Iinoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa

Oe?a(inueea aeaaeaiiy aa?a?ieo iaoe

*A?AIEIA Aiaoieie Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 633.31:631.58:631.53:636.085

Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aaeaioeaii( oaoiieiai(

ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia ei?i oa ianiiiy

a iiaii/iiio Noaio Oe?a(ie

06.01.09 — ?ineeiieoeoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoei( ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Aeiii?iiao?ianuee

1999

Aeena?oaoei(th ( ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a A?anoianueeie aeineiaeiie noaioei( Iinoeoooo ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI a 1980-1997 ??.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

aeaaeaiie OAAI Aaae/
Aiaoieie Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Iinoeooo ei?iia OAAI,
aee?aeoi?

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeaiie OAAI
Oeeeia

Aaeaioei Na?aieiae/, Iinoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI, caaiaeoaa/
aiaeaeieo;

aeieoi? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Cii/aiei
Ieaenaiae?

Iaaiiae/, Oiainueea n.-a. aeaaeaiiy, caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?ineeiieoeoaa
oa ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa;

aeieoi? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Aiaiaii Aiaoieie
Aeaniae/, Iinoeooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI, caaiaeoaa/ eaai?aoi?i(
eoeiaieoeoaa

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: Oa?eianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oiiaa?neoao,
eaoaae?a ?ineeiieoeoaa, i. Oa?eia

Caoeno aeena?oaoei( aiaeaoaeaoueny “____”_________1999 ?. i ____aiaeeii
ia caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii( a/aii( ?aaee Ae.08.353.01. a Iinoeoooi
ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI ca aae?anith: 320027, i.Aeiii?iiao?ianuee,
aoe.Aeca?aeeinueeiai, 14; oaeaoii 45 02 36

C aeena?oaoei(th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa.

Aiaeaoee ia aaoi?aoa?ao i?ineii iaaeneeaoe a aeaio i?eii?ieeao,
canaiae/aieo ia/aoeith.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaii “____”_________1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoeiaeiciaaii( a/aii( ?aaee
__________I.Ae.A?otho

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue. O ae?ioaiii i?iaeaie caieueoaiiy i noaaieicaoei(
ae?iaieoeoaa ei?iiaiai aieea a Oe?a(ii aaeeea cia/aiiy i?eaeiey(oueny
iiaeaeuaiith a?iaeaeiinoi i?iaiaeii( ei?iiai( aiaiai( eoeueoo?e —
ethoea?ie. Aei inoaiiueiai /ano, ia aeaeue, ?iaaiue o?iaea(a caeaii(
iane oa ianiiiy oei(( eoeueoo?e caeeoa(oueny iecueeei, ianoaaieueiei i
eieeaaiiy oeueiai iieacieea ii ?ieao aeinyaathoue 50% i aieueoa.

Neooaoeiy, yea neeaeany, iiynith(oueny oei, ui i?aeoe/ii oni ?aiioa
?ic?iaeaii ciiaeueii ?aeiiaiaeaoei( c oaoiieiai( ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie
aoee ci?i(ioiaaii ia na?aaeii oa iiii?ii ca iaoai?ieiai/ieie oiiaaie
?iee. A oie aea /an aa?ioaoii/ii i?eeiie, yei i?iiiioaaeeny aeey
iiaeieaiiy aieeao iaaaoeaieo oaeoi?ia, ye i?aaeei, aacoaaeeny ia
aiii?e/ieo aeaieo, oai?aoe/ii ia iia’ycaieo ic caeiiiii?iinoyie
aca(iiae(( iiae iniiaieie aeaiaioaie iiaiaeieo oiia i i?iaeoeoeaiinoth
eoeueoo?e.

O oeueiio ca’yceo aeineiaeaeaiiy ia’(eoeaii inioth/eo caeiiiii?iinoae
aca(iiaieeao oa aca(iicaeaaeiinoi iiae oaeoi?aie, yei aea/aeeny, i
i?ioeanii ?icaeoeo ?ineei ethoea?ie ii iniiaieo aoaiao i?aaiiaaiaco i
?ic?iaea ia oeie iniiai aoaeoeaieo caoiaeia, ni?yiiaaieo ia iiaeaeuaiiy
?iaiy aeaeeaaiinoi ?ineei oa (o ei?iiai( i ianiii(ai( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi,
aecia/a( (o iaia?ani/io ia?niaeoeaiinoue i aeooaeueiinoue.

Iaoa i caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiue. Aaaaoi?i/ieie aeineiaeaeoaaiiyie
ia?aaeaa/aeiny anoaiiaeoe caeiiiii?iinoi aieeao iniiaieo iiaiaeieo
oaeoi?ia ia oi?ioaaiiy ?iaiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoi aiaiai( eoeueoo?e —
ethoea?ie ic o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy (( aiieiai/ieo
iniaeeainoae oa ?ic?iaeoe ia oeie iniiai iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ye
ie?aieo aa?ioaoii/ieo caoiaeia, oae i a oeieiio aaeaioeaii( oaoiieiai(
ae?iuoaaiiy cacia/aii( eoeueoo?e o iiaii/iiio Noaio Oe?a(ie. Iaea?aeaii
iaoa?iaee aeaee ciiao iiaoaeoaaoe ?iai/o aiiioaco i?i iiaeeeainoue
ciaoiaeaeaiiy eiiiainaoeieieo iaoaiiciia oa ?aca?aia, yei a
caaacia/oaaee iaeiiaiioa aeei?enoaiiy ?ineeiaie ethoea?ie oiia
ciaiioiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ui neeaaeathoueny eiaeiiai ?ieo aeey
oi?ioaaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai ?iaiy (( a?iaeaeiinoi.

Aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?aaeicaoei( ?iai/i( aiiioace iaiaoiaeii aoei
ae?ioeoe oaei caaaeaiiy:

— c’ynoaaoe i aecia/eoe aiaeiiaiaeii oeyoe aei iaoiaeia aeyaeaiiy
ia’(eoeaii inioth/eo caeiiiii?iinoae aieeao aeineiaeaeoaaieo oaeoi?ia ia
a?iaeaeiinoue ethoea?ie;

— anoaiiaeoe aieea niiniaia iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo ia ciiio eiai
aiaeii-oice/ieo aeanoeainoae i iiaeeaiiai ?aaeeio, a oaeiae ia nooiiiue
caao?’yiaiinoi iiniaia, oi?ioaaiiy ei?aiaai( nenoaie i i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
?ineei ethoea?ie;

— aeineiaeeoe iniaeeainoi oi?ioaaiiy caiania a?oioiai( aieiae i?e ?icieo
niiniaao iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo;

— aecia/eoe ia?aiao?e iiaiaeieo oaeoi?ia i aiaeii-oice/ieo aeanoeainoae
a?oioo aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueiiai no?ieo niaae, yeee iaeaieueoa
aiaeiiaiaea( aiieiai/iei iio?aaai aaciie?eaii( ethoea?ie i o
iiaeaeueoiio caaacia/eoue aieueo ni?eyoeeai oiiae aeey i?ioiaeaeaiiy ((
?ineeiaie onio aoaiia i?aaiiaaiaco;

— aeyaeoe aeioeieueiinoue aeei?enoaiiy oiciieiai/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei
(?aaoeyoi?ia ?inoo) i aeia?ea aeey aeiiiniaii( ia?iaee ianiiiy oa
iai?eneoaaiiy ?ineei ia i?ioyci aaaaoaoeieiiai ia?iiaeo;

— iioeiicoaaoe caoiaee ?aaoethaaiiy aonoioe i ?iciiuaiiy ?ineei ia ieiui
iiniao, aea/eoe (o ?ieue o iiaeaeuaiii aeaeeaaiinoi oa aeiaaiai/iinoi,
caieueoaiii ?iaiy ei?iiai( oa ianiii(ai( a?iaeaeiinoi;

— aeineiaeeoe aeith aaeaioaoeieieo i eiiiainaoi?ieo iaoaiiciia ?ineei
ethoea?ie o iiaeiie?eaieo i aaciie?eaieo iiniaao;

— ?ic?iaeoe caoiaee aoaeoeaiiai i?eaii/aiiy ao?’yiia o iiniaao
ethoea?ie oeyoii ii(aeiaiiy iae?i- oa iie?iaeia?ea ic aa?aioeeaeaie,
cieceoe oiene/iinoue inoaiiio ia ?ineeie aiaiai( eoeueoo?e;

— aeaoe aeiiiii/io i aiiaia?aaoe/io ioeiieo aoaeoeaiinoi ae?iuoaaiiy
ethoea?ie ia ei?i i ianiiiy i?e aeei?enoaiii aaeaioeaii(,
aia?aicaa?iaath/i( oaoiieiai( ae?iuoaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeineiaeaeaiue. A ?acoeueoaoi i?iaaaeaieo
aeineiaeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia i iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia no/ania aaeaioeaia
oaoiieiaiy ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia ei?i i ianiiiy i?e ?aiiueiaaniyiiio
aaciie?eaiiio i iiaeiie?eaiiio (( iiniai.

Ia iniiai aeei?enoaiiy nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaeo aei aiaeico
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?iaeo ?ic?iaeaii i cai?iiiiiaaii ae?iaieoeoao
iiai niiniae iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo iiae ethoea?io ic aeei?enoaiiyi
no/aniiai ?ano?ni- oa aia?aicaa?iaath/iai cia?yaeaey, i?e oeueiio
aeineiaeaeaii iniaeeainoi oi?ioaaiiy caiania a?oioiai( aieiae i?ioyaii
iniiiuei-ceiiaiai ia?iiaeo. Oia?oa aecia/aii aeith aaeaioaoeieieo i
eiiiainaoi?ieo iaoaiiciia ?ineei ethoea?ie i?e ?icieo oiiaao c?inoaiiy.

Aeyaeaii aiaeiioii aiieiai/ii iniaeeainoi ?ineei, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue
(o ?ino oa ?icaeoie i?e aeei?enoaiii ?ino?aaoethth/eo ?a/iaei iiaiai
iieieiiiy ic oioiai?iiiaeueiei iai?yieii aei(.

Iaa?oioiaaii i?eioeeie iiaeai?o noiioae c aeia?ea oa aa?aioeeaeia aeey
caiiaiaaiiy iaaaoeaiiio aieeao ia aeeyaaiiy ?ineei, a oaeiae cieuaiiy
aai ae cia/iiai i?eaii/oaaiiy ao?’yiia, ui a oeieiio aeicaiey( nooo(ai
ciaioeoe aeice iacaaieo i?aia?aoia.

Ca aeaieie ei?aeyoeieii-?aa?aneaiiai aiaeico, ?ice?eoi ?yae
caeiiiii?iinoae o ?aaeoei( ?ineei ethoea?ie ia o?eaaeinoue iiaeoacieo
ia?iiaeia iiae aieeaii ?icieo iaoai?ieiai/ieo iieacieeia caeaaeii aiae
no?ieia niaae, aonoioe ?ineei oa iioeo aa?ioaoii/ieo oaeoi?ia.

Oia?oa aeineiaeaeaii i aecia/aii ?ieue, cia/aiiy i nooiiiue aieeao
eiaeiiai c oaeoi?ia ciaiioiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia oi?ioaaiiy
aaeaioaoeieii( ooieoei( ei?aiaai( nenoaie ethoea?ie i?e iaiaeiaeiaeo
oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy. I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii caeiiiii?iinoi oaiiia
noaaeiooai?thaaiiy o ?ineei, ui aiaeia?aaea(oueny ia oieueee o
i?enei?aiiio noai?aiii aneiieyoeieiiai aia?aoo oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiii
caianieo ieanoe/ieo ?a/iaei, a e o ia?a?iciiaeiei (o iiae i?aaiaie
?ineei i?e aeieeiaiii no?aniaeo iiaiaeieo neooaoeie.

Ia iniiai aeei?enoaiiy nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaeo aei aiaeico
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?iaeo anoaiiaeaii iniaeeainoi aieeao iiaaeia i
na?aaeiueiaeiaiai( oaiia?aoo?e iiaio?y ia i?ioyci aaaaoaoeieiiai
ia?iiaeo ia oi?ioaaiiy aeaiaioia i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?ineei oa aaee/eio (o
a?iaeaeiinoi. Aeaaaeaii eiaoioei(ioe ei?aeyoeieii( caeaaeiinoi iiae
cacia/aieie iieacieeaie, i?e yeeo iaeiiaiioa ?aaeico(oueny aiieiai/iee
iioaioeiae iaeii(( c iniiaieo a ciii Noaio aiaiai( eoeueoo?e —
ethoea?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa ?aaeicaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue. Ia
iniiai aaaaoi?i/iiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?iaeo iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia
no/ania aaeaioeaia oaoiieiaiy aaciie?eaiiai i iiaeiie?eaiiai ae?iuoaaiiy
ethoea?ie ia ei?i i ianiiiy i?e ?aiiueiaaniyiiio no?ieo niaae o
iiaii/iiio Noaio Oe?a(ie. Noiniaii niaoeeoiee oiia ae?iuoaaiiy oa
aiieiai/ieo iniaeeainoae eoeueoo?e anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeueii no?iee niaae,
?ic?iaeaii aeeoa?aioeieiaaii niiniae iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo, a
oaeiae no?iee, niiniae i aeice aianaiiy aeia?ea, ?aaoeyoi?ia ?inoo oa
oiii/ieo caniaia caoenoo ?ineei aiae oai?ia, oeiaeieeia oa ao?’yiia.

Aeineiaeaeaia i cai?iiiiiaaia ae?iaieoeoao iiaa iie?eaia aeey ethoea?ie
eoeueoo?a — ?aaeueea ieieia, yea o ii?iaiyiii c ?aiio aiaeiieie a ciii
Noaio eoeueoo?aie, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeey oeeo oeieae, ni?eyoeia
e?auiio ?inoo i ?icaeoeo ethoea?ie o ii/aoeiaee ia?iiae i cia/ii ?aiioa
caieueiy( aiae iie?eaa. Inoaii( aa?aioo( nai(/aniinoue i?iaaaeaiiy
aiaeiiaiaeieo aa?ioaoii/ieo caoiaeia ii aeiaeyaeo ca iiniaaie, /ioea
ieaioaaiiy no?ieia i niiniaia cae?aiiy a?iaeath, caaacia/o( iiaeeeainoue
oi?ioethaaoe caaaeaiiy ia ?ic?iaeo o ia?niaeoeai aoaeoeaieo i?eeiiia
iioeiicaoei( oiia ae?iuoaaiiy oei(( eoeueoo?e.

Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy o ?aeiiaiaeaoeiyo ii
iioaineaiie oaoiieiai( ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie a noaiiaie ciii Oe?a(ie
(Ee(a, 1986; Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1987). Aiie oaieoee neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith o “Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio nenoaio caiea?ianoaa
Aeiii?iiao?ianueei( iaeanoi” (Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1982, 1988); a ?iai/i
cioeoe aa?iiiiia c iioaineaieo oaoiieiaie ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?,
?aaeiciaaii o “Iaoeiaeo iniiaao aaaeaiiy nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a
ciii Noaio Oe?a(ie o nenoaii aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno” (Ee(a, 1987); a
aaaaoueio iioeo i?aeoe/ieo ii?aaeao ii iioaineaieo oaoiieiaiyo
ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia
canoinoaaiiy o ainiiaea?noaao noaiiaiai ?aaiiio ia ieiui iiiaae 500 oen.
aa, a o./. o Aeiii?iiao?ianueeie iaeanoi ia ieiui iiiaae 150 oen.aa.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe. Aeineiaeaeaiiy ii aeena?oaoeieiie oaii aoee
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oaiaoe/iiai ieaio Iinoeoooo ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa i aeeiioaaeeny ca aea?aeaaiith eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith
“I?iaeiaieuenoai-95”, i?iaeoii “Ei?ie i ei?iiaee aieie” ca oaiith
“?ic?iaeoe ?ano?nicaa?iaath/i i?e?iaeiioi?iiii oaoiieiai( ae?iuoaaiiy
iaeii?i/ieo ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? i aaaaoi?i/ieo o?aa, yei caaacia/othoue
iiaeaeuaiiy cai?o aieea ia 20-25% i ?aoeiiiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy caiei”.
? ae.?. 0194U01288 Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei( aeiiiaiaeaeenue ia Ananithcieo
oa ?anioaeieainueeeo eii?aeeiaoeieieo ?aaeao, eiioa?aioeiyo, naiiia?ao i
ia?aaeao c i?iaeai ei?iia i ?ano?nia ianiiiy o Iineai
(1982,1983,1985,1986), Ee(ai (1986, 1992), Aeiii?iiao?ianueeo
(1982-1997), Aiiieoei (1991,1993, 1995-1998), Eueaiai (1993), Ieeiea(ai
(1994), Oa?niii (1995), Ei?iaia?aaei (1997).

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue i?iiaaoaaeenue /a?ac aeaeaiiy aoeeaoia,
ieaeaoia, aenooiia o ia?iiaee/iie i?ani, ii oaeaaa/aiith, ?aaeii,
/enaeueieo eaeoeiyo ia eo?nao iiaeaeuaiiy eaaeioieaoei( ea?iaieeia oa
niaoeiaeinoia nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ciie Noaio Oe?a(ie.

Aeaeea?aoeiy iniaenoiai aianeo aeena?oaioa o ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoaoia. Aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa aeeiiaia iniaenoi aaoi?ii ia aaci
iieueiaeo aeineiaeia, i?iaaaeaieo a A?anoianueeie aeineiaeiie noaioei(
Iinoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI. Iiae ea?iaieoeoaii aaoi?a i eiai
o/anoth aecia/aany iai?yiie aeineiaeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aie i noaie
iiooeiaeo, eaai?aoi?ieo, iiaeaeueieo oa iieueiaeo aeineiaeia, oai?aoe/ii
i nenoaiii iiaeoiaee, i?iaaaeaii ia?iaeo, aiaeic oa iioa?i?eoaoeith
?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue. Iaoeiai iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee i
?aeiiaiaeaoei(, yei noi?ioeueiaaii o aeena?oaoei(, aacothoueny ia
aaaaoi?i/iiio iaoa?iaei c o?aooaaiiyi eioa?aoo?ieo aeaieo. Aiie eiai/ii
iaa?oioiaaii, noaoenoe/ii ia?iaeaii ia eiii’thoa?i IAII oeio ?N/AO i
iathoue aenieo nooiiiue aeinoiai?iinoi.

Ioaeieaoei(. Ia iaoa?iaeao aeineiaeaeaiue iioaeieiaaii 72 iaoeiaeo
?iaioe a o./. a noaooyo — 31, iaoeiaeo cai?ieeao — 15, ?aeiiaiaeaoeiyo
oa a?ioo?ao — 26.

Ia’nya i no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea(oueny ic 9 aeaa,
aeniiaeia, i?iiiceoeie ae?iaieoeoao, nieneo eioa?aoo?e oa iaethieia.

?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 320 noi?iieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/a( 230
noi?iiie oaenoo, 109 oaaeeoeue, 22 iaethiea, 81 noi?iiea aeiaeaoeia.
Nienie aeei?enoaii( eioa?aoo?e neeaaea(oueny c 556 iaeiaioaaiue, a o./.
66 — ia iiicaiieo iiaao.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oaei iieiaeaiiy:

— aia?ai- i aieiaicaa?iaath/i niiniae iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo;

— iiaee nenoaiiee iiaeoiae aei iioeiicaoei( no?ieia niaae ethoea?ie oa
(o aieea ia ?ino i ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e i?e aaciie?eaiiio i iiaeiie?eaiiio
niiniaao ae?iuoaaiiy;

— aeioeieueiinoue aeei?enoaiiy ia iiniaao ethoea?ie iae?i- i
iie?iaeia?ea o ii(aeiaiii c aa?aioeeaeaie;

— iiai, aieueo aoaeoeaii iie?eaii eoeueoo?e aeey ethoea?ie;

— niinia iiaeaeuaiiy ei?iiai( i ianiii(ai( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi eoeueoo?e ia
iniiai aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo, aenieiaoaeoeaieo ?aaoeyoi?ia ?inoo;

— caoiaee iaee?auiai i?eaii/aiiy ?ineei ao?’yiia o iiniaao ethoea?ie oa
?aaeaiaioe canoinoaaiiy iiaeo a?oioiaeo aa?aioeeaeia o ?ie niaae aiaiai(
eoeueoo?e;

— eiioeaioeiy ?aaoethaaiiy noaio aa?ioeaiico ethoea?ie ia i?ioyci
aaaaoaoei( o ca’yceo c eieeaaiiyi oaeoi?ia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua;

— no?aoaaiy ei?eaoaaiiy aa?icaoiaeia o ii/aoeiaee ia?iiae aaaaoaoei(,
caeaaeii aiae ia?aiao?ia oaiea i aieiae;

— no/ania aaeaioeaia oaoiieiaiy ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie, ui caaacia/o(
iaeiiaiioo ?aaeicaoeith aiieeiiaoe/ieo oa iaoa?iaeueieo ?ano?nia
iiaii/ii( /anoeie Noaio Oe?a(ie.

OAI?AOE*II IA?AAeOIIAE, IA’(EOE OA

IAOIAeEEA I?IAAAeAIIss AeINEIAeAEAIUe

Aiaeic ?icaeyiooeo eioa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c ia?aii( oaie naiae/eoue, ui
iaeaieueoa eieueeinoue ioaeieaoeie i?enay/aia, a iniiaiiio, aea/aiith
aieeao aa?ioaoii/ieo i aa?ioiii/ieo oaeoi?ia ia ciiio i?iaeoeoeaiinoi
?ineei ethoea?ie. Ii?yae c oeei, ieoaiiy aieeao iiaiaeieo oiia ia
cacia/aii iieacieee i ca’ycie aiieiai/ieo iniaeeainoae aeineiaeaeoaaii(
eoeueoo?e c aa?ioaoiieith (( ae?iuoaaiiy aai cianii ia ii?oooaaeeny, aai
?icaeyiooi iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii.

Caaaeath/e ia noai i aaaeeeainoue oei(( i?iaeaie, a eaai?aoi?i(
iioaineaieo oaoiieiaie ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? Iinoeoooo
ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI o iieueiaeo aeineiaeao c ethoea?iith (ia
i?ioyci 18 ?ieia) cia/ia oaaaa i?eaeieyeanue aea/aiith iniaeeainoae
oi?ioaaiiy o?iaeath oei(( eoeueoo?e caeaaeii aiae eiiieaeno aa?icaoiaeia
i iiaiaeieo oaeoi?ia.

