? caeaoi?noue aaaaoueio ae?iaioa?ieo oaeoi??a ni?yiiaaii ae?yoe ia iaoaaie?/i? i?ioeane a i?aai?ci?. Oiio c?icoi?ea iniaeeaa oaaaa aei iiaeeeai? iiaeeo?eaoe?? o?aaeaiiy oa ?aaeoeaiino? i?aai?cio oeyoii ni?yiiaaii? ae?? ie?aieo oa?/iaeo eiiiiiaio?a ia ee?oeiiee iaoaaie?ci. Aea?? oaeeo oa?/iaeo ?a/iaei o iaoeo aeine?aeao aacoaaany ia iaoa??aeao aeanieo iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? na?ae/aoue, ui aeiaeaoeiaa aaaaeaiiy ?aoeiieo oa oieioa?ieo a ?aoe?ii oaa?ei ia oii? ooi?enoi? ?ioieneeaoe?? ni?ey? ii?iae?caoe?? i?ioean?a ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo (E. O. Eaa?ooaiei, 1984). Ii?ooaiiy ieenieo i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ca a?ineioaoe/i? i?ioeane a i?aai?ci?, iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy ai?noo noia?ieo oinoie?i?ae?a o aaiaoioeeoao, a iniiaiiio, ca ?aooiie aenieiiaiane/aii? o?aeoe?? ( oinoaoeaeeeaoaiieai?io, ui ? oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ?ioaineo?eaoe?? IIE. Iaea?aeai? iaie aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui i?e aaaaeaii? ?aoeiieo oa oieioa?ieo uo?ai (70 oa 5iea/ea iane o?ea a?aeiia?aeii) a oiiaao ooi?enoi? ?ioieneeaoe?? caaaeueia e?euee?noue oinoie?i?ae?a oa ai?no ie?aieo ?o o?aeoe?e o ia/?ioe? iaaeeaeathoueny aei eiio?ieueieo aaee/ei. Ioaea, i?e?iaei? aioeieneaeaioe ( ?aoeiie oa oieioa?ie, ia?eaath/e eaioethae ia?ieneaeieo ?aaeoe?e, caa??aathoue ?ioaeoiei oinoie?i?aeiee eiiiiiaio iaia?aie, ui caaacia/o? no?oeoo?io oe?e?ni?noue oa ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue i?oioiiae??e. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui aaaaeaiiy aei neeaaeo ?aoe?iio oinoaoeaeiiai eiioeaio?aoo iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia ia?aiao?e ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee uo??a, ye? i?aeeyaaee ae?? oao?aoei?iaoaio. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui iiceoeaia ae?y aoea a?eueo ae?aaeaia aeey niiyoieeiaiai eiioeaio?aoo, ui iiaea aooe iia(ycaii c a?eueo iioeiaeueiei iaai?ii iie?iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio oa a?oai?i?a o ii??aiyii? c ni?aei eiioeaio?aoii. Oinoaoeaeiee eiioeaio?ao ni?eya oaeiae ii?iae?caoe?? e?i?aeiiai iai?io a ia/?ioe? uo??a, io?o?ieo oao?aoei?iaoaiii; i?e oeueiio ai?no caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a, iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo oa ae??iiaeo eii(thaao?a iaaeeaeaany aei eiio?ieueieo aaee/ei. Iaea?aeai? aeai? ? na?ae/aiiyi e?iio?iiiino? oinoaoeaeiiai eiioeaio?aoo oa eiai aioeieneaeaioii? ae??, i?i ui na?ae/eoue ??cea cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? i?iaeoeo?a IIE. Oaeei /eiii, i?e aeei?enoaii? ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a ?ae? c aioeieneaeaioieie oa e?iio?iiieie aeanoeainoyie, iiaeia iiaeeo?eoaaoe iaoaaie?ci ee?oei ia/?iee a oiiaao io?o?iiy i?aai?cio enaiia?ioeeaie. O ca(yceo c oe?ieei ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi caoai?thaaiiy oeoe?iaei ae?aaaoii aeoaea aaaeeeaei ? iiooe i?aia?ao?a, ye? iathoue a?iiae?eai?