Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

OAeE 947.782.081/083.72.43

EINOTHE

Ieoaeei Iao?iae/

I?iaoeueea eieii?caoe?y ia Aieei?

(60-o? ?iee O?O no. – 1914 ?.)

07.00.01 – ?NOI??ss OE?A?IE

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio

oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

IAEA?*OE
Noaiai A?naio?eiae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai?
?aaia O?aiea, caa?aeoth/ee

eaoaae?ith
aoiieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

*OAAEIA
Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai?
?aaia O?aiea, /eai niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

?aaee E
04.04.11

eaiaeeaeao
?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

EIAAA
AEaiia Ieeiea?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Oe?a?ie
“EI?”, aeioeaio eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe??

aeaeaaie/i?
ni?aae, iie?a?ao?? ?

eieaiae?oeoaaiiy (i.Ee?a)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Ino?icueea Aeaaeai?y,
eaoaae?a ?noi???,

Eaa?iao
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao

“Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y” (i.Ino?ia, ??aiainueea iae.)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 19 n?/iy 1999 ?. i 15.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 04.04.11 o Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 290001,
i.Euea?a, aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (i.Euea?a,
aoe.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 18 a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Nooee I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia oii? a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie c aea?aeaaaie Cao?aeii?
?a?iie ?? aca?ieie c I?ia//eiith aenooiathoue ye i??i?eoaoi? ? aaaaoi a
/iio noathoue aecia/aeueieie aeey iiaeaeueoiai i?inoaaiiy iaoi?
aea?aeaae oeyoii aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo oa aoiaeaeaiiy aei ??cieo
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeeo no?oeoo?. A ieioeiio i?ae Oe?a?iith oa
I?ia//eiith ?nioaaee anaa?/i? ?noi?e/i? eiioaeoe. Nueiaiaei? aeineoue
aeooaeueiei ? caaaeaiiy ?o ananoi?iiiueiai ? iaoia?aaeaeaiiai aea/aiiy,
e?ea?aeaoe?? oae caaieo “a?eeo ieyi” oa i/euaiiy iaoeo ciaiue a?ae
iaaieo ?noi?e/ieo noa?aioei?a, ui neeaeeny a ieioe? aeanyoee?ooy.
Aeinoia??ia ?noi?e/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y, ?? ia’?eoeaiee ? iaoeiaee aiae?c
aeaaeooue iiaeeea?noue aeeaoa inieneeoe ? a?aooaaoe iiia?aaei?e aeina?ae
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae iaoeie ia?iaeaie, iaiao?aeiee aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ?o
iaeaooiueiai aca?iiaea?aeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa.

A oeueiio eiioaeno?, cie?aia, ie?aiiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaa?
ieoaiiy ?noi??? i?iaoeueeeo i?a?aoe?eieo ?oo?a ia Oe?a?io, ?icnaeaiiy
i?ioe?a a ??cieo ?? ?aa?iiao, ?o ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?,
aeooiaiiai aeeooy, noinoie?a c oe?a?ioeyie oa aieeao ia
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie iaoi? e?a?ie. sseui aeey I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie
oe? ieoaiiy aoee a?aeia?aaeai? a ?noi??ia?ao?? aeineoue oe?iei, oi
?noi??y i?iaoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie ia Aieei?, a neeo iaaieo
i?e/ei, iiee ui ia ciaeoea naiai ananoi?iiiueiai aena?oeaiiy a iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo??, ca aeiyoeii e?eueeio a?aeaa?oi oaiaeaioe?eieo ?
ca?aeaieia?ciaaieo ai?ciae?a. Oea e iaoiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue oa
aeooaeuei?noue oaeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? ia eeoa a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?.
Aaiiie?oe/ia ?icoaooaaiiy Aieei? ye cao?aeieo ai??o Oe?a?ie a ?a?iio, ??
no/ania i?eiaeaaei?noue aei ?a?i?aa?iio “Aoa” aeiaaathoue a?ae
oeaio?aeueii? oa i?noeaai? aeaaee i?e ieaioaaii? noinoie?a c I?ia//eiith
iaia’yceiaiai a?aooaaiiy ?noi?e/ieo oe?a?inueei-i?iaoeueeeo eiioaeo?a,
ui iathoue aaea oeny/ie?oith o?aaeeoe?th. Oea aeaei a iiaeeea?noue
oieeiooe iiieeie, ye? iaiaeii?aciai iaee i?noea a ieioeiio.

I?aaeiaoii iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane, aiane?aeie
yeeo ia oa?eoi??? Aieeinueei? aoaa?i?? noi?ioaaeanue aoii?aa?iiaeueia
a?oia aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a, ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue i?iaoeueeeo
iinaeaioe?a ia Aieei?, ?o nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a, nenoaia a?iiaaenueeiai
naiioi?aae?iiy, iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a, iiaoo, aeooiaia aeeooy oa
noinoiee c i?noeaaei oe?a?inueeei ianaeaiiyi o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O –
ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

I?ae iiiyooyi i?a?aoe?? aaoi? ?icoi?? ia?ai?uaiiy iaaiiai aoiino a iaae?
?in?enueei? ?iia??? (?ii?a?aoe?y), eiai ?oo a iaaeao naii? aea?aeaae
(aioo??oi? i?a?aoe??) oa ae?cae ca ?? ei?aeiie (ai?a?aoe?y). Iiiyooy
“aoii?aa?iiaeueii? a?oie” a ?iaio? icia/a? oaeo oi?io aoi?/ii?
ni?eueiino?, yea ooai?eeanue a ?acoeueoao? iaaieo i?e/ei, ui coiiaeee
a?ae?ea a?ae iae?iaoiino yei?nue ?? /anoeie, ia?ai?uaiiy ?? a ?io?
?aa?iie ? o?eaaea oai i?iaeeaaiiy a ?iiiaoe?iiaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?, aea
caa?aaeaiiy iath iniiaieo aoi?/ieo iciae (iiae, eoeueoo?e, ?ae?a??,
na?aeiiino?) oa oi?ioaaiiy aoii?aa?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?. O iiiyooy
“eieii?caoe?y” aeeaaeaii oaeee ci?no: inai?iiy oa?eoi??e c iecueeith
aonoioith ianaeaiiy, cia/ieie ieiuaie ionooth/eo caiaeue oa ?o neaaeei
aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii aaeeeeie ianaie ethaeae, ye? ai?a?othoue c ?ioeo
?aa?ii?a i?ae aieeaii iaaieo aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo oa ?ioeo i?e/ei.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?ai? a?aeiia?aeii aei ?nioth/iai
a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae oa?eoi??aeueii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai iiae?eo
?in?enueei? ?iia???, a oaeiae o ca’yceo c /?oei aecia/aiei aa?a?iei oa
ianiaei oa?aeoa?ii i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? naia o Aieeinuee?e aoaa?i??,
yea iiae?eyeanue ia 12 iia?o?a ? aoiaeeea aei Ee?anueeiai,
Iiae?euenueeiai oa Aieeinueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noaa.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea?? ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaiee oaeeie i?e/eiaie:

1. Ieaeiy iaaea iaoiiaeaia ?aoi?iith 1861 ?. a ?in?? oa iieuenueeei
iianoaiiyi 1863 ?., ye? e noaee aieiaieie i?e/eiaie ianiai? i?iaoeueei?
eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei?.