Aoea aenoiooa ?iai/a aiiioaca, a yeie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui
iaa?iiaaeaeaiee aaaaoi?i/iee aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa?iae o eiio?ieueieo
aa?iaioao aeineiaeia, yei yaeythoue niaith ?yae aacia?a?aieo aeaieo,
caaacia/eoue iiaeeeainoue aeyaeoe i?eioeeiiai iiai caeiiiii?iinoi a
?aaeoei( ?ineei ethoea?ie ia iniiaii aeaiaioe aa?ioaoiiee i iiaiaee.

Cie?aia, ie iaee ia iaoi i?inoaaeeoe ca aeeiaiieith noiaeia i?e ?icieo
no?ieao niaae, ii?iao aeniao, eieueeinoth ooai?aiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo noaaae
oa ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aaiia i a oeieiio ?iaiy a?iaeath caeaii( iane oa
ianiiiy caeaaeii aiae oiia caieiaeaiiy i oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio a?oioo e
iiaio?y; anoaiiaeoe ei?aeyoeaii i ?aa?aneaii caeaaeiinoi iiae aeacaieie
ciiiieie aaee/eiaie o ?icii ia?iiaee aaaaoaoe(( ?ineei.

Oaiie ?inoo ethoea?ie, o?eaaeinoue iiaeoacieo ia?iiaeia, caeaaeieo aiae
oiia caieiaeaiiy i oaiia?aoo?e, anoaiiaethaaeeny iaie o iieueiaeo
aeineiaeao oeyoii niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oaiieiai(th ?ineei i i?ioeanii (o
?icaeoeo i?e ?iciiio i?iyai aeacaieo oaeoi?ia, a oaeiae oeyoii
i?iaaaeaiiy aiaeiiaiaeieo aiiiao?e/ieo caii?ia ia ?ineeiieo i?iaao.

Iaiaoiaeii iiaee?aneeoe, ui a aeineiaeao aeiaea?aeoaaeeny iaoiaee/ii( (o
ii?iaiyiinoi. Ii-ia?oa, a oni ?iee aeineiaee i?iaiaeeee ca iaeiaeiaeo
oiia: oeio a?oioo, eaiee niaiciiie, nenoaie iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo,
a niinoa?aaeaiiy i iaeie aaee ca (aeeiith ?iai/ith i?ia?aiith i
iaoiaeeeith. Ii-ae?oaa, aeineiaeii aeaeyiee ?iciiuoaaeeny ia aiaenoaii
1,5 ei aiae Eiiena?ianueei( aa?iiaoai?ieiai/ii( noaioei(, aei oiai ae o
oeaio?i aeineiaeia aoa aeiaeaoeiai ?icoaoiaaiee iieueiaee aeiuiii?.
I?aeoe/ii a oni ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue aeaii i?i eieueeinoue iiaaeia iaeaea
iiaiinoth noiaeeeeny c aeaieie iaoainoaioe((. Oea aea( iiaenoaao
aiaeianoe ?acoeueoaoe niinoa?aaeaiue noaioei( aei oa?aeoa?enoeee
oiaeo iaoai?ieiai/ieo aeaiaioia iiaiaee aaciina?aaeiuei a iieueiaeo
aeineiaeao.

E?ii oeeo aeaieo, ia i?ioyci 18 ?ieia i?iaaaeeeeny /enaeueii iieueiai i
iiaeaeueii aeineiaee, a yeeo ia?aaeaa/aeiny anoaiiaeoe iaeaieueo
aeioeieueii niiniae iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo, iioeiaeueii no?iee
niaae, ii?ie oa niiniae aeniao ?aeiiiaaieo i ia?niaeoeaieo ni?oia;
?ic?iaeoe caoiaee iieiioaiiy oiia aeeaeaiiy ?ineei, caniaia caoenoo
iiniaia aiae ao?’yiia, ?aoeiiiaeueii niiniae aeei?enoaiiy ?aaoeyoi?ia
?inoo aeey ia?iaee ianiiiy i ?ineei, a oaeiae aeineiaeeoe aeith
aaeaioaoeieieo i eiiiainaoeieieo aeanoeainoae ?ineei ethoea?ie i?e
iiaeiie?eaiiio i aaciie?eaiiio (o ae?iuoaaiii.

Ia’(eoaie aeineiaeaeaiue aoee ni?oe ethoea?ie E?aniiaea?nueea ?aiiy,
Iieoaa/aiea, Caeeaae/a, ss?ineaaia.

Ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?iaeo i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith ?icieo
iaoiaeia noaoenoe/iiai aiaeico (A.I.Ia?aaoaeia, 1948; A.A.Aeini(oia,
1968; 1979; 1987).

IIOEIICAOeIss OIIA NA?AAeIAEUA I?E INIIAIIIO

A?OIOICAOENIIIO IA?IAIOEO IIAe ETHOeA?IO

Aeineiaeaeaiiy ii aea/aiith aoaeoeaiinoi aeei?enoaiiy iiae ethoea?io a
nenoaii iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo aaciieeoeaaiai cia?yaeaey oeio
I?IA-5-50 i I*-4,5 o ii?iaiyiii c i?aieith aeaee ciiao aecia/eoe iiiioio
ciiio iieacieeia aiaeii-oice/ieo aeanoeainoae /i?iicaio cae/aeiiai,
anoaiiaeoe eiai iioeiaeueio aoaeiao oa uieueiinoue, aeyaeoe caeaaeiinoi
aa?ithaaiiy caiania a?oioiai( aieiae aiae ia?aiao?ia oaiia?aoo?iiai
?aaeeio iiaio?y, eieueeinoi iiaaeia oa iioeo oaeoi?ia na?aaeiaeua.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy, aiaeic oa noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea aaaaoi?i/iiai
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?iaeo aeaee ciiao iiaoaeoaaoe ?iaiyiiy ?aa?ani(,
yei aeicaieythoue i?iaiicoaaoe oaiie oa iai?yiie aei( iacaaieo i?ioeania
o a?oioi i iaa?oioiaaii ei?eaoaaoe nenoaio eiai ia?iaioeo.

Aieea niiniaia iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo ia eiai aiaeii-oice/ii
aeanoeainoi i aieiaicaaacia/aiinoue ?ineei ethoea?ie

Iaaanii i?e i?iaaaeaiii ia?aaeiiniaiiai ai?iioaaiiy i eoeueoeaaoei( ia
6-8 ni, uieueiinoue a?oioo a oa?i 0-10 ni noaiiaeea — 0,96 a/ni3; i?e
iaeiie eoeueoeaaoei( — 0,95; ai?iioaaiii — 0,98 i ia aa?iaioi aac
ia?iaioeo a?oioo — 0,99 a/ni3. A oie aea /an aiino aieiae a oa?i 0-10 ni
i?e ai?iioaaiii i eoeueoeaaoei( noaiiaea 12,8 ii; a oa?i 10-20 ni — 12,6
ii i 20-30 ni — 12,8 ii; aac i?iaaaeaiiy eoeueoeaaoe(( aiaeiiaiaeii —
12,6; 12,6 i 12,8 ii, iaia?iaeaiiai cyao — 12,4; 12,8 i 12,6 ii. Aeey
?ic?aooieia aaee/eie max i min aieiainoi a?oioo caeaaeii aiae eiai
uieueiinoi ie aeei?enoiaoaaee i?eaiiaeueia ?iaiyiiy: Wmax = (85 —
36,5P)P, aea aeey /i?iicaia cae/aeiiai iaeiaoioniiai aaaeeinoaeeieiaiai
ieoiia iana oaa?aei( oace aei?iaith( 2,45 a/ni3.

A iieueiaeo aeineiaeao ia?aae niaaith ethoea?ie uieueiinoue oa?o (0-30
ni) eieeaaeanue aiae 0,91 aei 1,21 a/ni3, a o iiniaiiio oa?i (0-10 ni)
aii aoa iooeioei. Iaeiaioei oeae iieaciee (0,91 a/ni3) niinoa?iaaany ii
i?aioei, oiaei ye ia aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo (I?IA-5-50 i I*-4,5)
uieueiinoue a?oioo iiiioii c?inoaea i aeinyaaea 1,01 a/ni3.

O ia?iiae cae?aiiy caeaii( iane ia ei?i uieueiinoue a?oioo a oa?i 0-30
ni noaiiaeea ia i?aioei 1,12 a/ni3; ia aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo — 1,16 i
/ecaethaaiii — 1,18 a/ni3.

Eiaoioei(io no?oeoo?iinoi a?oioo a ia?oiio ?ioei niaae ethoea?ie ia
aa?iaioao c aaciieeoeaaei ia?iaioeii aoa iiiioii aieueoei (ia 32-36%) o
ii?iaiyiii c i?aieith. O ae?oaiio i o?aoueiio ?ieao aeeooy ?ineei
ethoea?ie iacaaiee iieaciee ia onio niiniaao iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo
aoa i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaei (1,43-1,49%).

Ia aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo a i?iiio oa?i noia aiaeinoieeeo aa?aaaoia
?icii?ii >0,25 ii noaiiaeea ia 3,6-4,0% aieueoa o ii?iaiyiii c i?aieith.
Oei aiaeiiie aoee iiiioieie ii o?aeoeiyo 1-0,25 ii i cia/ii iaioeie ii
o?aeoeiyo 7-1 ii.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue naiae/aoue, ui i?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo
a?oioo caiane i?iaeoeoeaii( aieiae iaeiie/oaaeenue nooo(ai aieueoa, iiae
ia i?aioei (oaae. 1). Oae, ia?aae niaaith ethoea?ie a i?iiio oa?i
aeacaiee iieaciee aoa ia 10,6-21,6% aieueoee, a o oa?i 0-150 ni aeuee ia
14,9-16,5%.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieiaicaaacia/aiinoue ?ineei ethoea?ie o ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy

caeaaeii aiae niiniaia ia?iaioeo a?oioo (1991-1993 ??.)

Niiniae iniiaiiai Oa? Aiino i?iaeoeoeaii( aieiae,ii

ia?iaioeo a?oioo a?oioo,

ni iaaanii ia?aae niaaith ia?aae cae?aiiyi caeaii( iane ainaie ia?aae
ceiiaeath

I?aiea 0-35 28,2 18,1 7,8

0-150 161,7 74,6 36,6

Aaciieeoeaaee ia?iaioie 0-35 31,2 22,1 9,5

0-150 185,8 88,5 39,7

*ecaethaaiiy 0-35 34,3 23,5 10,3

0-150 188,4 89,1 42,1

Aeo?aoa aieiae ?ineeiaie ethoea?ie i?ioyaii aaaaoaoei( ii iniiaieo oacao
?inoo i ?icaeoeo ia aeieyieao ic aaciieeoeaaei ia?iaioeii a?oioo aoea
oaeiae aeiiiiiioith. O ae?oaiio i o?aoueiio ?ieao aeeooy aeacaii
aiaeiiie caa?iaaeeny, i?e/iio aieueo /ioei aiie i?iyaeyeeny ia ae?oaiio
?ioei aeeooy ?ineei i iinooiiai iiaaethaaeeny ia o?aoueiio.

?icaeyiooi yaeua iiyniththoueny oei, ui i?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo
a?oioo iiaa?oiaaee oa?, yeee ooai?th(oueny ic iiaeeaieo caeeoeia ia
i?ioyci ceiiaiai ia?iiaeo, ni?ey( aieueoiio iaeiie/aiith i?iaeoeoeaii(
aieiae, caiiaiaa( iaaeii?iei (( aeo?aoai ia aeia?iaoaaiiy, a oaeiae ca
?aooiie e?auiai caa?iaaiiy no?oeoo?ieo iieacieeia a?oioo oa iioeo
aa?ioice/ieo aeanoeainoae.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy i o?ainoi?iaoei( caiania

a?oioiai( aieiae, aiieiai/ia aeoeaiinoue i aiino iio?aoia o a?oioi

i?e ?icieo niiniaao eiai ia?iaioeo

I?iaeaia aieiaicaaacia/aiinoi ethoea?ie a ciii Noaio ianoieeeai
iio?aao(: ii-ia?oa, iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy niiniaia iniiaiiai i
ia?aaeiiniaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo; ii-ae?oaa, i?iaaaeaiiy oe?ieiai iiooeo
iiaeo caoiaeia e?auiai iaeiie/aiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy aieiae
iniiiuei-ceiiai-aaniyieo iiaaeia o ieaeiio oa?ao a?oioo.

Aiaeic niinoa?aaeaiue i ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue iieacaa, ui
caaaeueiee ?iaaiue caiania aieiae a ei?aiaaiiiniiio oa?i a?oioo ia?aae
niaaith ethoea?ie ia caaaeaee aiaeiiaiaea( noii iiaaeia ca ia?iiaee
iniiue-ceia-aania.

Noaoenoe/iee aiaeic 38-?i/ieo (1961-1998) aeaieo naiae/eoue, ui c oni((
eieueeinoi iiaaeia ca iniiiuei-ceiiaee i ?aiiueiaaniyiee ia?iiaee aei
niaae ethoea?ie o a?oioi caa?iaa(oueny a na?aaeiueiio aeecueei 32%
aieiae i oieueee ca 15 ?ieia (( aoei iiiaae 70%. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo
i?e?ino caiania aieiae a oa?i 0-150 ni aei aanie neeaaeaa 78,3 ii, a o
ae?oaiio — 129,4 ii.

Aei aieiaieo i?e/ei cia/ieo ao?ao aieiae iiaaeia oieiaeii( ii?e ?ieo
aiaeiineoueny ia oieueee noieaiiy oaei( aiaee ia noeeao i caeoaaiiy
aio?ii niiao, a ianaiia?aae ia?aiane/aiiy aieiaith aa?oiueiai oa?o
a?oioo i iaaecae/aeii neaaea i?iieeiaiiy (( o aeeaeio aei inoaoi/iiai
eiai ?anoaiaiiy. sseae inioaaea iiaeeeainoue oieeaoe oaeeo ao?ao aieiae,
oi ?aiiueiaaniyii caiane aieiae o aieueoinoi aeineiaeaeoaaieo ?ieia
iiaeaeuoaaeenue a na?aaeiueiio aiae 80 aei 120 ii, ui ?iaiioeiiii aeaii
aaaaoaoeieiei iieeaai, yei a ni?eyee iii’yeoaiith iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
iinooeeaeo oiia ia ethoea?io.

Aeyaeaii, ui a ?iee aeineiaeaeaiiy caieueoaiiy eieueeinoi iiaaeia ia
i?ioyci iniiiuei-ceiiaiai ia?iiaeo aei 283,9 ii i?ecaiaeeei aei
caeiiiii?iiai iiaeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiinoi ianiiiy ethoea?ie aei 2,87oe/aa,
a iiaeaeueoa (o c?inoaiiy aei 344,3 ii coiiaethaaei /ioeo oaiaeaioeith
cieaeaiiy ianiii(aai( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?ineei (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Caeaaeiinoue o?iaeaeiinoi ianiiiy ethoea?ie aiae noie iiaaeia

ca ia?iiae aa?anaiue-ethoee (1961-1998 ??.)

Iieacieee A?oie ?ieia ca eieueeinoth iiaaeia

1 2 3

Iiaoi?thaaiiy neooaoeie, ?ieia 14 14 10

Aa?ithaaiiy iiaaeia ca

iniiiuei-ceiiaee ia?iiae, ii

190-250

251-300

Iaeaieueo oiniee i ai?iaiaeiee ca’ycie (ia ?iaii 0,95) iiae
aeineiaeaeoaaieie iieacieeaie i?iyaey(oueny i?e aaee/eii aieiaicaiania o
oa?i a?oioo 0-150 ni ia ?iaii 101-150 ii; eiaoioei(io ei?aeyoe(( i?e
oeueiio noaiiaeoue 0,849. I?e iinooiiaiio caieueoaiii caiania aieiae a
a?oioi nooiiiue aieeao iacaaiiai iieacieea ia a?iaeae ianiiiy aeaui
iineaaethaaany, a i?e aeinyaiaiii ?iaiy 170 ii iaaoaaa aiae((iiiai
cia/aiiy (oaae. 3).

Oaaeeoey 3

Caeaaeiinoue o?iaeaeiinoi ianiiiy ethoea?ie aiae ?iaiy

aaniyieo caiania aieiae a oa?i a?oioo 0-150 ni, ii (1961-1998 ??.)

Eieueeinoue ?ieia A?aaeaoei( caiania

aieiae, ii Eiaoioei(io iiiaeeiii( ei?aeyoe((, R

4 Iaioa 100 0,764

15 101-150 0,849

10 151-200 0,136

9 Aieueoa 200 -0,483

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue iieacaee, ui ni?eyoeeaioi oiiae aeey
ooieoeithaaiiy a a?oioi iie?ii?aaiiciia ooai?ththoueny i?e
aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo a?oioo. I?e oeueiio eieueeinoue NI2, yea
aeaeieeeany c a?oioo, a na?aaeiueiio aoea ia 8-15% aeuith a ii?iaiyiii c
i?aieith.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ni?eyoeeai ii aieiainoi, oaiia?aoo?i i uieueiinoi oiiae
aeey i?ioeano ieo?eoieaoei( noeioethaaee caieueoaiiy ?ooiieo oi?i acioo
a a?oioi i oeei iie?auoaaee acioia aeeaeaiiy ?ineei ethoea?ie.

sseui ia i?aioei aiino ?ooiieo oi?i acioo a oa?i 0-30 ni aei?iaithaaa
32,0-34,8 ia/ea a?oioo, oi ia aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo — 30,7-32,9
ia/ea. Ca’ycie iiae iieacieeaie aiieiai/ii( aeoeaiinoi a?oioo i eiai
aieiainoth ai?ieneio(oueny ?iaiyiiyi iiiaeeiii( ?aa?ani(:

o=1,496o1+0,098o2+22,7; R=0,879; dx=0,773

Aiaeic oeueiai ?iaiyiiy naiae/eoue, ui iioeiicaoeiy aiieiai/ieo
i?ioeania o a?oioi niinoa?iaa(oueny i?e aieiainoi 60-70% aai 70-80% aiae
IIA i uieueiinoi 1,07-1,18 a/ni3; i?e iiaeaeuaiii ia’(iii( iane a?oioo
aei 1,35 a/ni3 iieacieee aiieiai/ii( aeoeaiinoi iiiioii cieaeothoueny.

?ieue caoiaeia iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo ia ciiio nooiaiy

caao?’yiaiinoi iiniaia, oi?ioaaiiy ei?aiaai( nenoaie

i a?iaeae caeaii( iane ethoea?ie

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue iieacaee, ui eieueeinoue ao?’yiia o ia?iiae
cae?aiiy ethoea?ie ia caeaiee ei?i a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeea: ia i?aioei
28-30 oo/i2, a ia aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo eeoa 10,7-11,9 oo/i2, aai ia
62% iaioa. A ie?aii ?iee ia iieeoeaaie i?aioei eieueeinoue ao?’yiia
eieeaaeanue aiae 27,1 aei 39,8 oo/i2, aaciieeoeaaie — aiae 8,7 aei 13,2
oo/i2.

Ia ae?oaiio i o?aoueiio ?ieao aeeooy ethoea?ie cacia/aia ?icieoey a
nooiaii caao?’yiaiinoi caeaaeii aiae oeiia cia?yaeaey i?aeoe/ii
iiaaethaaeany; a oie aea /an aeyaeaia oaiaeaioeiy ciaioaiiy eieueeinoi
ao?’yiia i?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo a?oioo — caa?iaaeany.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy i aeineiaeaeaiiy ei?aiaai( nenoaie ethoea?ie, yei
i?iaiaeeeeny a eiioei ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy, naiae/aoue, ui iaeaieueoa
iana ei?aiia (36,2-38,2 oe/aa) a oa?i a?oioo 0-150 ni oi?ioaaeany ia
aeieyieao c iniiaiei ia?iaioeii a?oioo aac iai?ioo ieanoa. Oae, yeui i?e
i?aioei a na?aaeiueiio ia 1 oe iiaio?yii-nooi( iane ei?aiia i?eiaaea(
5,1 oe caeaii( iane ?ineei, 0,89 oe ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue i 12,2 ea
ia?ao?aaiiai aieea, oi i?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo a?oioo I?IA-5-50
aiaeiiaiaeii — 5,3 oe; 0,92 oe i 12,6 ea; i?e /ecaethaaiii — 5,4; 0,95
oe i 13,0 ea.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieueoee (ia 7,6-10,6%) o?iaeae ei?iiai( iane
ethoea?ie, ye o eiaeiiio ie?aiiio ?ioei, oae i a noii ca o?e ?iee aoa
iaea?aeaiee i?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo a?oioo o ii?iaiyiii ic i?aieith
(?en.1).

?INO OA ?ICAEOIE ETHOeA?IE IIAe AIEEAII IAOAI?I-EIAI*IEO OAEOI?IA O
II*AOEIAEE IA?IIAe AAAAOAOeI(

Iioeiicaoeiy oiia aeeoo(aeiyeueiinoi ethoea?ie o ia?iiae niaaa-noiaee

O?eaaeinoue ia?iiaeo niaaa-noiaee cia/iith ii?ith aa?ith( iiae aieeaii
iiaiaeieo oaeoi?ia i coiiaeth( ciiio iieueiai( noiaeinoi ianiiiy,
aaee/eio a?iaeaeiinoi caeaii( iane oa ianiiiy (oaae. 4).

