*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Aeia?aeainueeee Ieaenaiae? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE: 947.785 “19” / “20”

Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO
no.

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

*a?i?aoe? — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: ae.?.i., i?ioani? Aioooainueeee Aaneeue
Iaoiae?eiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Nioaiue Iaaei Noaiaiiae/ – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaea?/oe Noaiai A?naio?eiae/ – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aoiieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.O?aiea

TH??e Ieoaeei Oaaei?iae/ – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, 07.00.01 – ?noi??y
Oe?a?ie

I?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 18 /a?aiy 19999 ?. 0 10 aiae. ia c-an?aeaii?
niao?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 76.051.03 o *a?i?aaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a ca aae?anith: 274012, *a?i?aoe?, aoe.
Eaoaae?aeueia, 2, ei?i. 14, aoae. 18.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 13 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

e.?.i., aeioeaio Ea?ii
A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aoei
/eiaei aa?i?/ieo, neaaieo noi??iie, eiee, iacaaaeath/e ia iani?eyoeea?
ianoaaeie, ?eceeoth/e aeeooyi, iao? i?aaeee caoeuaee naith naiaiaeo,
ai?ieeny i?ioe nioe?aeueiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aiiaeaiiy. *oaeicaiia
iaioaaiiy, yea ?icoyaioeiny ia aeae?eueea noie?oue, ia ceaiaei a
ia?iaei?e na?aeiiino? a??e o e?aua iaeaooi?, i?aaiaiiy aei aecaieaiiy,
anoaiiaeaiiy ni?aaaaeeeaeo ii?yaee?a. O O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.
iaeaaaeeea?oeie oaeoi?aie a?o/eciyii? ?noi??? noaee: oi?ioaaiiy
iiaea?ii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, a?aenoithaaiiy caeiiieo iie?oe/ieo i?aa,
ai?ioueaa ca caa?aaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? iiae, cae/a?a,
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, ooaa?aeaeaiiy ii/oooy ?aeiino? an?o
oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue. A oiiaao aacaea?aeaaiino? oe?a?ioeyi aeiaaeiny
iaeii/anii ae??ooaaoe ? o? i?iaeaie, ye? aeey ?ioeo ia?iae?a oaea aoee
i?ieaeaiei aoaiii, ? o?, ye? noaaeei oaeaeeiieeiia aeeooy. Ca oaeeo
ianoaaei iaoe?iiaeueia ai?ioueaa noaea oeaiaiooth/ith neeith, ui
ia’?aeioaaea ?ic??ciai? oe?a?inuee? caie? a ?aeeia oe?ea. Oea yaeua
oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? caneoaiao? ia aeieeaaeia ? anaa?/ia aea/aiiy. Ia
iiaeia ia iiaiaeeoeny c? neiaaie a?aeiiiai ?noi?eea A.Na?aay:
“Nueiaiaei? i?iaeaie ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a?ae
eiai ca?iaeaeaiiy aei iaoeo aei?a aenoaathoueny ia ia?aaei?e e?ae
aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe oao?aoe?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie”. Ia?ene c ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo /A?aei. ?aae. A.Na?aae.- E.: ?inoeooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, 1994. — N. 3.

Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoe?iiaeueii? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. noaa iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oe?a?ioe?a
Aoeiaeie. Iiiaae /ioe?enoa ?ie?a ianaeaiiy e?ath, iio?aieaoe i?ae aeaaeo
Iieaeaa??, aoei a?ae??aaia a?ae ?aooe aoi?/iiai ianeao oe?a?inoaa. C
1774 ?. oey oa?eoi??y ia?aeoea aei neeaaeo Aano??enueei? aea?aeaae.
Oe?a?ioe? Aoeiaeie noaee nai???aeiei aoi?/iei oi?iinoii oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae?, caciath/e neeueieo anei?eyoe?eieo
aieea?a. ?noi?e/i? oa aaiiie?oe/i? ianoaaeie, ui neeaeeny ooo, nooo?ai
a?ae??ciyeeny ia o?eueee a?ae oiai/aniiai noaiiaeua Iaaeaei?i?yiueie,
aea e non?aeiuei? Aaee/eie ? ia aoee ni?eyoeeaeie aeey caa?aaeaiiy
aoi?/ii? naiiaooiino? oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy. Oa ia?iae aenoiya, caa??a
??aeio iiao, noa?iaeaai? cae/a?, ii/oooy aoi?/ii? ?aeiino? c ?ioeie
oe?a?inueeeie caieyie. sse o?eueee neeaeeny iaeaaei? oiiae, oe?a?ioe?
Aoeiaeie i?aeiyeeny ia ai?ioueao ca nai? iaoe?iiaeuei? oa iie?oe/i?
i?aaa, aeinyaoe ca ii??aiyii iaaaeeeee a?ae??cie /ano a?ae na?aaeeie O?O
no. aei ii/aoeo Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie cia/ieo oni?o?a o cao?ooaaii?
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, i?aeianaii? eiai iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?.

Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia Aoeiaei? iaa /eiaei iniaeeainoae, aea
?acii c oei a?i ?icaeaaany ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai
?ooo. Ana oea ?iaeoue iaoe?iiaeueio ai?ioueao oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie
iaaecae/aeii oe?iiith ? aaaeeeaith oaiith aeey ?icoi?iiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
iniaeeaiai oa caaaeueiiai a ?icaeoeo caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ia? aaeeea iaoeiaa
cia/aiiy, ine?eueee aea? iiaeeea?noue aeynieoe iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy
oa ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo ia ie?ai?e oa?eoi???, ye?e i?eoaiaii?
niaoeeo?/i? aaiiie?oe/i?, ?noi?e/i?, aoiiaeaiia?ao?/i? oiiae, a oaeiae
aecia/eoe aianie ianaeaiiy oeueiai e?ath a caaaeueiioe?a?inueeee
noni?eueiee iinooi. Anaa?/ia aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a
Aoeiaeie caaaa/o? ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i neeaaei? i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, aeieeiaiiy oe?a?inueeeo noni?eueieo oa/?e oa
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ?oi? i?ia?aii? aeiiae, i?i noaaeaiiy aano??enueei?
aeaaee aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, i?i ae?yeuei?noue iaeaecia/i?oeo eiai
e?aea??a oiui. Aiii aeanoue ciiao iiaa/eoe, ye a oiiaao ie?aii?
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? ei?iiii? caie? Aano??? (Aano?i-Oai?ueie)
a?aeaoaaeiny noaiiaeaiiy ?oo?eieo nee oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo, ye eiie?aoecoaaeeny eiai aeiiae, ye a?aeaoaaany ?icaeoie
i?aai?caoe?eieo, iie?oe/ieo oa eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi?o no?oeoo?, ye?
ia?aoeiaee aeiaiaeeeiny aeieaoe ? ye a?aeaoaaeany aca?iiae?y c ?ioeie
oe?a?inueeeie caieyie. Ioaea, iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie
ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. — aaaeeeaa noi??iea oe?a?inueei?
?noi??? — ia? aaeeea iaoeiaa oa i?ciaaaeueia cia/aiiy ? aeiaaa?
iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy.

*eiaei iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai, ye? ae??ooaaeeny a e?ioe? O?O – ia
ii/aoeo OO no., ia?aaoeothoueny c no/anieie noni?eueieie i?ioeanaie.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o aea? iiaeeea?noue e?aua c?icoi?oe aeoiee yaeu, ye?
iathoue i?noea nueiaiaei?. ?oiy cia/ou?noue ia ciaioeeany c ieeiii
/ano. Aeina?ae, iaa?iiaaeaeaiee o o? ?iee, noaa aaaiiei iaaeaaiiyi
nea?aieoe? ?noi?e/ii? iai’yo? iaoiai ia?iaeo, yeo iaiao?aeii
aeine?aeaeoaaoe ? iiioey?ecoaaoe.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – noeoii?noue ?aeae, iiaeyae?a, oi?i ? iaoiae?a
iie?oe/ii?, eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei?, i?aai?caoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
a?iiaaenueeeo no?oeoo? oa ie?aieo iniaenoinoae, ye? oiniaethaaee
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo .

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy
Aoeiaeie a eiai ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo.

Iaoa ?iaioe: ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? iiaeo
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a aeaoe ocaaaeueithth/o anaa?/io ea?oeio
aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

Ia’?eo, i?aaeiao oa iaoa ?iaioe iaoiiaeee oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ice?eoe aieea nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo /eiiee?a oa iie?oe/ieo
oaeoi??a ia ?icai?oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie;

— aecia/eoe, ye ? ca yeeo ianoaaei ca?iaeeany iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo
oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie;

— c’ynoaaoe aieiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, c?inoaiiy eiai
i?aai?ciaaiino?, ?aeaeii? oa iie?oe/ii? cia/ouino?;

— iieacaoe ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo noni?eueieo oa/?e, iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oiaa?enoa, aaiethoe?th ?oi?o
oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a, i?ia?aiieo aeiia, iaoiae?a ai?ioueae;

— aeine?aeeoe aieea oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia noni?euei?
i?ioeane a e?a?, i?iaaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo
?aoi?i;

— i?inoaaeeoe aca?iiae?th iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie oa
?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe caeiaooee oa oiouai? iiaeeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia Aoeiaei? cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?iaioe a?oioothoueny ia i?eioeeiao ?noi?ecio oa
ia’?eoeaiino?. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue aeei?enoaii
ii??aiyeueiee, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee ? i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee iaoiaee.
Ia iaoo aeoieo, naia oe? iaoiaee aeaaaee iaee?au? iiaeeeaino? aeey
aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ? caaaeaiue.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ie?aiee ei?iiiee e?ae
Aano??? (Aano?i-Oai?ueie) aa?oeianoai Aoeiaeio. Ooo neeaeeny niaoeeo?/i?
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo iae/eneaii?oi? aoi?/ii? a?oie ianaeaiiy e?ath –
oe?a?ioe?a.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae e?ioey
50-o – ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a O?O no., eiee oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo
ia Aoeiaei? ca?iaeeany, aei 1914 ?., oiaoi ii/aoeo Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie, yea aeiei??iii ci?ieea oiiae ?icai?oaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ? caii/aoeoaaea iiaee ia??iae eiai ?icaeoeo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui oey i?aoey ? ia?oei a
oe?a?inuee?e oa ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? oe?e?niei, eiiieaeniei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.

Aia?oa aaaaeai? a iaoeiaee ia?a a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe, iaoa??aee i?ane,
ae?oeiaai? aeaea?aea aeaee ciiao ii-iiaiio, ia’?eoeaii i?ae?eoe aei
ioe?iee oa aena?oeaiiy aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ?noi???
Aoeiaeie, ye? iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeoaaeeny o iiia?aaei? /ane.

O ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii aaeineiiaeaio noaio ia??iaeecaoe??
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie, a iniiao yei? iieeaaeaii
c?inoaiiy i?aai?ciaaiino?, ?aeaeii? aecia/aiino? oa iie?oe/ii?
aeoeaiino? oe?a?ioe?a e?ath.

Aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? iieacaii iiaiee niaeo? iie?oe/ieo
nee ? iai?yie?a a oe?a?inoa? Aoeiaeie, ?icia?ooy
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo, i?ina?oi?o, oaoiaeo oiaa?enoa, i?iaiae?ciaaii
?aeaei? canaaee iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a e?ath, iaeaaaeeea?o?
oe?e?, aeiiae oa iai?yiee ai?ioueae a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo
OO no.

Aecia/aii niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? oa caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino?
?icai?oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ye neeaaeiai?
/anoeie caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
eiai iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oa c?a?aiiai oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo aeey
iaienaiiy ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae c ?noi???
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue oa Aoeiaeie, i?aeaioiaee i?ae?o/iee?a,
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, i?ia?ai, iocaeieo aeniiceoe?e oa aenoaaie.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey i?aeaioiaee
eaeoe?e, i?iaaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo, oe?a?inueei? noni?eueii? aeoiee, oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ?
?oo?a oiui, ?ic?iaee ie?aieo niaoeeo?n?a.

C?a?ai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? ?noi?e/i? a?aeiiino? noaiiaeyoue oi?ioo iniiao
aeey i?iaaaeaiiy eaeoe?eii? oa i?ina?oieoeueei? ?iaioe na?aae ianaeaiiy,
aeoiaaiiy iao??ioe/ieo ii/ooo?a, ci?oeiaiiy aea?aeaaieoeueeeo iiaeyae?a,
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?iaeaiaie, i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie.
Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia a ?one? iaoeiai? i?iaeaiaoeee
eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
TH.Oaaeueeiae/a oa iaoeiaeo i?ia?ai, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny i?e ni?eyii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai Oeaio?o aoeiaeiiciaanoaa i?e *a?i?aaoeueeiio
oi?aa?neoao?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?iaioa ai?iaiaaia ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e ?noi???
Oe?a?ie *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, a
oaeiae ia a?eueo i?ae aeaio aeanyoeao i?aeia?iaeieo oa anaoe?a?inueeeo
eiioa?aioe?e. Na?aae ieo: I?iaeaie ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia
Oe?a?i? (aei 1917 ?.). Ae?oaa Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y. — Ieeiea?a, 7-8 aeiaoiy 1992 ?.; Aei aeoie?a iacae e?ath
“Aoeiaeia”. Ae?oaa Aoeiaeinueea ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/a eiioa?aioe?y. —
*a?i?aoe?, 2-3 aeiaoiy 1992 ?.; Iie?oe/ia aeoiea a Oe?a?i?: ieioea ?
no/ani?noue. Anaoe?a?inueea eiioa?aioe?y. — Ee?a, 1–4 ethoiai 1993 ?.;
Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee – aecia/iee oe?a?inueeee a/aiee, aea?aeaaiee ae?y/,
a?iiaaeyiei. I?aeia?iaeia tha?eaeia eiioa?aioe?y, i?enay/aia 125-e
??/ieoe? a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy Ieoaeea A?ooaanueeiai. — Euea?a, 27–29
na?iiy 1991 ?.; Ae?oaee I?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an oe?a?i?no?a. — Euea?a,
22–28 na?iiy 1993 ?.; Aoeiaeia ye ?a?iiaenueeee eoeueoo?iee eaiaeoaoo.
I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y. — Aoanao?a (I?ia//eia), 29 aa?aniy –
1 aeiaoiy 1994 ?.; Aoeiaeia – ?a?iia a i?i?aoth??. I?aeia?iaeia
eiioa?aioe?y. — ssno?ia’? (Iieueua). 2–4 /a?aiy 1994 ?.; O?aoy
I?aeia?iaeia ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/a iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y, i?enay/aia
120-??//th canioaaiiy *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – *a?i?aoe?, 29
aa?aniy — 1 aeiaoiy 1995 ?.; O?ao?e I?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an oe?a?i?no?a.
– Oa?e?a, 26-29 na?iiy 1996 ?.; ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia neooaoe?y a
Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii?. ?ioaa?aoe?ei? i?ioeane ? iaoe?iiaeueia niaoeeo?ea.
1867–1918. I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y. — Iineaa, 27–29 eenoiiaaea 1996
?.; Aoeiaeia 1775–1862 ??. Iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i?,
eoeueoo?i? oa aeaiia?ao?/i? aniaeoe. I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y. —
?aae?aoe? (?oioi?y), 31 o?aaiy – 3 /a?aiy 1996 ?.; Ia?eaiaionueea ?
ia?o?eia ?noi??y Aoeiaeie. I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y. — Aoanao?a
(I?ia//eia), 29 eeiiy – 1 na?iiy 1998 ?. oa ?i.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ci?no aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoi a iaei?e ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e
iiiia?ao??, iaei?e iiiia?ao?? iaienai?e o ni?aaaoi?noa?, ?icae?eao
eieaeoeaii? iiiia?ao??, 30 noaooyo o aeo?iaeao oa iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao.

I?aaeiao, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe iaoiiaeee ?? no?oeoo?o. Aiia
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, iiae?eaieo ia 14
i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a (?acii 399 noi??iie), nieneo aeaea?ae oa
e?oa?aoo?e (66 noi??iie, 879 iaca), aeiaeaoe?a ( 42 noi??iee, 5
oaaeeoeue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaothoueny aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? oaie, ?? o?iiieia?/i?
? oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee, aecia/a?oueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, i?aaeiao,
ia’?eo ? iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi eiai iaoeiao iiaecio oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca” aea?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoeea noaio iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oa aeaea?ae, ye?
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?e iaienaii? ?iaioe.