/io ae?th. Aaaaeathoue, ui i?aia?ao ?c noaa?? ia? naia oae? aeanoeaino?, ine?eueee a?aeiia eiai caeaoi?noue aaeueioaaoe aetheiiaiaaiac o aeine?aeao in vitro (A. Bracht et al., 1985). I?iaaaeai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i ??cea ?ic(?aeiaiiy i?ioean?a aeeoaiiy oa oinoi?eethaaiiy, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cieaeaiiyi aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aeeoaiiy a i?oioiiae??yo ia/?iee uo??a a oiiaao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeienaiiaiai ae?aaaoo. O aeienai-ae?aaaoe/ieo uo??a, ye? c ?aoe?iiii io?eioaaee naoa?ie, niinoa??aaee oaiaeaioe?th aei ii?iae?caoe?? iieaciee?a ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy. Eiao?oe??ioe aeeoaeueiiai eiio?ieth ? oinoi?eethaaiiy ia aeinyaaee eiio?ieueieo aaee/ei, aea ia?aaeuoaaee aeai?, iaea?aeai? o oaa?ei c aeienaiiaei ae?aaaoii. Ca?aeii ?c aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e, oeoe?icieaeoth/a ae?y no/anieo e?eoaaeueieo i?aia?ao?a coiiaeaia ia no?eueee noeioeyoe??th aeeeaeo ?inoe?io c (-ee?oei i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, ne?eueee iiaeeo?eaoe??th no?oeoo?e oa ooieoe?? ieaciaoe/ieo iaia?ai a i?aaiao ? oeaieiao, ui ?aaoeththoue aeoeai?noue oa?iaioieo nenoai, i?yii /e aaciina?aaeiuei iia(ycaieo c ae?eiaaiacii (TH. ?. Aoanueeee, 1978). A ca(yceo c oaiaeaioe??th aei ii?iae?caoe?? i?ioean?a ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy a i?oioiiae?yo iiaeia aaaeaoe, ui eiiieaen ae?eiceae?a, ye? aoiaeyoue aei eiai neeaaeo, noaa?e?co? iaia?aio i?oioiiae??e ? ieaciaoe/i? iaia?aie a oe?eiio. ?ioieneeaoe?y enaiia?ioeeaie noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ii?ooaiiyi ooieoe?? aaaaoueio nenoai oa i?aai?a, aei yeeo iiaiith i??ith iaeaaeeoue ?ioiia nenoaia (TH. ?. Aoanueeee, 1989). Neeaaeiee a?io?i?/iee iaoai?ci aaeoa?eoeeaeii? ae?? oaaioeeoa?ieo ee?oei iiaea ci?ithaaoenue i?ae ae??th o?i?/ieo aaaio?a. Caaaeii, iaaecae/aeii aeniea ni?eeiyoeea?noue aei ?ioaeoe?eieo caoai?thaaiue ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeei ?c i?iya?a aoi?eiiiai, o oiio /ene? ? o?i?/iiai, ?ioiiaeao?oeeoo, ui i?iyaey?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi caoai?thaaiino?, oyaee?noth noaio oa aeineoue o?eaaeei, ia??aeei oneeaaeiaiei ia?aa?aii oai?iae. Iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeoo "Aoeao" o e?eueeino? 40 ia/ea ia i?ioyc? 18 aei?a i?eaaei aei c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ?ioiieo ?icaoeiooai?thth/eo ee?oei ( 64,2 ia 1000 yae?i-ai?nieo ee?oei naeac?iee i?ioe 8,2 o eiio?ieueieo oaa?ei (? ( 0,001). Aiaeia?/i? aeai? iaea?aeai? oaeiae a?aeiinii aioeo?e: ??aaiue aaiie?cei?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei noaiiaea 1 : 522, a aaiaaethoei?i?a 1 : 501 i?e 1 : 171 ? 1 : 141 o eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? a?aeiia?aeii. Oaeei /eiii, iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue, ui i?e niiaeeaaii? i?aia?aoo "Aoeao" o aeic? 40 ia/ea iane o?ea i?ioyaii 18 aei?a a?aeaoaa?oueny noeioeyoe?y ?ioiii? a?aeiia?ae? i?aai?cio ia oeioncaeaaeiee aioeaai. Aeai? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/aoue i?i ii?ooaiiy i?ioean?a aeoeaaoe?? oa ni?yaeaiino? ?iaioe eaioetha?a ?ioiii? nenoaie o ca(yceo c iia??oaiiyi ia?aa?ao ?ON (A. A. Aecye, A. I. Eiaaeue, 1996). Aei e?eoaaiiy a on?o oai?eo ia ?ON aeyaeai? iaaaoeai? ci?ie iieaciee?a ?ioiii? ?aaeoeaiino?