Aiaeic iieacaa, ui a ?aiiueiaaniyiee ia?iiae aieea iiaaeia ia
o?eaaeinoue oace niaaa-noiaee ethoea?ie, iaaioue a oiiaao noaiiaiai
?aaiiio, ia ( iaiaaeoth/ei oaeoi?ii, eiai aaaeeeainoue cia/ii c?inoa( a
eioiie ia?iiae. Aaaaoi?i/ii niinoa?aaeaiiy (1980-1997 ??.) naiae/aoue,
ui aaniyii aieiaicaiane a iiniaiiio oa?i a?oioo (0-5 ni) i?e ?icieo
no?ieao niaae ethoea?ie aa?ithaaee a na?aaeiueiio ia ?iaii 1,4-10,9 ii
i?e ?icieo no?ieao i oei naiei ia caaaeaee caaacia/oaaee ii?iaeueii
oiiae caieiaeaiiy ianiii(aiai eiaea aeey i?i?inoaiiy i noiaeia ?ineei.
Aecia/aii, ui ?aiiueith aaniith i?iaiaeiei oaeoi?ii o aeeiaiioei noiaeia
( oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei a?oioo i iiaio?y. Oae, ca ia?iiae 1980-1997 ??.
i?e na?aaeiueiaeiaiaie oaiia?aoo?i iiaio?y 6,3-9,0(N, a?oioo ia aeeaeii
0-5 ni 5,1-8,0(N oa caianao i?iaeoeoeaii( aieiae a iiniaiiio oa?i
8,2-10,9 ii noiaee ethoea?ie aoee io?eiaii ia 10-13-e aeaiue i?e
?aiiueiio no?ieo niaae (1-15 eaioiy). I?e iiciio (eioiio) no?ieao
(iniaeeai a iinooeeai ?iee) a iiniaiiio oa?i a?oioo aiino i?iaeoeoeaii(
aieiae aei?iaithaaa eeoa 1,4-3,9, ii a oaiia?aoo?a iiaio?y i a?oioo ia
aeeaeii 5 ni nyaaea 17,7-23,5 oa 18,3-25,3(N, noiaee ethoea?ie aoee
noi?iiaaii eeoa /a?ac 20-28 aeiia.

I?eaa?oa( aei naaa oaaao i oaeo ciiie iieacieeia iieueiai( noiaeinoi
ianiiiy caeaaeii aiae eieueeinoi aieiae a iiniaiiio oa?i a?oioo oa
no?ieia niaae. sseui a a?oii ?ieia c eieueeinoth aieiae aiae 8,2 aei
10,9 ii i?e niaai ethoea?ie ?aii iaaanii niinoa?iaathoueny iaeneiaeueii
aeniei iieacieee iieueiai( noiaeinoi (44,8-53,7%), oi, iaaiaee, a ?iee,
eiee a iiniaiiio

Oaaeeoey 4

Ciiia o?eaaeinoi oace niaaa-noiaee, iieacieeia iieueiai( noiaeinoi oa
?iaiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?ineei ethoea?ie

iiae aieeaii iaoai?ieiai/ieo oaeoi?ia (1980-1997 ??.)

*enei

A?oie ii Na?aaeiy eieueeinoue Aiino

aieiae Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa oaiia?aoo?a, (N Iieueiaa noiaeinoue

O?iaeaeiinoue, oe/aa

niinoa?a-aeaiue,

?iee /eneo aeiia o ia?iiaei aeiia

o

a?oii iiaaeia ca ia?iiae niaaa-noiaee a oa?i

0-5 ni,

ii

iiaio?y a?oioo ia aeeaeii

5 ni ianiiiy,

%

caeaii( iane

9 13-15 14 16,6 8,7 8,8 7,8 48,6 125,7 1,61

4 9-11 10 7,4 8,2 9,0 8,0 44,8 101,3 1,57

niaaa 15 — 2 0 o?aaiy

3 8-10 9 10,0 9,1 15,8 16,9 43,9 109,4 —

10 10-12 11 1,9 6,0 16,4 17,9 41,3 84,7 —

5 19-20 20 2,0 3,8 18,3 17,7 38,4 65,4 —

niaaa 2 0 — 3 0 eeiiy

8 4-6 5 43,6 7,7 20,0 23,3 36,7 48,5 —

6 7-9 8 19,0 3,9 20,6 25,2 33,6 41,3 —

4 23-32 28 7,5 1,4 25,3 23,5 27,5 29,8 —

oa?i a?oioo aiino aieiae aa?ithaaa aiae 1,4 aei 7,7 ii, ui, ye i?aaeei,
niinoa?iaaeinue i?e eioiio no?ieao niaae, oeae iieaciee cieaeoaaany aei
27,5-36,7%. ?acoeueoaoe aaaaoi?i/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue naiae/aoue, ui
iaeaeuee a?iaeae caeaii( iane ethoea?ie oi?ioaaany i?e ?aiiueiaaniyieo
no?ieao niaae o iiaeaeuaii ca caieiaeaiiyi ?iee, a na?aaeii ca
caieiaeaiiyi i iinooeeai oeae iieaciee cieaeoaaany ia 13,0-30,0%. sseui
o ae?oaie iieiaeii aaaaoaoei( oiiae neeaaeaeeny iinooeeaeie aai
na?aaeiiie ca caieiaeaiiyi, o?iaeae ianiiiy, iaaiaee, oi?ioaaany aieueo
aenieei, iiae o aieiai.

Oaeei /eiii, aiaeic ocaaaeueiaiiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?iaeo
aeicaiey( c?iaeoe aeniiaee, ui i?e ?aiiueiaaniyiiio no?ieo niaae iioeioi
o?eaaeinoi ia?iiaeo niaaa-noiaee uiaei i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?ineei oa
oi?ioaaiiy aaee/eie a?iaeath aaaaoaoeaii( iane, aa?ith( a iaaeao 12-14
aeiia, iioeioi ?iaiy oa?ii/iiai ?aaeeio iiaio?y i a?oioo ciaoiaeeoueny a
iaaeao aiaeiiaiaeii 6-9 oa 5-8(N; iioeioi aiinoo i?iaeoeoeaii(
aieiae a oa?i 0-5 ni aei?iaith( 8-11 ii. Oaeoi? caieiaeaiiy iaaoaa(
ae?ioaeueiiai cia/aiiy i?e niaai ethoea?ie a iicii no?iee, eiee iiiioii
c?inoa( oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei iiaio?y oa a?oioo, ?icei cieaeo(oueny
eieueeinoue aieiae a a?oioi, ui a oeieiio coiiaeth( nei?i/aiiy ia?iiaeo
niaaa-noiaee aei 7-9 i iaaioue 4-6 aeiia. Inoaii( ni?e/eith( cia/ii
iaaaoeaii ciiie aaaaoueio ia?aiao?ia ?ineei ia i?ioyci ani(( aaaaoaoei(
aiae i?i?inoaiiy ianiiiy aei oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoaoeaieo i ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo
i?aaiia.

Aieea no?ieia niaae ia iniiaii iieacieee

?inoo i ?icaeoeo ?ineei ethoea?ie

A iaoeo aeineiaeao anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaiaee oa eiiieiee i?e?ino,
caaaeueia ieiua eenoiai( iiaa?oii, iioaineaiinoue oioineioaco i
o?eaaeinoue aeoeaiiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy aecia/athoue ?iaaiue
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ethoea?ie.

C’yniaaii, ui ?ineeie ethoea?ie, aeniyii( a ?icii no?iee, cia/ii
aiae?iciyeenue i?ioeanaie iaoaaieicio a iaaecaiieo i?aaiao.
Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee eiiieiee i?e?ino ?ineei o ia?iiae
aieeoaaiiy-aooiiicaoeiy i?e niaai o eaioii noaiiaea 0,80 ni(aeiao, a
o?aaii, /a?aii oa eeiii — aiaeiiaiaeii 0,45; 0,31 oa 0,24 ni(aeiao.
Ciaioaiiy eieueeinoi aoiinoa?ieo iiaaeia, aeniea oaiia?aoo?a i iecueea
aiaeiinia aieiainoue iiaio?y coiiaethaaee iaiaaeaiiy iioaineaiinoi
?inoiaeo i?ioeania, iniaeeai i?e eioiio no?ieao niaae.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ?aiiueiaaniyieo no?ieao (ia?oa iieiaeia eaioiy)
iaeiie/aiiy aaaaoaoeaii( iane ia 60-e aeaiue iiney iiaieo noiaeia aoei a
1,8 ?aca aieueoei, iiae i?e eioiie niaai 25-28 eeiiy. Iaie aeyaeaia
oinia cai?ioia ei?aeyoeieia caeaaeiinoue iiae oaiiaie iaeiie/aiiy
?ineeiaie ethoea?ie i?aaii/ii( ?a/iaeie oa no?ieaie niaae. Oeae ca’ycie
oa?aeoa?eco(oueny aenieeie eiaoioei(ioaie ei?aeyoei( (r=-0,687-0,769), a
oaeiae i?yiith ni?yaeaiinoth iiae ?iaiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aiiiane i
a?iaea(i ianiiiy ethoea?ie (r=0,886-0,934).

Iaeneiaeueii eiiieii oa aaaiai i?e?inoe niinoa?iaaeeny iaie a ni?eyoeeai
ca caieiaeaiiyi ?iee ye ca ?aooiie caiania a?oioiai( aieiae, oae i
eieueeinoth aoiinoa?ieo iiaaeia i?ioyaii aaaaoaoei( (oaae. 5).

Oaaeeoey 5

Aieiaicaaacia/aiinoue ethoea?ie ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy

caeaaeii aiae no?ieia niaae (1980-1997 ??.)

No?ie

niaae Aiino i?iaeoeoeaii( aieiae a a?oioi ia?aae niaaith, ii Iiaaee ca
aaaaoa-oeith, Aieiaicaaacia/a-iinoue, anueiai

0-5 ni 0-100 ni ii ii %

Aieiai ?iee (na?aaei( ca 5 ?ieia)

1-10 eaioiy 10,9 126,4 275,3 401,7 100,0

10-20 o?aaiy 9,1 119,4 239,7 359,1 89,4

20-30 eeiiy 7,7 121,3 63,1 184,4 46,0

Na?aaeii ca aieiainoth (na?aaei( ca 9 ?ieia)

1-10 eaioiy 8,3 118,7 238,5 357,2 100,0

10-20 o?aaiy 6,8 106,3 119,9 266,2 63,3

20-30 eeiiy 3,9 95,4 97,3 192,7 54,0

Iinooeeai (na?aaei( ca 4 ?iee)

1-10 eaioiy 8,2 91,3 192,0 283,3 100,0

10-20 o?aaiy 3,8 82,3 128,8 211,1 74,5

20-30 eeiiy 1,4 54,3 38,5 92,8 32,7

Aiaeic aeaieo oaaeeoei 5 naiae/eoue, ui iaeaieueo ni?eyoeeai oiiae
caaacia/aiiy ?ineei ethoea?ie aieiaith, iacaeaaeii aiae oiia ?ieo,
neeaaeathoueny i?e ?aiiueiaaniyiie (eaioiaaie) niaae o ii?iaiyiii c
iiciiie (( no?ieaie (o?aaiaaeie oa eeiiaaeie).

?ineeie ethoea?ie i?e ?aiiueiaaniyiie (5-10 eaioiy) niaai oi?ioaaee
aieueoo eenoeiao iiaa?oith, yea a na?aaeiueiio ca 1985-1987 ??. a
ia?iiae oeaioiiiy noaiiaeea 21,3 oen.i2/aa, iiciueiaaniyiie (14-20
o?aaiy) — 19,8 oen.i2 /aa, eioiie (25-28 eeiiy) — 19,2 oen.i2/aa.

Ei?aeyoeieiee aiaeic iieacaa, ui iiae aeineiaeaeoaaieie iieacieeaie —
ieiuath eenoiai( iiaa?oii ii ?ieao oa /enoith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth
oioineioaco ?ineei ethoea?ie aiaeiiaiaeii aei no?ieia niaae — inio(
aeniea i?yia caeaaeiinoue, yea oa?aeoa?eco(oueny eiaoioei(ioaie
ei?aeyoei( (r=0,672-0,843).

I?e niaai ethoea?ie a ia?oie aeaeaaei eaioiy ia ae?oaiio ?ioei (( aeeooy
iaeneiaeueia ia?inoaiiy nooi( ?a/iaeie niinoa?iaaeiny a ia?iiae
aooiiicaoeiy-oeaioiiiy, yea neeaaeaei 3,56 a/i2(aeiao. Iaeieae/ee
?iaaiue i?ioeania oioineioaoe/ii( aeiyeueiinoi aiaeii/aiee o ani ?iee
i?e eioiio (25-23 eeiiy) no?ieao niaae.

I?e ?icieo niiniaao niaae ei?aiaaa nenoaia ?ineei ethoea?ie iaea
iaiaeiaeiao caaaeueio iano i aeeaeio i?iieeiaiiy a a?oio. Oae, o
ni?eyoeeaee ca caieiaeaiiyi ?ie (1984) i?e niaai 5 eaioiy ei?aii a
eiioei aaaaoaoei( aeinyaaee aeeaeie 125 ni, a o ?ineei eioiueiai no?ieo
(25 eeiiy) — oieueee 75 ni. Ia ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy i?e niaai ethoea?ie
5-10 eaioiy a oa?i a?oioo 0-150 ni caaaeueia iana ei?aiia aei?iaithaaea
87,8-97,0 oe/aa, oiaei ye i?e eioiueiio aeniai (25-28 eeiiy) — 37,4-63,9
oe/aa, aai ia 34,1-57,4% iaioa.

Oi?ioaaiiy ei?iiai( oa ianiii(ai( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi

ethoea?ie i?e ?icieo no?ieao niaae.

Cacia/aia nooo(aa ?icieoey a i?ioeanao ?inoo i ?icaeoeo aaaaoaoeaii(
iane i ei?aiaai( nenoaie ethoea?ie, coiiaeaia no?ieaie niaae, aieeioea
ia oi?ioaaiiy aaee/eie i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?ineei (?en. 2).

?acoeueoaoe aaaaoi?i/ieo aeineiaeaiue iieacothoue, ui a ia?oee ?ie
aeeooy i?e niaai ethoea?ie a ia?oie iieiaeii eaioiy, a?iaeaeiinoue
caeaii( iane aoea a 2,9-3,4 ?aca aeuith a ii?iaiyiii c iiciiie, i
iniaeeai, eioiiie no?ieaie niaae.

Aeinoiai?iinoue io?eiaieo aeaieo iiaeoaa?aeaeo(oueny ?acoeueoaoaie
iaoaiaoe/iiai aiaeico i ae?aaea(oueny ?iaiyiiyie ?aa?ani(:

o=0,68×1+19,164; o=0,053×2+14,431; o=0,024×3+8,460 i

eiaoioei(ioaie ei?aeyoei(: r=0,356-0,791, aea o1 — aieiai ?iee, o2 —
na?aaeii ca caieiaeaiiyi i o3 — iinooeeai.

Ic aiaeico iaaaaeaieo ?iaiyiue aeieeaa(, ui ?iaaiue ei?iiai(
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ii ?ieao i no?ieao niaae iiiioii aa?ithaaa i aoa
iaeiaioei i?e onio no?ieao niaae a iinooeeai ?iee i cia/ii c?inoaa o
ni?eyoeeai ca caieiaeaiiyi.

Ia ae?oaiio i o?aoueiio ?ieao aeeooy a?iaeaeiinoue caeaii( iane ?ineei a
iaioie ii?i caeaaeaea aiae no?ieia niaae ethoea?ie, iiae a ?ie aeniao,
iaeiae ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aieea iacaaiiai iieacieea i?iyaeyany iiiioiioa,
iiae ia o?aoueiio.

Noia?iee cai? caeaii( iane ethoea?ie ca ?iee (( aeeooy naiae/eoue i?i
aacnoiiiaio ia?aaaao ?aiiio no?ieia niaae.

?acoeueoaoaie iaoaiaoe/iiai aiaeico anoaiiaeaia oinia ei?aeyoeieia
caeaaeiinoue iiae no?ieaie niaae ethoea?ie oa (( ianiii(aith
i?iaeoeoeaiinoth ( ?en. 2). Oeae ca’ycie ae?aaea(oueny ?iaiyiiyi
?aa?ani(:

y=1,637x+0,063 i?e r=0,936 .

?iaiyiiy naiae/eoue, ui a oni ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue i?e niaai ethoea?ie a
eaioii caaacia/oaaany iiaiioeiiiee a?iaeae ianiiiy. Iiniae, caeeaaeaii a
o?aaii oa eeiii, a?iaeae ianiiiy ia oi?ioaaee. Aeyaeaia /ioea
caeaaeiinoue: /ei ?aiioa i?iaaaeaia niaaa, oei aieueoa aaee/eia a?iaeath
aoea noi?iiaaia; o aieiai ?iee a?iaeae ianiiiy aoa ieae/ee ia
26,6-29,8%, iiae a iiii?ii aieiai i iinooeeai ?iee.

Ia ae?oaiio i o?aoueiio ?ieao aeeooy o ?ineei ethoea?ie i?e ?aiiio
no?ieao aeniao oi?ioaaeiny aieueoa i?iaeoeoeaieo noaaae, aiaia ic
iiaiioeiiiei ianiiiyi, ui ni?eyei c?inoaiith a?iaeath ianiiiy o
ii?iaiyiii c iiciioeie no?ieaie niaae.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui aaniyii aaciie?eaii iiniae ethoea?ie
caaacia/othoue aeniei a?iaea( ianiiiy i?ioyaii o?ueio ?ieia (o aeeooy.
Oae, o aieiai ?iee, i?e niaai ethoea?ie c 1 ii 15 eaioiy io?eiaii ia
0,38-1,38 oe/aa

ianiiiy aieueoa, a iiii?ii-aieiai ia 1,10-2,37 oe/aa, a a iinooeeai — ia
1,86-2,80 oe/aa o ii?iaiyiii c caniyieie o o?aaii oa eeiii.

O iiniaieo yeinoyo ianiiiy ethoea?ie (iana 1000 ianiiei, aia?aiy
i?i?inoaiiy oa noiaeinoue), yei aoee io?eiaii ia ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy c
iiniaia ?icieo no?ieia ia aiaeaoaaeiny aoaeue-yeeo nooo(aeo ciii o
ii?iaiyiii c yeinoth ianiiiy o?aainoi(a ae?oaiai i o?aoueiai ?ieia
aeeooy. ?ineeie ethoea?ie c ianiiiy, io?eiaiiai a ?ie aeniao, ia
cieaeoaaee a?iaeae o iioiinoai, aieueo oiai, cia?aia c ieo ianiiiy iaei
aiaeiai/ii iiniaii aeanoeainoi i yeinoue, ye i ianiiiy, io?eiaia c
o?aainoi(a ae?oaiai ?ieo aeeooy.

AIEEA IA I?IAeOEOEAIINOUe ETHOeA?IE

EIIOIAO?AOeI( OA ?ICII?O IEIUI AEEAEAIIss

?INEEI I?E AACIIE?EAIEO IINIAAO

O noaiiaiio ?aaiiii aei inoaiiueiai /ano oe?iei aea/aeeny ieoaiiy aieeao
ii?i aeniao oa niiniaia niaae ia ciiio i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?ineei ethoea?ie,
ae?iuoaaii( ia ei?i i ianiiiy i?e aaniyiiio iiaeiie?eaiiio oa eioiueiio
aaciie?eaiiio niiniaao. ?acii c oei ieoaiiy iioeiicaoei( niiniaia niaae
i ii?i aeniao ianiiiy oei(( aiaiai( eoeueoo?e aeey aaciie?ea-ieo
?aiiueiaaniyieo iiniaia o iiaii/iie iiaeciii Noaio iaie
aeineiaeaeothoueny oia?oa.

Niiniae niaae, ii?ie aeniao oa iniaeeainoi (o aieeao

ia ?ino i ?icaeoie aaciie?eaieo ?ineei ethoea?ie

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ?inoii i ?icaeoeii ethoea?ie ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy
iieacaee, ui o?eaaeinoue ia?iiaeo aiae noiaeia aei ii/aoeo aooiiicaoei(
i?e aaciie?eaiiio niiniai niaae c iiae?yaeaeyie 15 ni, noaiiaeea aiae 44
aei 52 aeiia, oace oeaioiiiy — aiae 56 aei 60, oi?ioaaiiy aiaia — 66-69,
a (o aeic?iaaiiy — 125-137 aeiia. I?e niaai ethoea?ie c iiae?yaeaeyie 45
i 60 ni oace aooiiicaoei(, oeaioiiiy, oi?ioaaiiy oa aeic?iaaiiy aiaia
ianoaaaee ia 2-6 aeiia iiciioa, iiae i?e nooeieueiiio niiniai niaae.
Iniaeeai /ioei oea i?inoaaeoaaeinue ia aeieyieao c iaeeie ii?iaie aeniao
(2-6 ea/aa).

Niinoa?aaeaiiy oa aiiiao?e/ii caii?e naiae/aoue, ui /a?ac 30 aeiia iiney
iiaieo noiaeia, eiee ?ineeie anooiaee a eiieo?aioeith ca aeeoo(ai
iaiaoiaeii oaeoi?e (naioei, aieiaa, aeaiaioe aeeaeaiiy), oaiie
na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai eiiieiiai i?e?inoo ia aeieyieao c ii?iaie aeniao
(12-14 ea/aa) aoee aieueoeie, iiae ia aeieyieao c aeniaii 2-4 ea/aa
iacaeaaeii aiae niiniao niaae.

A ia?iiae aooiiicaoei(-oeaioiiiy o ?ineei ethoea?ie aiaeii/aeanue
iaeae-ua iioaineaiinoue ?inoo ia aeieyieao c ii?iaie aeniao 2-4 ea/aa c
iiae?yae-aeyie 45 oa 60 ni i ii?iith aeniao 8-10 ea/aa — i?e
nooeieueiiio iiniai. I?e aieueoie aonoioi ?ineei cia/ii iiai?ooaaeeny
oiiae aieiaica-aacia/aiinoi i iiaeeaiiai ?aaeeio, ui iaaaoeaii
iicia/aeiny ia i?ioeanao

(o ?inoo i ?icaeoeo. Iaeaieueoee eiiieiee i?e?ino ?ineei aiaecia/aiee
i?e oe?iei?yaeiiio niiniai aeniao. Ia ae?oaiio oa o?aoueiio ?ieao aeeooy
ethoea?ie niinoa?iaaeanue aiaeiai/ia caeaaeiinoue.

Aeyaeaii, ui ia ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy o oaco oeaioiiiy ne?a iana 50
?ineei ia aeieyieao c ii?iith aeniao 2-4 ea/aa i iiae?yaeaeyie 45 ni
noaiiaeea 175,4-184,6 a, a i?e ii?ii 12-14 ea/aa — 151,3-158,4 a, aai ia
9,7-19,0% iaioa, ci caieueoaiiyi iiae?yaeue aei 60 ni aiia aoea
aiaeiiaiaeii 185,4-188,4 i 164,5-169,3 a, aai ia 10,0-11,3% ieae/ith.
I?e nooeieueiiio niiniai niaae iiiioii( ?icieoei iiae cacia/aieie
iieacieeaie ia aiaecia/aeiny.