Oiiaii anth e?oa?aoo?o, ui noino?oueny oaie, ?icaeoi ia o?e /anoeie. Aei
ia?oi? a?aeianaii i?aoe? caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o c i?iaeai
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei. Na?aae ieo aeae?eaii i?aoe? I.A?ioa, a yeeo
?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?e o ia?iae?a Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie. I?iaiae?ciaaii ?iaioe A.Aaeeia?a, A.Ni?oa, A.Oianaaoia,
A.Aiaea?niia, E.Aeie/a oa ?i.

Na?aae oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a inoaiiueiai /ano a?aecia/aii ?iaioe
ss.Aeaoeaae/a, yeee i?iaiae?coaaa aieiai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiae?cio. I?iaeaie aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa aeoeaii ?ic?iaeythoueny
TH.?eia?aieii oa i/iethaaiei iei iaoeiaei eieaeoeaii. C?iaeaii /eiaei
aeey iiioey?ecaoe?? no/anieo oyaeaiue i?i aoi?/ia, iaoe?iiaeueia,
aea?aeaaia oa ?o aca?iica’ycie.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie a?aeianaii caaaeuei? i?aoe? i?i oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo, oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.

Ia?oa ni?iaa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a
no/ani?e ?noi??ia?ao?? c?iaeaia aaoi?nueeei eieaeoeaii aaea caaaeoaaii?
eieae “Ia?ene c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo” ca
?aaeaeoe??th i?ioani?a A.Na?aay. A i?e ?aeaoueny i?i ooaa?aeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? a ia??iae c e?ioey OV??? aei ii/aoeo OO no.,
iiaeaii eiie?aoi? a?aeiiino? i?i ?noi??th a?iiaae?anueeiai ?ooo,
iieiae?aei? ao?oee, iaoe?iiaeueio ai?ioueao ia??iaeo ?aaiethoe??
1905–1907 ??. Aieiaio oaaao aaoi?e i?eae?eeee ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia oa?eoi??yo, i?aeaeaaeieo ?in?enuee?e ?iia???.

Aeey ?icoi?iiy caaaeueieo i?ioean?a, iia’ycaieo ?c ?icai?oaiiyi
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo
OO no., aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue i?aoe? ss.A?eoeaea, A.Aeaieeaiea,
N.?eaeue/eea, I.AEa?iieea?aa, ss.?na?ae/a, A.Eanueyiiaa, AE.Eiaae,
E.Eiiae?aothea, I.Eoaooyea, N.Iaea?/oea, I.?a?ioa, A.Na?aay,
?.Neiiiaiea, I.Nioaiy, A.O?ioei’yea, O.Oo?/aiea, I.Oei, I.TH??y.

*eiaeee aianie o ?ic?iaeo i?iaeai ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. c?iaeee oe?a?inuee? a/ai?
ae?anii?e. ??ciiieaiiaeie ? iieai?/ieie ? noaoo?
?.Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai, ai?uai? a aeaioiiieeo “?noi?e/i? ana”. Aaoi?
i?aaioa oai?aoe/ii inieneeoe oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, aeeneoooaaa
uiaei i?iaeai “?noi?e/ieo” ? “ia?noi?e/ieo” iaoe?e, iie?oe/iiai
noaiiaeua oe?a?ioe?a i?ae aano??enueeei iaioaaiiyi.

?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei? a o?niiio ca’yceo c
aeiiii?/ieie oa nioe?aeueieie i?ioeanaie aeine?aeaeo?oueny a ?iaioao
Aeae.Oeiee.

I?i aaaeeea? aniaeoe oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo iioae?eiaaii
?iaioe A.Eaiiaea?a, ?.Oii?ethea, ?.Iaai/?y, A.E?aa/aiea, A.Aa?eae.

O?aoy a?oia i?aoeue – aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? noinothoueny aaciina?aaeiuei
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo
OO no., a oaeiae iaeaaaeeea?oeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?iaeai Aano?i-Oai?ueie cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo.

Aea/aiiy oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia Aoeiaei? caii/aoeiaaii a
e?ioe? O?O no. eieaith i?ioani?a *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
N.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai “Aoeiaeinueea ?onue. Eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iee
ia?acie”. Oea aoea ia?oa i?aoey, a ye?e aeine?aeaeoaaeany ?noi??y
oe?a?ioe?a e?ath a?ae /an?a Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa aei
na?aaeeie 90-o ?ie?a O?O no.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. c’yaeythoueny eieae ?.Ea?aoeeoeueeiai, ?.Aeieo??aa,
A.N?iiae/a, I.Ei?aeoae, i?enay/ai? ?icaeoeia? ina?oe ia Aoeiaei?,
ae?yeueiino? ia?oiai oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa “?onueea Aan?aea”,
oe?a?inueeeo nooaeaionueeeo oiaa?enoa oiui. C e?ioey O?O no. ?noi??y
oea?eae oa oea?eiaieo i?iaeai Aoeiaeie aena?oethaaeany a i?aoeyo
A.Ii?aeaeiiaa, N.Aeaoeaae/a, ?.I?aoeyea.

Iaei??th c iaee?aueo eiea oeueiai ia??iaeo i?i oe?a?ioe?a e?ath, i?i
aoeiaeinueeiai nieia?y TH.Oaaeueeiae/a noaea a?oioiaia i?aoey I.Iaeiaay
“AEeoo?ien Ineia TH??y Ai?aeeinueeiai-Oaaeueeiae/a”. Aaoi? i?ia?a aaeeeo
iiooeiao ?iaioo, c?a?aaoe /eiaeo e?euee?noue aeieoiaio?a, iniaeeai
ai?noiey?ieo. AEeooy TH.Oaaeueeiae/a iieacaii ia oe?ieiio oii?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a oiai /ano.

Aeey ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo iaaecae/aeia cia/aiiy iaee i?aoe?
?.O?aiea “Aoeiieia?y ? oiiaoeea a thaeii?onuee?e e?oa?aoo??”,
“Oe?a?inuee? “ia?iaeiaoe?” ? “?aaeeeaee”, “Inei TH??e Oaaeueeiae/”,
“Eoe’yi Eiaeeeoey” oiui.

O 20–30-o? ?iee OO no. ianoa? iiaee aoai o ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeaiue
noni?eueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie. A oeae /an c’yaeythoueny ?iaioe
A.I?aeaeoaiiai, E.Eiaooa, A.Einoauoea, a yeeo ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy
i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia Aoeiaei?
aano??enueeiai ia??iaeo. Iiaa/eee na?o oaeiae aeae?eueea tha?eaeieo
aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo e?oaeei aeaoai a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo oiaa?enoa
Aoeiaeie. Oea, cie?aia, “?ethno?oaaia x?oi?ea ooaa?enoaa “Oe?a?inueeee
Ia?oaeiee Ae?i” o *e?i?aoeyx 1884–1934”, “?ethno?oaaia ?noo??y
ooaa?enoaa “Oe?a?inueea oeoea” a *e?i?aoeyx” I.Aa?ana, “Aeueiaiao
25-e?oiueiai tha?eath oiaa?enoaa “I?uainueeee oi?” a *a?i?aoeyo” oa ?i.
Iath/e ia?aaaaeii ?ioi?iaoeaiee oa?aeoa?, iacaai? aeaeaiiy ia?aeiieeai
iieacoaaee, iane?eueee aaaaoith ? ??ciiieaiiaith aoea ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeeo eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo oiaa?enoa o ia?o? aeanyoee?ooy
OO no.

A oe?eiio, ?noi??ia?ao?y i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany ia?oeie
ni?iaaie aeaoe ocaaaeueithth/o ea?oeio ?noi??? Aoeiaeie ae?oai? iieiaeie
O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. ? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo cie?aia. Aea
?iaeeiny oea ia aocuee?e aeaea?aeuei?e aac?, iaiaaeaieie
iaoiaeieia?/ieie caniaaie. Oiio iniaeeaeie oni?oaie oeae ia??iae
?noi??ia?ao?? ia a?aecia/aany.

I?ney Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i?, iacaaaeath/e ia
caneeey ?aeaieia?/ieo aeiai, aei?noeo oeaico?o, iioae?eiaaii a?oioiai?
i?aoe? A.Aioooainueeiai, ?.A?eoeaiea, I.E?aaoey, I.Eoeo?oaecyea,
I.Ieoaeeeie, O.Oaa/aiea, E.Oeeiea, ye? noaee aaaeeeaei aoaiii o ?icaeoeo
aoeiaeiiciaanoaa. Aieiaieie oaiaie aeine?aeaeaiue a oeae /an aoee
?aaiethoe?eiee ?oo oa eeaniaa ai?ioueaa, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
i?iaeaie, aeiiii?/i? oa eoeueoo?i? ca’ycee c Iaaeaei?i?yinueeith
Oe?a?iith oa ?in??th.

1980 ?. iiaa/eea na?o eieaeoeaia iiiia?ao?y “Ia?ene c ?noi??? I?ai?/ii?
Aoeiaeie”. Ie?aiee ia?aa?ao oe??? i?aoe? i?enay/oaaany
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ? iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?ooia? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O –
ii/aoeo OO no. Eiioeaioe?y aaoi??a caiaeeeany aei o?aaeeoe?eiiai a oie
/an i?ioenoaaeyiiy i?ia?aneaieo ? ?aa?aneaieo, oiaoi, ca oiae?oi?i
aecia/aiiyi, iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo aeaiaio?a o noni?eueiiio ?on?.

A oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii?? aoaiiei yaeuai o ?icaeoeo aoeiaeiiciaanoaa
noaea eieaeoeaia i?aoey “Aoeiaeia. ?? ieioea ? no/ania” ca ?aaeaeoe??th
Ae.Ea?oeianueeiai, O.A?eiaecaia, A.AEoeianueeiai, yea iiaa/eea na?o 1956
?. Aiia noaea nai???aeiith aioeeeeiiaae??th aoeiaeiiciaanoaa, yea
ai?noeea ??ciiiai?oi? a?aeiiino? i?i e?ae a?ae iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei
na?aaeeie OO no. *eiaea i?noea a ?iaio? a?aeaaaeaii ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no.
Aea eieaa ia aoea iicaaaeaia iaaieo iaaeie?e?a. Aaoi?e c? c?icoi?eeo
i?e/ei ia aeei?enoiaoaaee a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, iaeaea ia aoei caeo/aii
iaoa??aee ia??iaeeee, i?noeeiny /eiaei oaeoe/ieo iiieeie.

C e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a OO no. o ca’yceo ?c iie?oe/ieie ci?iaie a
?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? ? a na?o? acaaae? ?icii/eia?oueny iiaee aoai o
?icaeoeo aoeiaeiiciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeey oeueiai aoaio noaee
oa?aeoa?ieie iiooee iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei aea/aiiy noni?eueieo i?ioean?a
ia Aoeiaei? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., i?aaiaiiy ?icoe?eoe
aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiue, iaeaaiaeeoe o?nio ni?ai?aoeth o/aieo
??cieo e?a?i.

Ie?ai? aniaeoe iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai? iieiaeie
O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. ia iiaeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaaeao aeine?aeaeoaaeeny
o ioae?eaoe?yo A.Aioooainueeiai, I.Aeia?aeainueeiai, A.Eiaeieyiea,
I.Ianaia, N.Iiieea, I.Ne/a, A.Nei?aeei, ?.*aoianueeiai. Iioae?eiaaii
aeae?eueea oaiaoe/ieo ca??iee?a, i?enay/aieo aoeiaeiiciaa/?e
i?iaeaiaoeoe?. 1998 ?. iiaa/eea na?o eieaeoeaia iiiia?ao?y “Aoeiaeia:
?noi?e/iee ia?en”, a ye?e ie?aiee ia?aa?ao i?enay/aii iaoe?iiaeueiiio
?ooia? oe?a?ioe?a e?ath ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. Oe?
ioae?eaoe?? na?ae/aoue i?i cia/ia i?inoaaiiy aia?aae ia oeyoo aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie.

O no/ani?e ?oioi?? aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeai Aoeiaeie aano??enueeiai
ia??iaeo caeiathoueny: I.sseiaaneo, N.Io?e/, I.Iea?o, Ae.Aaoaiaithe. A
Aano??? a?aeiieie aeine?aeieeaie ieioeiai Aoeiaeie ? A.Ooio?oe, A.A?eue,
A.Ii??/; o Iieueu? — E.Oaeaoei; a I?ia//ei? — I.Eiooe?yi, ?.Iaoo?aaeue,
A.Oo?/einueeee.

Na?aae ?in?enueeeo ?noi?ee?a aea/aiiyi ?noi??? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue ?, cie?aia iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei? caeia?oueny I.I?eea?.
A?aecia/eii oaeiae i?aoe? O.?neaiiaa, I.Iieoaanueeiai, A.O?aeaeciia oa
eieaeoeai? iiiia?ao??, i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiith caaaeueieo i?iaeai
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei a Aano?i-Oai?uei?.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe ? i?aenoioaaaoe iaeyae ?noi??ia?ao?? c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
oaie, aaoi? aaaaea? ca iio??aia eiinoaooaaoe:

1. Ca a?eueo i?ae noi??/iee ia??iae o aea/aii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie iaa?iiaaeaeaii /eiaei e?oa?aoo?e, yea oi?ea?oueny
??cieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie. Iaeiae oey e?oa?aoo?a ia ioiieth? i?iaeaio a
oe?eiio.

2. Ia’?eoeai? ianoaaeie neeaeeny oaeei /eiii, ui aei oeueiai /ano oae ?
ia aoei iaienaii niaoe?aeueieo iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? ae
i?inoaaeoaaee ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie a?ae
eiai ca?iaeaeaiiy aei ii/aoeo Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.

3. A?eueo?noue i?aoeue, ye? o??th /e ?ioith i??ith oi?eaeeny
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, iaee iaiaaeaio aeaea?aeueio aaco. Aieiai?
ianeae aeaea?ae c ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie,
iniaeeai a?o?aieo, ia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaeaaeiei /eiii.

4. O e?oa?aoo?? cono??/a?oueny /eiaei noia?a/iinoae ? ia?ae?o/aiue uiaei
ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo e?aea??a, iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, oiaa?enoa,
ianoithaaieo ieie i?ia?ai. Aaaeeea? ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy ia??iaeecaoe??
?ooo, caaaeaiue ? oe?eae ie?aieo eiai oa/?e, aeinyaiooeo oni?o?a oa
oiouaieo iiaeeeainoae caeeoathoueny aeeneon?eieie.

5. A ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeyo c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie O?O–OO no. oa ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oeueiai /ano iaoe?iiaeueiei
i?aaiaiiyi oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie a?aeaiaeeoueny iai?iii?oe?eii iaei
i?noey. O i?aoeyo ca?oa?aeieo ?noi?ee?a i?i Aoeiaeio oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oaeiae aena?oeth?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei.

Ioaea, aaea aeaaii iac??ea iio?aaa ie?aiiai oe?e?niiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O –
ii/aoeo OO no.

Iaienaiiy ?iaioe aeiaaaei caeo/aiiy oe?ieiai eiea a?o?aieo oa
ae?oeiaaieo aeaea?ae, ??cieo ca iioiaeaeaiiyi oa ?ioi?iaoe?eieie
iiaeeeainoyie, ?icii?ioaieo ii aaaaoueio noiaeuao Oe?a?ie, Aano???,
?in??.

Aieiaiee ianea aeieoiaio?a, aac yeeo iaiiaeeeai iaoeiai aeine?aeaeoaaoe
aeaio i?iaeaio, caa??aa?oueny a Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? *a?i?aaoeueei?
iaeano?. O oiiaeao oeueiai a?o?ao — Aoeiaeinueei? e?aeiai? oi?aae ca
1854–1918 ??., aeeiiaa/iai eii?oaoo Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio,
Canoaai?anueei?, Noi?iaeeiaoeueei?, *a?i?aaoeueei? iia?oiaeo oi?aa,
aee?aeoe?? iie?oe?? oa ?ioeo — i?noeoueny aaeeea e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a
ae?eiaiaenoaa aea?aeaaieo onoaiia oa a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e e?ath:
?icii?yaeaeaiiy, oee?eoey?e, i?ioieiee, aeac?aee, aeiiia?aei? caienee,
caa?iaiiy, i?ioaiiy, nea?ae, ?ino?oeoe??, iiyniaiiy, a?aeiia?ae? ia
nea?ae, ye? i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii noinothoueny iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie.