2. Aa?oiueith iaaeath aeine?aeaeaiiy acyoi aeaoo ii/aoeo Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie, yea i?ecaaea aei ianiaeo aeaii?oaoe?e aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a, ui
ni?e/eieei ea?aeeiaeuei? ci?ie ?oiuei? /enaeueiino? a e?a? oa c?oeioaaei
?nioth/o nenoaio aeeooy ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: aea/aiiy ?noi??? i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei?
a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX no., ananoi?iii? aena?oeaiiy
??cieo noi??i aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino? i?iaoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie,
?? aieeao ia aeiiii?/iee oa a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie ?aa?iio.
I?e oeueiio aaoi? eiie?aoeco? iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeie iniiaieie
caaaeaiiyie:

? ?’ynoaaoe aanue eiiieaen i?e/ei, ye? coiiaeee ianiao i?iaoeueeo
eieii?caoe?th ia Aieei?, iniiai? ?? iai?yie oa oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino?;

? ??inoaaeeoe aeeiai?eo /enaeueiino? oa aaia?ao?th ?icnaeaiiy i?ioe?a o
Aieeinuee?e aoaa?i??;

? ?ecia/eoe ?ieue oeaio?aeueieo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee o i?eeiyoo?
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ye? coieieee o?ae i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia
Aieei?;

? ?aoe ?icai?iooo oa?aeoa?enoeeo ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a ca oaeeie ia?aiao?aie: oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
i?iaoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy oa iniiai? oi?ie ?o caieaei?enooaaiiy;
aieiai? oa aeiaeaoeia? aaeoc? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? eieii?no?a;
iniiai? caiyooy i?iaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy aieeinueeeo i?no; o/anoue i?ioe?a
o i?iieneiaiio ?icaeoeo Aieeinueei? aoaa?i??;

? ?ieacaoe iniaeeaino? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy oa iiaooo aieeinueeeo
eieii?no?a;

? ??aeoai?eoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie oe?eueii?
ina?oe a i?iaoeueeeo eieii?yo oa c’ynoaaoe ?? ?ieue o aeoiaaii?
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy, o oi?ioaaii? oa caa?aaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino?;

? ?ena?oeeoe ieoaiiy eiioan?eii? i?eiaeaaeiino? i?iaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy
Aieei? oa ?ieue ?ae?a?? o eiai aeooiaiiio aeeoo?;

? ?ieacaoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy noinoie?a aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a c ei??iiei
ianaeaiiyi e?ath oa i?aaiaie i?noeaai? aeaaee;

? ??iaeoe i?aenoiie iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie ?
aecia/eoe o? ?? aniaeoe, ui iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa o
a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ia iniia? aiae?co oa nenoaiaoecaoe?? aaeeei?
e?eueeino? ?noi?e/ieo, aoiia?ao?/ieo oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae c?iaeaia ni?iaa
eiiieaeniiai ? ananoi?iiiueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nai???aeiiai i?a?aoe?eiiai
i?ioeano — i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei?, a oaeiae aeeooy ?
ae?yeuei?noue i?iaoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie a aeaiiio ?aa?ii? o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX no. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue aaanoe
aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao cia/io e?euee?noue iiai? ?noi?e/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??,
aeyaeaii? a a?o?aieo oiiaeao, iaoa??ae?a noaoenoeee, neeanoe oaaeeoe? oa
ae?aa?aie, aeeiiaoe a?ao?/ii-?ethno?aoeai? ?iaioe, ui, a e?ioeaaiio
?acoeueoao?, ni?eyei ia’?eoeaiiio ? aeeaieiio aeine?aeaeaiith ??cieo
aniaeo?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, a?iiaaenueeiai ? aeooiaiiai
aeeooy oa ?ioeo i?ioean?a o aeeoo? aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a. A ?iaio? oaeiae
aeaii ioe?ieo noinoie?a i?iaoeueeeo iinaeaioe?a c i?noeaaei ianaeaiiyi.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iaaiith i??ith caiiaiththoue
a?aenooi?noue eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? i?iaoeueei?
eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei? ? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue a ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo ?noi?ee?a c i?iaeai i?iaoeueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie a Oe?a?i?, a i?aeaioiaoe? caaaeueii?noi?e/ieo oa
niaoe?aeueieo oai ? eo?n?a o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, a i?aai?caoe??
??ciiiai?oieo e?a?ciaa/eo eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo caoiae?a, o
oi?ioaaii? aeaaaeaii? aioo??oiuei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee iaoi?
aea?aeaae a no/anieo oiiaao ? ia ia?niaeoeao.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio,
ia’?eoeaiino? oa nenoaiiino?, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue a?aeoai?eoe
o?eaaeee ia??iae i?iaeeaaiiy iaaii? aoi?/ii? a?oie a ?iiiaoe?iiaeueiiio
na?aaeiaeu? c a?aooaaiiyi an?o oaeoi??a, ui aieeaaee ia ?? aeeooy ?
ae?yeuei?noue.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy ie?aieo eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue ?iaioe a i?e canoiniaaii
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, noaoenoe/iee, o?iiieia?/iee oa iaoiae
eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy ?noi?e/ieo yaeu.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, aniaeoe ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeai? o oanoe iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a, oacao, aenooiao ?
aeiiia?aeyo ia ?aa?iiaeueieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo oa i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue a Oe?a?i? oa ca ?? iaaeaie:
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/?e eiioa?aioe?? “AEeoiie?ueia e??cue
i?ecio noie?oue” (AEeoiie?, 1997 ?.), ?O iaoeia?e
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ieioea ? no/ania
Aieei?: Ieaenaiae? Oeeieaeianueeee ? e?ae” (Eooeuee, 1998 ?.),
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-e?a?ciaa/?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue” (i.Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeee
AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?, 1998 ?.), I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
“Iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu n?aaee ?inneeneeo iaioeaa: enoi?e/aneee
aniaeo” (Aiaia, ?in?y, 1997 ?.), “Iaioeu a ?innee a eiioaenoa
ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee: iauea i?iaeaiu e ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe”
(Iineaa, 1998 ?.) oa ?ioeo. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?aia ? noaaeaia ia
ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa eaoaae?e
aoiieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa iiaoaeiaaia ca o?iiieia?/ii-i?iaeaiiei
i?eioeeiii. ?? no?oeoo?a aecia/a?oueny iinoaaeaiith i?iaeaiith, iaoith
oa iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie ? aeeth/a? a naaa anooi, /ioe?e ?icae?ee (179
noi??iie), aeniiaee, a?ae?ia?ao?/i? iineeaiiy, nienie aeaea?ae ?
e?oa?aoo?e (356 iaeiaioaaiue) oa aeiaeaoee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ?? oa?eoi??aeuei? oa
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? cia/ei?noue, aecia/aii i?aaeiao
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa e iniiai? caaaeaiiy
?iaioe.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy”
c?iaeaii ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie ? aeaii
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?? aeaea?aeueii? iniiae.

I?iaoeueea eieii?caoe?y a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? ua c XIX no. ? ia’?eoii
?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aea ?aa?ii I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai e?ath a
oeueiio ieai? c iaaieo i?e/ei aeiaa c iiey ci?o aeine?aeiee?a. Oiio
oe?eeii neooii aaaaeaoe, ui ?noi??y i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei?
ia ia? o?eaei? ?noi??ia?ao?/ii? o?aaeeoe??.