Oioineioaoe/ia aeiyeueiinoue iiniaia ethoea?ie, oi?ioaaiiy

ei?aiaai( nenoaie o (( ?ineei i i?eeiie (o iioei(caoei(

Ii?ie aeniao ianiiiy, ui coiiaeththoue ?icio aonoioo ?ineei ethoea?ie,
nooo(ai aieeaathoue i ia ciiio ieiui aeoeaii( eenoeiai( iiaa?oii.

A ia?iiae oeaioiiiy ieiua eenoeia ?ineei ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy i?e onio
ii?iao aeniao aoea iaeaieueoith i?e oe?iei?yaeiiio iiniai c
iiae?yaeaeyie 45 i 60 ni. Nooeieueiee iinia c ii?iith 2 ea/aa o oeae
ia?iiae oi?ioaaa ieiuo eenoeiai( iiaa?oii ieae/ith a 1,9-2,1 ?aca.
Caieueoaiiy ieiui eenoeiai( iiaa?oii a ia?iiae oeaioiiiy ?ineei
niinoa?iaaeinue aei iaaii( ii?e caaouaiinoi i aei ii?ie aeniao (8
ea/aa). I?e iiaeaeuaiii inoaiiueiai iieacieea aei 14 ea/aa ieiua eenoeia
i?e anio niiniaao niaae aoea i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaith i aei?iaithaaea
29,8-30 oen.i2/aa. O oaco ieiaeiooai?aiiy aeoeaia ieiua eenoeia o
ethoea?ie caeiiiii?ii ciaiooaaeanue, a aieueoie ii?i — i?e nooeieueiiio
niiniai niaae, a iaioie — i?e oe?iei?yaeiiio.

Aecia/aii oaeiae, ui /enoa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue oioineioaco ethoea?ie a
ia?iiae aooiiicaoe((-oea(o(iiy (a o?aainoi( ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy) a
nooeieueiiio iiniai c ii?iith aeniao 8 ea/aa, aoea a 1,9 ?aca aeuith,
iiae i?e ii?ii aeniao 2 ea/aa i a 1,3 ?aca aieueoith a ii?iaiyiii c
ii?iith aeniao 14 ea/aa. A iiniai c iiae?yaeaeyie 60 ni, iaaiaee,
iaeneiaeueia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue oioineioaco ?ineei niinoa?iaaeanue a oeae
ia?iiae i?e iaioie ii?ii (2 ea/aa), a i?e caieueoaiii ii?ie aeniao aei
14 ea/aa oeae iieaciee cia/ii (ia 28,9%) cieaeoaaany.

Iaeieae/ee iieaciee iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy nooi( ?a/iaeie a ?ineeiao ia ia?oiio
?ioei (o aeeooy niinoa?iaaany i?e nooeieueiiio iiniai c ii?iith aeniao 2
ea/aa. sseui ia oeueiio aa?iaioi aeineiaeo ca ia?iiae
aooiiicaoei(-oeaioiiiy iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy nooi( ?a/iaeie i?eeiyoe ca 100%,
oi ia aeieyieao c iiae?yaeaeyie 60 ni oeae iieaciee aeinyaa( 177,5%.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui c iiaeaeuaiiyi ii?ie aeniao aiae 2 aei 14 ea/aa
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy nooi( ?a/iaeie cieaeoaaeinue iacaeaaeii aiae
niiniao niaae. Oae, a na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue i?e
caieueoaiii ii?ie aeniao ia nooeieueiiio iiniai c 2 aei 8 ea/aa iana
nooi( ?a/iaeie iaeii(( ?ineeie caieueooaaeanue c 3,38 aei 6,37 a. A
o?aainoi( ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy ca iiaeoaciee ia?iiae
aooiiicaoei(-oeaioiiiy iaeaieueoa iaa?iiaaeaeoaaeiny a ?ineeiao nooi(
?a/iaeie i?e iiniai c iiae?yaeaeyie 60 ni i ii?iith 2 ea/aa. A
na?aaeiueiio ca 1983-1985 ??. oeae iieaciee aei?iaithaaa 19,36 a, a i?e
nooeieueiiio iiniai i ii?ii aeniao 8 ea/aa — 8,25 a, aai a 2,3 ?aca
iaioa.

Iaie aeyaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy aeeaiei i?iieeath/i(, aeia?a ?icaeiaii(
ei?aiaai( nenoaie ia ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy ethoea?ie caeaaeeoue aiae
?icii?o i oi?ie ieiui aeeaeaiiy (( ?ineei.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a ?ie aeniao iaeaieueoa nooa iana ei?aiia
(15,6 oe/aa) a oa?i a?oioo 0-20 ni noi?iiaaia i?e oe?iei?yaeiiio aeniai
c iiae?yaeaeyie 60 ni i ii?iith 2 ea/aa, oiaei ye iiaeaeueoa caieueoaiiy
ii?ie aei 14 ea/aa coiiaethaaei ciaioaiiy iane ei?aiaai( nenoaie.
E?auee caaaeueiee ?ino, ?icaeoie i aieueoa (ia 6,4 oe/aa)
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy nooi( ei?aiaai( iane a oa?i a?oioo 0-180 ni
niinoa?iaaeiny ia oe?iei?yaeiiio (60 ni) iiniai i aeieyieao c aeniaii 2
ea/aa, iiae ia aeieyieao, aea ii?ia aeniao aoea 14 ea/aa. Aiaeiai/ia
yaeua a i?ioeani ?icaeoeo i iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy nooi( iane ei?aiia aoei
caoieniaaii ia iiniaao c iiae?yaeaeyie 45 ni. Aiaeiciaaiee iieaciee aoa
cia/ii iaioei (31,6 oe/aa) ia nooeieueiiio iiniai c ii?iith 8 ea/aa.

Iaie aoei c’yniaaii, ui aonoioa ?ineei ethoea?ie i niinia (( niaae ia
ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy aieeaaee ia ?icaeoie i iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ei?aiaai(
iane ia ae?oaiio i o?aoueiio ?ieao aeeooy. Oae, o oa?i a?oioo 0-180 ni
ia aeieyieao c ii?iith aeniao 2 ea/aa o iiniaao c iiae?yaeaeyie 60 ni
nooa iana ei?aiia ethoea?ie a eiioei ae?oaiai ?ieo aeeooy aoea ia 62,2
oe/aa aieueoa, iiae o nooeieueieo. I?e caieueoaiii ii?ie aeniao aei 14
ea/aa ye ia oe?iei?yaeieo (60 ni), oae i nooeieueieo iiniaao, nooa iana
ei?aiia o oa?i a?oioo 0-180 ni cieaeoaaeanue i aoea i?aeoe/ii
iaeiaeiaith (150,5 i 148,8 oe/aa). A eiioei ae?oaiai i o?aoueiai ?ieia
aeeooy ia aeieyieao c ii?iith aeniao 14 ea/aa iniiaia iana ei?aiaai(
nenoaie (97,1-98,2%) cina?aaeaeaia a oa?i a?oioo 0-80 ni, oiaei ye i?e
ii?ii aeniao 2 ea/aa, iacaeaaeii aiae niiniao niaae, ei?aii ?iaiiii?iioa
?iciiaeieyeeny iaeaea ia anth aeeaeio oa?o a?oioo (0-180 ni).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaciie?eaiee iinia ethoea?ie aaea a ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy
caaacia/oaaa o?iaeaeiinoue eiiaeeoeieiiai ianiiiy ia ?iaii 1,70-1,77
oe/aa. I?e oeueiio aieueo i?iaeoeoeaieie aoee iiniae c iiae?yaeaeyie 45
i 60 ni o ii?iaiyiii c nooeieueieie. sseui a na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee
aeineiaeaeaiue iaeaeuee a?iaeae ianiiiy (1,03 oe/aa) ia nooeieueiiio
iiniai c ii?iith 8 ea/aa i?eeiyoe ca 100%, oi ia iiniai c iiae?yaeaeyie
45 i 60 ni c aeacaiith ii?iith aen(ao a(i noaiiaeoue 131-135%. O
ae?iaie/eo aeineiaeao, i?iaaaeaieo o ainiiaea?noaao Aeiii?iiao?ianueei(
oa Ei?iaia?aaenueei( iaeanoae a iiniaao c iiae?yaeaeyie 70 ni i ii?iith
aeniao 2 ea/aa, o?iaeaeiinoue eiiaeeoeieiiai ianiiiy aei?iaithaaea
2,85-3,72 oe/aa.

Ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy o?aainoith ianiii(aa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ?ineei
ethoea?ie c iiae?yaeaeyie 60 ni i ii?iith 2 ea/aa aoea ia 0,47 oe/aa
aeuith, iiae ia oe?iei?yaeiiio iiniai c iiae?yaeaeyie 45 ni ic oei(th ae
ii?iith aeniao, i ia 1,80 oe/aa aieueoith a ii?iaiyiii c nooeieueiei
iiniaii i ii?iith 8 ea/aa.

I?e caieueoaiii ii?ie aiae 2 aei 14 ea i?e niaai c iiae?yaeaeyie 45 i 60
ni a?iaeaeiinoue ianiiiy cieaeoaaeanue aiaeiiaiaeii c 4,27 aei 2,07
i c 4,74 aei

2,24 oe/aa. Ia nooeieueiiio iiniai iaeaieueoee cai? a na?aaeiueiio ca
?iee aeineiaeaeaiue ia ia?aaeuoaaa 2,94 oe/aa, i?e oeueiio ciaioaiiy
eieueeinoi aeniyiiai ianiiiy, ye i eiai caieueoaiiy (uiaei ii?ie aeniao
8 ea/aa) i?ecaiaeeei aei nooo(aiai iaaeiai?o.

Ia o?aoueiio ?ioei aeeooy ianiii(aa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ethoea?ie o
oe?iei?yaeiiio iiniai aoea ia 1,09-1,31 oe/aa aeuith, iiae o
nooeieueiiio. Na?aaeiy a?iaeaeiinoue ia o?aoueiio ?ioei aeeooy
cieaeoaaeanue ii?iaiyii c ae?oaei, iaeiae /ioei( oaiaeaioe(( i?e oeueiio
ia niinoa?(aaeinue.

I?eeiie ?aaoethaaiiy i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiuaiiy aonoioe ?ineei,

(o ?ieue a ciiii ei?iiai( i ianiii(ai( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi

Iaeaieueo aenieee o?iaeae caeaii( iane (141,9 oe/aa) i cai? nooi(
?a/iaeie (131,6 oe/aa), ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue (24,8 oe/aa) iaea?aeai ia
ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy ethoea?ie i?e ii?ii aeniao 14 ea/aa noiaeiai
ianiiiy. Ia ae?oaiio ?ioei (( aeeooy cai? c aaeoa?a caeaii( iane (233,0
oe), nooi( ?a/iaeie (51,9 oe), ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue (40,8 oe) i
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa(io (5,6 oe) caaacia/eee iiniae ii?iith aeniao 10
ea/aa noiaeiai ianiiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeia naiae/aoue, ui i?iaeoeoeaiinoue o?aainoith oei((
eoeueoo?e ia o?aoueiio ?ioei aeeooy cieaeoaaeanue o ii?iaiyiii ic
iiia?aaeiii ?ieii i?e ii?iao aeniao aiae 8 aei 14 ea/aa aiaeiiaiaeii ia
66,5-72,6 oe/aa.

A noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy iaea?aeaii 519,3 oe/aa caeaii( iane, 38,9
oe/aa nooi( ?a/iaeie, 30,5 oe/aa ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue i 4,21 oe/aa
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa(io. I?aeoe/ii oaeo ae a?iaeaeiinoue caaacia/eee
iiniae ethoea?ie c ii?iith aeniao 12 i 14 ea/aa.

Oe?iei?yaeii iiniae c iiae?yaeaeyie 45 i 60 ni i ii?iith aeniao 2 ea/aa
caaacia/eee noia?iee (ca o?e ?iee) cai? ianiiiy ia 40,2-52,5% aieueoee,
iiae nooeieueii iiniae.

Ia oe?iei?yaeiiio iiniai c ii?iith aeniao 2-4 ea/aa ianiiiy oi?ioaaeiny
c aieueo aenieeie iiniaieie yeinoyie, iiae ia nooeieueiiio. Oae, iana
1000 ianiiei ethoea?ie (2,13-2,16 a) o ani ?iee (( aeeooy aoea iaeaeuith
i?e oe?iei?yaeieo iiniaao c iiae?yaeaeyie 45 i 60 ni. Aia?aiy
i?i?inoaiiy i eaai?aoi?ia noiaeinoue ianiiiy c oeeo iiniaia oaeiae aoee
aeueie.

Eiiaiiiaaia aeei?enoaiiy oe?iei?yaeieo iiniaia ethoea?ie

ia ae?oaiio i o?aoueiio ?ieao aeeooy

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue naiae/aoue, ui ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy
oe?iei?yaeii iiniae ethoea?ie i?e iiaeaeuaieo oiiaao caieiaeaiiy
i?ioyaii aaaaoaoei( ia?a?inoathoue i aeeyaathoue, aianeiaeie oeueiai ia
caaacia/othoue aenieo a?iaeaeiinoue ianiiiy. sse i?aaeei, (o
aeiaiaeeoueny cae?aoe ia caeaiee ei?i c iecueeei ?iaiai i?iaeoeoeaiinoi.

A ca’yceo c oeei iaie a 1992-1995 ??. ia A?anoianueeie aeineiaeiie
noaioei( i?iaiaeeeenue iieueiai aeineiaee c eiiaiiiaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
o?aainoi(a: o ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy — ia ianiiiy, o ae?oaiio — ia ei?i i
ianiiiy. Ethoea?io aeniaaee ?aii iaaanii aac iie?eao, oe?iei?yaeiei
niiniaii c iiae?yaeaeyie 70 ni, ii?iith aeniao 2,0 ea/aa. Iiney cae?aiiy
a?iaeath ianiiiy a ?ie niaae ainaie a ethoea?io iiaeniaaee iceio
ioaieoeth (4,25 iei./aa), o?eoieaea (3,8 iei./aa). Iaaanii aeey oeeo
oeieae aeei?enoiaoaaee aaaaoieiiiiiaioii noiioee, yei neeaaeaeeny c
y/iaith (1,0 iei./aa), ai?ioo ca?iiaiai (0,7 iei./aa) i ?aaeueee ieieii(
(1,0 iei./aa). Iiaenia i?iaiaeeee niaaeeith NCN-2,1 aiiia?ae ethoea?ie.
I?e niaai ainaie cacia/aieo eoeueoo? iiae ethoea?iith o aa?oiueiio oa?i
a?oioo (0-10 ni) aiino i?iaeoeoeaii( aieiae a na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee
aeineiaeaeaiue noaiiaea 10,5 ii, ui caaacia/oaaei iaea?aeaiiy ae?oaeieo
noiaeia iceieo eoeueoo?, a aaniith i?e iiaeniai noiioee ?aiiio y?eo
eoeueoo? aieiae a oa?i a?oioo 0-10 ni aoei 15,6 ii, aai ia 44,4%
aieueoa, iiae ainaie.

Iiaiaeii oiiae, yei neeaaeaeenue ia i?ioyci ceiiaiai ia?iiaeo a ?iee
aeineiaeaeaiue, aoee iaiaeiaeiaeie. Oae, yeui a 1992 i 1993 ??.
caaeaaeue iceieo eoeueoo? oienoaaeany ia ?iaii 17,5-21,3%, a ?ineei
ethoea?ie 12,5-13,2%, oi a 1994 ?., eiee a ni/ii i ethoiio i?aeoe/ii ia
aoei niiaiaiai iie?eao, a oaiia?aoo?a iiaio?y a ethoiio ia iiaa?oii
a?oioo nioneaeany aei -26,3( (ia aeeaeii aocea eouiiiy — 16,2(),
caaeaaeue ?ineei iceii( ioaieoei nyaaea 35,3%, o?eoieaea — 23,4%.
?ineeie ethoea?ie a oeae ia?iiae, caaaeyee aeia?a ?icaeiaiie ei?aiaaie
nenoaii, ia?aceioaaee e?aua: (o caaeaaeue ia ia?aaeuoaaea 17,6%.

I?e noiiniiio c?inoaiii ethoea?ie c iceieie i y?eie eoeueoo?aie inoaiii
ia iioa?iaee aiae nooo(aiai a?aeo a?oioiai( aieiae i?ioyaii aaaaoaoei(.
Oae, o ia?iiae cae?aiiy noiioie ia caeaiee ei?i a oa?i a?oioo 0-10 ni ia
iiniaao ethoea?ie aac iiaeniao iaa?iiaaeaeoaaeinue aieiae aieueoa ia
11,1-16%, a a ia?iiae cae?aiiy ianiiiy c ae?oaiai oeino — ia 6,7-14,3% o
ii?iaiyiii c iiniaaie ethoea?ie, aea iiaeniaaee iceii i y?i eoeueoo?e.

O?iaeae caeaii( iane, cai? iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei c ieiui iiniao ethoea?ie i
(( noiioie c iceieie i y?eie eoeueoo?aie caeaaeaa, a iniiaiiio, aiae
aeaeiaiai neeaaeo noiioie i iiaiaeieo oiia o ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy aeineiaeia
(oaae.6).

Iaeaeuee o?iaeae caeaii( iane (295,5 oe/aa) a na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee
aeineiaeaeaiue oi?ioaaany ia aa?iaioao ethoea?ie c aaaaoieiiiiiaioiith
noiiooth. Cai? iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei i?e oeueiio a ii?iaiyiii c /enoei
iiniaii ethoea?ie aoa o 1,9-2,3 ?aca aeuei, a caaeainiaaiinoue ei?io ca
aieeii ciaoiaeeeanue ia ?iaii c ethoea?iith. Ia 63,4-76,8% aoee
i?iaeoeoeaiioeie ca a?iaea(i caeaii( iane, a oaeiae cai?ii ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue i ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa(io noiinii iiniae ethoea?ie c iceiith
ioaieoeath i o?eoieaea. Iaeiae ianiii(aa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ethoea?ie a
ii?iaiyiii c (( /enoei iiniaii aoea iaioith ia 6,9-13,4%. Aecia/aii, ui
ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie a noiioeao c iceieie eoeueoo?aie caaacia/oaaei
aaea a ia?oiio oeini aeiaeaoeiai a?iaeath caeaii( iane ia 76,4-92,6
oe/aa aieueoa o ii?iaiyiii c (( iaeiiaeaeiaei iiniaii, a i?e iiaeniai
ethoea?ie noiiooth y?eo eoeueoo? a?iaeae caeaii( iane aoa aeuei o 2,5
?aca.

Iaeaeuee cai? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue i nooi( ?a/iaeie caaacia/eee iiniae
ethoea?ie, a yei aoee iiaeniyii o?eoieaea i aaaaoieiiiiiaioia noiioea
y?eo ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?. Ooo aeiaeaoeiai io?eiaii aei 19,0-26,4 oe
ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue i 18,9-25,8 oe nooi( ?a/iaeie o ii?iaiyiii c /enoeie
iiniaaie.

Oaaeeoey 6

I?iaeoeoeaiicoue ethoea?ie c iiaeniaii iceieo i y?eo eoeueoo?

ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy (na?aaei( ca 1992-1995 ??.)

Cai?, oe/aa

Aa?iaio caeaii(

iane aanietho-ii nooi( ?a/iaei ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioaiio
ianiiiy

*enoee iinia ethoea?ie

120,5

28,0

20,8

2,86

2,96

Iiaenia iceii( ioaieoei

a o?aainoie ethoea?ie (ainaie)

196,9

44,5

34,5

4,48

2,71

Iiaenia iceiiai o?eoieaea a o?aainoie ethoea?ie (ainaie)

213,1

46,9

34,8

4,37

2,77

Iiaenia noiioee (y/iiiue+

ai?io +?aaeueea ieieia) a o?aainoie ethoea?ie (iaaanii)

295,5

53,8

47,2

6,19

2,61

A noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy ethoea?ie iiaenia iceieo ceaeiaeo i y?eo
eoeueoo? o o?aainoie ethoea?ie ia i?iyaeya iaaaoeaiee aieea ia ?iaaiue
a?iaeath ianiiiy aiaiai( eoeueoo?e (oaae. 7).

Oaaeeoey 7

Ianii(aa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ethoea?ie a noii ca o?e ?iee

i?e iiaeniai (( iceieie ceaeaie i y?eie eoeueoo?aie

?iee aeeooy A noii ca

Aa?iaio ia?oee

(1992-1995) ae?oaee

(1992-1995) o?aoie

(1993-1996) o?e ?iee

*enoee iinia ethoea?ie

2,87

2,96

1,43

7,26

Iiaenia iceii( ioaieoei a o?aainoie (ainaie)

2,87

2,71

1,42

7,00

Iiaenia iceiiai o?eoieaea a o?aainoie (ainaie)

2,87

2,77

1,40

7,04

Iiaenia noiioee (y/iiiue+ai?io +?aaeueea ieieia) a o?aainoie (iaaanii)

2,87

2,61

1,30

O?iaeae ianiiiy ethoea?ie ia anio aeineiaeaeoaaieo aa?iaioao aoa
i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaei i eieeaaany aiae 6,78 aei 7,26 oe/aa. ?acii c oeei
ia aeieyieao, aea ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy ethoea?ia c?inoaea noiinii c
iioeie eoeueoo?aie, a?iaeae (( ianiiiy a noii ca o?e ?iee ciiithaaany
iacia/ii, ia 3,7-7,1%. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui o ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy
aiae ethoea?ie a noiiooei c iceiith ioaieoeath aeiaeaoeiai iaea?aeaii
75,4 oe/aa caeaii( iane, c o?eoieaea — 92,6 oe/aa, a i?e iiaeniai ((
aaaaoieiiiiiaioiith noiioeith ?aiiio y?eo eoeueoo? — ia 175,0 oe/aa
aieueoa o ii?iaiyiii c /enoei iiniaii, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
eiiaiiiaaia aeei?enoaiiy (( o?aainoi(a (ia ei?i i ianiiiy) ( oeieeiaeoi
aeioeieueiei i aeiiiii/ii aeaiaeiei aa?icaoiaeii.