Aeey iaienaiiy ?iaioe aeei?enoaii iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie a Ee?a? (oiiae 442. Eaioeaey??y Ee?anueeiai,
Iiae?euenueeiai ? Aieeinueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, o. 278. Ee?anueea
aeaiaea?inueea iie?oeaenueea oi?aae?iiy cae?cieoeue, o.1235.
I.A?ooaanueeee), Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie
o Eueaia? (o.146. Aaeeoeueea iai?nieoeoai, o.309. Iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai ?i.
O.Oaa/aiea, o.312. Oe?a?inueea nii?oeaia oiaa?enoai “Nie?e – aaoueei”,
o.348. Oiaa?enoai “I?ina?oa”, o.362. E.Nooaeeinueeee, o.386. I.Iaeiaae,
o.401. ?aaeaeoe?y aeo?iaeo “E?oa?aoo?ii-iaoeiaee a?niee” o Eueaia?,
O.663. I.Iaaeee oa ?i.), Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?
iaeano?, Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Euea?anueei? iaeano?, ?inoeoooo ?oeiieno
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i. A.Aa?iaaenueeiai, A?aeae?eo
?oeiien?a iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i. A.Noaoaieea o Eueaia?, A?aeae?eo
?oeiien?a ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie,
E?oa?aoo?ii-iaii??aeueiiai iocath I.Eiaeeyinueei? o *a?i?aoeyo,
*a?i?aaoeueeiai e?a?ciaa/iai iocath.

?c oiiae?a Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??, A?o?ao
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ?in??, Aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai iocath ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe?? aeei?enoaii aaaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ?icai?oaiiy
iineaio?euenueeiai oa ia?iaeianueeiai ?ooo ia Aoeiaei?, ca’ycee
iineaio?euenueeeo ae?y/?a c ie?aieie iie?oeeaie, a?iiaaenueeeie
i?aai?caoe?yie, iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie a ?in??, i?i iaiaaaiiy ?in?enueeeo
aeaaeieo no?oeoo? aieeaaoe ia ?icai?oaiiy noni?eueieo i?ioean?a ia
Aoeiaei?.

*eiaea e?euee?noue aeieoiaio?a ii?aoeueiaaia a Aano??enueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? o A?aei? (Oesterreichische Staatsarchiv), cie?aia
eiai a?aeae?eaiiyo Ia’?aeiaiiio aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio a?o?a? (Allgemeines
Verwaltungsarchiv) oa A?o?a? Aeeiano??, Aeai?o oa Aea?aeaae (Haus- Hof-
und Staatsarchiv). Ia?aaaaeii oea aeieoiaioe i?i?noa?noa, iia?aeiieaiiy
aoeiaeinueei? e?aeiai? aeaaee, ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i noai iineaio?euenueei?
i?iiaaaiaee. I?i ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo aeaiooao?a aano??enueeiai
ia?eaiaioo a?ae Aoeiaeie aaaeeea? aeieoiaioe aeei?enoaii c a?aeainueeiai
Ia?eaiaionueeiai a?o?ao (?arlamentsarchiv), i?i ?icai?oaiiy
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo ia Aoeiaei? oe?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th ii/a?iiooi
?c a?o?ao aano??enueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?? o A?aei? (Verein fuer
Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung. Archiv der sozialdemokratischen Partei
).

Cia/io a?oio noaiiaeyoue ae?oeiaai? aeieoiaioe. Oea iaoa??aee
aano??enueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, noaoenoeee, iioae?eiaai? noaoooe oa
i?ia?aie a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, iie?oeei-ioae?oeenoe/i? i?aoe?
aecia/ieo noni?eueieo ae?y/?a oiui.

Na?aae iaioa?ieo aeaea?ae iniaeeai ne?ae a?aecia/eoe aaaao?
?ioi?iaoe??th niiaaaee I.Iiiiae/a, O.Aae?ia, N.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai,
A.N?iiae/a oa ?i.

Aeey iaienaiiy ?iaioe aeei?enoaii oaeiae iia?aeiieaiiy oe?a?inueei?
i?ane Aoeiaeie, Aaee/eie, Iaaeaei?i?yiueie, a oaeiae ?oioinueeeo,
i?iaoeueeeo, ?a?aenueeeo, iieuenueeeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue.

Ioaea, i?iaaaeaia aaaaoi??/ia iiooeiaa ?iaioa aeaea iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe
aaeeeo e?euee?noue iiaeo aeieoiaio?a, ye? aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a
aia?oa. Aeei?enoaiiy ?o o eiiieaen? c oe?ieei eieii ?ioeo a?o?aieo oa
ae?oeiaaieo aeaea?ae caaacia/eei aeaea?aeueio aaco aeey aeeiiaiiy
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Nioe?aeueia oa iie?oeei-i?aaiaa noaiiaeua
oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie” i?iaiae?ciaaii aoi?/iee neeaae ianaeaiiy Aoeiaeie,
aeeiai?eo /enaeueiino? oe?a?ioe?a, aaia?ao?th ?o ?icnaeaiiy o e?a?.
Caa?iooi oaaao ia iniaeeaino? aano??enueei? noaoenoeee ia?iaeiianaeaiiy,
?? iaoi/i?noue. Aeiaaaeaii oeai?noue ? iaiaoeia?noue oaa?aeaeaiue
aeayeeo ?oioinueeeo iie?oee?a i?i “oe?a?i?caoe?th e?ath”, oiaoi
anei?eyoe?th oe?a?ioeyie ?oioi?a ia Aoeiaei?.

Ca ia?aienii 1910 ?. ia Aoeiaei? i?iaeeaaei iiiaae 305 oen. oe?a?ioe?a,
aiie noaiiaeee iaea?eueoo aoi?/io a?oio ianaeaiiy e?ath, eiiiaeoii
i?iaeeaath/e a i?ai?/i?e /anoei? Aoeiaeie. Aea aoee ianaeai? ioieoe c
ia?aaaaeath/ei oe?a?inueeei ianaeaiiyi ? a I?aaeaii?e Aoeiaei?.

Iniiaia iana oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy i?iaeeaaea a naeao.
Oe?a?ioe?-i?uaie noaiiaeee 9,36% oe?a?inueei? ethaeiino? e?ath. Ca
eiioan?eiith iciaeith oe?a?ioe? Aoeiaeie ae?eeeeny ia i?aaineaaieo ?
a?aei-eaoieee?a. Inoaii? ia?aaaaeii eieeoi? aeo?aeoe? c Aaee/eie. 1910
?. a e?a? iae?/oaaeiny 277574 i?aaineaaieo oe?a?ioe?a (91%) ? 27527 (9%)
a?aei-eaoieee?a.

Ca caeiyo?noth aano??enueea noaoenoeea ae?eeea ona ianaeaiiy Aoeiaeie ia
4 a?oie. 1900 ?. o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? i?aoethaaei 75,71% eiai
neeaaeo, o i?iieneiaino? – 11,11%, o oi?a?ae? ? ia o?ainii?o? – 7, 25%,
ia aea?aeaai?e, a?enueeia?e neoaea? oa a /ene? a?eueieo i?ioan?e –
5,93%. Nthaee ae a?aeiineee ? aac?ia?oieo. Oe? iieacieee cana?ae/othoue
aa?a?iee oa?aeoa? aeiiii?ee Aoeiaeie oa ii??aiyii neaaeee ?icaeoie
i?iieneiaino?, oi?a?ae?, o?ainii?oo.

Na?aae i?aoethth/iai ianaeaiiy aeae?eyeiny i’youe nioe?aeueieo a?oi –
naiino?ei? ainiiaea??, neoaeaiaoe?, ?ia?oieee, iiaeaiieee, /eaie ?iaeei,
ui aeiiiiaaathoue. 1910 ?. 34,4% on?o i?aoethth/eo noaiiaeee naiino?ei?
ainiiaea??, 2,58% — neoaeaiaoe?, 12,34% — ?ia?oieee, 17,36% — iiaeaiieee
? 33,32% /eaie ?iaeei, ui aeiiiiaaathoue.

??aaiue ienaiiino? ianaeaiiy Aoeiaeie aoa iaeiei ?c iaeieae/eo a
Aano?i-Oai?uei?. Ia ii/aoie 1914 ?. ia Aoeiaei? oi?ee /eoaoe ? ienaoe
eeoa 45,2% ianaeaiiy.

Na?aae aoeiaeinueeeo oe?a?ioe?a iaeaea ia aoei aaeeeeo caieaaeaniee?a.
Ii??aiyii iaei aoei oe?a?ioe?a na?aae caiiaeii? i?iieneiai? ? oi?aiai?
ao?aeoac??. Ioaea, oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia iaa ciiae
iie?aoeny ia caiiaei? aa?noae caieaaeaniee?a ? ao?aeoac??, aeiooaiee aoa
i???iooaaoeny ia naeyinoai, ?ia?oieoeoai, ??cii/eiio ?ioae?aaioe?th.
Ia?o? aea? a?oie aoyaoaaeeny a iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo aeineoue iia?eueii,
oiio ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao oe?a?inueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aieiaio ?ieue
a?ae?a?aaaee o/eoae?, nayuaieee, neoaeaiaoe?, nooaeaioe.

Ii??aiyii aeniea nioe?aeueia iaeii??aei?noue oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy
Aoeiaeie iaea aeaye? iiceoeai? iiiaioe, iaoiiaethaaea iiaeeea?noue
cia/iiai ??aiy eiinie?aeaoe?? noni?euenoaa ia aac? ni?eueieo aeiiii?/ieo
oa iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a. ?acii c oei ia?aaaaeaiiy aa?a?iiai ianaeaiiy,
a?aenooi?noue caiiaeieo oa iie?oe/ii aieeaiaeo aa?noa, iecueeee ??aaiue
aeia?iaooo oa ina?oe oiia?eueithaaee iaoe?ioai?/? i?ioeane.

Iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie aecia/aeiny oe?eei eiiieaenii
/eiiee?a. Na?aae ieo iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iaea nenoaia i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee oa caeiiiaeaanoaa. A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii iaeaaaeeea?o? aoaie
iie?oeei-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aoi?i na?aaeeie O?O no., iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy oeaio?aeueieo oa i?noeaaeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith i?eeiyoeo o 60-o ?ieao O?O no. eiinoeoooe?eieo
caeii?a Aano??? (Aano?i-Oai?ueie) noaei oe?iea aeaeea?oaaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?aa ? naiaiae. I?iaieiooaaeany ??ai?noue on?o a?iiaaeyi
?iia??? ia?aae caeiiii, iaeiaeia? iiaeeeaino? a caeiyoo? aea?aeaaieo
iinaae, naiaiaea ia?anoaaiiy, iaaeioi?eaii?noue i?eaaoii? aeaniino?,
oa?iieoey eenooaaiiy, i?aai iiaeaaaoe iaoeoe?? ? i?ioaiiy, naiaiaea
neiaa ? ae?oeo. Iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaith noaea noaooy 19 Eiinoeoooe??, a
ye?e aoei caienaii, ui on? ia?iaee aea?aeaae ??aiii?aai? ? eiaeiee
ia?iae ia? iaii?ooia i?aai caa??aaoe ? ?icaeaaoe naith ia?iaei?noue ?
iiao.

Caeaaaeiny, oe?a?ioe? Aoeiaeie iaee a noaoe a iaeei ??aaiue c i?ioeyie,
?oioiaie, iieyeaie oa ?ioeie ia?iaeaie e?ath, caaacia/eaoe nai?
iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa a?aeiia?aeii aei eiinoeoooe?eieo caeii?a. Aea oae
aoei eeoa ia iaia??. A oe?a?inuee?e ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo?? ?
ioae?oeenoeoe?, ye? iienoaaee iiae?? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no.,
caa?aaeiny /eiaei aie?nieo caaaeie i?i aaci?aai?noue oe?a?ioe?a, ?oi?
i?eieaeaia iie?oe/ia oa aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua. Aano??enueeee o?yae
i?aeo?eioaaa ii?ia/oaaiiy e?ath, no?eeeie caeeoaeeny i?ioeane
?oioi?caoe??. Neooaoe?y oneeaaeithaaeany iaaeineiiae?noth ?
iacaaa?oai?noth ?aoi?i 60-o ?ie?a. *eiaei caeii?a ia iaee iaoai?cio
aaaaeaiiy a ae?th, yaeyee niaith eeoa caaaeuei? aeaeea?aoe??, ye? ia
iaee i?yeiai i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy. Iaea?eueo yne?aaei i?eeeaaeii oeueiai
aoea aaea caaaeoaaia 19 noaooy eiinoeoooe?eieo caeii?a i?i ??ai?noue
on?o ia?iae?a ?iia???. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.
iaiaeii?aciai ii?oooaaeiny ieoaiiy i?i i?eeiyooy iaiao?aeieo
aeieoiaio?a, ye? a ?ic’ynithaaee iacaaio noaooth, iaeiicia/ii ni?eyee ??
?aae?caoe??. Iaeiae aeae? aacaoieo caya ni?aaa ia i?oea.

Na?eiciith ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo caaacia/aiiy i?aa oe?a?ioe?a noaei
o?nia oa’ycoaaiiy iie?oe/ieo oa ?ioeo i?aa ?c nioe?aeueiei noaiiaeuai
ethaeae. Oaeeie, iai?eeeaae, aoee caeiie i?i aeai?e aei aano??enueeiai
ia?eaiaioo oa Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio. Ca ?nioth/i? eo??aeueii? nenoaie
oe?a?ioe?, ye? noaiiaeee iae/eneaii?oo a?oio ianaeaiiy Aoeiaeie,
o?eaaeee /an acaaae? ia iiaee ia?aoe nai?o i?aaenoaaiee?a aei naeio.

? ana ae iie?oe/ia nenoaia Aano?i-Oai?ueie a?aee?eaaea iaai? iiaeeeaino?
aeey aaaeaiiy eaaaeueii? ai?ioueae ca ?icoe?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aa,
noaaeea ?o o i?yio caeaaei?noue a?ae oiai, ye ie?aia iaoe?y coi??
caoenoeoe naaa ? caaacia/eoe nai? caeiii? i?aaa. Oeei Aoeiaeia ?
Aaee/eia nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, iniaeeai
oeo, ui aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Aano?i-Oai?ueia aoea aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiith ?iia???th, aea i?ae iaeiei
ne?iao?ii i?iaeeaaee iaeaea aeaa aeanyoee ia?iae?a ?a?iie. Oea
i?eioooaaei ?? i?aaeoae?a iino?eii o?eiaoe a iie? ci?o neeaaei? ?
iaaecae/aeii caieooai? i?iaeaie i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei. Aoei
c?iaeaii /eiaei iiceoeaiiai, oaeiai, /iai ia ciaee ?io? aea?aeaae.
Caii/aoeiaaii i?ea?iaeuei? ? i?ia?aneai? ia oie /an oi?ie ni?aaeeooy
ia?iae?a. A?aee?eoi eaaaeueiee oeyo aeey ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ae?o,
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaieia??, iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?. A iie?oe/iiio
aeeoo? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie noaee cae/aeiei yaeuai. Aano??enueei?
aeaiie?ao?? aoei aeineoue, uia iine?aeiaii caaacia/oaaoe i?ioeane
iaoe?ioai?aiiy, eiinie?aeaoe?? aoi?/ieo a?oi ia canaaeao iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aeaieia??.

C ?ioiai aieo, a aea?aeaa? ae?yee iiooaei? iie?oe/i? neee, ye? oyae?ee
aei ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?iaoeueeiai aeooo, ii?ia/aiiy anueiai
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy. Oea aeeeeeaei i?ioeae?th. I?ioyaii
anueiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, oio?ei /e ia oio?ei oiai a?aeainueea
ea??aieoeoai, a?aeaoaaeany iine?aeiaia aeoea?caoe?y ai?ioueae iaeaea
an?o ia?iae?a ?iia??? ca nai? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa. Nai? i?noea o oe?e
ai?iouea? caeiya ? iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ia?o? e?iee oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo” i?iaiae?ciaai? iiae??, iia’ycai? c ii/aoeiaei
aoaiii iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo aoeiaeinueeeo oe?a?ioe?a.