Iaeieie ?c ia?oeo aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo cono??/athoueny ia?aaaaeii
noaoenoe/i? oa ie?ai? ea?oia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee i?i i?ioe?a ia
Aieei?, aoee ?iaioe I.?.Eaiiaia, I.O.??oo?oa, Ae.N.Aaothoeiaa,
?.O.A?ea?oa1 oa aeayeeo ?ioeo. Aiie iiaa/eee na?o o 50-60-o ?ieao XIX
no. ? i?noeee aeai?, ui a?aeiineeenue aei eiai ia?oi? iieiaeie oa
na?aaeeie, i?e/iio o?aaiaioa?iiai oa?aeoa?o ? ia caaaeaee oi/i?, ui
aeiaaa? e?eoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo o ?o aeei?enoaii?. Aeayeee ?ioa?an o ieai?
aea/aiiy ?iicaioe?a ia Aieei? i?aaenoaaeyea ? ?iaioa A.A?ao/eeiaa, oi/a
a?aeiiino? i?i i?ioe?a o i?e aeoaea iacia/i?..1

Ie?aii ne?ae coieieoenue ia aeine?aeaeaii? A.Ai?ii?ia, yea c’yaeeinue ia
naiiio ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a XIX no.2 Eiai caienea “I?i ?iicaiieo
iinaeaioe?a o I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiio e?a?” aoea a?aeiia aeaaii, aea
ai?uai? a i?e iaoa??aee c iac?icoi?eeo i?e/ei ia aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i? a
aei?aaiethoe?eieo, i? a ?aaeyinueeeo, i? a no/anieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
?iaioao. Aiia iane/aia aaaaoueia oaeoaie ? noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie, oeeoo?
ie?ai? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe, ye? aoee aeinooii? o?eueee aaoi?o, a oiio
iaaiith i??ith iineoue oa?aeoa? ia?oiaeaea?aea. Oe?ii?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Ai?ii?ia iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iueiio i?noeoueny
oi?eaeueiee oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae, yeee aena?oeth? ia??iae iiyae ia?oeo
iaiii?onueeeo ? i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e ia Aieei? ua ia ii/aoeo ? a ia?o?e
iieiaei? XIX no. Ia aeaeue, ia??iae ianiai? i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? a
?aa?ii? A.Ai?ii?iei aena?oeaii eeoa noaiii ia 1871 ??e, oiaoi ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai?. Iaeiae, naia oey i?aoey ia?aeiieeai i?aeoaa?aeaeo?,
ui ii/aoie i?ioeano iaaecae/aeii aeoeaiiai ia?anaeaiiy i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?no?a ia Aieeiue i?eiaaea? naia ia 60-? ?iee XIX no. I?e/iio
aaoi? caienee i?i?ethno?oaaa iinooiiaa c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino?
?ii?a?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano i?ioyaii aeacaiiai aeanyoee?ooy a?aeiia?aeieie
noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie. Oea noaei iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo a?aoiaio?a aeey
aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?? o aecia/aii? ieaeiuei? iaae? o?iiieia?/ieo ?aiie
eiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oiae? aea/aiiy a?o?aieo aeaea?ae aaeaeiny
aeyaeoe ua iaeei aa??aio ?iaioe A.Ai?ii?ia, ia?aaeaeaiee o 1942 ?. a
ieoiiaaiiio Ee?a? o ia?aeeaae? oe?a?inueeith iiaith.3

Aeineoue oe?iieie, c oi/ee ci?o caaaeueiiai iaeyaeo aeeooy ? iiaooo
ie?aieo aoi?/ieo a?oi o I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiio e?a?, ? iaoa??aee,
c?a?ai? I.*oaeinueeei4. I?aaaea, i?i aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a a oe?e
ca??oe? ?ioi?iaoe?y iaeaea a?aenooiy.

Ia iniia? ??ciiiai?oiiai noaoenoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aiae?coaaee noaiiaeua
?iicaiieo eieii?no?a o I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiio e?a? e oae? ?in?enuee?
aeine?aeieee ye N.A?iia/aanueeee, A.Ea?oiaaoeue, ?.?oae/aiei.5 ? oi/a
i?ioeyi oe? aaoi?e oaaao i?eae?eeee iacia/io, ana ae ie?ai? ?oi? ioe?iee
naiiai i?ioeano eieii?caoe?? oa eiai iane?aee?a caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao.

Iii?oiee aianie o aea/aiiy ?iicaioe?a ia Aieei? c?iaeee io?oea?e
Aaia?aeueiiai ooaao. Ia?oo a?oio ?oi?o ?ia?o neeaaeathoue ieiaee
eieaeoeaii? i?aoe?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iayai?noth ia?aaaaeii aaeeei?
e?eueeino? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, iiaeaeoaee ii?aoeueiaaieo o aeaeyae?
oaaeeoeue, a?ao?e?a, ae?aa?ai, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue i?ine?aeeoaaoe
aeeiai?eo ie?aieo nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a a na?aaeiaeu? i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?no?a.1

Ae?oaa a?oia a?enueeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia? eiie?aoia aaoi?noai ?
iineoue iaeyaeiai-aiae?oe/iee oa ocaaaeueithth/ee oa?aeoa?, aea ii?yae
?c oeeo?iaeie iaoa??aeaie ai?uai? e ie?ai? oaeoe c ?noi???, aaia?ao??
?icnaeaiiy oa aoiia?ao?? i?iaoeueeeo iinaeaioe?a Aieei?. Na?aae ieo
ne?ae a?aecia/eoe ?iaioe A.Caaae?ia oa ?.Oieia/iaa.2

Ie?ai?, ciiao ae oaee ia?aaaaeii noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee uiaei aieeinueeeo
i?ioe?a, cono??/athoueny ? a aeayeeo iieuenueeeo ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo
ioae?eaoe?yo ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no.3 Iaeiei ?c ia?oeo na?eicieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? a ?in?? aoea eieaa A.Eeaona, a
ye?e a?i ocaaaeueiea nai? ?ic??ciai? ioae?eaoe?? c “Aanoieea Aa?iiu” ca
1868-69 ??. A iiea eiai ci?o iiiaee ? aeaye? i?iaoeuee? eieii?? Oe?a?ie,
iaeiae i?ioean eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei? aaniethoii ia ciaeoia naiai
aena?oeaiiy.4

O 1893 ?. iiaa/eea na?o eieaa A.A.Aae?oeeia “Iaioeu a ?innee”, yea
caii/aoeoaaea a?aeaa?oi aioei?iaoeueeo oia?i?noe/io oaiaeaioe?th ioe?iee
i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? a ?in?enuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??.5 ?? aaoi?
iaiaaaany an?eyeeie niiniaaie, aeiioneath/e oaeoe/i? iiieeee,
ia??oiooaaoe ?aeath “ie?iiai caaithaaiiy ?in?? i?ioeyie”. Ie?ai?
noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee, aeei?enoai? a i?e, noinothoueny ? Aieei?.
Iiiiaioii A.A.Aae?oeeio a 1895 ?. aenooiea I.N.Eaiainueeee, yeee
aeiaiaeea ooo/i?noue iinoaaeaii? “i?iaoeueei? i?iaeaie”, a?aoiaiooth/e
nai? aeieace aeei?enoaiiyi aaaaoueio aaccaia?a/ii iiceoeaieo oaeo?a c
?noi??? aeeooy ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e ?in??, a oiio
/ene? e Oe?a?ie.6 Ia aeaeue, ieoaiiy i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? eiie?aoii
ia Aieei? I.N.Eaiainueeei ia ii?oooaaeinue.

Ia ii/aoeo XX no. c’yaeany ?yae na?eicieo ?ia?o, aaoi?e yeeo ?iaeee
ni?iae oe?ieiianooaaiiai ? ia’?eoeaiiai aiae?co noaio ? i?iaeai
i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? a ?in??.

I?e/iio oae? aeine?aeieee ye A.Iena?aanueeee, E.E?iaeaiai, ss.Ooao,
I.Eoiiia iaiaaaeenue caa??aaoe ia’?eoeai?noue nai?o aeine?aeaeaiue
iaa?oue a ?iee a?aee?eoi? aioei?iaoeueei? eaiiai??, yea
?icai?ioeanue a ?in?? iaia?aaeiaei? ? iniaeeai a ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie1.