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i i?eai?/aiiy ?ioiii? nenoaie. A ca(yceo c oeei aea/aee aieea i?aia?aoo "Aoeao" ia iieacieee ?ioiii? ?aaeoeaiino? o oai?eo ia ?ON. O oai?eo I a?oie, ye? aeiaeaoeiai aei iaaeeeaiaioiciiai e?eoaaiiy iaea?aeoaaee 100 a i?aia?aoo "Aoeao" ia aeiao i?ioyaii 1 i?nyoey, o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ca?eueooaaeanue e?euee?noue Ig A ( ia 65 %, Ig M ( ia 34 % (? ( 0,05). I?e oeueiio aeoeai?noue O-e?ioioeeo?a i?aeaeueeanue ia 37 %, oaio?e?i-?acenoaioieo O-e?ioioeeo?a ( a na?aaeiueiio ia 46 % (? ( 0,05). Ai?no oaio?e?i-/ooeeaeo O-e?ioioeeo?a ciaioeany ia 28 %, ye ? A-e?ioioeeo?a i?e iaeii/aniiio ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? O-e?ioioeeo?a. Oaeei /eiii, i?e aaeeaaii? i?aia?aoo "Aoeao" ?acii c iaaeeeaiaioiciei e?eoaaiiyi o oai?eo ia ?ON niinoa??aa?oueny aeoeaaoe?y ?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei, ui noeioeth? neioac ?ioiiaeiaoeei?a A ? I ? na?ae/eoue i?i i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?ioiiiai caoenoo i?aai?cio. Iiceoeaiee aieea oa?/iaiai i?iaeoeoo "Aoeao" ia ?ioiiee noaoon i?aai?cio iiaeia a?aeianoe ca ?aooiie ai?iieeneio, iie?iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio, oieioa?ieo, ?aoeiieo, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia ?ioi?oao (Ch. Gyonou et. al., 1995). Noeioeyoe?y ?ioiii? nenoaie i?ae aieeaii "Aoeaoo" iiaea aooe iia(ycaia c iineeaiei ca ?aooiie aeiaeaoeiai? e?eueeino? a?eueieo ai?iieeneio neioacii aeooao?iio, yeee ? oi?aa?naeueiei aioeieneaeaioii ? i?eeia? o/anoue o aeaoieneeaoe?? /oaei??aeieo niieoe oa ?ioiiiio caoeno? i?aai?cio (B. Fanburg, S. Deneke, 1988). E??i oiai, o?eioioai ? oai?eaeai?i ( iacai?ii? ai?iieeneioe, ui ca aoaeiaith ? oaiieuei? niieoee, a?iiaoe/ia e?eueoea yeeo i?noeoue aeae?eueea a?ae?ieneeueieo a?oi, caeaoieo aei cai?ioiiai ieeneaiiy, oaeiae a?aeiinyoueny aei aioeieneaeaio?a (R. Jacob et al., 1991, A. Reddy, B. Lokesh, 1992, W. Gossling, 1993). A?euei? ai?iieeneioe, ye? iio?aieythoue aei i?aai?cio o neeaae? "Aoeaoo", iiaeooue ni?eyoe neioaco a i?aai?ci? ea?i?oeio c iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio, iao?ii?io oa e?ceio. Ea?i?oei, yeee ? oaeoi?ii ia?aiino aee?ieo eeneio o i?oioiiae???, aieeaa? ia oaeaee?noue ?o ieeneaiiy, iiina?aaeeiaaii i?aeaeuo? ??aaiue a?eueiiai eiaiceio A ? oei naiei ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo i?aai?cio (P. Clarcson, 1992). ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui iaeiei c iniiaieo i?iya?a aieeao enaiia?ioee?a ia i?aai?ci, ? ii?ooaiiy ieenieo i?ioean?a a i?oioiiae??yo, a iniia? yeeo eaaeeoue ?ioaineo?eaoe?y i?ioean?a IIE. Iacaaeainiaaia oa?/oaaiiy, cie?aia, iaaei??ia niiaeeaaiiy aee??a, ii?ooaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?? oa oaa?eiieo aee??a oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei iineeaiiy i?ioean?a IIE. Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia noaia aieeao enaiia?ioee?a ia i?ioeane, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ca neioac oa aeoioeyoe?th aia?a?? a i?aai?ci? (?en.). IACAAEAINIAAIA OA?