Aaea i?ae /an ?aaiethoe?? 1848-1849 ??. oe?a?ioe? Aoeiaeie c?iaeee ia?o?
ni?iae cayaeoe i?i naaa ye ie?aiee ia?iae. Aiie aeyaeee iaaaeyea
?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueieo oa aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a, ia i?aeaeaeeny ia
aiiaeyiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a a/i?aoiuei? oaiaeaeueii? a?enoie?ao?? ? ia?aee
nai?o naeyinueeeo aeaiooao?a aei aano??enueeiai ia?eaiaioo. Oe?a?inuee?
naeyinuee? aeaiooaoe ai?ieeny ca e?au? oiiae neanoaaiiy iaiueie,
aaaaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo naiaiae, aeoeaii a?aenoithaaee aeoieo i?i
iaiao?aei?noue caeeoeoe Aoeiaeio a neeaae? Aaee/eie.

Aacia?a/ii, yeae aeae? ianoaee iia? ae??, ye? a cana?ae/eee
i?aai?caoe?eia oa ?aeaeia c?inoaiiy oe?a?inoaa, iiaeia aoei a aiai?eoe,
ui naia 1848 ?. caii/aoeiaaii oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo.
Iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? aeey oeueiai aoee. Iaeiae i?iaeiaaeaiiy ia
ianooieei.

I?ney ?aaiethoe?? 1848-1849 ??. a oiiaao iaiaaniethoenonueeiai ?aaeeio
noni?eueia aeeooy Aoeiaeie caaia?ei iaeaea ia aeanyoee?ooy. I?i ye?nue
aeoe?? oe?a?ioe?a oi?iaeiaae 50-o ?ie?a O?O no. o noa?? noni?eueiiai
aeeooy aiae? e aiai?eoe. Aoei ao?a/aii oyae?noue o ?icai?oaii?
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo. Ia?inoee,
ye? c’yaeeeny a oiiaao ?aaiethoe??, aoee caaeaaeai? iaiaaniethoenonueeei
?aaeeiii ? ia ciiaee ia?a?inoe a i?aai?ciaaiee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo.
Ioaea, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui o 1848 – 1849 ??. oe?a?ioe? aia?oa
cayaeee i?i naaa ye ie?aiee ia?iae, aia?oa aeyaeee iciaee iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino?, aea aeae? oeueiai ni?aaa oae ? ia i?oea. Aaaaeaoe, ui
i?aai?ciaaiee oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia Aoeiaei? ?icii/aany o
oie /an, aoei a yaiei ia?aa?eueoaiiyi.

Ia ceai? 50-60-o ?ie?a O?O no. aeey oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie neeaeany ye?nii
iiaa neooaoe?y. Iiaa?iaiiy aei eiinoeoooe?eii? oi?ie i?aae?iiy, a
i?ci?oa aaaaeaiiy a ae?th iiaeo eiinoeoooe?eieo caeii?a ni?eyei
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?eueieo i?ioean?a. Cia/ii aeoea?coaaea a?iiaaenueea
aeeooy iiaoi?ia ai?ioueaa ca a?aeie?aieaiiy a?ae Aaee/eie, yea
?icai?ioeany o 1860-1861 ??., aino?? noia?a/ee iaaeiei oea?eiaiiai
ieoaiiy. *eiaea cia/aiiy aeey ?icai?oaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo iaa
?aeaeiee aieea Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie oa non?aeiuei? Aaee/eie.

Ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey ca?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo iaea iiyaa oaeeo iaia?an?/ieo iniaenoinoae, ye TH??e Oaaeueeiae/,
a?aoe Neae?? oa A?eai??e Ai?iaeaae/?. A nai?o oai?ao aiie ini?aoaaee
e?ano ??aeii? i?e?iaee, caeeeeaee aa?aaoe aaouee?anueeo iiao, aoaeeee
iao??ioe/i? ii/oooy ? a??eee o e?aua iaeaooi? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.
?oiy oai?/?noue caii/aoeoaaea iiao oe?a?inueeo e?oa?aoo?o a e?a?,
caeeaea i?oei? ?aeaei? i?aeaaeeie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

A 60-o ?ieao O?O no. ia Aoeiaei? ?icii/aoi o?aaeeoe?th aoaiiaoaaoe
?ieiaeie a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ? nia?o? O.Oaa/aiea, aeoea?co?oueny
eoeueoo?ia aeeooy, aei Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio ia?aii e?eueeio oe?a?ioe?a.
Ioaea, naia e?iaoeue 50-o – ii/aoie 60-o ?ie?a O?O no. ia Aoeiaei?
noaee /anii aeiei??iieo ci?i a ?noi??? oe?a?ioe?a e?ath, /anii
ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ia?oeo e?ie?a oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

Aoaiiei yaeuai o ?icai?oaii? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia
Aoeiaei? noaei canioaaiiy 14 n?/iy 1869 ?. ia?oiai oe?a?inueeiai
oiaa?enoaa “?onueea Aan?aea”. Aeiee ina?aaeie oe?a?inoaa, iaaeiei yeiai
iaea iiaeeea?noue ao?ooaaoeny oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y. Aei iueiai
oa?eoee ethaee ??cieo ?aeaeieo ia?aeiiaiue. Oi?iaeiaae 70-o ?ie?a O?O
no. noeo?eii oi?iothoueny aeaa iai?yiee a oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio
?on?. C iaeiiai aieo – iineaio?ee, c ?ioiai – ia?iaeiaoe?. A ?iaio?
i?iaiae?ciaaii i?e/eie ca?iaeaeaiiy eiaeii? c oa/?e, ?oi? iaeaaaeeea?o?
?aeaei? canaaee. Cacia/aii, ui oi/a ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao aiaei?icae?e
i?ae iineaio?eaie ? ia?iaeiaoeyie i?ioiaeea aeeeth/ii o oai?aoe/ieo
ieoaiiyo i?i iiao oa i?aaiien, ana ae inoaii? noiyee aeeae/a aei
ia?iaeii? iane e oiniaethaaee iaoe?iiaeueia ia/aei a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?eueiiio ?on?.

Iaea?eueoo aeoeai?noue a 70-o ?ieao O?O no. “?onueea Aan?aea” i?iyaeyea
a aaeoc? eoeueoo?e, iaiaaath/enue iine?aeiaii caoeuaoe i?aaa oe?a?ioe?a.
?aaoey?ii oiaa?enoai caa?oaeiny c ??cieie caieoaie, caa?iaiiyie,
i?ioaiiyie, i?ioanoaie, i?iiiceoe?yie. Anueiai ca ia?oa aeanyoee?ooy
ae?yeueiino? “?onueea Aan?aea” iiaeaea 9 ienueiiaeo caa?iaiue ? 5
i?ioaiue aei ??cieo onoaiia e?ath oa ?iia???. Ia an? c ieo aeaee
iiceoeaiee ?acoeueoao, aea iiae?aiiai ?iaeo cayae ia?aeiioaaee aeaaei?
no?oeoo?e, ui oe?a?ioe? ia cae?athoueny a?aeiia/oaaoeny ? ca iaeiaioeo
iiaeeeainoae aoaeooue a?aenoithaaoe nai? eiinoeoooe?ei? i?aaa.

Cia/iee a?iiaaenueeee ?aciiain aeeeeeaei canioaaiiy o *a?i?aoeyo
i?iaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Oe?a?ioe? a oe?eiio iiceoeaii ni?eeiyee oeth
iiae?th, yea e??i onueiai ?ioiai ua e ni?eyea aeoea?caoe?? ia Aoeiaei?
iieiae?aeiiai ?ooo. Ia oie /an a e?a? aaea ?nioaaee o/i?anuee?
ia’?aeiaiiy. Ia?oei c ieo aeieeei oiaa?enoai “Niaean??”, yea
aeio?eioaaeiny iineaio?euenueeiai ni?yioaaiiy. Oea ia caaeiaieueiyei
aaaaoueio iieiaeeo ethaeae. Oiio aaea a 1871 ?. aeieeei ua iaeia
iieiae?aeia oiaa?enoai – “A?aoi?e nithc”. Aiii a?aenoithaaei ina?oo
oe?a?inueeith iiaith, oe?a?inueeo e?oa?aoo?o, cae?aei oieueeei?iee oa
aoiia?ao?/iee iaoa??ae, a oaeiae aeionoeei aeae?eueea iiia??a
aaoia?aoiaaii? aacaoe “Cacoey”. “A?aoi?e nithc” i?i?nioaaa aei 1873 ?.
Ni?aaaei?e oe?a?inueeee iieiae?aeiee ?oo ia Aoeiaei? ?icii/eia?oueny ?c
canioaaiiyi ia?oiai oe?a?inueeiai eaaaeueiiai oiaa?enoaa “Nithc” o
*a?i?aaoeueeiio oi?aa?neoao?. Aaeeeee aieea ia ?icai?oaiiy iieiae?aeiiai
?ooo, eiai ?aeaeio i???ioaoe?th ni?aaea i?ioani? *a?i?aaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?aiao?e Iieoeaae/. A?i aeieeaa oaeiae /eiaei coneeue aeey
aeoea?caoe?? iie?oe/iiai oiaa?enoaa “?onueea ?aaea”. Aiii iaiaaaeiny
iaaeaoe i?aai?ciaaiino? ia?aaeaeai?i?e eaiiai?? oe?a?ioe?a aei
Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio oa aano??enueeiai ia?eaiaioo, iaeiae iiee ui
aaconi?oii.

Iiaei o ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo oiaa?enoa oeueiai /ano noaei i?aaiaiiy
iioe?eoe na?e aieea ia naea, canioaaoe oai ??ci? aeiiii?/i? oa i?ina?oi?
i?aai?caoe??, ye? a caeo/aee naeyi aei noni?eueiiai aeeooy, ?iaeee a ?o
aeiiii?/ii iacaeaaeieie ? iie?oe/ii na?aeiieie. Ia?o? e?iee ?iaeoue
ianiaee ?oo ca i?aai?caoe?th /eoaeaiue ii naeao. Iniaeeai oeae ?oo
aeoea?coaaany c 1880 ?., eiee oe?ieiai ?aciiaino iaaoei canioaaiiy
/eoaeuei? a n. ?a?ai/a. E??i /eoaeaiue, ?iaeyoueny ni?iae caniiaoaaoe
aeiiii?/i? oiaa?enoaa.

Aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?icai?oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo iaei aeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo aacao. Ia?oith oe?a?inueeith aacaoith a e?a? noaea
“Aoeiaeinueea Ci?y”, yea aeoiaeeea 1870 ?. *a?ac a?ae eioo?a iiaa/eei
na?o o?eueee 16 /enae aeaeaiiy. A 70-o ?ieao ?iaeeeny ni?iae aeaeaaaoe
aacaoe “Eiiaoa”, “Naeueneee ainiiaea?ue”, “?iaeeiue eenoie”, aea an?
aiie ia ciiaee i?io?eiaoeny aeiaai.

Oaeei /eiii, e?iaoeue 60-o — 70-o? ?iee O?O no. noaee /anii ia?oeo
e?ie?a o ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo oiaa?enoa “?onueea Aan?aea”, “?onueea
?aaea”, “Nithc” oiui. Iiyaa ?o ni?eyea iaai?e eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inoaa,
ia?o ca ana ?ioae?aaioe??, o ai?iouea? ca ?icoe?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?aa. Oi?iaeiaae oeueiai ia??iaeo ia Aoeiaei? noi?ioaaeiny aea?
eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo. Iaeio c ieo i?aaenoaaeyee iineaio?ee,
ye? oiniaethaaee /anoeio oeo oe?a?ioe?a, ye? ia a??eee, ui aiie ?
ie?aiee ia?iae, ? aieiai? iaae?? iieeaaeaee ia ?in?th ye iiaeeeaiai
aa?aioa ?oi?o iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oa iie?oe/ieo i?aa. O
ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? iineaio?euenuee? oaiaeaioe?? aoee caiice/ai?
aoeiaeioeyie c Aaee/eie. Nooo?aa cia/aiiy iaei ao?o/aiiy ?in?enueeiai
eiinoea a oe?a?inuee? ni?aae, iie?eooy iei aeayei? /anoeie o?iainiaeo
iio?aa oe?a?inueeeo oiaa?enoa. Iaeiae eiio oae ? ia aaeaeiny
i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe oe?a?inueeee ?oo, iaa?oue ca oiiae ia?aaaaeaiiy a
iueiio iineaio?e?a. ?ioee iai?yiie oiniaethaaee ia?iaeiaoe?. Ia a?aei?io
a?ae nai?o iiiiaio?a, i?e?a/aieo aace?ia/ii oiioaoeny ia i?noe? ?
iieeaaeaoe iaae?? ia ciai?oi? /eiieee, ia?iaeiaoe? a?aeia?aaeaee
ia’?eoeaiee iai?yi ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ?aea?. Aeey ia?iaeianueei?
oa/?? a?ae ii/aoeo canaaeie/ei aoei aeciaiiy ie?ai?oiino? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo a?ae ?in?yi, iieye?a, ?oioi?a. I?eiee ia aeeeeeaea noii?a?a o
ia?iaeiaoe?a oaca i?i aoi?/io ?aei?noue oe?a?ioe?a Aaee/eie, Aoeiaeie,
Caea?iaooy oa Iaaeaei?i?yiueie, naiiaooi?noue ?oiuei? iiae, cae/a?a.
Nii/aoeo i?eoeeueieeaie ia?iaeianoaa ia Aoeiaei? aoee ie?ai?
?ioae?aaioe, ye? i?aena?aeiii ?icoi?ee oeai?noue iineaio?euenoaa ? eiai
aacia?niaeoeai?noue. *eiaea cia/aiiy iaa aieea Aaee/eie, aea o
ia?iaeianueei? oa/?? aoei i?oeia i?aea?oioy. Ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a O?O
no. ia?iaeianoai iiiiaieeiny ia?niaeoeaiith ? aeineoue aeoeaiith
iieiaeaeth, ui caaacia/eei nooo?ao ci?io a ?icnoaiiaoe? iie?oe/ieo nee.

O cacia/aiee ia??iae cae?eniaii ia?o? e?iee ii ai?iaaoe?? oi?i ?
iaoiae?a ?iaioe na?aae naeyinoaa, cania?a caeo/aiiy i?inoeo ethaeae aei
a?iiaaenueei? ae?yeueiino?. C’yaeythoueny ia?o? /eoaeuei?, iice/eia?
eane, neeeeathoueny ia?o?, oi/a e ia aeoaea /enaeuei?, ia?iaei? a?/a.

E?ioeaa? ?acoeueoaoe oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo a oeae /an aoee iii??eiaaieie.
A?eueo?noue ni?ia i?ioenoiyoe iaaaoeaiei oaiaeaioe?yi o a?iiaaenueeiio
aeeoo? caciaee ii?acee /a?ac iai?aai?ciaai?noue, iecueeo na?aeii?noue
cia/ii? /anoeie oe?a?ioe?a, caneeey iineaio?euenueeeo aeiai. Aea
iinooiiai a e?a? caeeaee aei oe?a?inueeeo aeiia. Ia ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeeo eoeueoo?ieo oa iie?oe/ieo oiaa?enoa oaea ia aeeaeeeny ye ia
uinue iaaecae/aeia. Oe?a?inueeee ?oo, oi/a e c aaeeeeie o?oaeiiuaie,
iiaeieaa ii/aoeiaee aoai ?icaeoeo.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia ceai? O?O –
OO no.” i?iaiae?ciaaii iaeaaaeeea?o? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a 90-o ?ieao O?O no. – ia ii/aoeo OO no. (aei 1905
?.).

C na?aaeeie 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. ?icii/aeiny ?iciaaeoaaiiy a oe?a?inueeeo
oiaa?enoaao i?ae iineaio?eaie ? ia?iaeiaoeyie. Caaaeyee iiya? iiai?
aaia?aoe?? oe?a?inueeeo noni?eueieo ae?y/?a, oaeeo, ye I.Iiiiae/,
?.Oei?inueeee, ?.I?aoeye, N.Niaeue-Noioeueeee oa ?io? ia?iaeiaoe? cia/ii
ci?oeieee nai? iiceoe?? a oe?a?inueeiio noni?eueiiio ?on?. Ai?iaeiaae
ae?oai? iieiaeie 80-o – ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. aiie aeo?nieee
iineaio?e?a c oiaa?enoa “?onueea Aan?aea”, “?onueea ?aaea”, “Nithc” ?
canioaaee ?yae iiaeo oiaa?enoa “?onueea oeiea”, “Ia?iaeiee ae?i”,
“Oe?a?inueea ae?aiaoe/ia oiaa?enoai”. Oea ni?eyei cia/iiio i?aeianaiith
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. C 1 n?/iy 1885 ?. ii/aea aeoiaeeoe ia?oa
oe?a?inueea iie?oe/ia aacaoa e?ath “Aoeiaeia”, c?inoa? ?oo ca noai?aiiy
/eoaeaiue, ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue n?euenueeeo iice/eiaeo ean, ye?
1903 ?. ia’?aeiothoueny a Nithc oe?ai?ianueeeo ni?eie “Naeyinueea eana”.
*eiaeei oni?oii oe?a?inoaa noaei ia?aiiy 1890 ?. o?ueio aeaiooao?a
Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio – i?aaenoaaiee?a “?onueei? ?aaee”. 1892 ?. aei ieo
i?e?aeiaany N.Niaeue-Noioeueeee. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe
o?eaoio Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio aeey caoenoo oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a.