A oeae aea /an c’yaeyeeny ? eieae oia?i?noe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ye?
i?iaeiaaeoaaee ?aea? A.Aae?oeeia. Naia a oaeeo ?iaioao aeayea oaaaa aoea
i?eae?eaia ? i?iaoeuee?e eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei?, i/aaeaeii, a neeo ??
no?aoaa?/iiai ?ici?uaiiy ia cao?aeieo ie?a?iao ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Oea
noino?oueny, a ia?oo /a?ao, ?iaioe A.I.E?i?aiae? “Aa?iaiey a ?innee”,
yea aeeoea o 1911 ?.2 ?? aaoi?, oaiaeaioe?eii aeei?enoiaoth/e cia/iee
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, iaiaaaany aeiaanoe, ui i?ioean canaeaiiy i?ioeyie
Aieei? iineoue no?aoaa?/iee oa?aeoa? ? ? iane?aeeii aaniethoii
oe?eani?yiiaaii? ? na?aeiii? iie?oeee i?iaoeueeiai o?yaeo ia ao?eaiiy a
aeeooy ieai?a “Daang nach Isten” oa “ie?iiai caaithaaiiy cao?aeieo
ie?a?i ?in?enueei? ?iia???”. A oaeiio ae aeon? aeo?eiaia ? i?aoey
A.?aii?eiaa, yea iiaa/eea na?o aaea a oiae? a?eie5. Iaienaia aiia o
aeaeyae? iiaei?iaei?o a?aaeaiue oa cai?oie, ? ?? aaoi? iaa?oue ia
i?eoiaoaaa naiai na?eanoe/ii-ciaaaaeeeaiai noaaeaiiy aei aieeinueeeo
i?ioe?a. Iaeiae, i?e e?eoe/iiio i?aeoiae? aei oeeo aeaio aeaeaiue a ieo
iiaeia ciaeoe oe?eaa? oaeoe ? i??eoaaiiy c ?noi??? oa niaoeeo?ee
?icnaeaiiy i?ioe?a ia Aieei?, oi?ioaaiiy ?oiueiai caieaaieiae?iiy,
?icaeoeo oe?eueii? ina?oe, iianyeaeaiiiai iiaooo, nenoaie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, noinoie?a c i?noeaaei ianaeaiiyi oa ?ioeo noa? aeeooy.

Na?aae ?ia?o oeueiai ia??iaeo i?eaa?oa? oaaao iaaaee/ea ca ianyaii
a?ioo?a i?ae iacaith “I iaiaoeeeo iinaeaioeao Aieuineie aoaa?iee”.4
Aiia aoea i?aeaioiaeaia ? aeaeaia i?iaoeueeith a?oiith “Nithco 17
AEiaoiy” c i?eaiaeo aianaiiy o 1910 ?. aei Aea?aeaaii? Aeoie iiaiai
caeiiii?iaeoo i?i iaiaaeaiiy i?iaoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy a
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiio e?a?. Caaaeath/e ia oea, i?ioe?-aeaiooaoe
i?aaenoaaeee aeeeth/ii iiceoeai? oaeoe ? iane?aeee i?iaoeueei?
eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei?, aaaaeath/e naia eieii?no?a iaeaaaeeea?oei eiai
eoeueoo?iei aeaiaioii ? iii?ith ?in?enueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Iacaaaeath/e
ia oaeo iiceoe?th, aeaia ioae?eaoe?y aoea ?aeeiith a oie /an ni?iaith
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?noi??? oa ioe?iee i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? o aeacaiiio
?aa?ii?.

Ui ae noino?oueny ?ioeo oiai/anieo aei?aaiethoe?eieo ?ia?o, oi ne?ae
eiinoaooaaoe oie oaeo, ui i?iaoeueea eieii?caoe?y ia Aieei? ia ciaeoea a
ieo naiai oi/a a o?aaiaioa?iiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy. Oaeo neaaeo oaaao aei
aeaiiai ?aa?iio c aieo ?in?enueeeo aeine?aeiee?a ne?ae iiynieoe,
i/aaeaeii, aeineoue i?ci?i, a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie i?noeaainoyie ?in??,
ii/aoeii naii? eieii?caoe?? oa iaaea?aeaaiei ?? ?i?oe?thaaiiyi. ? eeoa
aaia?ao?/ia ?icoaooaaiiy Aieei? a i?eei?aeiiiiio ?aa?ii? ?iia???,
niaoeeo?ea ?icnaeaiiy ooo i?ioe?a ? oaeaee? oaiie c?inoaiiy ieiu?
?oiueiai caieaaieiae?iiy i?eaa?ioee aei naaa oaaao ie?aieo oia?i?noe/ii
iano?i?ieo aaoi??a a ia??iae ?icai?oaiiy aioei?iaoeueei? eaiiai?? a
e?a?i?.

O i?aeai?iiee ia??iae a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? c’yaeeinue e?eueea
?ia?o, i?enay/aieo ?noi??? iaiii?o?a, a oiio /ene? e ia Oe?a?i?.1 Aeeoea
oaeiae i?iaoeueeiiiaia i?aoey A.I.AEe?ioinueeiai i?i i?iaoeuee? eieii??
ia Oe?a?i?.2 Aea aieeinuee? iaiii?oe ? i?ioe? caeeoeeenue iica oaaaith
aeine?aeiee?a. ??aee?niei aeeeth/aiiyi o oeueiio ieai? aoea ciiao ae
oaee i?iaoeueeiiiaia ?iaioa i?i i?iaoeueeeo iinaeaioe?a ia Aieei?
N.I?eaey “I?ioe? ia Aieei?”.3 Iaienaia c oiai/anieo ?aeaieia?/ieo
iiceoe?e, aiia i?eae?eyea cia/io oaaao ?aaeyinueeiio ia??iaeo aeeooy
i?ioe?a o No?aei?e Aieei?. Ui ae noino?oueny aei?aaiethoe?eii? ?noi???
aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a, oi

aaoi?o ia aaeaeiny c?iaeoe aeinoaoiuei aeeaieiai ? ananoi?iiiueiai ??
aena?oeaiiy.

Ia ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a c’yaeeinue aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aia i?iaoeueeei
iinaeaioeyi ia Aieei?, ? a iieuenuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??. Eiai aaoi?ii aoea
N.Oe?oioeueea-Iao?aaeeoeueea, c-i?ae ia?a yei? aeeoea eieaa
“I?iaoeueeee aeaiaio ia Aieei?”.4 Ia?oee ?? ?icae?e ei?ioei
aena?oethaaa ?noi??th i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei? o oea?nueeee
ia??iae, a ?io? a?aeia?aaeaee aeeooy ? ae?yeuei?noue i?ioe?a o
Cao?aei?e Aieei?, yea aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo Iieueu?. Ie?ai? a?aeiiino?
i?i i?iaoeuee? eieii?? ia Aieei? cono??/athoueny ? a noaoo?
N.Oe?oioeueei?-Iao?aaeeoeueei? “I?iaoeuee? oa /anuee? eieii?? ia
Aieei?”.5 Oi/a ?iaioe aeuacaaaeaiiai aaoi?a ? iaienai? i?ae aieeaii
io?oe?eii? iieuenueei? ?noi??ia?ao??, ii?yae c eieaith N.I?eaey, aiie
aoee ?aeeieie aeaeaiiyie i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo, a yeeo
aena?oethaaeanue ?noi??y i?ioe?a ia Aieei?.

A ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? iiai?iiiai ia??iaeo i?iaeaia i?iaoeueei?
eieii?caoe?? a Oe?a?i? c iaaieo ?aeaieia?/ieo i??eoaaiue oaeoe/ii ia
?ic?iaeyeanue, oi/a ie?ai?, ia?aaaaeii noaoenoe/i? aeai? uiaei
i?iaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy, cono??/aeenue a ?iaioao A. ?aoeia, A.Eaaocaia,
?.Eoe?ie/a, A.Iaoeea6 oa aeayeeo ?ioeo. Ie?aii ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
iiiia?ao?th N.Iaea?/oea.7 ?icaeyaeath/e iaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie a
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX — ia ii/. XX no., aaoi?,
?aeeiee c aeine?aeiee?a oeueiai ia??iaeo, caa?ioa oaaao ia yaeua
i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei?, cie?aia, ia niaoeeo?eo caiyoue
eieii?no?a.

C ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ii/aee aeoiaeeoe noaoo?
oa iiiia?ao?? ?.Eoe?ie/a, A.Na?a?e/oea, A.*e?ea, A.Eoae?y/aiea,
A.Ai?ae??iea1 oa aeayeeo ?ioeo aaoi??a, ye? iaiaaaeenue caiiaieoe
?nioth/ee aaeooi aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia
Oe?a?i?. Oe?eaa? oa ??ciiiai?oi? iaoa??aee c oe??? i?iaeaie ai?uai? o
ca??ieeao “Aii?inu aa?iaineie enoi?ee”, aeaeaieo ?inoeoooii
oe?a?inueei-i?iaoeueeeo ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o 1995 ?.2 Ia aeaeue, o an?o oeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo Aieeiue ciiao caeeoeeanue iica oaaaith.

Eeoa c iiaeaaaeaiiyi ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue o 90-? ?iee
c’yaeeenue ia?o? ?ica?aeee, a yeeo aena?oethaaeenue ie?ai? noi?iie
aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino? i?ioe?a ia Aieei?. Oea noino?oueny oac ? noaoae
A.A?/aieiaa, A.Iaaeieuenueei?, I.Aa?iaea, A.A?o?aiea3 oa ?yaeo ?ioeo.
Aeaye? aniaeoe i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei? ?icaeyioo? ? a
aeena?oaoe?yo A.Iaaeieuenueei? oa I.Aa?iaea4. Aea oe?ioa ?oi?o
aeine?aeaeaiue ia aeaea iiaeeeaino? aeeaiei ? anaa?/ii i?iaiae?coaaoe
?noi??th i?iaoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie ia Aieei? o
aei?aaiethoe?eiee ia??iae.

Ie?aiee, ia aeaeue, aeoaea ei?ioeee ?icae?e, i?enay/aiee aieeinueeei
i?ioeyi, ai?uaii ? a ia?oiio i?ae?o/ieeo c ?noi??? i?ioe?a a ?in??
E.Iaeeiianueeiai5. Aeaye? aniaeoe ?noi??? oa iiae aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a,
ye? ia ii/aoeo XX no. ia?anaeeeenue aei Nea??o, noenei aena?oeai? a
noaoo? O.Ethoiai?.6 ? oi/a ioae?eaoe?? oaeiai ?iaeo iiiaeeiie?,
iiceoeaiei ? nai oaeo aeeth/aiiy ?aa?iio Aieei? a no/ani? ?in?enuee?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ?noi??y i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei? ?
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue ? no/anieo i?iaoeueeeo ?noi?ee?a, cie?aia
A.Eaiiaia ? Ae.Iieoaooea1. ?yae oe?eaaeo ioae?eaoe?e c aeaii? i?iaeaie
aoei ai?uaii a i?iaoeueeiiiaiiio ui??/ieeo “Wolhynische Hefte”
(“Aieeinuee? cioeoe”), yeee aeaea?oueny ?noi?e/iei oiaa?enoaii “Aieeiue”
o A?caiooaeae? (Aaaa??y, O?I), a oaeiae a aiaeiiiaiiio aeo?iae?
“Wandering Wolhynien” (“Iaiae?oth/? aieeiyie”), yeee uieaa?oaeueii
aeoiaeeoue o Aaieoaa?? (Eaiaaea).

Oaeei /eiii, ?nioth/a iaoeiaa e?oa?aoo?a c ?noi??? i?iaoeueei?
eieii?caoe?? a Oe?a?i? oa a ?in?? eeoa o?aaiaioa?ii ?, ia??aeei,
oaiaeaioe?eii aena?oeth? eeoa ie?ai? aniaeoe c ?noi??? aeeooy ?
ae?yeueiino? aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a. Oiio ni?aaaaeeeaei aoei a aaaaeaoe
a?aenooi?noue noaei? ?noi??ia?ao?/ii? o?aaeeoe?? c aeaii? oaie ?
eiinoaooaaoe iaiao?aei?noue ?? eiiieaeniiai ??oioiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?ic?iaeyth/e oaio aeena?oaoe??, aaoi? nie?aany ia oe?eee eiiieaen
aeaea?ae, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo aeyaeaia, a ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
aaaaeaia aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aia?oa. A oe?eiio ae, aoee aeei?enoai?
??ciiiai?oi? ca ci?noii, iioiaeaeaiiyi, cia/ei?noth ? oa?aeoa?ii
iioae?eiaai? oa iaiioae?eiaai? aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee.

Ia?oith ? iaeaaaeeea?oith a?oiith aeaea?ae, ui noaee oaeoieia?/iith
iniiaith ?iaioe, ? a?o?ai? oiiaee. Iaea?eueo aaaiio /anoeio ?o neeaee
aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee, aeyaeai? o Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio
?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie a i.Ee?a?. Iaeaaaaooei ca e?euee?noth iayaieo
? aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ooo ? oiiae Eaioeaey??? Ee?anueeiai,
Iiae?euenueeiai ? Aieeinueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a (o.442), aea c?a?ai?
aaaeeea? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy, oee?eoey?e oa aeiianaiiy aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi??a,
aieeinueeeo oeea?eueieo aoaa?iaoi??a, ??cieo aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo
i?aai?a aeaaee, a oaeiae iana ?ioeo, ??ciiiai?oieo ca ci?noii,
aeieoiaio?a. ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i i?aai?caoe?th oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie
i?iaoeueei? ina?oe a aoaa?i?? caa??aa?oueny a oe?e?e iecoe? aeieoiaio?a
?c oiiaeo Oi?aae?iiy Ee?anueeiai iaa/aeueiiai ie?oao (o.707). Oyaeaiiy
i?i ?ae?a?eia aeeooy eieii?no?a iiaeathoue iaoa??aee oiiaeo Ee?anueei?
aeooiaii? eiinenoi??? (o.127). O/anoue aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a o ?icaeoeo
i?noeaai? i?iieneiaino? i?ine?aeeiao?oueny o ni?aaao oiiaeo Ee?anueeiai
oaa?e/iiai ?iniaeoi?a (o.575). Aeaye? iie?oe/i? aniaeoe aeeooy ?
ae?yeueiino? ?iicaioe?a ia Aieei? i?aaenoaaeai? o oiiaeao Aieeinueeiai
aeaiaea?inueeiai oi?aae?iiy (oo. 1335, 1262, 1600, ?599).

Aaaaoi aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao AEeoiie?nueei?
iaeano? i?noeoueny o oiiae? Eaioeaey??? Aieeinueeiai
aoaa?iaoi?a (o.70), aeaui iaioa — o oiiaeao Aieeinueeiai
oiaa?enoaa oiaey?noaa (o.187), AEeoiie?nueei? i?nueei? oi?aae
(o.62), Aieeinueei? eacaiii? iaeaoe (o.118), Aieeinueeiai
aoaa?inueeiai i?aae?iiy (o.67) oa aeayeeo ?ioeo. I?e i?aeaioiaoe?
aeena?oaoe?? aaoi? nie?aany ? ia ie?ai? aeieoiaioe ?c oiiae?a
?iaainueeiai iia?oiaiai noaeo (o.384) oa ?iaainueei? i?nueei? oi?aae (o.
165) Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?iaainueei? iaeano?, a oaeiae c oiiae?a
Eiaaeuenueei? caieaaii?yaeii? eii?n?? (o.263), Eooeueei? i?nueei? oi?aae
(o.3) ? Eooeueeiai iioa??aeueiiai a?o?ao (o.271) Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao
Aieeinueei? iaeano?.

Iniaeeai oe?ii? aeaea?aea aoiia?ao?/iiai oa?aeoa?o aoee aeyaeai? o
A?aeae?e? ?oeiienieo oiiae?a ?inoeoooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,
oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie. Oea iiee ui ?aeei? oaeiai
?iaeo iaoa??aee eiiieaeniiai iieueiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaei??? c
iaeaeaai?oeo ia Aieei? i?iaoeueei? eieii?? Aiaoa Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai
iia?oo. I?iaiaeeeinue ? ocaaaeueithaaeinue aiii a?aeiiei aoiia?aoii
A.E?aa/aieii o 1926 ?. (o.1-4/347).