AAeAIOAOeIEII I EIIIAINAOeIEII IIAEEEAINOI ETHOeA?IE A IIE?EAIIIO I
AACIIE?EAIIIO IINIAAO

A inoaiii ?iee a noaiiaiio ?aaiiii cia/ii iioe?eeeny iiniae
iao?aaeeoeieieo ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? c ?aiiio y?eo o?anoioeaioeo
(eaionoyieo). Aei ieo ianaiia?aae iaeaaeaoue — ?aaeueea ieieia, ?ain
y?ee, ai?/eoey aiea oa ii. Aiie iathoue ii?iaiyii ei?ioeee aaaaoaoeieiee
ia?iiae, ?aii caieueiythoue iiea, ui i coiiaeth( iiaeeeainoue (o aooe
aeia?eie iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie aeey ethoea?ie.

Neiae ie?aii iaaieineoe: aei inoaiiueiai /ano (o aeioeieueiinoue o
aeei?enoaiii aeey cacia/aii( iaoe i?aeoe/ii ia aeineiaeaeoaaeany.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aei?iaoaaiue (1986-1991 ??.) naiae/aoue i?i aenieo
aoaeoeaiinoue canoinoaaiiy ?aaeueee ieieii( o ii?iaiyiii c iioeie
iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieie aeey ethoea?ie o no/aniee
ia?iiae a noaiiaiio ?aaiiii Oe?a(ie.

?ieue aiieiai/ieo iciae, aeanoeainoae i iniaeeainoae

?ineei iie?eaieo eoeueoo? a i?ioeani aaeaioaoei( (o

aei ciii oaeoi?ia ciaiioiueiai na?aaeiaeua

Aiiiao?e/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o ia?oi 15 aeiia iiney iiaieo
noiaeia ?ineeie onio iie?eaieo eoeueoo? nooo(ai ia aieeaaee ia ciiie
i?e?inoo ethoea?ie o aenioo (oaae. 8).

Aeyaeaii, ui iie?eaia eoeueoo?a iiiioii aieeaaea ia oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoaoeaii( iane ethoea?ie. Iaeaieueoei oeae iieaciee aoa iiae iie?eaii
?aaeueee ieieii(, a iaeiaioei — iiae iie?eaii y/iaith ia ca?ii i coiioee
aiani-ai?ioo ia caeaiee ei?i. Ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy ?ineeie ethoea?ie
aiae?inoaee iioaineaiioa i e?aua oi?ioaaee caeaio iano oai, aea
ae?iuoaaeenue iiae iie?eaii oe?iei?yaeieo iiniaia ?aaeueee ieieii( oa
eoeo?oaece. Ca iacaaieie iieacieeaie ?ineeie ethoea?ie i?aeoe/ii ia
aiae?iciyeeny aiae ?ineei aaciie?eaiiai iiniao.

Ca?aaeiueiaeiaiaee (o i?e?ino aoa oaeiae cia/ii (ia 0,05-0,21 a/aeiao)
aieueoei o ?ineei ethoea?ie, yei aeeoee c iiae iie?eao eoeueoo?, ui
?aiioa aeaieueiyee ieiuo iiniao, o ii?iaiyiii ic iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie
nooeieueiiai niiniao niaae. Aiaeiai/ia oaiaeaioeiy caa?iaaeanue i i?e
ae?oaiio oeini aiaiai( eoeueoo?e.

Ia o?aoueiio ?ioei aeeooy ?ineeie ethoea?ie i?e anio aeineiaeaeoaaieo
niiniaao ae?iuoaaiiy ia iaee nooo(aeo ia?aaaa a i?e?inoi aaaaoaoeaii(
iane.

Oaaeeoey 8

Aeeiaiiea i?e?inoo ?ineei ethoea?ie i?e iie?eaiiio

i aaciie?eaiiio niiniaao ae?iuoaaiiy (1986-1988 ??.)

Niinia Aenioa ethoea?ie (ni), O ia?iiae Eieue- Na?aae-

ae?iuoaaiiy aeiia iiney iiaieo noiaeia cae?aiiy, einoue aeiia iueiaei-

ethoea?ie

15

30

45 aeiia aiae noi-

aeia aei

cae?aiiy aiaee

i?e?ico,

ni

Aaciie?eaiee 4,1 28,5 40,3 64,5 70 0,92

Iiae iie?ea:

eoeo?oaece 4,4 26,5 43,5 58,3 95 0,61

y/iaith 3,7 15,3 26,3 32,1 102 0,31

aiani-ai?ioo 4,0 14,8 27,3 31,2 68 0,45

?aaeueee ieieii( (15 ni) 4,1 22,3 31,5 31,5 42 0,75

?aaeueee ieieii( (70 ni) 4,3 26,8 44,8 44,8 45 1,00

Aiieiaiy ?aaeueee ieieii( ia aiaeiiio aiae eoeo?oaece, i?ina oa iioeo
iie?eaieo eoeueoo? iiciueiai no?ieo niaae, aeicaiey( aeniaaoe ethoea?io
aaea ia ii/aoeo ia?oeo aeiia aaniyii-iieueiaeo ?iaio (o ia?oie aeaeaaei
eaioiy, ?acii c ?aiiiie ca?iiaeie).

Aecia/aii, ui a na?aaeiueiio ca oinoue ?ieia aeineiaeaeaiue aiino
i?iaeoeoeaii( aieiae a oa?i a?oioo 0-10 ni i?e ?aiiueiaaniyiie niaai
ethoea?ie aoa ia 34,7% aieueoei o ii?iaiyiii c niaaith iiae iie?ea
eoeo?oaece i ia 68% — c i?inii. Aieiaicaaacia/aiinoue oa inaioeaiinoue
?ineei ethoea?ie a cia/iie ii?i aecia/aeeny aeaeii iie?eaii( eoeueoo?e.
Iiaeiie?eaii iiniae ethoea?ie c ?aaeueeith ieieiith, yea aoea aeniyia c
iiae?yaeaeyie 70 ni, coiiaethaaee aieueo ni?yoeeaee aiaeiee, iiaeeaiee i
inaioethaaiee ?aaeeie i, a oeieiio, caaacia/oaaee io?eiaiiy iaeaieueo
?aiiueiai caeaiiai ei?io. Aeyaeaii, ui iacaaii iiniae ia 23-25 aeiia
?aiioa caieueiyee ethoea?io c-iiae iie?eao, iiae aianyii-ai?ioiai
noiioee, iaeaea ia 50 aeiia nei?ioa, iiae eoeo?oaeca ia caeaiee ei?i, i
i?aeoe/ii ia aeaa iinyoei oaeaeoa o ii?iaiyiii ic y?ei y/iaiai ia ca?ii.

A na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue ?aaeueea ieieia neiooaaeanue ia
caeaiee ei?i i caieueiyea ethoea?io c-iiae iie?eao 21-25 o?aaiy,
aianyii-ai?ioiaa noiioea — 13-19 /a?aiy, a eoeo?oaeca ia caeaiee ei?i —
10-13 eeiiy.

Eiiiainaoi?ii iaoaiicie i aeaeeaaiinoue

?ineei ethoea?ie ?icieo ?ieia aeeooy

Iie?eaii eoeueoo?e ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao i?aaiiaaiaco ia i?iyaeyee
nooo(aiai aieeao ia aonoioo o?aainoith ethoea?ie. Iiaiioa noiaeia ((
oeieeiaeoi caeaaeaea aiae aiinoo i?iaeoeoeaii( aieiae a iiniaiiio (0-10
ni) oa?i a?oioo, oiio i aonoioa ?ineei ii ?ieao aeineiaeaeaiue
aa?ithaaea aiae 149 aei 205 oo./i2, a a na?aaeiueiio aaaaoi?i/ii
?acoeueoaoe noaiiaeee 163,7-176,8 oo./i2, caeaaeii aiae aeaeo iie?eaii(
eoeueoo?e.

I?e iiyai eiieo?aioieo oiia iiae ?ineeiaie iie?eaii( eoeueoo?e i
ethoea?ie ca naioei, aieiao i aeaiaioe aeeaeaiiy aeiey ?ineei ethoea?ie
iiaiinoth caeaaeaea aiae o?eaaeinoi aaaaoaoei( iie?eaii( eoeueoo?e, ((
aeaeo oa niiniao niaae. Aeyaeaii, ui oaei oaeoi?e, ye aaaioon ?ineei
ethoea?ie i na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e?ino aaaaoaoeaii( iane ciaoiaeeeeny a
oiniie caeaaeiinoi aiae o?eaaeinoi aaaaoaoei( iie?eaii( eoeueoo?e. Oae,
yeui ne?a iana 10 ?ineei ethoea?ie i?e aaciie?eaiiio niiniai (( niaae a
na?aaeiueiio ca 70 aeiia aaaaoaoei( noaiiaeea aiaeiiaiaeii ii ?ieao
aeineiaeaeaiue aiae 32,7 aei 41,3 a, oi o ethoea?ie, yea ae?iuoaaeanue
iiae iie?eaii y/iaith ia ca?ii i eiai aaaaoaoei( 102 aeii, oeae iieaciee
aoa ia 52-58% iaioei, iiney aiani-ai?ioo (ca 68 aeiia (o noiinii(
aaaaoaoe(() — ia 50-61% i i?e iiniai eoeo?oaece i ?aaeueee ieieii( ic
oe?eiith iiae?yaeue 70 ni — aiaeiiaiaeii ia 6-9% i 9-11% iaioeie o
ii?iaiyiii c ?ineeiaie ethoea?ie o aaciie?eaieo iiniaao.

Aecia/aii, ui a na?aaeiueiio ca oinoue ?ieia aeineiaeaeaiue aeiaiaee
i?e?ino iane ?ineei ethoea?ie iiae iie?eaii ?aaeueee ieieii( noaiiaea
0,41 a; iiae iie?eaii eoeo?oaece — 0,36 a; iiae iie?eaii y/iaith ia
ca?ii i aianyii-ai?ioiai( noiioee ia caeaiee ei?i aiaeiiaiaeii — 0,16 i
0,24 a, aai a 1,8-2,2 ?aca iaioei, iiae iiae ?aaeueeith ieieiith.

C’yniaaii, ui o?eaaeinoue iiaeiie?eaiiai ia?iiaeo coiiaethaaea nooiiiue
aeaeeaaiinoi ?ineei ethoea?ie. Iai?eeeaae, yeui a 1986 ?. ca ia?iiae
“noiaee-cae?aiiy ia ei?i” iiae iie?eaii y/iaith ia ca?ii i
aianyii-ai?ioiai( noiioee ia ei?i caaeioei 30-36% ?ineei ethoea?ie, oi
ia aeieyieao, aea iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie aoee eoeo?oaeca i ?aaeueea
ieieia, — oieueee 14-23%, eoeo?oaeca — 13,7%, a i?e aaciie?eaiiio
niiniai (( ae?iuoaaiiy oeae iieaciee noaiiaea eeoa 9%. Aiaeiai/ia
caeiiiii?iinoue aeaeeaaiinoi ?ineei ethoea?ie niinoa?iaaeanue i a
iiaeaeueoi ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue.

Aiaeic aaaaoi?i/iiai (1986-1990) aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?iaeo
naiae/eoue, ui ca ia?iiae aiae iiaieo noiaeia aei ainiiaea?nueeiai
aeei?enoaiiy ethoea?ie, i?e ia?aaoaaiii (( iiniao iiae y?ei y/iaiai ia
ca?ii i noiioeith aiani-ai?ioo ia ei?i ic o?aainoith ethoea?ie aeiaaeaei
88% ?ineei; iiney eoeo?oaece ia ei?i i ?aaeueee ieieii( ic iiae?yaeaeyie
70 ni aiaeiiaiaeii — 63 i 65%, a i?e aaciie?eaiiio ae?iuoaaiii ethoea?ie
— 62%.

Ca’ycie ei?iiai( i ianeii(ai( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi

ethoea?ie c aeaeii i aiieiai/iith niaoeeoieith iie?eaieo eoeueoo?

Aaaaoi?i/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aieea aeeoo(ai aaaeeeaeo
oaeoi?ia iiaeeaiiai naioeiaiai ?aaeeiia aiinoo aieiae a a?oioi,
caao?’yiaiinoi iiniao ethoea?ie oa aonoioe (( ?ineei, yei aoee coiiaeaii
aeaeaie iie?eaieo eoeueoo?, i?iyaeyany i ia ?iaii (( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ye
o ?ie niaae, oae i a ianooiii ?iee aeeooy (oaae. 9).

Oaaeeoey 9

Ei?iiaa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue iie?eaieo i aaciie?eaieo

iiniaia ethoea?ie a ?icii ?iee (( aeeooy

Niinia Cai?, oe/aa

ae?iuoaaiiy

ethoea?ie caeaii(

iane nooi( ?a/iaeie ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia?ao?aai-iai i?ioa(io

Ia?oee ?ie aeeooy (1986-1988)

Aaciie?eaiee 160,4 35,8 28,1 3,85

Iiae iie?eaii:

eoeo?oaece 257,5 50,8 44,1 4,13

y/iaith 31,4*/30,4 33,5 41,4 3,76

noiioee aiani-ai?ioo 250,6 53,9 43,3 3,68

?aaeueee ieieii( (70 ni) 264,0 48,1 37,7 3,78

Ae?oaee ?ie aeeooy (1987-1989)

Aaciie?eaiee 262,0 58,9 45,9 6,29

Iiae iie?eaii:

eoeo?oaece 253,7 57,0 44,4 6,09

y/iaith 146,1 32,8 25,6 3,51

noiioee aiani-ai?ioo 164,7 37,0 28,8 3,95

?aaeueee ieieii( (70 ni) 258,6 57,8 45,2 6,21

O?aoie ?ie aeeooy (1988-1990)

Aaciie?eaiee 165,5 35,9 29,0 3,97

Iiae iie?eaii:

eoeo?oaece 152,8 33,2 26,7 3,67

y/iaith 88,7 19,3 15,5 2,13

noiioee aiani-ai?ioo 99,5 21,6 22,9 2,38

?aaeueee ieieii( (70 ni) 158,9 34,5 27,8 3,81

A noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy

Aaciie?eaiee 587,9 130,6 95,6 14,11

Iiae iie?eaii:

eoeo?oaece 664,0 141,0 123,8 13,89

y/iaith 31,4*/265,2 85,6 82,5 9,40

noiioee aiani-ai?ioo 514,8 112,5 95,0 10,02

?aaeueee ieieii( (70 ni) 681,5 140,4 110,7 13,80

* — ca?ii y/iaith

Iaeieae/ee o?iaeae caeaii( iane ethoea?ie a ia?oee ?ie aeeooy aoa
noi?iiaaiee iiney iie?eaieo eoeueoo? nooeieueiiai niiniao niaae —
y/iaith ia ca?ii i aianyii-ai?ioiai( noiioee ia caeaiee ei?i, —
aiaeiiaiaeii 31,4 i 39,4 oe/aa. Ia aeieyieao, aea iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie
aeey ethoea?ie aoee eoeo?oaeca i ?aaeueea ieieia, iiniyii c
iiae?yaeaeyie 70 ni, o?iaeae caeaii( iane ethoea?ie aoa o 3,1-3,5 ?aca
aeuei i noaiiaea 96,6-136,6 oe/aa.

A na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue iaeaieueo aenieee cai? nooi(
?a/iaeie aoa io?eiaiee i?e iie?eaiiio (noiiniiio) ae?iuoaaiii eoeo?oaece
c ethoea?iith — 50,8 oe/aa, ic aianyii-ai?ioiaith noiioeith — 53,9 oe/aa
i ?aaeueeith ieieiith — 48,1 oe/aa. Aeoiae ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue aoa
i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaei, aea iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie aoee: ?aaeueea ieieia —
37,7 oe/aa, eoeo?oaeca i aianyii-ai?ioiaa noiioea — 44,1-43,3 oe/aa, a
cai? i?ioa(io i?e oeueiio aoa iaeaieueoei i?e noiiniiio ae?iuoaaiii
ethoea?ie ic ?aaeueeith ieieiith — 3,78 oe/aa. A oie aea /an, i?e
ae?iuoaaiii ethoea?ie iiae iie?eaii eoeo?oaece ia caeaiee ei?i cai?
i?ioa(io noaiiaea 4,13 oe/aa, a i?e aaciie?eaiiio niiniai — 3,85 oe/aa.

Aieea aeaeo iie?eaii( eoeueoo?e, a oaeiae no?ieo (( cae?aiiy i?iyaeyany
ia ?iaii i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?ineei ethoea?ie i ia ae?oaee ?ie (( aeeooy.
sse ie?aii ii ?ieao aeineiaeaeaiue, oae i a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee
aieueo aeniea ei?iiaa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ethoea?ie aoea noi?iiaaia i?e ((
ae?iuoaaiii iiae iie?eaii ?aaeueee ieieii( i niaai c iiae?yaeaeyie 70
ni. Ia oeueiio aa?iaioi aeineiaeo iaea?aeaii ii 258,6 oe/aa caeaii(
iane, 57,8 oe aaniethoii nooi( ?a/iaeie; 45,2 oe ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue i
6,21 oe ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa(io.

Ia o?aoueiio ?ioei aeeooy iineyaeiy iie?eaieo eoeueoo? ia ?ineeie
ethoea?ie iiiioii ciaiooaaeany, iaeiae caeeoaeanue ua aeinoaoiuei
aenieith. Oae, a na?aaeiueiio ca 1988-1990 ??. ia o?aoueiio ?ioei aeeooy
?ineeie ethoea?ie, yei ae?iuoaaeeny iiae iie?eaii ?aaeueee ieieii( c
iiae?yaeaeyi 70 ni, noi?ioaaee aenieee a?iaeae caeaii( iane — 158,9
oe/aa a ii?iaiyiii ic aeieyieaie, aea iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie aoee:
y/iaiue ia ca?ii (88,5 oe/aa) i noiioea aiana c ai?ioii ia caeaiee ei?i
(99,5 oe/aa).

Cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ethoea?ie ia o?aoueiio ?ioei aeeooy caeaaeii
aiae oiia (( ae?iuoaaiiy a ?ie niaae aoei nooo(aei ia aeieyieao, aea
iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie aoee y/iiiue ia ca?ii (ia 44,3%), aiani-ai?io ia
ei?i (ia 37,4%) o ii?iaiyiii c ?aaeueeith ieieiith i ia 42 i 34,9% a
ii?iaiyiii c eoeo?oaecith ia caeaiee ei?i. Aiaeiai/ia caeaaeiinoue
aiaeii/aia i a cai?i aaniethoii nooi( ?a/iaeie, ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue i
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa(io.

A noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy iiae iie?eaii ?aaeueee ieieii( (70 ni
iiae?yaeaey) ?ineeie ethoea?ie noi?ioaaee o?iaeae aiiiane 681,5 oe/aa,
iiae iie?eaii eoeo?oaece — 664,0 oe/aa, a i?e aaciie?eaiiio niiniai
ae?iuoaaiiy oieueee — 587,9 oe/aa, aai ieae/ee ia 15,9-12,9%.

Cai? aiiiane ethoea?ie ca o?e ?iee iiae iie?eaii y/iaiy ia ca?ii i
aiani-ai?ioii ia ei?i aoa ieae/ei a 2,6-1,3 ?aca o ii?iaiyiii c
?aaeueeith ieieiith i a 1,2 ?aca — ic aaciie?eaiei (( ae?iuoaaiiyi.

Aaaaoi?i/ii aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii ia?aeiieeai naiae/aoue, ui a oni
?iee aeineiaeaeaiue i?e niaai ethoea?ie ?aii iaaanii aac iie?eao i iiae
iie?ea ?aaeueee ieieii( ianiii(aa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue (( aoea ia ?iaii
1,62-1,93 oe/aa (oaae. 10).

Oaaeeoey 10

Ianiiiaaa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ?ineei ethoea?ie ?icieo ?ieia aeeooy (oe/aa)

? i e e ae e o o y

Niinia

ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia?oee

(1986-

1988 ??.) ae?oaee

(1987-

1989 ??.) o?aoie

(1988-

1990 ??.) Noia ca o?e ?iee

Aaciie?eaiee 1,92 2,21 2,06 6,19

Iiae iie?eaii:

eoeo?oaece — 2,09 1,85 3,94

y/iaith — 1,48 1,17 2,65

aiani-ai?ioo — 1,65 1,22 2,87

?aaeueee ieieii( (15 ni) 1,62 1,72 1,36 4,70

?aaeueee ieieii( (70 ni) 1,93 2,02 1,90 5,85

Iaiaoiaeii iiaee?aneeoe, ui iinia ethoea?ie iiae iioeie iie?eaieie
eoeueoo?aie (y/iaiai, aiani-ai?ioiaith noiioeith, eoeo?oaecith) ia
caaacia/oaaa iaea?aeaiiy ianiiiy a ?ie niaae. Iacaaii eoeueoo?e aeoaea
iicii caieueiyee ethoea?io c-iiae iie?eao (c o?aouei( aeaeaaee /a?aiy
aei eiioey eeiiy). Aecia/aii, ui ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy ca ?aooiie
aieueo ni?eyoeeaeo oiia i?e aeei?enoaiii iie?eaieo eoeueoo?, yei iathoue
ei?ioeee ia?iiae aaaaoaoei( a ?ie niaae ethoea?ie, aeua ianiii(aa
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue oi?ioaaeanue ia aeieyieao, aea iie?eaiith eoeueoo?ith
aoea ?aaeueea ieieia. Ooo oeae iieaciee ia?aaeuoaaa ia 18,3-26,7%
na?aaeiie a?iaeae ianiiiy ca ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue ia aa?iaioao aeineiaeo,
aea iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie aoee noiioee aiana c ai?ioii ia ei?i i y?ee
y/iiiue ia ca?ii. I?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaei (2,09 oe/aa) aoa a?iaeae ianiiiy
ethoea?ie iiae iie?eaii eoeo?oaece i ia 9,4% a?iaeaeiinoue ianiiiy aoea
aeuith i?e aaciie?eaiiio niiniai niaae ethoea?ie.

Iiaeiaia caeiiiii?iinoue o oi?ioaaiii ianiii(ai( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi
ethoea?ie aiaeiiaiaeii aei iacaaieo iie?eaieo eoeueoo? caa?iaaeany i ia
o?aoueiio ?ioei aeeooy o?aainoith ethoea?ie.