Oni?oe ia?iaeiaoe?a i?eioneee iineaio?e?a ni?oii ?aaaoaaoe. Ca
i?aeo?eiee nai?o aaeeoeueeeo eieaa, a oaeiae aeei?enoiaoth/e eiooe, ui
iaaeoiaeeee c-ca ei?aeiio, aiie canioaaee nooaeaionueea oiaa?enoai
“Aoeiaeia” (i?ci?oa “Ea?iaou”), iie?oe/ia oiaa?enoai “Ia?iaeiay ?aaea”,
“Iauanoai ?onneeo aeaiuei ia Aoeiaeia” oa ?i. Neooaoe?y oneeaaeithaaeany
oei, ui na?aae aeaiooao?a Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio noaany ?iceie.
?.Oei?inueeee, A.Aieyi oa ?.Aaaeai a?aeae?eeeeny a?ae ia?iaeiaoe?a ?
noai?eee ie?aiee “eiina?aaoeaiee eeoa”. Aeayeee /an aiie iaiaaaeeny
caeiaoe i?ii?aeia noaiiaeua i?ae iineaio?eaie ? ia?iaeiaoeyie,
i?iiaaoth/e ?aea? aoeiaeinueeiai aaoiooiinoaa oa aanei “Aoeiaeia aeey
aoeiaeioe?a!”. Iaeiae iacaaa?ii ii/aee aeieoaaoeny c iineaio?eaie,
aino?i aenooiath/e i?ioe ia?iaeianueeeo aeaiooao?a N.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai
? ?.I?aoeyea.

Ioaea, inoaii? i’yoiaaeoeyoue ?ie?a O?O no. aeey oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo ia
Aoeiaei? noaee /anii i?aai?caoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy oa ?iciaaeoaaiiy
noni?eueieo oa/?e. O a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo?, aaaeo/e caiaeeo ai?ioueao c
i?ioeaieeaie ??cieo a?aeo?ie?a, i?oeii ooaa?aeeeeny ia?iaeiaoe?, ye?
oiniaethaaee iaoe?iiaeueio aeaiie?aoe/io oa/?th a oe?a?inoa?. Aiie noaee
aieiaiith neeith oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo ia Aoeiaei?. Iai?ee?ioe? O?O
noie?ooy ?i aaeaeiny caa?aaoe ?aei?noue nai?o ?yae?a ? iineeeoe aieea ia
naeyinuee? iane. A ?yaeao iiiiaio?a ia?iaeiaoe?a iino?eii a?aeaoaaeeny
ci?ie. ?acoeueoaoii aioo??oiuei? ai?ioueae o oeueiio oaai?? noaei
iinooiiaa a?aeie?aiiy ?aiiueiai iineaio?euenoaa (noa?i?oneinoaa),
oiniaethaaiiai i?aaenoaaieeaie noa?oiai iieie?iiy. Ia aeo?eiaei
ia?aa??ee /anii “eiina?aaoeaia ?oneinoai”, caniiaaia i?eoeeueieeaie
i?noeaaiai aaoiooiinoaa. Aeayeee /an aiie iaee i?oei? iiceoe?? o
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aaiao aeaaee, aea oae ? ia ciiaee caoiieoe oe?ie?
aa?noae ianaeaiiy nai?ie ?aeayie.

90-o? ?iee iicia/eeeny ia?aoiaeii oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo a?ae aeiia
eoeueoo?ieoeueeiai oa?aeoa?o aei iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae, yea iaea i?noea
ye a noni?euei?e, oae ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa??. O oeae /an
oe?a?ioe? aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaee o?eaoie Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio,
aano??enueeiai ia?eaiaioo aeey i?eaa?iaiiy oaaae aei aeanieo i?iaeai.
Aaaiiei oaeoi?ii a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy noaea oe?a?inueea
i?ana. Cia/ii aeoeai?oa ? ??ciiiai?oi?oa ae?yee oe?a?inuee? oiaa?enoaa.

I?aai?caoe?eia ?iciaaeoaaiiy ia?iaeiaoe?a ? iineaio?e?a, e?euee?nia ?
ye?nia c?inoaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo, aeo?ae oe?a?inoaa ia a?aio
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny /anoeie ?aeaeieie noia?a/eaie. A
oiiaao aino?iai i?ioenoiyiiy i?aaenoaaieee ie?aieo noni?eueieo oa/?e
i?aaioee oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe nai? ae??, aeiaanoe aeooaeuei?noue
aeiia, ia?aeiiaoe oe?ie? aa?noae o ni?eyoeeaeo ia?niaeoeaao ?icaeoeo a
?ac? ao?eaiiy a aeeooy ?oi?o ia?o?eieo i?ia?ai. Aeeneon?? a?aeaoaaeeny
ia ia?iaeieo a?/ao, /eneaiieo cai?ao, a ia?o ca ana — o ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiiyo. Aiie aeoiaeeee aeaeaei ca iaae? Aoeiaeie, noinoaaeeny
ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo a oe?eiio oa aecia/aiiy eiai
i?noey na?aae iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a ?ioeo ia?iae?a.

Aieiaieie ?aeaieiaaie ia?iaeianoaa Aoeiaeie 90-o ?ie?a noaee
N.Niaeue-Noioeueeee, ?.I?aoeye, I.Iiiiae/. I?ia?aia aoeiaeinueeeo
ia?iaeiaoe?a iaei /ei a?ae??ciyeany a?ae o???, yeo caoaa?aeeei
aaeeoeueea iie?oe/ia oiaa?enoai “Ia?iaeia ?aaea” i?ney canioaaiiy o 1885
?. Oea na?ae/eei, ui ?aeaeii ia?iaeiaoe? Aoeiaeie ? Aaee/eie noaiiaeee
?aeeia oe?ea. Aea i?aai?caoe?eii aiie i?eiee ia ia’?aeioaaeeny, ai
?nioaaei /eiaei iniaeeainoae a oaeoeoe? ae?e, ao?eaii? ia i?aeoeoe?
eiie?aoieo oi?i ae?yeueiino?, noaaeaii? aei ?ioeo aoi?/ieo a?oi,
aecia/aii? nithciee?a.

O 90-o ?ieao O?O no. ia?iaeiaoe? Aoeiaeie ia?aoai?eeeny o aieeaiao neeo,
c yeith ciooai? aoee ?aooaaoeny ?oi? aaeeoeuee? iaeiiaeoioe?. Aiie a?aee
aeoeaio o/anoue a iaaiai?aii? oaeoeee ae?e oa oai?aoe/ieo canaae
oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo, i?aeo?eioth/e a Aaee/ei? i?eoeeueiee?a Ieaenaiae?a
Aa?a?inueeiai. ssne?aaei i?eeeaaeii oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a aoeiaeinueeeo
ia?iaeiaoe?a noaea na??y noaoae N.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai a aacao? “Aoeiaeia”
i?ae caaaeueiith iacaith “Iie?oeea ?aaeueia”. A ieo a?i iaa?oiooaaa
iieiaeaiiy, ui iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay iiaeiia noaoe oeaiaiooth/ith neeith
oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo, ? caeeeeaa ia?iaeiaoe?a aei ai?ioueae ca ?aaeueia
ao?eaiiy oe??? ?aea? a aeeooy.

Iaeii/anii aoeiaeinuee? ia?iaeiaoe? c?iaeee ni?iao, ii?icoi?aoenue ?c
iiaei iieie?iiyi noni?eueieo ae?y/?a Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie,
ia?aoai?eoe aacaoo “Aoeiaeia” a caaaeueiioe?a?inueeee i?aai, yeee ae
?ioi?ioaaa i?i ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ye a
Aano?i-Oai?uei?, oae ? a ?in??. A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii ?aeaei?
aeeneon??, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny ia noi??ieao aacaoe “Aoeiaeia” ? ni?aaeee
aaee/aciee aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy ?aeaeieo canaae iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie.

A oe?a?inueeiio ?on? e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO noie?oue aeoeaii
iaaiai?thaaeiny ieoaiiy i?i ia?niaeoeae caeiaoooy Oe?a?iith iie?oe/ii?
iacaeaaeiino?. Aoeiaeinuee? ia?iaeiaoe? aeiaaee /an ia ni?eeiaee oeth
?aeath ye ?aaeueio. Iaeiae ia ii/aoeo OO no. a iieiae?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu?
c’yaeythoueny iaee? i?eoeeueieee ai?ioueae ca iie?oe/io iacaeaaei?noue
Oe?a?ie. Caniiaaia ieie oiaa?enoai “Iieiaea Oe?a?ia” ia /ie? c
A.N?iiae/ai acyei ia naaa iiioey?ecaoe?th oeeo ?aeae ? ciaeoei aa?y/o
i?aeo?eieo na?aae o/i?anueei? oa nooaeaionueei? iieiae?. Caneoaa
oiaa?enoaa iieyaaea ua e o oiio, ui a?ae oiai /ano ia Aoeiaei? noaei
iioe?thaaoeny aaeeaaiiy ne?a “oe?a?ioe?”, “oe?a?inueea iiaa”,
“oe?a?inueeee ia?iae” cai?noue — “?oneie”, “?onea iiaa”, “?oneee ia?iae”
oiui.

Ia ni?eeiyaoe a?aeaeaeaieo ?aeae i?i iie?oe/ia iaeaooi? Oe?a?ie ye
iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, aoeiaeinuee? ia?iaeiaoe? noa?oiai iieie?iiy i?ae
oeneii ?aaeeeaeueii? e?eoeee iiaea?i?coaaee aeaye? c? nai?o i?ia?aiieo
iieiaeaiue, iniaeeai a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa??. Aaeeea cia/aiiy a
oeueiio iaea ae?yeuei?noue ia Aoeiaei? iaeiiai c iaeoaeaiiaeo?oeo
i?aaenoaaiee?a iieiaeeo ?aaeeeae?a Aaee/eie A.Aoaeceiianueeiai.

Aeey aoeiaeinueeeo ia?iaeiaoe?a /eiaea cia/aiiy iaee e aioo??oi?, oiaoi
nooi e?aeia? ?aeaei? noia?a/ee, ye? aaeeny c iineaio?eaie oa
eiina?aaoeaiith aaoiooiiiith oa/??th ?.Oei?inueeiai. E??i cae/aeieo
ia?aiaeie a aacaoao, ia?iaeiaoe? iioae?eoaaee aeae?eueea a?oioiaieo
i?aoeue, a yeeo iaiaaaeeny i?iaiae?coaaoe i?e/eie o?eaaeiai ?nioaaiiy
iineaio?euenueei? oa/??, aeieeiaiiy aaoiooiiiiai ?ooo.

Ioaea, e?iaoeue O?O no. iicia/eany aaaeeeaeie ci?iaie a oe?a?inueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on?. Ia Iaaeaei?i?yiuei? ? a Aaee/ei? ia a?ai?
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae c’yaeeany iiaa aaia?aoe?y noni?eueieo ae?y/?a,
aieiaiith caneoaith yeeo noaei anaa?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aea? ai?ioueae ca
iie?oe/io iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie. Ia Aoeiaei? ?aea? aea?aeaaii?
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie aoee i?aeoiieai? /anoeiith nooaeaionoaa oa
o/i?anueei? iieiae?, ye? aenooieee ?acii ?c iieiae?aeieie i?aai?caoe?yie
Aaee/eie. O oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyaeao iniiaii? /anoeie ia?iaeiaoe?a e?ath
oey ?aeay ?icaeyaeaeany ye a?aeaeaeaia. Aiie i?inoi ia iaaaaeoaaeeny
i?enooiaoe aei iaaiai?aiiy oaei? i?iaeaie, ai oea a?ae?aco a iaoiiaeei
ieoaiiy i?i noaaeaiiy aei aeanoae ? aeiaaaei a aianoe iaiao?aei?
ei?aeoeae a iianyeaeaiio iie?oeeo. Oeueiai eiyeueiei aei o?yaeo
aoeiaeinueeei ia?iaeiaoeyi ?iaeoe ia oio?einy. Cia/iith i??ith oea
iaoiiaethaaeiny ua e oei, ui ai?ioueaa ca iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa a ?aieao
?nioth/eo aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?aa naaa ia ae/a?iaea, a?eueoa oiai, naia a
o?yaeo aoeiaeinuee? ia?iaeiaoe? aeineoue /anoi ooeaee ii?yooieo a?ae
aioeoe?a?inueei? iie?oeee c aieo i?ia?aeieo e?e ?ioeo aoiin?a e?ath.

I?eioeeiiaith aoea iiceoe?y aoeiaeinueeeo ia?iaeiaoe?a o noaaeaii? aei
iineaio?e?a. Ia eaeo/e c inoaii?ie ia aeiaei? eiii?ii?ne, aiie ciyee c
naaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aioeoe?a?inueeo, aioeiaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo
i?eoeeueiee?a Iaoa?ao?aa, aeoeaii i?aoethaaee iaae oei, uia ia
aeiionoeoe iioe?aiiy oe??? ?aeaieia?? na?aae ia?iaeieo ian. Aoeiaeinuee?
ia?iaeiaoe? i?aaeeueii ?icnoaaeee aeoeaioe a oe?e ni?aa?, iaaieiooth/e,
ui ia iathoue i?aaa aeieoaaoeny c iie?oeeaie, ye? ia aeciathoue naiiai
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. A?iioaoe/i? aeea?aeaiaee a?ae ni?ai?aoe? c
iineaio?eaie a aeiiii?/ieo ni?aaao iiaee iaa?iooeny cia/ii a??oei —
ao?aoith a??e a nai? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?aeaaee, a oea a icia/aei ? e?iaoeue
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

Iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. Aoeiaeia aaea ia aoea aeooei caeooeii Aano??enueei?
?iia???, i?i yeee ia ciaee ? ia oio?ee /ooe a ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo caieyo.
Iaaiaee, caaaeyee aeaeaiith nie?aeii? aacaoe caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai
ianooaao, yeith aoea “Aoeiaeia”, ia?iaeiaoe? e?ath coi?ee i?eaa?iooe
oaaao oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaenueeino? aei i?noeaaeo i?iaeai ? ?acii c oei
nai? aeoeaii aeeth/eeeny a iaaiai?aiiy caaaeueieo i?iaeai oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

?aeaeia ai?ioueaa 90-o ?ie?a O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., aeoeaieie o/anieeaie
yei? noaee oe?a?ioe? Aoeiaeie, cana?ae/oaaea, ui oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo iinooiiai ci?oeithaaany, ?aeaeii e?enoae?coaaany,
noaaaa /?oe?oei c iiaeyaeo iayaiino? ?aeaeieo oa/?e. Oi/a ia Aoeiaei?,
ia a?aei?io a?ae Aaee/eie, no?oeoo?oaaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny iia?euei?oa,
noni?euei? ae?y/? e?ath ciooai? aoee aiae?coaaoe ?aea? ?aaeeeae?a,
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a, eea?eeae?a ? o.ae., ?iaey/e iaai? ei?aeoeae ? o
aeani?e i?ia?ai?. Aacia?a/ii, iaea?eueoiai ?aeaeiiai aieeao aoeiaeinuee?
ia?iaeiaoe? caciaee a oeae /an c aieo ?aaeeeaeueii? ia?o??. I?ae ??
aieeaii aiie cia/ii a?eueoa oaaae ii/aee i?eae?eyoe
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei i?iaeaiai, ye? noiyee ia?aae naeyiaie,
o/eoaeuenoaii, ?ioeie aa?noaaie ianaeaiiy.