Ae?oao a?oio aeaea?ae neeaee caeiiiaeaa/? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe aeueo
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?in?enueei? ?iia???, iioae?eiaai? a “Iieiii
nia?aiee caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee”, ye? aeaee iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai? aace ?iicaiii? eieii?caoe?? a ?in?? a
oe?eiio oa a ?aa?ii? I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai e?ath cie?aia. Iniaeeaee
?ioa?an i?aaenoaaeythoue o? caeiie e oeace, ye? aoee ni?yiiaai? ia
i?eieiaiiy i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? naia ia Aieei?.

Aei o?aouei? a?oie aeaea?ae a?aeiinyoueny ia?aaaaeii ??ciiai ?iaeo
noaoenoe/i? a?aeiiino?. Oea iaoa??aee Ia?oiai caaaeueiiai ia?aieno
ianaeaiiy ?in?enueei? ?iia??? 1897 ?ieo, Iai’yoi? eieaeee, Iaeyaee oa
Noaoenoe/i? iaeyaee Aieeinueei? aoaa?i??, Iai’yoi? eieaeee ia?iaeieo
o/eeeu Aieeinueei? aoaa?i?? oa Ee?anueeiai iaa/aeueiiai ie?oao,
aeia?aeeia? e aae?ani? eieae oa aeaye? ?io?. Ai?uaia a ieo ??ciiieaiiaa
noaoenoe/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y aeaea iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe aeaiia?ao?/i?
i?ioeane a na?aaeiaeu? aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a, c’ynoaaoe ?o ina?oi?e
??aaiue, ?ae?a?eio i?eiaeaaei?noue, nioe?aeueii-noaiiao no?oeoo?o,
i?ioan?eio caeiyo?noue, ianooaae caieaaieiae?iiy oa aaaaoi ?ioeo
ieoaiue, ye? a?aeia?aaeai? a aeine?aeaeaii? o oi?i? oaaeeoeue oa
ae?aa?ai.

Aeineoue oe?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th iiaeaeoaee i?noeoue ? /aoaa?oa a?oia
aeaea?ae — iaoa??aee ia??iaee/ii? i?ane. Oea, a ia?oo /a?ao, io?oe?eia
caaaeueii?in?enueea ? ?aa?iiaeueia i?ana (aacaoe “Aanoiee THai-Caiaaeiie
?innee”, “Eeaaeyiei”, “Ecaanoey Aieuineiai aoaa?ineiai cainoaa”,
“Aieuineea aia?oeaeueiua aaaeiiinoe), a oaeiae iaio?oe?ei? ae?oeiaai?
aeaeaiiy, i?aaenoaaeai? aacaoaie “Aieuiue”, “AEeciue Aieuie”, “Aiein
Aieuie”, “Aanoiee Aieuie”, “Aieuineay aeeciue” oa ?ioeie. Oe?ii?noue
ia??iaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a, ianaiia?aae, a oiio, ui aiie aena?oeththoue
?aaeuei? oaeoe, iiae?? ? i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny o iianyeaeaiiiio
aeeoo? i?iaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy Aieei?.

Oeae iaeyae iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e oa aeaea?aeueii? aace iieaco?,
iane?eueee aeooaeueiith ? iaiao?aei?noue nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?ic??ciaieo
o?aaiaioa?ieo ioae?eaoe?e oa iaoia?aaeaeaiiai aiae?co anueiai ae?aiaciio
iayaieo aeaea?ae, ? ia oe?e iniia? i?iaaaeaiiy ie?aiiai eiiieaeniiai
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aiiai aeeeth/ii ia??iaeo ianiai?
i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei?, yeee i?eiaaea? ia ae?oao iieiaeio
XIX — ii/aoie XX no. Naia oey aeooaeueia i?iaeaia e iaoiiaeea aea??
aaoi?ii oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?icnaeaiiy oa ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a ia Aieei?” i?aaeiaoii iaoeiaiai aiae?co noaee
e?euee?niee neeaae oa ?icnaeaiiy i?ioe?a o Aieeinuee?e aoaa?i??,
ii/eiath/e c 60-o ?ie?a XIX no. ? aei 1914 ?. I?iaiae?ciaaii aanue
eiiieaen i?e/ei, ye? coiiaeee i?iaoeueeo eieii?caoe?th ia Aieei?, a
oaeiae noaaeaiiy aei ia? aeaaeieo no?oeoo? ??cieo ??ai?a. Aena?oeaii
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?iaoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy oa caieaei?enooaaiiy,
c?iaeaii iaeyae iaeiioe?ai?oeo caiyoue i?iaoeueeeo iinaeaioe?a. ?icae?e
iiae?eaiee ia 4 ia?aa?aoe.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? iieacaia aeeiai?ea i?iaoeueeiai ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai
i?ioeano ia Aieei? oa aaia?ao?y ?icnaeaiiy eieii?no?a. Cacia/a?oueny, ui
oaiie ? ianooaae eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei? ia iaee aiaeia?a a ?ioeo
?aa?iiao ?in??. Oaeoe/ii, i?ioyaii 60-90-o ?ie?a XIX no. a
iaoe?iiaeuei?e no?oeoo?? aoaa?i?? noaany nai???aeiee aoi?/iee aeaoo,
iane?aeeii yeiai noaea iiyaa iii?oii? i?iaoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iaioeie. Ia ?oaaae? noie?oue aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a iae?/oaaeinue 171 331
/ie., a iaia?aaeiaei? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie — iaeaea 210 oen., ?
caeiaee aiie 4-a i?noea na?aae anueiai ianaeaiiy Aieei? i?ney
oe?a?ioe?a, ?a?a?a oa iieye?a. A?eueo?noue i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a aoee
aeo?aeoeyie ia c aoi?/ieo i?iaoeueeeo caiaeue, a c Oea?noaa
Iieuenueeiai. Iacia/ia ?o /anoeia aeeoea c I?on??, Aano??? oa ?ioeo
?aa?ii?a I?ia//eie. Inaeyeenue aiie, a iniiaiiio, ii iaeaeaa aiee
Ee?ai-A?anonueeiai oina ia iaei?iaeth/eo caieyo Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny ?
caeiaeenue ia?aaaaeii caiea?ianoaii, ui e aecia/eei aa?a?iee oa?aeoa?
eieii?caoe??.

I?e/eie oa i?aaia? oiiae eieii?caoe?eiiai i?ioeano ia Aieei?
?icaeyaeathoueny o ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao?. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iniiaieie
i?e/eiaie, ye? iaoiiaeee eieii?caoe?th, aoee aa?a?ia ?aoi?ia 1861 ?. a
?in?? oa iieuenueea iianoaiiy 1863 ?. Aiane?aeie neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai
i?aaa aieeinuee? iii?ueee a?ae/oee aino?o ianoa/o ?iai/eo ?oe. Naia aiie
e noaee aieiaieie ?i?oe?aoi?aie ia?anaeaiiy i?iaoeueeeo naeyi ?c
Oea?noaa Iieuenueeiai. A iie?oe/ia ianoaa?euei?noue o I?ea?neyinueeeo
aoaa?i?yo, aeeeeeaia iianoaiiyi, ni?yea oeueiio. A?aecia/aii, ui aeayeee
/an eieii?caoe?y iaeaea ia eiio?iethaaeanue ? ia ?aaoethaaeanue
i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Iaeiae, a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 80-o oa ia?o?e
iieiaei? 90-o ?ie?a aoei i?eeiyoi oe?eee iaeao caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ye?
e?ea?aeoaaee i?eueaiaee nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaee ? iaeiiaee noaoon
eieii?no?a ? oei naiei coieieee i?iaoeueeee ?ii?a?aoe?eiee i?ioean a
?aa?ii?.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iaeiei ?c iaeiii?oi?oeo
iane?aee?a eieii?caoe?? noaei oaeaeea c?inoaiiy ianooaa?a i?iaoeueeiai
caieaei?enooaaiiy a aoaa?i??. Aeeiai?ea oeueiai i?ioeano i?aee??ieaia
?yaeii oaaeeoeue ? ae?aa?ai. I?ioe?, ia?aaaaeii, i?aiaeoaaee
iii?ueoeuee? ? ??aeoa eacaii? caie? ia oiiaao ei?ioeioa?i?iiaeo
aeiaiai??a c i?aaii ?o ianooiiiai iiiiaeaiiy. C 80-o ?ie?a XIX no. noaei
aeoeaii c?inoaoe i?eaaoia i?iaoeueea caieaaieiae?iiy, ui ni?e/eieei
cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i ia caieth ? nooo?ai aaeueioaaei ?icaeoie
naeyinueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy ia Aieei?. O?yaeia? no?oeoo?e iaiaaaeenue
coieieoe oeae i?ioean, iaeiae ni?iae ?o aeyaeeenue iaaaeaeeie ? aaaeaieo
?acoeueoao?a ia aeaee. Ia ii/aoeo XX no. i?iaoeueea caieaaieiae?iiy a
aoaa?i?? aoei aaea o?ao?i ca ieiuath i?ney iieuenueeiai oa ?in?enueeiai
? iaaieiii i?iaeiaaeoaaei c?inoaoe.