Cai? ianiiiy ethoea?ie a noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy ia aeieyieao, aea
iie?eaiith eoeueoo?ith aoea ?aaeueea ieieia c iiae?yaeaeyie (70 ni),
oaeiae ia?aaeuoaaa ia 1,94-3,20 oe/aa, aai ia 32,7-54,7% a?iaeae c
iiniaia, aea ethoea?ia ciaoiaeeeanue iiae iie?eaii y/iaith,
aiani-ai?ioiai( noiioee i eoeo?oaece ia caeaiee ei?i.

INIAEEAINOI ?INOO I ?ICAEOEO ?INEEI ETHOeA?IE

IIAe AIEEAII ?INO?AAOETHTH*EO ?A*IAEI

Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui iie?onoaoeiy ianiiiy i
iai?eneoaaiiy ?ineei ethoea?ie iie?ioioi?aaoeyoi?aie caaacia/oaaee
iaea?aeaiiy iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoaoia — iiaeaeuoaaeanue eaai?aoi?ia i
iieueiaa noiaeinoue ianiiiy, iiaeneethaaany ?ino i ?icaeoie ei?aiaai(
nenoaie, iaaecaiii( iane, a cia/iie ii?i ciioeithaaeanue noieeinoue aei
no?aniaeo neooaoeie, iaaeii?iiai caieiaeaiiy, aa?ithaaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai
?aaeeio iiaio?y, nei?i/oaaany aaaaoaoeieiee ia?iiae, ui a oeieiio
ni?eyei caieueoaiith i noaaieicaoei( ?iaiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoi oei((
eoeueoo?e.

Aieea iie?onoaoei( ianiiiy ?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoo ia

iiniaii yeinoi, oaiie ?inoo i ?icaeoeo ?ineei ethoea?ie

Ca ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue iieueiaa noiaeinoue ianiiiy ethoea?ie, yea aoei
ia?iaeaia ?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoo, iiaeaeuoaaeany ia 8-12%, a iiaii noiaee
c’yaeyeenue o ii?iaiyiii c eiio?ieai ia 2-3 aeii ?aiioa, i?e oeueiio
caieueooaaee eieueeinoue ei?iiiy i iaaiiia eouiiiy, a oaeiae iaaecaiia
caaaeueia iana ?ineei.

Aiiiao?e/ii caii?e i iiae?aooiee, i?iaaaeaii o oaci aooiiicaoei(-ii/aoeo
oeaioiiiy, naiae/aoue, ui iaiianooee ia?iaioie ianiiiy ia?aae niaaith
?aaoeyoi?ii ?inoo iiiioii aieeaaa ia ciiio aaaioono ?ineei.

Iaeaieueo cia/ii ciiie iieacieeia aenioe ?ineei, ieiui eenoiai( iiaa?oii
i /enoi( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi oioineioaco aiaeii/athoueny o aa?iaioi c
aeei?enoaiiyi IEAE (nieeth-N-ieni 2,6 eooiaeeio i aaeiaeiiai( eeneioe) o
aeici 10 ia/e. Aiaecia/aii aiaeiiiiinoi caa?aaeenue ia i?ioyci anueiai
ia?iiaeo aaaaoaoei( i cooo(ai aieeaaee ia oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoi
ethoea?ie.

Noia?ia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue eoeueoo?e (a noii ca 1989-1991 ??.) iieaco(, ui
iaeaeui iieacieee cai?o ianiiiy, caeaii( iane, aeoiaeo ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue i ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa(io iaea?aeaii i?e aeei?enoaiii i?aia?aoo
IEAE aeey ia?aaeiiniaii( iie?onoaoei( ianiiiy a eiioeaio?aoei( 100 ia/e.
A oie aea /an, a?aoiaoth/e iacia/io ?icieoeth a o?iaea( ii?iaiyii c
aa?iaioii, aea aeacaiee ?aaoeyoi? ?inoo aei?iaiaoaaany o aeici 10 ia/e,
inoaiiy, i/aaeaeii, i ( iioeiaeueiith oa iaeaieueo aeiiiii/ii
aeioeieueiith aeicith aeey iaiianooi( ia?aaeiiniaii( ia?iaee ianiiiy
ethoea?ie.

No?aniai neooaoei( iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua i ciiie ?aaeoei(

?ineei ethoea?ie i?e iai?eneoaaiii (o ?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoo

Iicaei?aiaaa iai?eneoaaiiy ethoea?ie /a?ac 45 aeiia iiney iiyae iiaieo
noiaeia ?ino?aaoethth/eie i?aia?aoaie aeicaieeei aeyaeoe oeieaai
iniaeeainoi cia/iiai caieueoaiiy eiiieiiai oa aaaiaiai i?e?inoo ?ineei a
caeaaeiinoi aiae nooiaiy aieeao i aeice aei?iaoaaiiy ?aaoeyoi?ia ?inoo.

Iioaineaiioi oaiie eiiieiiai oa aaaiaiai i?e?inoo ?ineei ethoea?ie
caa?iaaeenue i?ioyaii 30 aeiia aiae ii/aoeo canoinoaaiiy niei — 3
iaoieaiiiinoeueoieaio i yioa?ii( eeneioe (IANOssO) aeicith 40 a/aa.

Oae, /a?ac 15 i 30 aeiia iiney ia?iaee aenioa ?ineei aoea ia 7,7-10,0 ni
aieueoith o ii?iaiyiii c eiio?ieai, aea ia?iaea ia i?iaiaeeeanue, ia
4,6-7,6 ni o ii?iaiyiii c aiaaa?aeeaoii eaeueoeith (I aoaeiiii) i
4,0-5,0 ni c aoaeiiii II — 2-oei?aoieo?eiaoieoei?eaeii. Aiaeiai/ia
ea?oeia niinoa?iaaeany i a aei( ?aaoeyoi?ia ?inoo ia ciiio iane ?ineei
i?ioyaii aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo aaaaoaoei(.

Iaeaieueo /ioei niinoa?iaa(oueny iiceoeaiee ca’ycie iiae
aeineiaeaeoaaieie iieacieeaie i aenieei nooiaiai aieeao ?aaoeyoi?ia
?inoo a ia?iiae aooiiicaoei(-oeaioiiiy, yeee ai?ieneio(oueny ianooiiei
?iaiyiiyi iiiaeeiii( ?aa?an(( i aenieeie eiaoioei(ioaie ei?aeyoei(:

o=2,348o1+0,236o2+6,843o3-39,470.

Aeoiaey/e c i?eaaaeaiiai ?iaiyiiy, iiaeia ioeiieoe nooiiiue aieeao
?aaoeyoi?ia ?inoo a ia?iiae aooiiicaoei(-oeaioiiiy ia iioaineaiinoue
iaoaaiei/ieo i?ioeania o ?ineeiao ethoea?ie, oiaoi ia aa?ithaaiiy
iieacieeia eiiieiiai i?e?inoo, ciiie ieiui eenoiai( iiaa?oii, /enoi(
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi oioineioaco i, a eiioeaaiio iiaenoieo, ia aaee/eio
oi?ioaaiiy a?iaeath. Ia aenieo iiceoeaio niieo/aiinoue iiae
aeineiaeaeoaaieie ia?aiao?aie aeacothoue i eiaoioei(ioe ei?aeyoe((
r=0,736-0,819.

Ioaea, aeey oi?ioaaiiy aeniei( ei?iiai( oa ian(ii(ai( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi
aaaeeeai aeey ?ineei ethoea?ie iaoe aeia?a ?icaeiooo aaaaoaoeaio iano,
ii/eiath/e c ?aiiio aoaiia (o ?inoo i ?icaeoeo, ui iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi
ia?iaeith ?ineei ethoea?ie i?aia?aoii IANOssO aeicith 40 a/aa /a?ac 45
aeiia iiney iiaieo noiaeia eoeueoo?e.

Cia/ia c?inoaiiy ianiii(ai( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?ineei ia ia?oiio ?ioei
aeeooy niinoa?iaaeinue ia aeieyieao i?e aeei?enoaiii i?aia?aoo IANOssO
nieeth -3-iaoieaiiiinoeueoieaio i yioa?ii( eeneioe aeicith 40 a/aa. Ooo
oi?ioaaany iaeaieueo aenieee a aeineiaei a?iaeae ianiiiy (2,76 oe/aa),
yeee ia?aaeuoaaa eiio?ieueii aa?iaioe ia 0,23-0,29 oe/aa. C?inoaiiy
?iaiy a?iaeath ianiiiy iiae aieeaii oeueiai ?aaoeyoi?a ?inoo (
?acoeueoaoii ooai?aiiy ia ?ineeiao aieueoi( eieueeinoi i?iaeoeoeaieo
noaaae, eenoeia, aiaia i ianiiiy.

AA?IAIIEIAI*II ANIAEOE AEEI?ENOAIIss

AA?AIOeEAeIA, AeIA?EA I IIE?IAEAIAIOIA

O AACIIE?EAIEO IINIAAO ETHOeA?IE

Ciiia eieueeinoi ao?’yiia i ?aaeoeiy ethoea?ie ia i?ioeane
oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoaoeaieo i?aaiia i?e aianaiii aa?aioeeaeia

Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui aeiiiniaia aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aeey
ethoea?ie a?oioiaeo aa?aioeeaeia — o?aoeaio i a?aaeeeaio aeicaiey(
oo?eioaaoe (( iiniae a ia?oee ?ie aeeooy, ye i?aaeei, a aeinoaoiuei
/enoiio aiae ao?’yiia noaii. Eieueeinoue caaeaeeo ao?’yiia o
na?aaeiueiio ca i’youe ?ieia (1981-1985) a ia?iiae iiaieo noiaeia ia
aeieyieao i?e aianaiii a?aaeeeaio aeicith 6,0-7,0 e/aa aeinyaaei
85,5-91,0%, o?aoeaio aeicith 5,0-6,0 e/aa — 91,8-96,5%, a
?aeiiaiaeiaaiiai aeey oei(( eoeueoo?e aa?aioeeaeo — aioaio — oieueee
64,8%. Caaeaaeue i i?eaii/aiiy ?inoo ao?’yiia aiae oiene/ii( ae((
aa?a(oeeae(a aoea aeineoue aenieith ( caa?(aaeanue aae aei noeaeinoi
ianiiiy. (o iana ia aeieyieao, aea aiineee a?aaeeeai i o?aoeai, aoea a
1,2-2,8 ?aca iaioith, iiae i?e aeei?enoaiii aa?aioeeaeo aioai o oaco
aooiiicaoeiy-ii/aoie oeaioiiiy. A i?ioeaioiiio aiaeiioaiii eieueeinoue
ao?’yiia cieaeoaaeanue aiae 86,6 aei 94,6%.

Aeei?enoaiiy a?aaeeeaio i o?aoeaio aeicaie 7,0 oa 6,0 e/aa a ?ie niaae
aeicaieeei cieceoe eieueeinoue ao?’yiia ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy a
12,4-17,2 ?aca ii?iaiyii c aeieyieaie aac aianaiiy aa?aioeeaeia i o
3,5-4,8 ?aca o ii?iaiyiii c aeiiiniaiei aianaiiyi aioaio aeicith 5,3
e/aa.

Cieaeaiiy aonoioe ?ineei ethoea?ie a ia?iiae iiaieo noiaeia ia
ia?aaeuoaaei 5,0% i?e aianaiii a?aaeeeaio aeicith 7,0 e/aa i 8,4% i?e
aeei?enoaiii o?aoeaio aeicith 6,0 e/aa.

Cia/ii aieueoei aoei aeiaaeiiiy ?ineei ethoea?ie c o?aainoith ia
eiio?iei, oai, aea aa?aioeeaee ia aiineee, oiaoi ao?’yie /eieee aieueoo
i?eaii/oth/o aeith ia ethoea?io, iiae aeei?enoaii aa?aioeeaee, i aei
eiioey ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy ia oaeeo aeieyieao ?ineei ethoea?ie aoei
iaioa ia 9,8-11,2%.

Aeiaaeiiiy ?ineei ethoea?ie ia ae?oaiio i o?aoueiio ?ieao aeeooy oaeiae
ia caeaaeaei aiae canoinoaaiiy a ?ie niaae aa?aioeeaeia, ia aonoioo
?ineei aieueoa aieeaaee iioi oaeoi?e, i ia?aaeonii, iaoai?ieiai/ii oiiae
oa caao?’yiaiinoue o?aainoith. A na?aaeiueiio ca oinoue ?ieia
(1981-1986), ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy aiii noaiiaeei 56%, ia o?aoueiio —
84,6, a oai, aea aiineee a?aaeeeai (7,0 e/aa) i o?aoeai (6,0 e/aa),-
23,6-28,5 oa 53,6-54,0%.

Oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoaoeaii( iane ?ineeiaie ethoea?ie ?icieo ?ieia aeeooy
iioaineaiioa ia aeieyieao ic canoinoaaiiyi oiii/ieo caniaia ai?ioueae c
ao?’yiaie a ?ie niaae (oaae. 11).

Oaaeeoey 11

Aeeiaiiea iaeiie/aiiy iaaecaiii( iane ethoea?ie

?icieo ?ieia aeeooy i?e aeiiiniaiiio aeei?enoaiii aa?aioeeaeia

Aa?aioeeaee, Iiaio?yii-nooa iana 10 ?ineei, a

e/aa aieeoaaiiy aooiiica-oeiy oeaioiiiy ieiaei-ooai?aiiy

Ia?oee ?ie aeeooy (na?aaei( ca 1983-1985 ??.)

Aac aa?aioeeaeia 12,0 18,8 21,1 28,8

Aioai, 5,3 13,8 27,9 32,0 38,6

A?aaeeeai, 7,0 15,7 28,5 32,9 38,9

O?aoeai, 6,0 16,2 30,1 34,0 39,7

Ae?oaee ?ie aeeooy (na?aaei( ca 1981-1985 ??.)

Aac aa?aioeeaeia 77,2 97,3 112,5 127,3

Aioai, 5,3 94,3 123,5 142,6 167,8

A?aaeeeai, 7,0 102,5 128,3 153,4 175,8

O?aoeai, 6,0 104,2 133,5 158,3 182,5

O?aoie ?ie aeeooy (na?aaei( ca 1982-1986 ??.)

Aac aa?aioeeaeia 72,3 91,3 104,5 125,3

Aioai, 5,3 86,5 115,8 141,3 161,3

A?aaeeeai, 7,0 95,8 129,4 152,3 176,8

O?aoeai, 6,0 98,3 134,2 153,8 177,5

Iiniae ethoea?ie i?e aianaiii a?aaeeeaio oa o?aoeaio ia ia?oiio ?ioei
aeeooy oi?ioaaee iaeaieueoo eenoiao iiaa?oith, aaee/eia yei( a ?ie niaae
a oaci oeaioiiiy aei?iaithaaee 22,9-21,7 oen.i2/aa. ?icii?
aneiieyoeie-

iiai aia?aoo ?ineei ethoea?ie ia aeieyieao aac aianaiiy aa?aioeeaeia aoa
16,4, a c aianaiiyi aioaio — 20,8 oen.i2/aa. Ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy
aiaeiiaiaeii — 46,3; 44,1; 27,4 i 44,1 oen.i2/aa. Aaaiaee i eiiieiee
i?e?ino, ?icia ieiua eenoiai( iiaa?oii ?ineei ethoea?ie, aeniyii( ii
?icieo oiiao (c aianaiiyi aa?aioeeaeia i aac ieo) aeayeith ii?ith
iicia/aeenue oaeiae ia oioineioaoe/iie aeiyeueiinoi iiniaia. O ia?iiae
aieeoaaiiy-aooiiicaoei( o ?ineei ethoea?ie ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy /enoa
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue oioineioaco aoea iecueeith i neeaaeaea a na?aaeiueiio
ca 1982-1985 ??. ia aeieyieao aac aianaiiy aa?aioeeaeia 1,24; c
aianaiiyi aioaio — 1,81; a?aaeeeaio — 1,84-1,91 oa o?aoeaio — 1,79-1,84
a/i2(aeiao. A ia?iiae aooiiicaoei(-oeaioiiiy ?ineei i?e?ino aaniethoii
nooi( iane ?ineei iiiioii iiaeaeuoaaany, a /enoa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
oioineioaco a oeae ia?iiae aoea 2,74-3,04 a/i2.aeiao. C ia?aoiaeii
?ineei a oaco ieiaeiooai?aiiy i?ioeane oioineioaco iinooiiai
cieaeoaaeenue.

?acii c oei iio?iaii caoaaaeeoe, ui i?ioyaii onueiai ia?iiaeo
niinoa?aaeaiue oioineioaoe/ia aeiyeueiinoue iiniaia ethoea?ie a ia?iiae
aooiiicaoe((-oea(o(iiy ia aa?a(oeeaeiiio oii( aoea ia 0,67-0,60
a/i2(aeiao a(eueoith a ii?(aiyii( c ae(eyieaie, aea aa?a(oeeaee ia
aiineee, ( ia 0,03-0,10 a/i2(aeiao a ii?(aiyii( c aa?a(oeeaeii aioai.

Ciino oei?ioieo a eenoeao ethoea?ie a ?ie (( niaae ia aa?aioeeaeiiio
oiii ia cieaeoaaany. Iaeneiaeueia eiai eieueeinoue a caeaiiio eenoi
niinoa?iaaeanue o ia?iiae iiaiiai oeaioiiiy, yea aoei a na?aaeiueiio ca
?iee aeineiaeaeaiue ia 5,8-6,5%, aai ia 22,2-24,9 ia/100 a nooi(
?a/iaeie aieueoei ia aeieyieao, aea aeei?enoiaoaaee o?aoeai (6,0 e/aa) i
a?aaeeeai (7,0 e/aa), o ii?iaiyiii c aeieyieaie, aea aa?aioeeaee ia
aiineee.

Aoaeoeaiicoue aa?aioeeaeia oa iie?iaeaiaioia,

o eiiieaeni c ?iaeeeie aeia?eaaie

Aa?aioeeaeia aeoeaiinoue o?aoeaio i?e noiiniiio eiai canoinoaaiii c ?EAe
i EAN iiaeaeuoaaeanue ia 35,4% o ii?iaiyiii c ?icaeieueiei
aeei?enoaiiyi.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oaiiaie eiiieiiai i aaaiaiai i?e?inoo ?ineei ethoea?ie
a aeeiaiioei iieacothoue, ui aieueoeie aiie aoee a iiaeoaciee ia?iiae
noaaeoaaiiy-aooiiicaoei(. Ia eiio?ieueieo aa?iaioao (aac aa?aioeeaeia i
aeia?ea) na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee eiiieiee i?e?ino ethoea?ie aei?iaithaaa
1,21-1,25 ni, a i?e noiiniiio aeei?enoaiii o?aoeaio, ?EAe oa EAN iiae
eoeueoeaaoeith oeae iieaciee caieueooaaany ia 14,9-22,4% , (1,39-1,53
ni). Aaniethoii nooa iana 20 ?ineei ethoea?ie i?e cae?aiii ia caeaiee
ei?i a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee aoea ia 2,1 a, aai 7,4% aeuith.

E?eoa?i(i ioeiiee aiaeiciaaieo niiniaia aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea i
aa?aioeeaeo ( i?iaeoeoeaiinoue (?en. 3). sse ca ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue, oae
i a noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy ethoea?ie i?e noiiniiio aianaiii
iiia?aeueieo aeia?ea i o?aoeaio a?iaeaeiinoue caeaii( iane aoea ia 13%
aeuith, iiae i?e aianaiii iaeiiai o?aoeaio, i ia 6,3-8,8% o ii?iaiyiii
c ?icaeieueiei (o aeei?enoaiiyi, a a?iaeaeiinoue ianiiiy a
na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue aoea

oaeiae aieueoith, iiae i?e ?icaeieueiiio aeei?enoaiii. A ia?oee ?ie
aeeooy ia 14,9%, ae?oaee — 19,4 i o?aoie — ia 17,9%. Ii?iaiyii c
?icaeieueiei aeei?enoaiiyi aeia?ea i o?aoeaio oey ?icieoey aei?iaithaaea
aiaeiiaiaeii 7,3-8,0; 11,4-16,2 i 7,0-9,5%.

Aeei?enoaiiy iie?iaeaiaioia ?acii c aa?aioeeaeii i aeia?eaaie nooo(ai
aieeaaei ia ?ino i ?icaeoie ?ineei ethoea?ie, a (o aoaeoeaiinoue a
cia/iie ii?i caeaaeaea aiae niiniao aeei?enoaiiy (oaae. 12).

Oaaeeoey 12

Aieea iie?iaeaiaioia, ?iaeeeo aeia?ea i aa?aioeeaeia ia ?ino i ?icaeoie

?ineei ethoea?ie ia ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy a ia?iiae (o cae?aiiy

(1993-1995 ??.)

Aa?iaioe

Aenioa,

ni

Eieue-einoue noaaae,

oo/i2 Eenoee,

% aei

caaaeue-ii(

iane Ieiua eenoeia,

oen.i2/aa A?iaeae-iinoue ianiiiy,

oe/aa

O?aoeai

58,4

328

48,2

19,0

1,68

O?aoeai+Zn-B-Mo

(ie?aii)

63,4

338

48,9

20,2

1,74

O?aoeai+Zn-B-Mo

(ie?aii)

63,4

343

49,8

20,8

1,78

O?aoeai+?EAe+EAN

(noiinii)

67,6

352

51,6

21,2

1,89

O?aoeai+?EAe+EAN+Zn-B-Mo (noiinii)

69,7

374

54,9

23,5

1,96

O?aoeai+?EAe+EAN+Zn-B-Mo(ie?aii)

67,7

358

52,2

22,7

1,84

Aianaiiy a a?oio iie?iaeaiaioia Zn-B-Mo ?acii c a?oioiaei aa?aioeeaeii
o?aoeaiii i iiia?aeueieie aeia?eaaie aeaaaei caieueoaiiy aenioe ?ineei
ia 19,3% o ia?iiae cae?aiiy (o ia ei?i.