*OAAIIss ENAIIA?IOEEE AeIAE?EEss Oa?/ia? aeiaaaee neioaoe/iiai aaiaco Ci?ia e?euee?niiai neeaaeo oa ye?niiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aee??a Aeao?oeeo a?oai?i?a A , N, A Iai?aai?/i? oa i?aai?/i? niieoee aaeiaai?a, i?o?aoe IINEEAIIss I?IOeAN?A IIE Ii?ooaiiy aeoeaiino? ieenieo oa?iaio?a Iaeiie/aiiy oiene/ieo i?iaeoeo?a ieeneaiiy Ciaioaiiy ai?noo oinoie?i?ae?a Ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? i?oioiiae??e I?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a, oieanoa?ieo a oeaieiao Cieaeaiiy a?ineioaco AO? ?icaeoie aoa?ineea?ico oa iniiaieo eiai i?iya?a ?en. Noaia aieeao enaiia?ioee?a aeiae?eey oa iacaaeainiaaiiai oa?/oaaiiy ia ieenii-a?aeiiai? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo. AENIIAEE Aea/aii aieea oiene/ieo ?a/iaei (i?o?aoe, ooi?eaee, oao?aoei?iaoai), a oaeiae oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie (a?iiaoecaoi?e, cai?iieee oeoe?o) oa iacaaeainiaaiiai ca e?i?aeiith eiiiiiaioith oa?/oaaiiy ia ieeni? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo oa e?i?aeiee neeaae aaiaoioeeo?a oa ne?iaaoee e?ia?. Aeine?aeaeai? niieoee ??cii? o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee aeeeeeathoue ye?nii ?aeaioe/i? ci?ie i?oioiiae??aeueii? ooieoe??, ui oa?aeoa?eco? oaiiiai ?ic(?aeiaiiy i?ioean?a ieeneaiiy ? oinoi?eethaaiiy. Iaoai?ci oiene/ii? ae?? oaeeo enaiia?ioee?a iieyaa? a noeioeyoe?? i?ioean?a oa iaeiie/aii? i?iaeoeo?a ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, ci?i? e?i?aeiiai neeaaeo aaiaoioeeo?a, ui coiiaeth? ii?ooaiiy aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a oeeeeo E?aana a i?oioiiae??yo ? ciaioaii? ai?noo aaeaiiceio?eoinoaoo. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i o?eaae?noue i?ioeano aaeaioaoe?? i?aai?cio aei ??cieo aee?iaeo ?aoe?ii?a. Iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie ? iieacieee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?ioaineai?noue i?ioean?a ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??ai?a oieanoa?ieo a e?iii?ioa?iao aeniei? u?eueiino? oa e?iii?ioa?iao iecueei? u?eueiino? + e?iii?ioa?iao aeoaea iecueei? u?eueiino? (?iaeaen aoa?iaaiiino?). Iecueeiaee?ia? ? aenieiaee?ia? ?aoe?iie c ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ?ineeiieo ? oaa?eiieo aee??a 1 : 1,3 ni?eythoue cia/iiio iaeiie/aiith i?iaeoeo?a ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? oa ia/?ioe? uo??a. ?aoe?ii c 15 % aee?o c ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ?ineeiieo ? oaa?eiieo aee??a 1 : 3,3 ia ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aei aaeeaaiiy, a ca(yceo c iaaeinoaoi?i caaacia/aiiyi i?aai?cio oaa?ei iie?iaiane/aieie aee?ieie eeneioaie. Iioeiaeueiei ca an?ia aea/aieie iieacieeaie (noia?i? e?i?aee, oinoie?i?aee, noia?iee oi?anoa?ie oa eiai o?aeoe??, iaeiiiaee ae?aeueaeaa?ae, ?iaeaen aoa?iaaiiino?, aee?iieeneioiee neeaae) ? ?aoe?ii c 23 % aee?o oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi oaa?eiieo oa ?ineeiieo aee??a 2 : 1. Aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii i?io?eaeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy ?aoe?ii?a, caaeainiaaieo ca an?ia oa?