??ciiiai?oi?noue caiyoue i?iaoeueeeo iinaeaioe?a Aieei? aena?oeth?oueny
o /aoaa?oiio ia?aa?ao?. Iacaaaeath/e ia aa?a?iee oa?aeoa? eieii?caoe??,
na?aae eieii?no?a aeniei?icaeiaieie aoee aea?aaiia?iaia, eiaaeuenueea,
aii/a?ia, oeaoeueea, oaanueea oa aeaye? ?io? ?aianea. Aiie caaacia/oaaee
ia?aaaaeii aioo??oi? iio?aae iinaeaioe?a. Iaaeeeoee ?ai?nie/i?
i?iaeoeoe?? ?aae?ciaoaaeenue ia i?noeaaeo ?eieao ? caaaeyee nai?e yeino?
iaee aenieo eiieo?aioiini?iiiaei?noue, ei?enooaaeenue i?aeaeuaiei
iiieoii. Oi?a?aey oa a?aeoiae? i?iienee ia aoee oa?aeoa?ieie aeey
aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a. Aaoi? a?aecia/a? aeineoue iii?oiee aieea
iinaeaioe?a ia ?icaeoie ie?aieo aaeocae aieeinueei? i?iieneiaino?,
cie?aia, e?ni?ic?iaii?, noeiiii?, ieaiaa?ii?, ioeiiieueii? oa ?ioeo.
Iaia?aaeiaei? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie na?aae eieii?no?a noaa
ca?iaeaeoaaoenue eiiia?aoeaiee ?oo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a oa iiaoo aieeinueeeo
i?ioe?a” ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e ?
iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? ?ene a?iiaaenueeiai oa n?iaeiiai iiaooo eieii?no?a, a
oaeiae aeeooy ? ae?yeuei?noue i?iaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy aieeinueeeo i?no.

Ia?oee ia?aa?ao ?icae?eo i?enay/aiee iniiaiei aaeocyi ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? i?ioe?a-eieii?no?a – caiea?ianoao ? oaa?eiieoeoao, ye? aoee
?o aeiiii?/iith iniiaith ?nioaaiiy. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui caiea?ianoai
iinaeaioe?a a?aecia/aeinue aenieith eoeueoo?ith oa aoaeoeai?noth, ui
aeinyaaeinue ca ?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ooo??ii? (oa?ia?nueei?) oi?ie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ?aoe?iiaeueieo n?aici?i, aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea,
aeineiiae?oeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo cia?yaeue ? iaoai?ci?a,
oaeaeeiai ?aaaoaaiiy ia iio?aae ?eieo oa iiyae aeaiaio?a eai?oae?caoe??
i?aoe?. Aoaeoeai?noue oaa?eiieoeoaa aeinyaaeanue ca ?aooiie oi?ioi?
ei?iiai? aace oa ?icaaaeaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ii??ae ooaeiae,
ia?aaaaeii iiei/iiai iai?yio. Aaoi? aeaco?, ui i?iaoeueea
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai cia/ii aieeioei ia ?icaeoie
aa?a?iiai naeoi?o aieeinueei? aeiiii?ee oa i?aee?aneth? eiai cia/aiiy
aeey i?iiaaaiaee na?aae i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy iiaeo i?ia?aneaieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao?, a iniiaiiio, ia iaoa??aeao iieueiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aea/a?oueny a?o?oaeoo?ia oai?/?noue eieii?no?a.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a?eueo?noue i?iaoeueeeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a aoaa?i??
a?aeiineeanue aei a?oie aacnenoaiieo iinaeaiue ooo??iiai oeio, ui e
iaoiiaeei ?o nai???aei?noue. Ca oa?aeoa?ii ?icoaooaaiiy aeeoea ?
ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae naaeeae eieii?no?a a?aeiineeenue aei
I-iiae?aiiai aai aeai?yaeiiai oeio caaoaeiae aeai?o c iaca’ycaieie
aoae?aeyie, a ?ieiee c /anoeiaei aca?iica’yceii aeeoea oa
ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae. Iniiaiei niiniaii nii?oaeaeaiiy aeeoeiaeo oa
ainiiaea?nueeeo ia’?eo?a aoei aoae?aieoeoai “a c?oa”. AEeoea eieii?no?a
aoee aaaaoieaia?ieie ? iaee i?inoee oa ne?iiiee aioo??oi?e ?ioa?’??.
Iinaeaiiy, naaeeae, aeeoeia? ? ainiiaea?nuee? nii?oaee i?ioe?a
a?aecia/aeenue ?aoe?iiaeuei?noth ? aeia?ioi?noth caaoaeiae, /enoioith oa
ioaei?noth, ui noai?thaaei aoaeoia anoaoe/ia a?aaeaiiy. A oe?eiio,
aoae?aaeueia oai?/?noue i?iaoeueeeo iinaeaioe?a c?iaeea aieea ia
a?o?oaeoo?i? eaiaeoaooe Aieei?.

Iniaeeaino? a?iiaaenueeiai oa n?iaeiiai iiaooo eieii?no?a
?icaeyaeathoueny a o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao?. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iniiaith
?o iaueiiiai aeeooy aoea o?aaeeoe?eia i?iaoeueea nenoaia a?iiaaenueeiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ni?yiiaaia ia caa?aaeaiiy aeanii? aoi?/ii?
naiiaooiino?. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith n?iaeiiai iiaooo iinaeaioe?a aoa
iao??a?oaeueiee oeeaae. Eaeaiaea?ia ia?yaeia?noue aoaeoaaeanue ia iniia?
ethoa?ainueeiai a??ia/aiiy. Aeaco?oueny ia caieioo?noue ?
a?aeiniaeai?noue aioo??oiueiai aeeooy i?iaoeueeeo eieii?e oa ni?iae
aeaaee ?ioaa?oaaoe ?o o ?nioth/o nenoaio ?in?enueeiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy. Aaoi?ii c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i
oi?ioaaiiy ia ?oaaae? O?O-OO no. aoii?aa?iiaeueii? a?oie aieeinueeeo
i?ioe?a, yea a?aecia/aeanue aeaniith aoiia?oiiaith na?aeii?noth oa
?aa?iiaeueiith naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??th.