Aeei?enoaiiy iie?iaeaiaioia ?acii c aa?aioeeaeii, ?EAe i EAN aoaeoeaii
aieeaaei ia iiaeeaiaeoaeueia oi?ioaaiiy ?ineei i a oeieiio iiniao
ethoea?ie, ui a naith /a?ao ni?eyei caieueoaiith ieoiii( aaae eenoeia o
caeaiie iani. I?e aianaiii Zn-B-Mo c o?aoeaiii (a noiioao aai ie?aieie
eiiiiiaioaie), ye i?e aeei?enoaiii iaeiiai aa?aioeeaeo, ieiua eenoiai(
iiaa?oii aoea i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaith i noaiiaeea 48,2-49,8%. Noiinia
aeei?enoaiiy iie?iaeaiaioia, o?aoeaio, ?EAe i EAN caieueooaaei
eieueeinoue eenoeia o caeaiie iani ia 13,9%, a ieiui eenoiai( iiaa?oii —
ia 10,8%.

Noiinia aianaiiy iie?iaeaiaioia c o?aoeaiii, ?EAe i EAN ni?eyei
caieueoaiith eieueeinoi i?iaeoeoeaieo noaaae ii?iaiyii c eiio?ieai ia
28,6%, aiaia i ianiiiy — aiaeiiaiaeii ia 9,4 i 17,2%. Ciiia no?oeoo?e
ianiii(aiai eoua ni?eyea caieueoaiith a?iaeath ianiiiy ethoea?ie ia
ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy ia 16,7%, ia ae?oaiio — 22,5, o?aoueiio — 20,4%, a
o noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy — ia 20,6%.

Aeei?enoaiiy aa?aioeeaeia i aoaeoeaia cieuaiiy ao?’yiia iiceoeaii
aieeaa( ia oieueee ia a?iaeaeiinoue ethoea?ie, aea i ia iiniaii yeinoi
iaea?aeaiiai ianiiiy. Ca ani ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue iana 1000 ianiiei ia
aeieyieao c aeiiiniaiei aianaiiyi aa?aioeeaeia aoea aeaui aieueoith,
iiae aac ieo. A na?aaeiueiio ca 1993-1995 ?iee iana ianiiiy,
iaea?aeaiiai ia aeieyieao c aianaiiyi aa?aioeeaeia, aoea ia 0,24-0,30 a
(12,5-17,7%) aieueoith, iiae ia eiio?iei. Aia?aiy i?i?inoaiiy i
eaai?aoi?ia noiaeinoue ianiiiy oaeiae aoee aeueie ia aeieyieao, aea
aeei?enoiaoaaee o?aoeai i a?aaeeeai.

Iiney oe?iei( ae?iaie/i( ia?aai?ee ?ic?iaeaiiai i?eeiio aianaiiy iiae
ia?aaeiiniaio eoeueoeaaoeith o?aoeaio (6,0 e/aa) i a?aaeeeaio (7,0 e/aa)
iiae ?aiiueiaaniyii aaciie?eaii iiniae ethoea?ie i iaea?aeaiiy
iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoaoia a/aiith ?aaeith eieeoiueiai AIAeI eoeo?oaece
aoea iiaeaia i?iiiceoeiy aei Aea?aeaaii( eii(n(( c oiii/ieo caniaia
ai?ioueae c oeiaeieeaie, oai?iaaie ?ineei i ao?’yiaie i?i aeeth/aiiy aei
“Nieneo…” aeicaieaieo i?aia?aoia aeey aeei?enoaiiy iiae ia?aaeiiniaio
eoeueoeaaoeith o?aoeaio (25%-iee e.a.) — 6 e/aa i a?aaeeeaio (80%-iee
e.a.) — 7 e/aa caeaaeii aiae oeio caao?’yiiinoi ia aaciie?eaieo
?aiiueiaaniyieo iiniaao ethoea?ie (i?e ae?iuoaaiii ia ianiiiy) i?ioe
iaeii?i/ieo oiieiiiaiaeo i aeainii’yaeieueieo ao?’yiia.

?ioaiiyi Aea?aeeiiini( o?aoeai i a?aaeeeai cai?iiiiiaaii i aeeth/aii o
Aeiaeaoie “Nieneo ianoeoeeaeia…”, aeicaieaii aeey aeei?enoaiiy iiae
ethoea?io.

Oaeei /eiii, aeiiiniaia aianaiiy iiaeo aeey ethoea?ie aa?aioeeaeia
(o?aoeaio i a?aaeeeaio) ni?ey( aoaeoeaiioiio cieuaiith ao?’yiia o ((
iiniaao i oei naiei iiceoeaii aieeaa( ia ?ino i ?icaeoie aiaiai(
eoeueoo?e oa iiaeaeuaiith (( i?iaeoeoeaiinoi.

INIIAII OEssOE IIAeAEUAIIss AEIIIII*II( AOAEOEAIINOI AE?IUOAAIIss
ETHOeA?IE IA EI?I OA IANIIIss

Ae?iaie/i aeo?aoe, aa?oinoue iniiaieo i iai?ioieo caniaia ?ic?aoiaaii ca
oeiiaie i ?icoeiieaie, ui aeiyee a oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa noaiiai( ciie
Oe?a(ie ca noaiii ia 1 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy ?aca?aia aeiiiiiiai aeei?enoaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo i
iaoa?iaeueieo ?ano?nia i?iaaaeaia ii?iaiyeueia aeiiiii/ia ioeiiea
aoaeoeaiinoi o?aaeeoeieieo i ?aeiiaiaeiaaii( ae?iaieoeoao oaoiieiai(
ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia ei?i oa ianiiiy.

Aiaeic no?oeoo?e ?iciiaeieo cao?ao i?e ae?iuoaaiii ethoea?ie ca
o?aaeeoeieieie oaoiieiaiyie iieacaa, ui iniiaia ieoiia iana (o i?eiaaea(
ia ia?iaioie a?oioo, aianaiiy aeia?ea i ianoeoeeaeia (15,3% i?aoei,
35,4% aenieoaoaoeieieo aeo?ao i 38,7% iaooii?iaeoeoia), cae?aiiy i
aei?iaeo a?iaeath (aiaeiiaiaeii 70,5; 61,3 i 42,7%). C onio ae?iaie/eo
cao?ao ia oaoiieiai/ii i?eiaaea( 78,3% a o./. ia iaeueia 34,2%,
iiia?aeueii aeia?eaa i ianoeoeeaee — 21,3%, ianiiiy — 9,3% i o.i.

sse naiae/aoue ?ic?aooiee, iaeaieueoee aoaeo caaacia/o(oueny i?e
?aeiiaiaeiaaiie oaoiieiai( ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie. Ooo, ii?iaiyii c
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie oaoiieiaiyie ae?iuoaaiiy i?e ?aiiueiaaniyieo
iie?eaieo i eioiio aaciie?eaieo iiniaao, iacaaaeath/e ia aieueo aeniei
ae?iaie/i aeo?aoe i cao?aoe noeoiii( aia?a(( a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa,
iaea?aeaia iaeaeaoaaoa i?iaeoeoeiy o ia?a?aooieo ia ca?iiai iaeeieoei i
iaeieae/a (( aia?ai(iiinoue. Iiynith(oueny oea aieueo aeia?aaeaeath/ei
?inoii a?iaeaeiinoi ii?iaiyii ic caieueoaiiyi ae?iaie/eo aeo?ao a
?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa iiniao. I ye caaaeueiee ?acoeueoao — i?e aeciaiie
oaoiieiai( iaea?aeaii iaeaieueoee i?e?ino /enoiai i?eaooeo (aiaeiiaiaeii
ia 140 i 759 a?i/aa) oa iaeaeuee eiaoioei(io ieoiiinoi
a?ioiai-iaoa?iaeueieo (2,05 a?i.) i aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?ao (6,20) i?ioe
5,64 a oaoiieiai( i?e aaniyiie iie?eaiie niaai oa 5,07 — a oaoiieiai(
i?e eioiueiio aaciie?eaiiio niiniai. Niaiaa?oinoue 1 oe i?iaeoeoei( a
ia?a?aooieo ia ca?iiai iaeeieoei i?e ?aeiiaiaeiaaiie oaoiieiai(
ii?iaiyii c aaciaeie cieaeoaaeanue aiaeiiaiaeii ia 7,0 i 23,3%, a
ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoei( a ?ic?aooieo ia 100 ea iaeeaa a ia?oiio
aeiaaeeo ia 4,6%, a ae?oaiio — ia 26,5%.

Oaeei /eiii, o ?aeiiaiaeiaaiie oaoiieiai( ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ?aca?ae
nei?i/aiiy aenieoaoaoeieieo i ae?iaie/eo aeo?ao iinoyoueny a ?iaioao,
iia’ycaieo c iniiaiei ia?iaioeii a?oioo, aianaiiyi aeia?ea, ianoeoeeaeia
i cae?aiiyi a?iaeath.

AENIIAEE

1. I?iaaaeaii a 1980-1997 ??. aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee: aieueo ni?eyoeeai
oiiae aeey ?inoo i ?icaeoeo ?ineei ethoea?ie neeaaeaeeny i?e iniiaiiio
aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo a?oioo i aeei?enoaiii cia?yaeaey I?IA-5-50 i
I*-4,5. I?e oeueiio ooai?ththoueny ioeue/oth/ee oa? i e?aua
ino?oeoo?aiinoue a?oioo, ui, a naith /a?ao, ni?ey( iaa?iiaaeaeaiith
cia/ii aieueoeo caiania i?iaeoeoeaii( aieiae, iioaineoieaoei(
iie?iaiieiai/ieo i?ioeania, iiaieicaoei( eaaeiaeinooiieo ?ineeiai
iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, oi?ioaaiith aieueoi( iane ei?aiaai( nenoaie, aieueo
aoaeoeaii i?iyaey(oueny oiene/ia aeiy aa?aioeeaeia ia i?i?inoee
ao?’yiia, yei ia?aaaaeii ciaoiaeyoueny a iiniaiiio oa?i a?oioo.
Eieueeinoue ao?’yiia i?e iieeoeaaie i?aioei ia?aae cae?aiiyi ethoea?ie
ia ei?i aoea a 1,8-2,5 ?aca iaioith, iiae i?e aaciieeoeaaiio niiniai
ia?iaioeo a?oioo.

2. I?e aaciieeoeaaiio ia?iaioeo a?oioo ii?iaiyii c i?aieith o noii ca
o?e ?iee aeeooy iaea?aeaii a?iaeae caeaii( iane ia 13,7% aieueoee, a
cai? aaniethoii( nooi( ?a/iaeie, ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue i ia?ao?aaiiai
i?ioa(io aoa aeuei aiaeiiaiaeii ia 13,6; 11,4 i 1,52 oe/aa. A?aoiaoth/e
cia/ii iaioi aia?aaoe/ii aeo?aoe ia ia?iaioie a?oioo aaciieeoeaaei
cia?yaeaeyi, inoaiiie aeioeieueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a niaiciiii ii?yae c
i?aieith.

3. Aeey i?i?inoaiiy iaeneiaeueii( eieueeinoi ianiiiy ethoea?ie iaeaieueo
ni?eyoeeai oiiae a iiniaiiio oa?i a?oioo (0-5 ni) neeaaeaeeny i?e
oaiia?aoo?i a?oioo ia ?iaii 8-10(N, aiinoo i?iaeoeoeaii( aieiae 10-12 ii
i uieueiinoi 0,98-1,06 a/ni3. Aiaeoeeaiiy aiae aeacaieo ia?aiao?ia
cia/ii ciaiooaaei iieueiao noiaeinoue ianiiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iioeioi o?eaaeinoi ia?iiaeo “niaaa-noiaee” aiaeiinii
ooai?aiiy aeaiaioia i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?ineei i oi?ioaaiiy aaee/eie
a?iaeath caeaii( iane i ianiiiy ethoea?ie aa?ith( a iaaeao 10-12 aeiia,
iioeioi na?aaeiuei( oaiia?aoo?e iiaio?y i a?oioo ia aeeaeii caai?oaiiy
ianiiiy ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao aiaeiiaiaeii 8-10(N; 6-8(N, a iioeioi
noie aoaeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? aeey ethoea?ie a oeae ia?iiae noaiiaeoue
90-95(N.

4. Iaeaieueo aeniea ei?iiaa i ianiii(aa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aaciie?eaii(
ethoea?ie caaacia/o(oueny i?e ?aiiueiio no?ieo niaae (o ia?oo iieiaeio
eaioiy), i?e caiiciaiii ci no?ieaie niaae aiaeaoaa(oueny caeiiiii?ia
cieaeaiiy a?iaeaeiinoi caeaii( iane i ianiiiy, coiiaeaia iiai?oaiiyi
caieiaeaiiy a?oioo i iiaeaeuaiiyi oa?ii/iiai ?aaeeio iiaio?y.

?ineeie ethoea?ie, ae?iuaii c ianiiiy, iaea?aeaiiai a ia?oee ?ie aeeooy,
ia cieaeothoue a?iaeae o iioiinoai i iathoue ?iaiioeiiii iiniaii
aeanoeainoi oa yeinoi, ui i ianiiiy ic o?aainoi(a ae?oaiai i iiaeaeueoeo
?ieia aeeooy.

5. Ii?io aeniao i niinia niaae i?e aaciie?eaiiio ae?iuoaaiii ethoea?ie
ia ei?i i ianiiiy aeioeieueii anoaiiaethaaoe ca eieueeinoth noiaeiai
ianiiiy. Iioeiaeueieie i aeiiiii/ii aei?aaaeaieie ii?iaie i niiniaaie
niaae (: ia ei?i — nooeieueiee (c iiae?yaeaeyie 15 ni) i?e aeniai 8
ea/aa; ia ianiiiy — oe?iei?yaeiee ( c iiae?yaeaeyie 60 ni) i?e ii?ii
aeniao 2 ea/aa. Caeaaeii aiae iane ianiiy oea aei?iaith(: 3,6-4,0 i
1,0-1,1 iei.oooe noiaeiai ianiiiy ia aaeoa?.

6. Oe?iei?yaeii (60 ni) aaciie?eaii iiniae ethoea?ie a oni ?iee aeeooy
aeyaeeeny aoaeoeaiioeie, iiae nooeieueii. A noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy aiie
caaacia/eee a?iaeae yeiniiai ianiiiy a 1,5 ?aca aeuee, oi?ioaaee aieueoa
i?iaeoeoeaieo noaaae, nooeaioue i aiaia o ii?iaiyiii c nooeieueieie (15
ni) i oe?iei?yaeieie (45 ni) iiniaaie.

7. Oia?oa oai?aoe/ii aeiaaaeaii i aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai aeioeieueiinoue eiiaiiiaaiiai niiniao
aeei?enoaiiy aaciie?eaieo iiniaia ethoea?ie (o ia?oee ?ie aeeooy ia
ianiiiy, o ae?oaee — ia?oee oein ia ei?i, ae?oaee ia ianiiiy).
Iineiaeiaiinoue oaoiieiai/ieo iia?aoeie oaea: iiney iaea?aeaiiy ianiiiy
a ia?oee ?ie aeeooy ainaie a o?aainoie ethoea?ie aeioeieueii iiaeniyoe
iceii ceaee — ioaieoeth (4,25 iei./aa) aai o?eoieaea (3,8 iei./aa). I?e
aiaenooiinoi aieiae a iiniaiiio oa?i ainaie iaaanii iiaeniyoe
aaaaoieiiiiiaioio noiioeo, yea neeaaea(oueny c y/iaith (1,0 iei./aa),
ai?ioo ca?iiaiai (0,7 iei./aa) i ?aaeueee ieieii( (1,0 iei./aa). Oea
aeicaieeoue caiiaiaoe ia?a?inoaiith i aeeyaaiith oe?iei?yaeieo iiniaia,
iiaeaeueoe iiaeeaiinoue ?aiiueiai caeaiiai ei?io i cieceoe ianoeoeeaeia
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e iaea?aeaiii ianiiiy ethoea?ie c ae?oaiai oeino.

8. Aia?oa aeey noaiiaiai ?aaiiio a oaoiieiai( ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia
ei?i i ianiiiy aea/aia i ?aeiiaiaeiaaia ae?iaieoeoao iiaa iie?eaia
eoeueoo?a — ?aaeueea ieieia i?e niaai (( c iiae?yaeaeyie 70 ni i ii?ii
aeniao 0,7 iei./aa noiaeiai ianiiiy.

Aieiaiith ia?aaaaith oei(( eoeueoo?e ( ei?ioeee aaaaoaoeieiee ia?iiae,
yeee aeicaiey( caieueiyoe ethoea?io aiae iie?eao aaea /a?ac 42-45 aeiia
iiney (o noiiniiai c?inoaiiy, oiaoi cia/ii ?aiioa, iiae iioi iie?eaii
eoeueoo?e — eoeo?oaeca ia caeaiee ei?i, y/iiiue ia ca?ii i
aianyii-ai?ioiaa noiioea ia caeaiee ei?i, yei caieueiythoue iiea
aiaeiiaiaeii ia 50, 57 oa 23 aeii iiciioa.

9. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeei?enoaiii ?aaeueee ieieii( ye iie?eaii(
eoeueoo?e caaacia/othoueny iiiioii e?aui oaiie ?inoo i ?icaeoeo ?ineei
ethoea?ie i aiaeaoaa(oueny oi?ioaaiiy aieueo ?icaeiooi( aaaaoaoeaii(
iane (aiiiane); ?aoeiiiaeueiioa aeei?enoiaothoueny caiane a?oioiai(
aieiae oa iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei; o ia?iiae noiiniiai c?inoaiiy
niinoa?iaa(oueny aiieiai/ia noiiniinoue (niiaiioe/iee aoaeo) iiae
iie?eaiith oa iniiaiith eoeueoo?ith, iiae iie?eaii ?aaeueee ieieii(
noai?th(oueny aeineoue ni?eyoeeaee ?aaeei inaioeaiiy, yeee aeiiiiiaaa
e?auiio aeaeeaaiith ?ineei ethoea?ie a ia?oee i ianooiii ?iee aeeooy, a
oaeiae iiiioiiio ciaioaiith nooiaiy caao?’yiaiinoi iiniaia ethoea?ie.
Aeacaii yaeua aiaeii/athoueny i?ioyaii anueiai aeeoo(aiai oeeeeo ?ineei
ethoea?ie.

10. A noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy o?iaeaeiinoue ianiiiy ethoea?ie, aea
iie?eaiith eoeueoo?ith a ?ie niaae acyoa ?aaeueea ieieia, aoea aeuith ia
1,88 oe/aa (32%) o ii?iaiyiii c eoeo?oaecith ia caeaiee ei?i, ia 2,56
oe/aa (43,8%) oa 2,63 oe/aa (45%) aieueoith o ii?iaiyiii c y/iaiai ia
ca?ii i aianyii-ai?ioiaith noiioeith ia caeaiee ei?i.

11. Canoinoaaiiy noeioeyoi?a ?inoo IEAE (nieue -N-ieni-2,6 eooeaeeio oa
aaeeiiiiai( eeneioe) aeey ia?aaeiiniaii( ia?iaee ianiiiy ethoea?ie
ni?ey( iiaeaeuaiith eiai noiaeinoi, nei?i/aiith o?eaaeinoi ia?iiaeo
“niaaa-noiaee” oa ianooiieo iiaeoacieo ia?iiaeia, iioaineoieaoei(
i?ioeania ?inoo i ?icaeoeo ?ineei, ui a oeieiio ni?ey( iiaeaeuaiith
a?iaeath caeaii( iane ethoea?ie ia 10-15%, a ianiiiy ia 13-17%.

12. Iai?eneoaaiiy ?ineei ethoea?ie /a?ac 45 aeiia iiney iiaieo noiaeia
?aaoeyoi?ii ?inoo IANOssO (nieeth 3-iaoieaiiiinoeueoieaio oa yioa?ii(
eeneioe) iiaeneethaaei ?ino i ?icaeoie ?ineei ethoea?ie, i?eaiaeeei aei
iiyae aeiaeaoeiaeo ai/ieo iaaiiia, aieueo iioaineaiiai oeaioiiiy,
iiaeaeuoaaei i?ioeaio ooai?aiiy aiaia i nei?i/oaaei ia?iiae aeic?iaaiiy
ianiiiy.

13. Aeei?enoaiiy iiae ia?aaeiiniaio eoeueoeaaoeith o?aoeaio (6 e/aa) oa
a?aaeeeaio (7,0 e/aa) cieaeoaaei eieueeinoue ao?’yiia o ia?iiae
“noiaee-oeaioiiiy” aiae 90,0 aei 93,3%. A ?acoeueoaoi iieiiooaaany ?ino
i ?icaeoie ?ineei ethoea?ie, (o caaacia/aiiinoue aieiaith, aeaiaioaie
aeeaeaiiy, iiaeaeuoaaany i?ioeaio aeaeeaaiinoi (o a o?aainoi( oa
niinoa?iaaeany aieueo aeniea ei?iiaa i ianiii(aa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
i?ioyaii onueiai ia?iiaeo aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith.

Ca aeaieie iaoeo aeineiaeaeaiue, Aea?aeeiiiniy aeeth/eea a “Nienie…”
aeicaieaieo i?aia?aoia aeey aeei?enoaiiy iiae ia?aaeiiniaio
eoeueoeaaoeith o?aoeaio (25%-iee e.a.) — 6 e/aa oa a?aaeeeaio (80%-iee
e.a.) — 7 e/aa i?ioe iaeii?i/ieo ceaeiaeo oa aeaiaeieueieo ao?’yiia i?e
aaciie?eaiiio ae?iuoaaiii ethoea?ie ia ianiiiy. Aa?aioeeaee o?aoeai i
a?aaeeeai aeicaieaii aeey aeei?enoaiiy iiae ethoea?io c 1988 ?ieo.

14. Aeyaeaia aeniea aoaeoeaiinoue noiiniiai aeei?enoaiiy aa?aioeeaeo
o?aoeaio c ?iaeeeie eiiieaenieie aeia?eaaie (?EAe — N18P60 oa EAN — N42)
i?e aaciie?eaiiio ae?iuoaaiii ethoea?ie a ia?oiio ?ioei aeeooy. I?e
oeueiio oioioiene/ia aeiy aa?aioeeaeo iiaeaeuoaaeanue ia 5,7-8,2% i
caa?iaaeany o?eaaeee /an — aei cae?aiiy ethoea?ie ia caeaiee ei?i. Cai?
caeaii( iane i ianiiiy ethoea?ie a noii ca o?e ?iee aeeooy caieueooaaany
aiaeiiaiaeii ia 9,6 oa 13,5% i?e nooo(aiio cieaeaiii o?oaeiaeo cao?ao i
iaoa?iaeueieo ?ano?nia.