/iaeie eiiiiiaioaie, caaaa/aieo ?aoeiieii, oieioa?ieii, iie?iaiane/aieie aee?ieie eeneioaie, ye? ei?aaothoue ii?ooaiiy iaoaaie?cio, aeeeeeai? enaiia?ioeeaie, oeyoii cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? i?ioean?a ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a ? iiaeeo?eaoe?? e?i?aeiiai neeaaeo aaiaoioeeo?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia oiene/iiai aieeao enaiia?ioee?a oa iacaaeainiaaiiai oa?/oaaiiy ia ieenii-a?aeiiai? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo oa e?i?aeiee neeaae aaiaoioeeo?a. Noi?ioeueiaai? iaoeia? i?aeoiaee aei aoaeoeaiiai ae?iaioa?iiai caoenoo i?aai?cio a?ae ae?? aea/aieo enaiia?ioee?a, iniiaieie iieiaeaiiyie yei? ? caaeainiaai?noue ca iniiaieie oa?/iaeie eiiiiiaioaie, e?iio?iii?noue oa aioeieneaeaioia ni?yiiaai?noue ?aoe?iio. C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioiiiai noanoono i?aai?cio iaie ?ic?iaeaii oa caiaoaioiaaii oa?/iaee i?iaeoeo “Aoeao”. Iaea?aeai? iaie aeai? aeathoue i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui iieacieee ooie-oe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? i?oioiiae??e ia/?iee iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye oano-nenoaio aeey aeeoa?aioe?eiiai aea/aiiy oa ?aaeaiaioaoe?? enaiia?ioee?a o oa?/oaaii?. NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO II OAI? AeENA?OAOe?? Ieoiaa A. I., Niiey? A. E., Eaa?ooaiei E. O.. Iaoiaaiac, i?ioeeaeoeea e ea/aiea ooi?enoie eioieneeaoeee. / E.: Caei?ia’y, 1987. - 147 n. Niiey? A. E., Eaa?ooaiei E. O. A?aaeiua aauanoaa a iaoo?aeueiuo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoao e eo aeaaie/aneia cia/aiea / A?a/aaiia aeaei. - 1974. - ? 1. - N. 142 - 145. Eaa?ooaiei E. O. Aeeyiea ooi?eaea iao?ey ia noeoeeiaoaeaaeae?iaaiaco e NAAeI: oeeoio?ii n - ieneaeaco ieoioiiae?ee ia/aie e?un / Oe?. aeio. aeo?iae. - 1982. - ? 1, - o. 54. - N. 86 - 88. Niiey? A. E., Naeee I. N., Oeaiei A. A., Eaa?ooaiei E. O., Iaaeth/aiei I. A., A?a/aaa E. O., O?oiia A. E., Aoee/ I. I., ssai?neay O. E. 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Caoeua?oueny aeena?oaoe?y, ca iaoa??aeaie yei? iioae?eiaaii 22 iaoeia? ?iaioe, ui i?noyoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao enaiia?ioee?a aeiae?eey (i?o?aoe, ooi?eaee, oao?aoei?iaoai), eiioai?iaio?a ?ae?, a oaeiae iaoo?aeueieo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie oa iaea?aeaieo oeyoii o?i?/iiai neioaco ia ieeni? i?ioeane a i?oioiiae??yo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?ooaiiy i?ioean?a ieeniiai oinoi?eethaaiiy, aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a oeeeeo E?aana oa neioaco iae?ia?a?/ieo niieoe i?ae aieeaii /oaei??aeieo ?a/iaei iia(ycaii c iineeaiiyi i?ioean?a ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a. Iacaaeainiaaiee ii e?i?aeiiio eiiiiiaioo ?aoe?ii oaeiae noeioeth? i?ioeane ia?ieneaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a a i?aai?ci?. Ie?ai? oa?/ia? eiiiiiaioe (a?oai?ie, oinoie?i?aee) oa niaoe?ae?ciaai? i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy, ae?th/e ni?yiiaaii ia iaoaaie?ci o ee?oei?, ni?eythoue ii?iae?caoe?? ieenieo i?ioean?a o i?oioiiae??yo. Eeth/ia? neiaa: enaiia?ioeee, ieenia oinoi?eethaaiiy o i?oioiiae??yo, iacaaeainiaaia oa?