*aoaa?oee ia?aa?ao aena?oeth? iniaeeaino? aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino?
i?iaoeueei? iaueie aieeinueeeo i?no. Aeaco?oueny, ui iacaaaeath/e ia
iacia/io e?euee?noue, i?ioe?-ai?iaeyie oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue i?oeiei
iaoa??aeueiei noaiiaeuai, aenieei ??aiai ina?/aiino?, oe?ieei niaeo?ii
caiyoue, aeoeaiith eoeueoo?ii-a?iiaaenueeith ae?yeuei?noth oa a?eueo
a?aee?eoei, ii??aiyii c eieii?noaie, niiniaii aeeooy.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e “Aeooiaia eoeueoo?a i?iaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy Aieei?”
i?noeoue o?e ia?aa?aoe. Ia?oee i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi i?aai?caoe?? oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie oe?eueii? ina?oe a na?aaeiaeu? eieii?no?a.
Aeaco?oueny, ui i?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. a i?iaoeueeeo eieii?yo
Aieei? noi?ioaaeanue ?icaaeoaeaia ia?aaea oe?e, a yeeo caeiaoaaee
ii/aoeiao ina?oo iaeaea an? ae?oe iinaeaioe?a. Oe? oeiee aoee oeiiaeie
c?aceaie i?iaoeueei? i?oiaeienaeueii-eiioan?eii? oeiee, yea ?nioaaea a
nai?e I?ia//ei?. Aiie aoee ia iiaiiio oo?eiaii? eieii?nonueeeo iauei ?
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeenue ethoa?ainueeiio aeooiaainoao. O 1887 ?. an?
?iia??i? oeiee a i?iaoeueeeo eieii?yo I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai e?ath aoee
ia?aaaaeai? o a?aeiinoai I?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii? ina?oe, ui i?eaaei aei
?o ?ai?aai?caoe??, e?ioeaaith iaoith yei? iaea aooe iiaia ?oneo?eaoe?y.
Iaeiae eieii?noe oeueiio /eieee aia?oee ii??, ? ni?iae ina?oiueiai
a?aeiinoaa ia aeaee aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao aena?oeth? ?ae?a?eia aeeooy aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a.
I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aiie a ia?aaaaei?e nai?e a?eueoino? aoee
ethoa?aiaie. Ana a?iiaaenueea ? n?iaeia aeeooy, iiaoo, ii?aeue ?
aeoiaaiiy a na?aaeiaeu? iinaeaioe?a aoaeoaaee ia ?ae?a?eieo ia/aeao
i?ioanoaionueeiai a??ia/aiiy, yea ia eeoa noai?thaaei a?ae/oooy
?aeiino?, aea e ni?eyei caa?aaeaiith ieie nai?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aeaioe/iino?. A oe?eiio ae, aeeaiea ?ae?a?ei?noue i?ioe?a aoea /e ia
iaeaaaeeea?oith iciaeith ?oiueiai aeooiaiiai aeeooy.

A o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? aiae?cothoueny noinoiee eieii?no?a c i?noeaaei
oe?a?inueeei ianaeaiiyi, ye? neeaaeaeenue iaiaeiicia/ii. Ia i?aenoaa?
??cieo a?o?aieo aeaea?ae aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aeinoaoi?o
i?aenoaa aeey ae?oaeiueiai ? aa?iii?eiiai ni?a?nioaaiiy oeeo aeaio
aoiin?a o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ia aoei. Oiio a?eueo ia’?eoeaii aoei
a ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oe? aca?ieie ye ie?i? e no?eiai?.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeai? ocaaaeueiaiiy aieiaieo i?iaeai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aaoi? iaiaaaany cae?enieoe
eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaoeueei? eieii?caoe?? ia Aieei? oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?iaoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie
aeacaiiai ?aa?iio a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX no. Aiae?c
??ciiiai?oieo aeaea?ae aeaa iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1). O ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX no. aiane?aeie oe?eiai eiiieaeno aeiiii?/ieo,
iie?oe/ieo oa ?ioeo i?e/ei ia Aieei? iaea i?noea ianiaa i?iaoeueea
eieii?caoe?y, iane?aeeii yei? noaea iiyaa a iaoe?iiaeuei?e no?oeoo??
e?ath iii?oii? i?iaoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie oa oaeaeea c?inoaiiy
ianooaa?a i?iaoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy.

2). I?iaoeueea eieii?caoe?y ia Aieei? iaea /?oei ae?aaeaiee aa?a?iee
oa?aeoa?. I??i?eoaoieie aaeocyie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a aoei caiea?ianoai ? oaa?eiieoeoai. ?icaeaaeenue e
??ciiiai?oi? ?aianea. Aeineoue iii?oiith aoea o/anoue iinaeaioe?a a
?icaeoeo ie?aieo aaeocae aieeinueei? i?iieneiaino?.

C). Iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a, iiaoo ? a?iiaaenueea aeeooy i?iaoeueeeo
eieii?no?a Aieei? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue caa?aaeaiiyi aaaaoueio
o?aaeeoe?eii i?iaoeueeeo iciae ? iniaeeainoae, caieioo?noth,
a?aeiniaeai?noth ? iacaeaaei?noth a?ae ioi/oth/iai ?o ?ii?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua oa ?in?enueeiai oa?eoi??aeueii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ono?ith.
Eeoa i?iaoeuee? iaueie aieeinueeeo i?no a neeo niaoeeo?ee i?nueeiai
niiniao aeeooy aoee a?eueo ?ioaa?iaaieie a i?noeaa?
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/i? no?oeoo?e.

4). Iniiaith aeooiaiiai aeeooy aieeinueeeo i?ioe?a aoea i?ioanoaionueea
(ethoa?ainueea) ?ae?a?y oa nenoaia oe?eueii? ina?oe, ye? aoee o?nii
iia’ycai? i?ae niaith ? noaee iniiaieie /eiieeaie caa?aaeaiiy
iinaeaioeyie aeanieo iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e oa oi?ioaaiiy
aoi?/ii? naiina?aeiiino?.

5). Iie?oeea ?in?enueeeo i?noeaaeo oa oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee,
ni?yiiaaia ia e?ea?aeaoe?th i?iaoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy, ?oeioaaiiy
nenoaie a?iiaaenueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? ?oneo?eaoe?th oe?eueii? ina?oe
a i?iaoeueeeo eieii?yo Aieei? o e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? i/?eoaaieo
iane?aee?a ia aeaea.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaiee aaoi?ii o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Einothe I.I. Caiea?ianoai i?iaoeueeeo eieii?no?a Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny
(ae?oaa iieiaeia XIX — ii/aoie XX no.) //Ia?iaeiciaa/? cioeoe. -1995. —
?6. — N.291-293.

2. Einothe I.I. Aeaiia?aoey e aaia?aoey ?annaeaiey iaiaoeeeo eieiienoia
ia Aieuie a XIX — ia/aea XX aaea //?inneeneea iaioeu. I?iaeaiu enoi?ee,
ycuea e nia?aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey. Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/iie
eiioa?aioeee. — I., 1996. — N.238-245.

3. Einothe I.I. Aeeiai?ea /enaeueiino? oa ?icnaeaiiy i?ioe?a ia Aieei?
(a XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX no.) //AEeoiie?ueia e??cue i?ecio noie?oue:
Iaoeiaee ca??iee. — AEeoiie?, 1997.- N.52-54.

4. Einothe I.I. A?iiaaenueea naiia?yaeoaaiiy a i?iaoeueeeo eieii?yo
Aieei? oa eiai e?ea?aeaoe?y (ae?oaa iieiaeia XIX — ii/aoie XX no.) //
Ieioea ? no/ania Aieei?: Ieaenaiae? Oeeieaeianueeee ? e?ae. Iaoeiaee
ca??iee. — Eooeuee, 1998.- N.257-260.

5. Einothe I.I. Iaiaoeeea iea?aoeeiiiua aeaeaeaiey ia Aieuiue (OV??? —
ia/aei XX aa.) //Iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu n?aaee ?inneeneeo iaioeaa:
enoi?e/aneee aniaeo. — I., 1998.- N.27-45.

6. Kostiuk M. Aus den Berichten der Gouverneure ueber die
Wolhyniendeutschen Suche in den Akten des Generalgouverneurs im
Staatsarchiv Kiev // Wolhynische Hefte. – 1998. – Folge 11. – S. 16–31.

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