O OO noie?ooy Aoeiaeia anooieea, iath/e oe?eo ieceo iaae??oaieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa a?iiaaenueeeo i?iaeai, ye? oneeaaeithaaeeny
iaoe?iiaeueiei noia?ieoeoaii iae/eneaii?oeo aoi?/ieo a?oi e?ath:
oe?a?ioe?a, ?oioi?a, i?ioe?a, ?a?a?a, iieye?a. Iaiaeiaeia? i?aeoiaee aei
ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo oa aoi?/ieo i?iaeai coiiaeee aeieeiaiiy aeecueei
aeanyoea iie?oe/ieo oa?oiiaaiue, aino?o ai?ioueao i?ae ieie. Iiaei
yaeuai a ?noi??? Aoeiaeie noaei i?aeiaoe?iiaeueia ia’?aeiaiiy
“A?eueiiaeoiiee nithc”, yea aeieeei 1903 ?. Aei iueiai oa?eoee
oe?a?inuee? aeaiooaoe Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio I.Aaneeueei, ?.I?aoeye,
N.Niaeue-Noioeueeee, O.Eaaeoeueeee, e?aea? ?oioinueeeo aeaiie?ao?a
A.Ii/oe ? a?aeiiee ?a?aenueeee iie?oee A.Oo?aooa?.

Cia/ia oaaaa ia c?a?aiiyo “A?eueiiaeoiiiai nithco”, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny
1903 ?. ?aaoey?ii, i?eae?eyeany ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aie ? aeae?eaiith
i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino?. Cie?aia, a aeiiii?/ieo ni?aaao
ia?aaeaa/aeiny aeiaeaaoeny i?aeaeuaiiy aeia?iaooo ?ia?oie/eo aa?noa ?
onoiaiiy iaea?eueo a?oaeo oi?i aeiiii?/ii? aenieoaoaoe??, coieiaiiy
i?ioeano iaaccaiaeaiiy ? i?ieaoa?ecaoe?? naeyi. Aeey oeueiai
i?iiiioaaeiny canioaaoe e?aeiaee aaie aeey iaaeaiiy ii??aiyii aeaoaaiai
?iioa/iiai oa ?ioiai e?aaeeoo, an?eyea noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ni?eeiaiai
?ooo. A iie?oe/ieo ni?aaao iaaieiooaaeiny ia iaiao?aeiino? aeiiaaaoeny
aaaaeaiiy caaaeueiiai aeai?/iai i?aaa ? aaciina?aaeiueiai (i?yiiai)
aieinoaaiiy, onoiaiiy iie?oe/ieo i?ea?ea?a ie?aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy.

Iniaeeai i?aee?anethaaeany iaiao?aei?noue caaeiaieaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
iio?aa i?aaenoaaiee?a on?o ia?iae?a, ui ianaeythoue Aoeiaeio, a oiio
/ene? o eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi?o ? ?ae?a?eieo ni?aaao, uia eiaeai ia?iae,
eiaeia a??iniia?aeaiiy iaee ni?aaae? ??ai? i?aaa, ye oea caienaii a
eiinoeoooe?? Aano???. Iaeiae /eaie “A?eueiiaeoiiiai nithco”
cacaeaeaa?aeue aeiiiaeeeny, ui o iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?aaao eiaeai aoi?/iee
eeoa iiaeiai ae?yoe naiino?eii, ia ao?o/ath/enue o ni?aae ?ioeo iaoe?e.

I?ioyaii ia?oi? iieiaeie 1904 ?. ia a?e “a?eueiiaeoiieo” ia?aeoee on?
i?iaoeuee? oa ?a?aenuee? aeaiooaoe. Ia iica/a?aiaeo aeai?ao aei
Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio oeueiai ae ?ieo “A?eueiiaeoiiee nithc” aeiaeany
iiaii? ia?aiiae iaae ia?o??th aaeeeeo caieaaeaniee?a, caaacia/eaoe nia?
oaa?aeo a?eueo?noue o naei?. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue ia nan??
Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio 1904 ?. i?eeiyoe oe?eo ieceo caeiiii?iaeo?a,
cie?aia i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ieaoi? o/eoaeyi, i?i ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeai?/iai
caeiio aei naeio, i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th “aea??nueeeo iaoa??a”, i?i ci?ie a
oi?aae?ii? n?euenueeeo a?iiaae oa aeai?e aei ieo, i?i noai?aiiy
Aoeiaeinueeiai e?aeiaiai aaieo oiui. Ioe?ithth/e i?eeiyo? 1904 ?.
??oaiiy Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio, ne?ae neacaoe, ui aiie aoee ni?yiiaai? ia
e?ea?aeaoe?th caeeoe?a oaiaeae?cio, ye? iaa?oue o a?aenoae?e Aoeiaei?
aaea aeaaii noaee aiao?ii?ciii, aea i?ioyaii aeanyoee?oue ooo/ii
caa??aaeeny aiy?nueeith ee?eith. Oe? ??oaiiy icia/aee aeaeueoee iinooi
Aoeiaeie ia oeyoo ?icaeoeo ao?aeoacieo noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei
oa caaacia/aiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi. Ae?yeuei?noue
“A?eueiiaeoiiiai nithco” iieacoaaea, ui ia’?aeiaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee
??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae a?aee?eaaei iiaeeea?noue aei oni?oiiai
?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei a e?a?, i?iaaaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo
?aoi?i. Iaeiae oaea 1905 ?. “A?eueiiaeoiiee nithc”, i?i?nioaaaoe
o?ioe a?eueoa aeaio ?ie?a, ?iciaany o ca’yceo c iineeaiiyi noia?a/iinoae
i?ae oe?a?inueeeie ? ?oioinueeeie aeaiooaoaie.

? ana ae, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui eieeoi? /eaie “A?eueiiaeoiiiai nithco”
iieieeeny o noi?ioeaieo oaai?ao ? aaee aino?o iieai?eo a naei? oa ia
noi??ieao aacao, i?eeiyo? Aoeiaeinueeei naeiii 1904 ?. caeiiii?iaeoe
caeeoeeeny o oeaio?? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy, aecia/ath/e aieiai?
oaiaeaioe?? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo e?ath. Ae?yeuei?noue “A?eueiiaeoiiiai
nithco” noaea nai???aeiei aiaeiae?eii a ?noi??? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy
e?ath. A aacaoao oiai ia??iaeo ethaeee aecia/aoe o?iiieia?th iiae?e aei
“A?eueiiaeoiiiai nithco” ? i?ney iueiai. I?ae aieeaii oeueiai
ia’?aeiaiiy ci?ieeany naia nooue ae?yeueiino? Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio, yeee
oaia? ia ia?oa i?noea noaaea naia ?aoi?ie a ??cieo aaeocyo aeeooy.

Iaeaieiai?oa ae oa, ui aoei iie?i/aii ?c caneeeyi iaaaeeei? a?oiee
?oioinueeeo iii?uee?a a oi?aae?ii? e?a?i. O oeueiio e iieyaaea ?noi?e/ia
i?n?y “A?eueiiaeoiiiai nithco”, yeo a?i aeeiiaa aeeneo/a.

Ioaea, ia ceai? O?O – OO no. a oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on? ia
Aoeiaei? a?aeaoeiny ?yae aaaeeeaeo ci?i. Ii-ia?oa,
iaoe?iiaeueii-na?aeii? noni?euei? neee a?aeiaaeoaaeeny a?ae iineaio?e?a,
acyaoe i?ae na?e eiio?ieue aaea ?nioth/? oiaa?enoaa ? canioaaaoe ?yae
iiaeo. Oea ni?eyei ?aeaei?e eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inoaa. Ii-ae?oaa,
oe?a?ioe? e?ath aiaaiaii aeeoee ia a?aio iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae, ii/aee
aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe caieoe, caa?iaiiy, iaoeoe?? oa ?io? eaaaeuei?
iaoiaee ?iaioe a aano??enueeiio ia?eaiaio?, Aoeiaeinueeiio naei?,
i?aaiao e?aeiaiai oi?aae?iiy aeey a?aenoithaaiiy nai?o iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?aaiaiue. Ii-o?ao?, oe?a?ioe? Aoeiaeie aenooieee ?i?oe?aoi?aie
eiinie?aeaoe?? aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae o ai?iouea?
ca i?iaaaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ?aoi?i, ui iaea?eueo yne?aai i?iyaeeiny o
noai?aii? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai aeaiooaonueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy
“A?eueiiaeoiiee nithc”. Ii-/aoaa?oa, c?iaeaii aaaeeea? e?iee aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?ieeo ian naeyinoaa, caeo/aiiy
?o aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, ia?aoai?aiiy inoaiiueiai o ni?aaae?
ia?iaeiee ?oo. Ii-i’yoa, oe?a?ioe? e?ath acyee aeoeaio o/anoue a
?aeaeieo aeeneon?yo ?c ieoaiue, ui noinoaaeeny iaeaaaeeea?oeo
i???ioe??a iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Aacaoa “Aoeiaeia”
ia yeeenue /an noaea anaoe?a?inueeei i?aaiii. O iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on?
oe?a?ioe?a e?ath c’yaeeeny ?aaeeeaeuei?o? aeaiaioe, a oiio /ene? oae?,
ye? aaaaeaee aanei ai?ioueae ca iie?oe/io iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie ia
oai?aoe/iith i???th, a iaeaeeae/ei caaaeaiiyi i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? – “Oe?a?ioe? Aoeiaeie a ai?iouea? ca iaoe?iiaeuei?
i?aaa o ia?aaeai?iiiio aeanyoee?oo? (1905 – 1914 ??.)” i?iaiae?ciaaii
noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ai?ioueao iaaeiei
i?iaaaeaiiy e?aeiaeo ?aoi?i, e?ao iineaio?euenueeiai ?ooo, ni?iae
ae??oaiiy oea?eiaiiai ieoaiiy, iiaeeaeaiiy iie?oe/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo
ca’yce?a ?c Aaee/eiith oa Iaaeaei?i?yinueeith Oe?a?iith.

Ia?oo oe?a?inueeo iie?oe/io ia?o?th ia Aoeiaei? caniiaaii 12 eenoiiaaea
1905 ?. i?ae iacaith “Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaea ?onei?a ia Aoeiaei?”.
Noai?aiiy ?? aoei iaoiiaeaii aeeaieith e?ecith ia?iaeianoaa i?ney
?iciaaeo “A?eueiiaeoiiiai nithco”.

I?ia?aia “Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee” aoea aeecueeith aei onoaiia/eo
aeieoiaio?a Iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? oa ?aaeeeaeueii? ia?o?e
Aaee/eie, aea ?? aaoi?e iaiaaaeeny ia iaieiooe ? aeaye? iia? yaeua, ui
iaee i?noea a oiae?oiueiio noni?eueiiio aeeoo? e?ath. Aenoioo? aeiiae
iiaeii? aoee caoe?eaaeoe o ia?oo /a?ao naeyi, ia yeeo iie?aeany
i?aai?caoe?y. Ia iaieiaeeny oaaaith ?ia?oieee oa ?ioae?aaioe?y. Iaeiae
/eiaei ieoaiue o iaoe?iiaeueieo oa eoeueoo?ieo ni?aaao ia ciaeoee
iaeaaeiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?ia?ai?.

Inoaoi/ii oi?ioaaiiy ea??aieoeoaa ia?o?? caaa?oaii 2 n?/iy 1906 ?. Ia
cai?ao E?aeiaiai eii?oaoo “Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee” aieiaith ia?o?? ia?aii
ae-?a Aieiaeeie?a Oeeeiiae/a, ia?oei canooiieeii aieiae – ?aaeieea
eiinenoi??? Iaeao?y Aae?ia, ae?oaei canooiieeii – i?ioani?a a?iiac??
Aioiia Eeeia.

Aacia?a/iei oni?oii ia?o?? noaei ia?aiiy 5 aeaiooao?a aano??enueeiai
ia?eaiaioo a?ae ia?iaeiaoe?a, aea aaea a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1907 ?.
“Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaea” ia?anoaea ae?yoe.

Ai?iaeiaae ianooiieo ?ie?a ia?iaeiaoe? aeae?eueea ?ac?a ?iaeee ni?iae
ia’?aeiaoeny. 1908 ?. iaieioaii i?i canioaaiiy Oe?a?inueei? iinooiiai?
ia?o??, iaaeaniei eo?aoi?ii yei? noaa I.Iiiiae/. Iaeiae oi?iaeiaae 1908
– ii/aoeo 1909 ??. oae ? ia aoei neeeeaii onoaiia/eo cai??a ia?o??, ia
noai?aii ?? ea??aieo i?aai?a. Oeei nei?enoaany ?ioee e?aea? ia?iaeianoaa
– N.Niaeue-Noioeueeee. 1909 ?. a?i canioaaa naeyinueeo ia?o?th
“?onueea ?aaea”, yea oaeaeei iaa?aea iiioey?iino?. Oiio aaea 1910 ?.
/eaie Oe?a?inueei? iinooiiai? ia?o?? aa?eoee aei neeaaeo “?onueei?
?aaee”. Aea ? oey ia?o?y i?i?nioaaea iaaeiaai. I?ney oiai, ye ia ii/aoeo
1912 ?. ?aa?c?y a “Naeyinuee?e ean?” aeyaeea cia/io ianoa/o a?ioae, a
i?e/aoi?noue aei oeueiai iaee a?aeii? ae?y/? “?onueei? ?aaee”,
i/iethaai? N.Niaeue-Noioeueeei, ia?o?y i?eieieea ?nioaaiiy.

O aeiaoi?-eenoiiaae? 1912 ?. a?aeaoany inoaoi/iee ?ic?ea i?ae
N.Niaeue-Noioeueeei ? I.Aaneeueeii. Iaeaeaa e?aea?e ii/aee a?oioaaoe
iaaeiei naaa i?eoeeueiee?a, aino?i e?eoeeoaaee iaeei iaeiiai a
ia??iaeeoe? oa ia a?/ao. I.Aaneeueei ? “Nithc oe?a?inueeeo naeiiaeo oa
ia?eaiaionueeeo aeaiooao?a” eiio?iethaaee aacaoe “Iiaa Aoeiaeia” oa
“Ia?iaeiee aiein”. ?oi? iiiiaioe c eenoiiaaea 1912 ?. ii/aee aeaeaaaoe
aacaoo “Oe?a?ia”.

Eia?ea iie?oe/iiai noia?ieoeoaa i?eioneea iaeaea? noi?iie caeiyoeny
cao?ooaaiiyi nai?o nee o iiaeo ia?o?yo. 12 aeiaoiy 1913 ?. i?eoeeueieee
N.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai iaieineee i?i canioaaiiy Oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii?
ia?o??. Aieiaith eii?oaoo ia?o?? ia?aii A.A?oeiiae/a.

I?eoeeueieee I.Aaneeueea oaae ia neae?ee neeaaoe ?oee. O aa?aci? 1913 ?.
a “Iia?e Aoeiaei?” c’yaeeany “A?aeicaa”, a ye?e iiynithaaeeny
i?aai?caoe?ei? i?eioeeie iiai? Iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o??. Ia
na?aaeeio 1914 ?. iaeaea? ia?o?? i?iaeiaaeoaaee caeeoaoeny a noaae??
i?aai?caoe?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy.

Ioaea, iacaaaeath/e ia /eneaii? ni?iae, aoeiaeinuee? ia?iaeiaoe? ia
ii/aoeo OO no. ia ciiaee i?aai?coaaoe i?oeio ia?o?th. E?aea?e
ia?iaeianoaa, cie?aia aeaiooaoe Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio oa aano??enueeiai
ia?eaiaioo, ia i?iyaeyee ni?aaaeiuei? caoe?eaaeaiino? a oae?e ia?o??.
Aiie ia oio?ee ca’ycoaaoe naaa ia?o?eiith aeenoeeie?iith ? a?aeiia?aeaoe
ia?aae ia?o??th ca nai? ae??.

Ie?aiith neeith a oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on? ia Aoeiaei? aoea
?aaeeeaeueia ia?o?y. ?? canioaaee ia cai?ao 16 /a?aiy 1907 ?. eieeoi?
/eaie “Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee ?onei?a ia Aoeiaei?”, iacaaeiaieai? ??
ea??aieoeoaii. O ia?o? ?iee i?ney canioaaiiy ia?o?? ?aaeeeaee noiyee a
eiio?iioaoe?? ? uiaei ia?iaeiaoe?a, ? uiaei iineaio?e?a. Iaeo?ni?o?
noinoiee aiie i?aeo?eioaaee c? nai?ie iaeiiaeoioeyie a Aaee/ei?. ?c
ia?inoaiiyi noia?a/iinoae a ia?iaeianueeiio oaai?? ?aaeeeaee ii/aee
caeeaeaoeny c a?oiith I.Iiiiae/a – I.Aaneeueea. A?aee?eoa oeeaaeaiiy
nithco a?aeaoeiny 1911 ?. a oiiaao ia?aaeaeai?ii? eaiiai?? aei
Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio. O ethoiio oeueiai ae ?ieo iaeaea? ia?o?? oeeaee
oaiaeo i?i ni?euei?noue ae?e, ca ui ?aaeeeaeai aa?aiooaaeiny iaeia
i?noea a naei?.