/oaaiiy, ae?iaioa?ia ei?aeoe?y. Eaa?ooaiei E. O. Ieeneeoaeueiua i?ioeannu a ieoioiiae?eyo iiae aeeyieai enaiiaeioeeia e eo aeeiaioa?iay ei??aeoeey. -?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03. 00. 04 - aeioeiey, Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao ei. Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1998. Caueuaaony aeenna?oaoeey, ii iaoa?eaeai eioi?ie iioaeeeiaaii 22 iao/iua ?aaiou, niaea?aeauea ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee aeeyiey enaiiaeioeeia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu (ieo?aou, ooi?eaeu, oao?aoei?iaoai), eiioaieiaioia ieue, a oaeaea ieuaauo aeiaaaie (iaoo?aeueiuo eee iieo/aiiuo iooai oeie/aneiai neioaca) ia ieeneeoaeueiua i?ioeannu a ieoioiiae?eyo, naycaiiua n neioacii iae?iy?ae/aneeo niaaeeiaiee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaoaieci ia?ooaiee i?ioeannia ieeneeoaeueiiai oinoi?eee?iaaiey e aeoeaiinoe oa?iaioia oeeeea E?aana iiae aeeyieai eiioaieiaioia ieue naycai n oneeaieai i?ioeannia ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiey eeieaeia. Ianaaeaine?iaaiiue ii eeieaeiiio eiiiiiaioo ?aoeeii oaeaea noeioee?oao i?ioeannu ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiey eeieaeia a i?aaiecia. Ioaeaeueiua ieuaaua eiiiiiaiou (aeoaieiu, oinoieeieaeu) e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?iaeoeou ieoaiey iai?aaeaiii aeaenoaoy ia eeaoi/iue iaoaaieeci niinianoaotho ii?iaeecaoeee ieeneeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia a ieoioiiae?eyo. Eeth/aaua neiaa: enaiiaeioeee, ieeneeoaeueiia oinoi?eee?iaaiea a ieoioiiae?eyo, ianaaeaine?iaaiia ieoaiea, aeeiaioa?iay ei??aeoeey. Lavrushenko L. F. The oxidative processes in mitochondrias under the influence of xenobiotics and it(s alimentary protection. -Manuscript. The thesis for the obtaineng of the Doctor’s scientific degree of Science specialized in 03. 00. 04 - Biochemistry, Kyiv, Taras Shevchenko University, 1998. The thesis is submitted for defending. On 22 scientific works hahe been published wich are based on it’s materials. These works include the results of research of invironmental xenobiotics influence (nitrates, fluoride, tetrachlormethan), food’s contaminant and food’s additives natural or optained by chemical synthesis on the oxidative phosphorylation processes connected with ATP synthesis in mitochondria. It was proved that the disturbance mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation processes and active state of Crabs cycle enzymes influenced by food contaminants are connected with the intensification of the lipid peroxide oxidation processes in mitochondria. The ration non balanced by the lipid component also stimulates the lipid peroxide oxidation processes in the organism. Separate nutritional components (vitamines, phospholipides) and specialized food products with additives amino acids influencing the cells metabolism promote normalization of the oxidative processes in the organism. Key words: xenobiotics, the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondrias, non balanced nutrition, alimentary protection. PAGE 31

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