15. Aecia/aii, ui aaeaioeaia oaoiieia(y ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia ei?i i
ianiiiy ( aa?iiiii/ii aeioeieueiith i aeiiiii/ii aoaeoeaiith o
ii?iaiyiii ic ?aiioa ?ic?iaeaieie caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie oaoiieiaiyie. Ia 1
aa ?aiiueiaaniyiiai aaciie?eaiiai iiniao ethoea?ie io?eiaia aiaeiinii
aeaoaaa i?iaeoeoeiy c iaeiaioith aia?aiiinoeinoth, aieueo aenieei /enoei
i?eaooeii, eiaoioei(ioii ieoiiinoi a?ioiai-iaoa?iaeueieo (2,05 a?i.) i
aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?ao (6,20 Iaeae) i?ioe 5,64 Iaeae a oaoiieiai( aaniyiiai
iiaeiie?eaiiai oa 5,07 Iaeae i?e eioiueiio aaciie?eaiiio ae?iuoaaiii.
Niaiaa?oinoue 1 oe i?iaeoeoei( i?e oeueiio cieaeoaaeanue aiaeiiaiaeii ia
7,0 oa 23,3%, a ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoia o ia?a?aooieo ia 100 ea iaeeaa o
ia?oiio aeiaaeeo aoei ieae/ei ia 4,6%, o ae?oaiio — ia 26,5%.

?AEIIAIAeAOeI( AE?IAIEOeOAO

Ae?iuoaaoe ethoea?io ia ianiiiy oa ei?i o iiaii/iiio Noaio Oe?a(ie
iaeaeioeieueiioa i?iaiaeeoe i?e ?aiiueiaaniyieo aaciie?eaieo iiniaao.

Aeey oi?ioaaiiy aenieiai ?iaiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ethoea?ie oa a?aoiaoth/e
iaioi aia?aaoe/ii aeo?aoe a iieueiaeo niaiciiiao, ?aeiiaiaeo(oueny
ii?yae c o?aaeeoeieiith i?aieith iiae ethoea?io i?iaiaeeoe i ia?iaioie
a?oioo aaciieeoeaaei cia?yaeaeyi I?IA-5-50 aai I*-4,5.

Niaao ethoea?ie aeeiioaaoe a ia?oi aeii ii/aoeo iieueiaeo ?iaio, eiee
ianoa( noeaeinoue a?oioo i aeinyaa(oueny eiai yeinia e?eoaiiy. ?aaeueea
ieieia, ye iie?eaia eoeueoo?a, aeniaa(oueny c iiae?yaeaeyie 70 ni i
ii?iith aeniao 0,7 iei./aa noiaeiai ianiiiy.

Aeey aeiiiii( iaoa?iaeueieo oa o?oaeiaeo ao?ao, oa ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie
iiae aeiiiniaio eoeueoeaaoeith canoiniaoaaoe aa?aioeeaee o?aoeai aai
a?aaeeeai, ?iaeei eiiieaenii aeia?eaa (?EAe i EAN), iie?iaeaiaioe
(Zn-B-Mo) ca iaeei aa?ioaoii/ee i?eeii.

I?e ae?iuoaaiii ethoea?ie ia ei?i ii?ia aeniao noaiiaeoue 8 ea/aa,
niinia niaae — nooeieueiee c iiae?yaeaeyie 15 ni; i?e aeei?enoaiii
iiniao ia ianiiiy — ii?ia aeniao 2 ea/aa i oe?iei?yaeiee niinia c
iiae?yaeaeyie 60-70 ni. Iaia’yceiaei caoiaeii i?e oeueiio ( ia?iaea
ianiiiy i ?ineei ?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoo.

O aieiai ?iee ia ae?oaiio ?ioei aeeooy, uia caiiaiaoe ia?a?inoaiith oa
aeeyaaiith ?ineei a oe?iei?yaeieo iiniaao o o?aainoie ethoea?ie ia?oiai
?ieo aeeooy ainaie iiaeniaaoe iceio ioaieoeth (4,25 iei./aa) aai iceia
o?eoieaea (3,8 iei./aa). sseui ia aoei ciiae oea c?iaeoe, ia ae?oaiio
?ioei aeeooy, iaaanii iiaeniaaoe aaaaoieiiiiiaioio noiioeo, yea
neeaaea(oueny c y/iaith (1,0 iei./aa), ai?ioo ca?iiaiai (0,7 iei/aa) oa
?aaeueee ieieii( (1,0 iei./aa). I?e oeueiio ia?oee oein cia?aoe ia ei?i,
a ae?oaee ia ianiiiy.

NIENIE INIIAIEO ?IAIO C OAIE AeENA?OAOeI(

1.Eeaaineee A.E., Eoeee E.E., *a?aieia A.A. Oeie/aneea i?eaiu ai?ueau n
ni?iyeaie i?e aaniie?iaiuo iinaaao ethoea?iu//Atheeaoaiue AIEE
eoeo?ocu.-1984.-?63.-C.68-73.

2.Aaae/ A.A., Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A. , Eoeee E.E. Iniiaiua i?eaiu
iiauoaiey naiaiiie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ethoea?iu a oneiaeyo oeaio?aeueiie
Noaie ONN?//Ei?ia e ei?iii?iecaiaenoai.-1984.-?18.-C.3-7.

3. Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A., Eoeee E.E., *oiaeia A.I. Iaoiaee/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eiaeono?eaeueiie oaoiieiaee i?iiecaiaenoaa naiyi
ethoea?iu a ia?aii aiaeo aeecie.-Aeiai?iiao?iane.-1985.-19 C.

4. Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A., Eoeee E.E. ?aiiaaanaiiea aaniie?iaiua
iinaau ethoea?iu ia naiaia//Noaiiia caieaaeaeea.-1986.-Aui. 20.-C.62-65.

5. Eeaaineee A.E., Eaeaoiee I.N., *a?aieia A.A. Iniaaiiinoe au?aueaaiey
ei?iiauo eoeueoo? ia naiaia//Iao/ii iainiiaaiiay nenoaia
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa Aeiai?iiao?ianeie iaeanoe.-Aeiai?iiao?iane,
1987.-C.135-144.

6. *a?aieia A.A., Eoeee E.E., Aeeiaiei A.N. Eioaineaiay oaoiieiaey
i?iecaiaenoaa naiyi ethoea?iu//Caii?iaeneee OeIOE.-1987.-4N.

7. Eeaaineee A.E., Eaeaoiee I.N., *a?aieia A.A. I?aaiecaoeey
naiaiiaiaenoaa ei?iiauo eoeueoo?//Iao/ii iainiiaaiiay nenoaia
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa Aeiai?iiao?ianeie
iaeanoe.-Aeiai?iiao?iane.-1987.-N.229-233.

8. Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A., Eoeee E.E. Ia?ii?eyoey ii oaaee/aieth
i?iecaiaenoaa e iiauoaieth ea/anoaa ei?iia//Iao/ii iainiiaaiiay nenoaia
caieaaeaeey Aeiai?iiao?ianeie
iaeanoe.-Aeiai?iiao-?iane.-1988.-C.233-237.

9. Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A., Eoeee E.E. Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey
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11. Aaae/ A.A., Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A., Eoeee E.E. Yooaeoeaiinoue
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12. Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A. Iiiaieaoiea o?aau//Iao/ii iainiiaaiiay
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14. Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A., *oiaeia A.I., Eoeee E.E. Iniiaiua
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15. A.n. 1690355 NNN?. N?aaenoai aeey ia?aaioee ?anoaiee ethoea?iu.
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16. A.n. 1732648 NNN?. N?aaenoai aeey i?aaeiinaaiie ia?aaioee naiyi
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17. *a?aieia A.A. Yooaeoeaiua i?eaiu ai?ueau n ni?iyeaie a iinaaao
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18. *a?aieia A.A. ?aaeueea ianee/iay — iie?iaiay eoeueoo?a aeey
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19. Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A. ?aca?au oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa
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21. *a?aieia A.A., Eoeee I.I. Aieea niiniaia iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo
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22. *a?aieia A.A., E?aia?aa N.I., Aaeaooa? I.ss. Eiiieaeniia i?eiaiaiea
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23. *a?aieia A.A., Eoeee I.I. Aieiaicaaacia/aiinoue ethoea?ie a
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aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy c?iooaaiieo caiaeue aeey ia?iuoaaiiy i
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24. Eeaaineee A.E., *a?aieia A.A. Iao/ii iainiiaaiiua i?eaiu oaaee/aiey
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25. *a?aieia A.A., E?aia?aa N.I., E?aniaieia N.A. Yeieiae/aneea aniaeou
i?eiaiaiey ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee a aa?ioeaiicao eoeo?ocu, ni?ai e
ethoea?iu//Yeieiae/aneea aniaeou caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aeoe/aneay eiioa?aioeey.-E.,-1996.-N.46-43.

26. Cherenkov A.V., Kramarev S.M. et al. Ecological monitoring of
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maize, sorgo and lucerne//International ecological
congress.-Voronezh.-Russia.-1966.-P.13-16.

27.Cherenkov A.V., Kramarev S.M., Krasnenkov S.V. Agroecological value
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herbicides during of Maize, sorgo and lucerne//International ecological
congress.-Voronezh.-Russia.-1996.-P.2-3.

28. *a?aieia A.A. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey oaa?aeuo e aeeaeeeo oi?i
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29. *a?aieia A.A. Aeeyiea niiniaia iniiaiie ia?aaioee ii/au iiauie
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30. *a?aieia A.A. Aoaeoeaiinoue noiiniiai aianaiiy aa?aioeeaeia, ?iaeeeo
eiiieaenieo aeia?ea i iie?iaeaiaioia a iiniaao ethoea?ie ia?oiai ?ieo
aeeooy//Iaoa?iaee ?anioaeieainueei( eii?aeeiaoeieii-iaoiaee/ii( ?aaee c
i?iaeai ei?iiaeo ?ano?nia i ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa ii oaii “Ca?iioo?aaeii
ca?iiaiaiai i ei?iiai eoeueoo?e”.-Aiiieoey.-1997.-N.106-108.

31. Cherenkov A.V., Kramarev S.M. Water Consumption peculiarities of
Sorghum, maize and alfalfa agrocenoses in the drought conditions of
Northern Ukrainian Steppes//International ecological
congress.-Voronezh.-Russia.-1997.-P.5-7.

32. *a?aieia A.A., A?oaiaiei N.O. Canoinoaaiiy aoaeaaiiiieieo nieae oa
iie?iaeia?ea i?e ae?iuoaaiii ethoea?ie//Iaoa?iaee ?anioaeieainueei(
eii?aeeiaoeieii-iaoiaee/ii( ?aaee c i?iaeai ei?iiaeo ?ano?nia i
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa ii oaii “Ca?iioo?aaeii, ca?iiaiaiai i ei?iiai
eoeueoo?e”(iiae ?aae. A.I.Aaae/a).-Aiiieoey.-1997.-N.56-58.

33. *a?aieia A.A., Eoeee E.E. Yooaeoeaiinoue /ecaeueiie ia?aaioee ii/au
i?e aicaeaeuaaiee ethoea?iu ia caeaiue ei?i//Atheeaoaiue Einoeoooa
ca?iiaiai oicyenoaa.-1997.-?6-7.-N.127-132.

34. *a?aieia A.A. Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeiie?eaieo oa aaciie?eaieo
iiniaia ethoea?ie i?e ae?iuoaaiii ia ei?i oa ianiiiy a iiaii/iiio Noaio
Oe?a(ie//Ca. iaoe. i?. Oiainueei( nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei(
aeaaeai((.”Aa?a?ii i?iaeaie ?ineeiieoeoaa i
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa”*.I.-Oiaiue.-1998.-N.131-135.

35. *a?aieia A.A. ?aiiee aaniie?iaiue iinaa
ethoea?iu//Caieaaeaeea.-1998.-?5.-N.38-40.

36. *a?aieia A.A. No?iee niaae i ianiii(aa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aaciie?eaieo
iiniaia ethoea?ie//Ca. iaoe. i?. Oiainueei( nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei(
aeaaeai((.”Aa?a?ii i?iaeaie ?ineeiieoeoaa i
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa”*.I.-Oiaiue.-1998.-N.126-130.

37. *a?aieia A.A., A?oaiaiei N.O. Ai?ioueaa c ao?’yiaie a iiniaao
ethoea?ie o?aoueiai ?ieo aeeooy//Noaiiaa
caiea?ianoai.-Aei.31.-1998.-N.29-33.

38. *a?aieia A.A., ?eaea A.N. Aeiiiii/ia oa aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeaiinoue
?icieo oaoiieiaie ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie a iiaii/iiio Noaio Oe?a(ie//
Atheaoaiue Iinoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa.-1999.-?6.-N.45-48.

AIIIOAOeEss

*A?AIEIA A.A. Iao/iia iainiiaaiea aaeaioeaiie oaoiieiaee au?aueaaiey
ethoea?iu ia ei?i e naiaia a naaa?iie Noaie Oe?aeiu.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.09 — ?anoaieaaiaenoai. Einoeooo ca?iiaiai
oicyenoaa OAAI, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999 a.

Caueuaaony iao/iay ?aaioa, niaea?aeauay ?acoeueoaou iiiaieaoieo
enneaaeiaaiee; ia iniiaa eioi?uo ?ac?aaioaia aaeaioeaiay oaoiieiaey
au?aueaaiey ethoea?iu ia ei?i e naiaia a naaa?iie Noaie Oe?aeiu. Ia
iniiaa eniieueciaaiey nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e aiaeeco iieo/aiiiai
yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?eaea i?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua niiniau iniiaiie
ia?aaioee ii/au iiae ethoea?io n eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiuo ?ano?ni- e
yia?ainaa?aaathueo i?oaeee, enneaaeiaaiu i?e yoii iniaaiiinoe
oi?ie?iaaiey caiania ii/aaiiie aeaae. Aia?aua ii?aaeaeaii aeaenoaea
aaeaioaoeeiiiuo e eiiiainaoi?iuo iaoaieciia ?anoaiee ethoea?iu i?e
?acee/iuo oneiaeyo eo i?iec?anoaiey.

Auyaeaiu ioee/eoaeueiua aeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe ?anoaiee,
eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho eo/oee eo ?ino e ?acaeoea i?e eniieueciaaiee
?ino?aaoee?othueo aauanoa iiaiai iieieaiey, eiathueo oeoiai?iiiaeueioth
iai?aaeaiiinoue. Iainiiaaiu i?eioeeiu iiaeai?a, niaiauaiey nianae
aei?aaoeyoi?ia ?inoa n oaeia?aieyie, aa?aeoeeaeaie aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey
iieaaaiey ?anoaiee n oie/oiaeaieai (iiaeaaeaieai) ni?iie
?anoeoaeueiinoe, /oi iicaieyao nieceoue aeicu i?eiaiyaiuo n?aaenoa
caueou.

N iiiiuueth ei??aeyoeaii-?aa?anneiiiiai aiaeeca ?ane?uo ?yae
caeiiiia?iinoae a ?aaeoeee ?anoaiee ethoea?iu ia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
iaaeoaciuo ia?eiaeia iiae aeeyieai ?aciuo iaoai?ieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae
a caaeneiinoe io n?ieia naaa, aonoiou ?anoaiee e ae?oaeo aa?ioaoie/aneeo
i?eaiia.

Aia?aua onoaiiaeaiu ?ieue, cia/aiea e noaiaiue aeeyiey oaeoi?ia
aiaoiae n?aaeu ia oi?ie?iaaiea aaeaioaoeeiiiie ooieoeee ei?iaaie nenoaiu
ethoea?iu i?e ?aciuo oneiaeyo aa au?aueaaiey. I?e yoii auyaeaia
caeiiiia?iinoue iiaaaiia?aciaaiey, /oi niinianoaoao ia oieueei
onei?aiiiio nicaeaieth anneieeyoeeiiiiai aiia?aoa e iaeiieaieth caianiuo
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa, a e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth eo ?anoaieyie i?e
aicieeiiaaiee no?anniauo iiaiaeiuo neooaoeee.

Eco/aia e i?aaeeiaeaia i?iecaiaenoao iiaay iie?iaiay eoeueoo?a
aeey ethoea?iu, eioi?ay ia?yaeo n iauaecaanoiuie eoeueoo?aie ciiu a
caaeneiinoe io iiaiaeiuo oneiaee niinianoaoao a ?aciua ia?eiaeu
i?aaiiaaiaca eo/oaio ?inoo e ?acaeoeth ethoea?iu, ?aii inaiaiaeaeaao aa
ec iiae iie?iaa, /oi aa?aioe?oao naiaa?aiaiiia i?iaaaeaiea
niioaaonoaothueo aa?ioaoie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee ii ooiaeo ca iinaaaie,
ieaie?iaaiea n?ieia e niiniaia oai?ee o?iaeay, iaania/eaaao
aiciiaeiinoue oi?ie?iaaoue caaeaiey ii ?ac?aaioea a ia?niaeoeaa
yooaeoeaiuo ia? ii iioeiecaoeee oneiaee au?aueaaiey yoie eoeueoo?u.

Ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey oeacaiiiai iiaeoiaea e aiaeeco
yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa?eaea onoaiiaeaiu iniaaiiinoe aeeyiey inaaeeia,
n?aaeianooi/iie oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa e noiiu yooaeoeaiuo oaiia?aoo? ia
i?ioyaeaiee anaai ia?eiaea aaaaoaoeee, ia oi?ie?iaaiea o?iaiy
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ethoea?iu. auaaaeaiu eiyooeoeeaiou ei??aeyoeeiiiie
caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo yoeie iieacaoaeyie, i?e eioi?uo iaeaieaa iieii
?aaeecoaony aeieiae/aneee iioaioeeae iaeiie ec iniiaiuo aiaiauo eoeueoo?
a ciia — ethoea?iu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ethoea?ia, yeaiaiou oaoiieiaee, iaoai?ieiae/aneea
oaeoi?u, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ?anoaiee (ei?i e naiaia).

AIIOAOeIss

*A?AIEIA A.A. Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aaeaioeaii( oaoiieia((
ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia ei?i oa ian(iiy a i(ai(/iiio Noaio Oe?a(ie.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ii niaoeiaeueiinoi 06.01.09 —
?ineeiieoeoai. Iinoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI, Aeiii?iiao?ianuee,
1999 ?.

Caoeua(oueny iaoeiaa ?iaioa, yea iinoeoue ?acoeueoaoe
aaaaoi?i/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue; ia (o aaci ?ic?iaeaia aaeaioeaia oaoiieiaiy
ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia ei?i i ianiiiy a iiaii/iiio Noaio Oe?a(ie.
Anoaiiaeaii aeeoa?aioeieiaaii niiniae iniiaiiai ia?iaioeo a?oioo,
iioeiaeueiee no?ie niaae i ii?ie aeniao ethoea?ie i?e aaciie?eaiiio ((
ae?iuoaaiii. Aea/aii i ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ae?iaieoeoao no?iee, niiniae oa
aeice canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea, iie?iaeaiaioia, ?aaoeyoi?ia ?inoo, a oaeiae
oiii/ii caniae caoenoo iiniaia. Aecia/aii aeith aaeaioaoeieieo i
eiiiainaoi?ieo iaoaiiciia ?ineei ethoea?ie i?e ?icieo oiiaao (o
aeei?enoaiiy. Aeyaeaii iioeiaeueii ia?aiao?e iieacieeia iiaiaeieo
oaeoi?ia i?ioyaii aaaaoaoei( i?e yeeo iaeaieueo iiaii ?aaeico(oueny
aiieiai/iee iioaioeiae ?ineei ethoea?ie.

Oia?oa aeineiaeaeaii i aecia/aii ?ieue, cia/aiiy i nooiaiue
aieeao eiaeiiai ic oaeoi?ia ciaiioiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia oi?ioaaiiy
aaeaioeaii( ooieoe(( ei?aiaai( nenoaie ethoea?ie i?e iaiaeiaeiaeo oiiaao
ae?iuoaaiiy. I?e oeueiio aeyaeaia caeiiiii?iinoue oaiiia noaaeaooai?aiiy
o ?ineei, ui iieyaa( ia oieueee o i?enei?aiiio noai?aiii aneiieyoeieiiai
aia?aoo oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiii caianieo ieanoe/ieo ?a/iaei, a i
ia?a?iciiaeiei (o iiae i?aaiaie ?ineei i?e aeieeiaiii no?aniaeo
iiaiaeieo neooaoeie.

Eeth/iai neiaa: ethoea?ia, aeaiaioe oaoiieiai(, iaoai?ieiai/ii oaeoi?e,
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ?ineei (ei?i oa ianiiiy).

SUMMARY

CHERENKOV A.V. The scientific substantation for adaptable growing
technology of alfalfa for feed and seed in the North Steppe of Ukraine.

Thesis for a Doctor’s degree on Agriculture in speciality 06.01.09 —
Plant Industry. Institute of Grain Farming, UAAS, Dniepropetrovsk, 1999

The scientific work is to be maintained which deals with the results of
the long-term investigations concerning the adaptable growing technology
of alfalfa for feed, and seed in the North Steppe of Ukraine. The
initial and secondary soil tillage are differentiated and optimum
seeding dates, depths, and rates of alfalfa with its blanket, and
non-blanket growing have been established. The terms, rates, and way to
use of fertilizers, microelements, growth regulators and plant
protection chemicals have been studied and recommended for Agriculture.
The adaptable and compensatory mechanisms actions of alfalfa plants in
different growth conditions are determined. The ascertained optimum
weather indices during growth cycle may be helpful in achieving full
incarnation of alfalfa biological yield potential.

For the first time the role, mean, and influence degree of each
environmental factor for alfalfa root system adaptable function
formation have been investigated and determined. By the same time
natural stalk formation of lodged plants was established not only in
intensive assimilative system formation, and accumulation of plastides,
but its redistribution between plants organs by stress weather
situations.

Key words: alfalfa, technology elements, agrometeorological factors,
plant productivity (feed and seed)

Iiaeienaii aei ae?oeo: 9.03.1999 ?.

Oi?iao 60 o 84 / 16

Oiia. ae?. a?. 2,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Caeac ? 25

Iinoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI

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