Aeai?e aei naeio iieacaee i?eaeecio ?icnoaiiaeo iie?oe/ieo nee ?
aieeaia?noue ie?aieo ia?o?e. ?c 17 oe?a?inueeeo aeaiooao?a 15 aoee
ia?iaeiaoeyie, 1 — ?aaeeeaeii oa 1 — nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoii. ?aaeueii
ioe?ithth/e neooaoe?th, e?aea?e ?aaeeeae?a ?icoi?ee, ui nithc ?c
ia?iaeiaoeyie iio??aai aeey oni?oo caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? ni?aae. O
ia?aaeai?ii? ?iee ?aaeeeaee iaeaea a on?o ieoaiiyo nie?aea?ecoaaeeny c
ia?iaeiaoeyie, ye? eoee ca I.Aaneeueeii. O.Aae?i iniiaio ae?yeuei?noue
cina?aaeea o eeoa? naeiiaeo oa ia?eaiaionueeeo aeaiooao?a.

Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia iaai? ?aeaieia?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? o?oaeiiu?,
?aaeeeaee caeeoaeeny cia/iith iie?oe/iith neeith, c yeith ia iiaeia aoei
ia ?aooaaoeny. Iayai?noue oe??? ia?o?? iiceoeaii aieeaaea ia
oe?a?inueeee ?oo, o??ciiiai?oithaaea iae?o?o iie?oe/ieo nee,
ni?yiiaoaaea iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo o ?onei ai?ioueae ca oe?ie?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa aeaiie?aoe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy, caa??aath/e i?e
oeueiio iaoe?iiaeuei? i??i?eoaoe.

O?aoueith cia/iith ia?o??th a oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on?
Aoeiaeie aoee nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe. 1896 ?. ia c’?cae? o *a?i?aoeyo ie?ai?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/i? ao?oee e?ath ia’?aeiaeeny a Nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/io
ia?o?th Aoeiaeie, aei yei? ia aaoiiiiieo canaaeao aoiaeeee oe?a?ioe?,
iieyee, i?ioe?, ?a?a?, ?oioie. Oe?a?inuee? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe iaeii/anii
aoiaeeee aei Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?? Aaee/eie ?
Aoeiaeie, yea ooai?eeany o Eueaia? 1899 ?.

O?eueee 1908 ?. oe?a?inueeee nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo ia Aoeiaei?
aeinoaoiuei ci?oei?a ? ii/aa ni?aaeyoe ?aaeueiee aieea ia noni?euei?
i?ioeane o e?a?. E?aea?ii aoeiaeinueeeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a noaa
I.Aaciaeei.

Oe?a?inueea nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y Aaee/eie ? Aoeiaeie noiyea ia
canaaeao a?aeainueei? (1901 ?.) i?ia?aie aano??enueei?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??. I?aaio/e ?icoe?eoe na?e aieea ia iane,
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe aenoaaee oe?ie? iie?oe/i? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
aeiiae, ye? noinoaaeeny ia o?eueee ?ia?oiee?a, aea e naeyi oa
?ioae?aaioe??. Iinooiiai ci?ithaaeany i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a ia?o??.
Ia e?aeia?e eiioa?aioe?? Nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?? Aoeiaeie 1908 ?.
aoei aeicaieaii noai?thaaoe iaoe?iiaeueii a?aeie?aieai?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi? oiaa?enoaa nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a i?ae caaaeueiei
iaaeyaeii e?aeiaiai aeeiiaa/iai eii?oaoo.

Aeey ?icai?oaiiy eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiuei? ?iaioe oe?a?inuee?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe noai?eee ?yae ie?aieo iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?enoa. Aaea
o eenoiiaae? 1908 ?. o *a?i?aoeyo caniiaaii oe?a?inueea ?ia?oie/a
i?ina?oi? oiaa?enoai “Aiey”.Iacaaa?ii oae? ae oiaa?enoaa a?aee?eoi o
Oeieioeyo, E?oeiai?, O?auaoeeo. ?icii/aoi aeaeaiiy aa?oaoe?eieo a?ioo?
i?ae caaieiaeii “Neiai i?aaaee”, eaeaiaea?y “Aanaeea”. Oni?oii
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeey aa?oaoe?? ni?eeia? i?aai?caoe??.

O iaoe?iiaeueiiio ieoaii? oe?a?inuee? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe iaiaaaeeny
ii?aeiaoe ?aeath ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino? i?ieaoa??a ??cieo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae ? caeiaoooy aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, i?aeo?eioaaee aeoieo i?i noai?aiiy a ?aieao ?aoi?iiaaii?
Aano?i-Oai?ueie ie?aiiai oe?a?inueeiai aaoiiiiiiai e?ath.

Aoeiaeinuee? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe caeiaee ie?aio, a?aei?iio a?ae
a?eueoino? /eai?a ia?o?? iiceoe?th uiaei iiaeeeai? a?eie. Aiie ia
iieeaaeaee iaae?e ia Aano?i-Oai?ueio o aecaieaii? Oe?a?ie ? aaaaeaee, ui
oeueiai iio??aii aeiaeaaoeny aeanieie neeaie.

Ioaea, a oe?a?inueeiio noni?eueiiio ?on? ia Aoeiaei? ii/aoeo XX no.
iiai?noth aeii?ioaaee iaoe?iiaeuei? ia?o??, ye? a?aenoithaaee aeoieo i?i
?aei?noue oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie, Aaee/eie, Caea?iaooy oa
Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie, iaeaooi? ia’?aeiaiiy oeeo caiaeue a ?aeei?e
iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?. Oe? ia?o?? noiyee ia aeaiie?aoe/ieo
iiceoe?yo, caoeuath/e a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ieoaiiyo ?ioa?ane naeyi
oa ?ia?oiee?a. No?oeoo?a, ?aeaei? i?eioeeie, oaeoeea ae?e oeeo ia?o?e a
caaaeueieo ?enao aoee aeecueeeie aei a?aeiia?aeieo canaae iaoe?iiaeueieo
ia?o?e Aaee/eie, oi/a iaee i?noea e aeaye? iniaeeaino?. Oae naii, ye ? a
Aaee/ei?, ia Aoeiaei? aieiaiith neeith iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo caeeoaeany
iii??eiaaia oeaio?enonueea noni?eueia oa/?y, yea i?iaeiaaeoaaea
o?aaeeoe?? ia?iaeianoaa. Iaeiae aiia aoea ?icae?eaia ia aea? ie?ai?
ia?o??, ye? aino?i iiai?thaaee iaeia iaeio. Oea iaaaoeaii iicia/aeiny ia
noni?eueieo ni?aaao. E?aioeaio?enonuee? iiceoe?? caeiaee ?aaeeeaee. Ia
Aoeiaei? aiie aoee cia/ii neaaoeie, i?ae o Aaee/ei? ? i?ney aeai??a 1911
?. a on?o ieoaiiyo a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy aeieoaaeeny c ia?iaeiaoeyie.
E?aee oeaia caeiaee nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe, ye? aino?i e?eoeeoaaee
Oe?a?inueeo ia?iaeio, Oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/io ia?o?? ?
?aaeeeae?a, iieeaaeath/e aieiai? iaae?? ia i?aeo?eieo c aieo
i?iaoeueeiai, ?a?aenueeiai, iieuenueeiai, ?oioinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueieo
caaii?a aoeiaeinueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?? oa nai?o iaeiiia?o?eoe?a c
Aaee/eie.

A oeaio?? iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?ath a ia?aaeai?iiiio aeanyoee?oo?
caeeoaeeny caeiiii?iaeoe, caoaa?aeaeai? Aoeiaeinueeei naeiii 1904 ?.
AEiaeia ?c noni?eueieo nee oaea ia iiaea ?o caia?a/oaaoe. Oaia?
iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa ia?aeoea a ieiueio /eneaiieo aei?iaie oa aei?aaeaiue
caeiiii?iaeo?a, iiooe?a aeaea?ae ?o o?iainoaaiiy oa oeyo?a
caoaa?aeaeaiiy oeaio?aeueieie i?aaiaie aeaaee. E?aea?e oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a?ae?a?aaaee o oeeo i?ioeanao ia inoaiith ?ieue.
Iieieaoenue o iaioino?, aiie ??oo/a e?eoeeoaaee iiiiaio?a ca iecueeo
ye?noue caeiiii?iaeo?a, i?iiiioaaee aeani? aa??aioe ae??oaiiy iaaie?eeo
i?iaeai. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a oe?a?inuee? aeaiooaoe aeoiaeeee c iio?aa
oe?ieeo ia?iaeieo ian ? iaiaaaeeny iie?aoeny ia ?oith i?aeo?eieo. Iaeiae
oea ia icia/a?, ui ae?yeuei?noue aeaiooao?a ?icoe?ithaaeany iaeiicia/ii.
A oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? a?aeaoaaeeny no?oeoo?i? ci?ie, aeae?eeeiny
aeae?eueea aoae/eo nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ye? iaee aeani? oaoia? ?ioa?ane,
ia caaaeaee ?aeaioe/i? c ?ioa?anaie caaaeo. Oea o/eoae?, caiiaei?o?
naeyie, ?ia?oieee, i?uaie oiui. E?eoe/ii ioe?ithaaee ae?yeuei?noue
aeaiooao?a i?aaenoaaieee eiieo?oth/eo ia?o?e.

Aeey oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ?ic?iaea oa caoaa?aeaeaiiy
e?aeiaeo ?aoi?i iaea aeae?eueea cia/oueo aniaeo?a. Ia?o ca ana,
caeiiii?iaeoe ?aoi?i, ye ae ?o ia aei?iaeyee /e ia?a?iaeyee,
ni?yiiaoaaeeny ia aeaiie?aoecaoe?th noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei o e?a?, ui caaacia/oaaei oe?a?ioeyi ?icoe?aiiy iiaeeeainoae o
ai?iouea? ca iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa ye iae/eneaii?oi? aoi?/ii? a?oie e?ath.
Ii-ae?oaa, ai?ioueaa iaaeiei ?aoi?i caeo/aea aei o/ano? a i?e ia o?eueee
i?ioan?eieo iie?oee?a, aeaiooao?a naeio oa ia?eaiaioo, aea e cia/ii
oe?o? eiea caoe?eaaeaieo i?ioa?e?a ianaeaiiy. Ii-o?ao?, o/anoue o
?ic?iaoe? ?aoi?i noaea nai???aeiei eaeioniaei iai??oeai aeey
oe?a?inueeeo oa ?ioeo iie?oee?a, ui aeaaaei iiaeeea?noue ii??aithaaoe
i?ia?aii? aeaeea?aoe?? e i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue ie?aieo iie?oe/ieo ?
iaoe?iiaeueieo nee o eiie?aoieo oiiaao caeiiioai?/ino?.

A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii iaeaaaeeea?o? ia?eiao?? iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae,
iia’ycai? ?c caoaa?aeaeaiiyi e?aeiaeo caeii?a i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ia?oii?
ieaoi? o/eoaeyi, i?i iiaee noaooo aeey n?euenueeeo a?iiaae oa aeai?/iai
caeiio aei i?aai?a a?iiaaenueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, iiaee aeai?/ee caeii
aei Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio, iiaee aeai?/ee caeii aei *a?i?aaoeueei?
i?nueei? ?aaee, canioaaiiy e?aeiaiai aaieo, e?ea?aeaoe?th
na?aaeiueia?/ieo ieoieo ioieo?a (?iaaoie) ia aei?iaao, neanoaaiiy
i?ii?iaoe?eiiai i?aaa ? cai?ia eiai iiaeaoeii ia oeiea?nueeee i?iienae,
naiaoe?y naeyinueeeo “Nithc?a” oiui.

Ai?ioueaa ca i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i aeey oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a e?ath aoea
aaeeeith oeieith ia?eaiaioa?ecio. Aiia ooaa?aeaeoaaea a na?aaeiaeu?
oe?a?inueeeo noni?eueieo ae?y/?a ?icoi?iiy aaaeeeaino? eiinoeoooe?eieo
iaoiae?a ae??oaiiy i?iaeai. Iai?aoeueiaoaaeeny aeaiie?aoe/i? oi?ie ?
iaoiaee ?iaioe i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?o?e, nioe?aeueieo a?oi o
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aaiao aeaaee. Ia aeiaaeeiai ia Aoeiaei? na?aae
oe?a?ioe?a ia iaee iioe?aiiy e?ai?aaeeeaeuei? oa/??, ai iio?aae a oaeeo
ia?o?yo a oiiaao eiinoeoooe?eieo naiaiae i?inoi ia ?nioaaei. Oeei
Aoeiaeia nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeany a?ae Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie, a
/anoeiai ? a?ae Aaee/eie.

Iaeia c oeaio?aeueieo i?noeue o a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo? Aoeiaeie
ia?aaeai?iiiai aeanyoee?ooy caeiyei oea?eiaia ieoaiiy. Aiii aeieeei ua a
O?O no. ? aoei iaoiiaeaia ?yaeii i?e/ei, ye? neeaeeny ?noi?e/ii.
I?aaineaai? oe?a?ioe? ? ?oioie Aoeiaeie aoiaeeee aei iaei??? ?ia?o??.
Ea??aieoeoai iath ciaoiaeeeiny iaeaea iiai?noth a ?oeao aa?o?aee
?oioinueeiai aeooiaainoaa. Iiee ??aaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?
ianaeaiiy caeeoaany iecueeei oaea noaiiaeua iaei eiai oaeethaaei. Iaeiae
c ?icaeoeii oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo noaaaei i/aaeaeiei, ui
iio??aii aeiaeaaoeny ??aiino? ? a oe?e noa?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeothoueny aieiai? aoaie ai?ioueae oe?a?ioe?a ca nai?
i?aaa o oea?eiaiiio ieoaii?. I?iaiae?ciaaii iaii??ae 1899 ?. I.Aaneeueea
oa ?.I?aoeyea, oe?a?inueeo iaoeoe?th 1906 ?. aei ?iia?aoi?a, i?iaeo
iiae?eo eiinenoi??? 1909 ?. “Oiaa?enoaa ?onueeeo i?aaineaaieo
nayuaiee?a”, oe?a?inueei-?oioinuee? ia?aaiai?e o oea?eiaiiio ieoaii?
1913 ?. oiui.

Oi/a oea?eiaia ieoaiiy ia aoei ?ica’ycaia aei e?ioey, ci?ie, ye?
a?aeaoeeny ia ii/aoeo OO no., iieacoaaee, ui i?e iaeaaei?e i?aai?caoe??
oa oe?eani?yiiaaiino? iiaeia aeinyaaoe iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
aeei?enoiaoth/e aeaiie?aoe/i? canaaee aano??enueei? Eiinoeoooe??.
Oe?a?inuee? iie?oeee coi?ee ia?aeiiaoe oe?ie? ia?iaei? iane a
ni?aaaaeeeaino? aeiia, iinoaaeaieo o oea?eiaiiio ieoaii?, aeoeaii ae?yee
ye o e?aeiaeo, oae ? o a?aeainueeeo i?aaiao aeaaee, oi?ioaaee ni?eyoeeao
aeey oe?a?ioe?a a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo. Oaeoe/ii a ?acoeueoao?
o?eaeoeyoee?oiuei? ai?ioueae oe?a?ioe? aeiiiaeeny ia?eoaoo a oea?eiaieo
ni?aaao. Oaia? oaea aeua aeooiaainoai ia iaaaaeoaaeiny iai?aaeyoe a
oe?a?inuee? naea nayuaiee?a, ye? ia ciaee oe?a?inueei? iiae. A
eiinenoi??? oe?a?ioe? iaee /ioe?ueio i?aaenoaaiee?a, a oiio /ene?
aaia?aeueiiai a?ea??y. Cia/ii iie?ioeeeny iiaeeeaino? caeiaoaaoe
aeooiaio ina?oo oe?a?inueeith iiaith, c’yaeeeny oe?a?inuee? i?ae?o/ieee
c aiaineia’y oiui. Ana oea iaei aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, cao?ooaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a o ai?iouea? ca nai?
caeiii? i?aaa. Iinooiiai ? i?aaineaaia aeooiaainoai Aoeiaeie ii/eiaei
ona?aeiiethaaoe o? aaeee? caaaeaiiy, ye? noiyee ia?aae iei o ni?aa?
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai iinooio. Oaeei /eiii, e?ea?aeiaoaaeany
iaeia c aaaeeeaeo i?iaaeei iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a e?ath –
iecueea iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue, eiina?aaoeai?noue, ?ia?oi?noue, a
aeaeiee iaa?oue ? ai?iae?noue aei iaoe?iiaeueieo ?aeae i?noeaaiai
oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaaiiai aeooiaainoaa.

Ia?aaeai?iia aeanyoee?ooy a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
ia Aoeiaei? iicia/eeiny inoaoi/iei e?aoii iineaio?euenueeiai ?ooo. E?ae,
ia a?aei?io a?ae Aaee/eie oa Caea?iaooy, ii??aiyii eaaei “ia?aoai??a”
iineaio?euenoaii. Oey oa/?y i?eiee ia iaea ooo iniaeeai aaeeeiai
iioe?aiiy. Iaoe?iiaeuei? ia?o?? ia aaaeaee eoe c iineaio?eaie ia aeiaei?
eiii?ii?ne, a aia?a?ei? ae?? aano??enueeeo aeanoae coiiaeee oaeaeeee
caiaiaae iineaio?euenoaa.

O ?iaio? iieacaii ?aeaeio aaiethoe?th iineaio?euenueeiai ?ooo,
ae?yeuei?noue ?oi?o i?aai?caoe?e, eiioaeoe c ?in?enueeeie
iaeiiaeoioeyie. Iaia?aaeiaei? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue iineaio?euenueeeo oiaa?enoa ia Aoeiaei? aai aoea ?ica?iieaia
aano??enueeeie aeanoyie, aai ia?aaoaaea o noaae?? aeeaiei? ?aeaeii? oa
i?aai?caoe?eii? e?ece. Iineaio?euenoai ye aeueoa?iaoeaia oa/?y, ui
i?ioenoiyea iaoe?iiaeueiei ia?o?yi, ca ?iee nai?? ae?yeueiino? iai/ii
i?aeoaa?aeeei aacia?niaeoeai?noue a?aenoithaaii? aeieo?eie.

Aoeiaeinueea a?iiaaenuee?noue, ye oe?a?inueea, oae ? iaoe?a?inueea,
a?aeiiaeeany caoeuaoe iineaio?e?a, ?icoi?th/e, aei /iai iiaeooue
i?eaanoe ?oi? i?aaiaiiy. O i?inoeo naeyi iineaio?euenuee? ?aea? i?eiee
ia aeeeeeaee iniaeeaiai caoiieaiiy, oi/a iineaio?ee aaaaoi ia?oeyee ?
iaenoa?ii aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey nai?? i?iiaaaiaee ye
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?, oae ? aoaeue-ye? iie?oe/i? iaaa?acaee. Iaaia
aeeao/?noue iineaio?euenoaa, oa, ui eiai i?ea?/ieeai oae aeiaai
aaeaaaeiny caeeoaoeny ia ieaao, iiynithaaeiny ia?o ca ana
iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi cia/ieo eioo?a c-ca ei?aeiio oa ?ini??aoe?yie
/i?iinioaiieo nee ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia Aoeiaei? a?ae naiiai ii/aoeo
?icaeaaany o ia?ic?eaiiio ca’yceo c iie?oe/iith oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iith ai?ioueaith a Aaee/ei? oa Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e
Oe?a?i?. Aea ia ii/aoeo OO no. o oeeo ca’yceao a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie,
ye? iaoiiaethaaeeny ia?o ca ana ye?niei iiiaeaiiyi naiiai oe?a?inueeiai
?ooo. Iiioey?ecaoe?y aanea ai?ioueae ca iie?oe/io iacaeaaei?noue
Oe?a?ie, aeciaiiy aoi?/ii?, ?noi?e/ii?, aeooiaii? ?aeiino? oe?a?ioe?a
on?o oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, iaa?oiooaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
i?aaiaiue e??cue i?ecio iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a ni?eyee iiai?thaaiith
i?noeaai? canei?oceino?, ooaa?aeaeaiith caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeo ?aeae.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?iaioe
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oiaa?enoa iaae ae?iaeaiiyi ii/oooy
iaoe?iiaeueii? nie?aea?iino?, ni?eueiino? c oe?a?ioeyie ?ioeo caiaeue.
Aaeeea cia/aiiy a oeueiio iaea ?ioaineaia aeaeaaie/a ae?yeuei?noue,
i?iaaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo nayo, ??cieo eoeueoo?ieo caoiae?a, iniaeno?
eiioaeoe c i?aaenoaaieeaie Iaaeaei?i?yiueie oa Aaee/eie.

Aeey iiaeeaeaiiy ca’yce?a /eiaeo aaao iaei oa, ui ia ii/aoeo OO no.
iaaeaei?i?yinuee? oe?a?ioe? cia/ii aeoea?coaaee naith ae?yeuei?noue ia
Aoeiaei?. A *a?i?aoeyo caniiaaii aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? ?aaiethoe?eii?
oe?a?inueei? ia?o??, yeee o 1902–1903 ??. aeaeaaaa aacaoe “Aanei” ?
“Naeyiei”, iiioey?i? a?ioo?e.

Iaaecae/aeio ?ieue o iiaeeaeaii? noinoie?a i?ae Aoeiaeiith ?
Iaaeaei?i?yiueiith a?ae?a?aee iiae?? 1905 — 1907 ??. o ?in??. Oi/a
?aaiethoe?y 1905 ?. ia aei?aaaeaea oeo iaae?e, ye? iieeaaeaea ia ia?
cao?aeiioe?a?inueea a?iiaaenuee?noue, o ieai? iineeaiiy ?aeiino? aiia
noaea ia?aeiiiei iiiaioii a ?noi??? oe?a?inoaa an?o caiaeue. Oi?iaeiaae
ianooiieo i?ney ?aaiethoe?? ?ie?a aae aei Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie
oe?a?inueea a?iiaaenuee?noue oaaaeii noaaeeea ca an?i, ui a?aeaoaaeiny a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on? ia Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?, ni?a/oaath/e ? iaiaaath/enue
iaaeaoe aeiiiiiao nai?i iaeiiieai?iieeai o aaaeeeo oiiaao ?in?enueei?
/i?iinioaiii? ?aaeoe??. Cia/ii c?inea ii?ioi?iiaai?noue aoeiaeioe?a i?i
Iaaeaei?i?yiueio.

?acii c oei a ?iaio? iieacaii ia?aoeiaee, ye? aeiaiaeeeiny aeieaoe ia
oeyoo aei iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino?. Cie?aia, oea oae caaiee aaoiooiiiee
?oo. I?iaiae?ciaaii i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy oa aeayei? no?eeino? aaoiooiiieo
?aeae. Cacia/aii, ui cia/iith i??ith aaoiooiinoai iiynithaaeiny iaaieie
iniaenoeie ?ioa?anaie ie?aieo iie?oee?a, ye? iaiaaaeeny iaea?aeaoe c
oeueiai aeani? aeaiaee. Aea oae? ni?iae cae?i/eeeny i?iaaeii.
Iaia?aaeiaei? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? ?aea? noaee
iiai?noth aeii?ioth/eie a oe?a?inuee?e ni?eueiio? ia Aoeiaei?, ui
cana?ae/oaaei aenieee ??aaiue c??eino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aiie caiaeyoueny aei oaeeo iieiaeaiue.

Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO
no. — i?ea?iaeueia ? aaaeeeaa yaeua a?o/eciyii? ?noi???. Iaaaeeea
/anoeia oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ia?aaoaath/e a iniaeeaeo oiiaao ie?aii?
ei?iiii? caie? Aano??? (Aano?i-Oai?ueie), ia i?inoi coi?ea a?aenoiyoe
naith iaoe?iiaeueio naiiaooi?noue, aea e aeinyaea /eiaeeo oni?o?a a
i?aai?caoe?? oa iinooiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

Ia ?icai?oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo nooo?aee aieea ni?aaeyea nioe?aeueia
no?oeoo?a oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy Aoeiaeie. Aiia aoea oeiiaith aeey
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no.
Aeii?ioaaei naeyinoai, aenieei aoa a?aenioie iaienueiaiieo. Na?aae
oe?a?ioe?a iaeaea ia aoei aaeeeeo caieaaeaniee?a, ?iaeiaeoi? oeyooe.
Ii??aiyii iaeo /anoeio noaiiaeee aeeoae? i?no, eoioe?, i?iieneiaoe?,
?ai?nie/? iaeno?e. Oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y oi?ioaaeany ca ?aooiie
o/eoae?a, nayuaiee?a, neoaeaiaoe?a, nooaeaio?a. Naia oe? a?oie aenooieee
?i?oe?aoi?aie ? iaea?eueo aeoeaieie i?iiaaaiaeenoaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo.

Aaaeeeaith ianoaaeiith, yea nooo?ai aieeaaea ia ?icai?oaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, aoei oa, ui ia Aoeiaei? neeaeeny, ii??aiyii c
Aaee/eiith, e?au? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeaiie?aoe/ieo ii?i
aano??enueei? eiinoeoooe??. Ooo ia aoei oaeiai aino?iai i?ioenoiyiiy, ye
i?ae iieyeaie ? oe?a?ioeyie a non?aei?e ei?iii?e caie?. Iie?oe/io
ai?ioueao aaei 5 aaeeeeo aoi?/ieo oa?oiiaaiue — oe?a?ioe?, ?oioie,
i?ioe?, ?a?a?, iieyee, ye?, a naith /a?ao, ae?eeeeny ia ae??ai?o?
ia?o?ei? ooai?aiiy. Oea aeaaaei iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe iie?oeeo
eiii?ii?n?a, aeooeoaaoe nithciee?a ? iiai?thaaoe a oaeee niin?a
iiiiaio?a.

O nai?io ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. i?ieoia /ioe?e ia??iaee, ye?, a oe?eiio,
ocaiaeaeothoueny c oai?aoe/ieie iieiaeaiiyie i?i aoaie ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a “iaeeo” ia?iae?a ?a?iie.

Ia?oee ia??iae – ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ii/aoeia? e?iee iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.
(e?iaoeue 50-o – ae?oaa iieiaeia 60-o ?ie?a O?O no.). Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo
oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ca?iaeeany a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Aano??enueei? ?iia???
a?ae iaiaaniethoecio aei eiinoeoooe?eii? oi?ie i?aae?iiy. Caii/aoeoaaee
eiai aeaeaoi? ienueiaiieee TH??e Oaaeueeiae/, Neae?? oa A?eai??e
Ai?iaeaae/?, ye? nai?th oai?/?noth ni?aaeee ae??oaeueiee aieea ia
aecia/aiiy i??i?eoaoieo i???ioe??a ?ooo. Oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i ii/aoie
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia Aoeiaei? a 1848 ?. ?
iaiaa?oioiaaieie.

A?ae e?ioey 60-o ?ie?a O?O no. ia Aoeiaei? ii/eia?oueny ae?oaee ia??iae
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Ca?iaeaeothoueny oe?a?inuee?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi?, iie?oe/i? oa iieiae?aei? oiaa?enoaa, oi?iothoueny
iineaio?euenueea oa ia?iaeianueea noni?euei? oa/??, ?iaeyoueny ia?o?
ni?iae caeo/eoe aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo naeyi.

Na?aaeeia ? ae?oaa iieiaeia 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. noaee /anii
?iciaaeoaaiiy ia?iaeiaoe?a ? iineaio?e?a a oe?a?inueeeo oiaa?enoaao, ui
icia/aei ii/aoie o?aoueiai ia??iaeo a ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. A?i
noaa /anii ia?aoiaeo a?ae ie?aieo eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo aei
iie?oe/ieo aeiia.

Inoaii?i, /aoaa?oei ia??iaeii a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo ia Aoeiaei? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. noaei
ia?aaeai?iia aeanyoee?ooy. A oeae /an iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia?aoai?eany o
yne?aai ae?aaeaiee iie?oe/iee ?oo. Oe?a?ioe? e?ath aaee aeoeaio
ai?ioueao, a?aenoithth/e iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane o ??cieo noa?ao aeeooy.
Ooai?eeeny ie?ai? oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??.

Iaia?aaeiaei? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie e?ae a?aecia/aany ?icia?ooyi
oe?a?inueeeo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o, a?iianoe/ieo, iaoeiaeo, oaoiaeo
oiaa?enoa, ye? i?iaiaeeee iianyeaeaiio ?iaioo c iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ina?aeiieaiiy ianaeaiiy. Aoei ae?iaeaii /eiaei i?ia?aneaieo oi?i
caeo/aiiy naeyinoaa aei iaoe?iiaeueii? ?iaioe, cao?ooaaiiy eiai aeey
a?aenoithaaiiy caeiiieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo,
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo i?aa. Aaccaia?a/ieie caeiaooeaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo
OO no. noaei noai?aiiy i?oeii? ?aeaeii? iniiae iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo,
iaa?oiooaaiiy eiie?aoieo aeiia o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e, iie?oe/i?e oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i?e noa?ao, ?icaeoie aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae,
?ioaineaia iioe?aiiy ia??iaee/ieo oa ?ioeo aeaeaiue oe?a?inueeith iiaith
(oiiaoe/iei i?aaiienii), a?aenoithaaiiy iie?oe/ieo oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inoaa a aano??enueeiio
ia?eaiaio? oa Aoeiaeinueeiio naei?, oi?ioaaiiy no?eeeo eiinoeoooe?eieo
ia?aeiiaiue, ooaa?aeaeaiiy ia?eaiaionueeeo iaoiae?a ai?ioueae, noai?aiiy
ia?o?e oa oaoiaeo oiaa?enoa, ye? a?aenoithaaee ?ioa?ane ie?aieo
nioe?aeueieo oa iie?oe/ieo a?oi oe?a?ioe?a e?ath, caaaeueia c?inoaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ia?iaeieo ian, oni?oia caeo/aiiy aei
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?ieeo aa?noa naeyinoaa, ?ia?oiee?a,
?ioae?aaioe??, ia?aoai?aiiy oe?a?ioe?a e?ath a aeia?a i?aai?ciaaio
ni?eueiioo, yea ciaea nai? i?aaa, ona?aeiiethaaea nai? iio?aae oa
?ioa?ane ? ai?ea ca ieo iinoiyoe.

Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia Aoeiaei? ?icaeaaany ye neeaaeiaa
/anoeia caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ? a?aecia/aany
aenieeie oaiiaie c?inoaiiy i?aai?ciaaiino?, noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?,
iie?oe/iiai aieeao oe?a?inoaa e?ath, eiinie?aeaoe?? iaaeiei aanae
ai?ioueae ca iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa, a a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? — ca
anoaiiaeaiiy oe?iei? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii??, ae??oaeueiiai
e?ieo aei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAI? O OAEEO IOAE?EAOe?ssO:

1. Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo
OO no. – *a?i?aoe?: Cieio? eeoaa?e, 1999. – 574 n.

2. Aeaaeai?e Noaiai Niaeue-Noioeueeee. AEeooy ? ae?yeuei?noue. –
E.-*a?i?aoe?: ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, 1996. — 207 n. (O
ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.Aeaieeaieii).

3. Aoeiaeia. ?noi?e/iee ia?en / N.Einoeoei, A.Aioooainueeee,
I.Aeia?aeainueeee, TH.Iaea?, I.Ianai, E.Ieoaeeeia. — *a?i?aoe?: Caeaia
Aoeiaeia, 1998. — 418 n. (Iaienaii: ?icae. ???, § 1, 6, 7; N.69-74,
166-198).

4. Ciai?oiy i???ioaoe?y aoeiaeinueeiai iineaio?euenoaa ae?oai? iie. O?O
— ii/. OO no. // I?iaeaie ?noi??? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei: Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo noaoae. — *a?i?aoe?, 1993. — N. 89-104.

5. Ca oiiaoe/iee i?aaiien // Aoeiaeinueeee aeo?iae. – 1993. – *. 1. – N.
124-147.

6. “A?eueiiaeoiiee nithc” o Aoeiaeinueeiio eaiaeoac? 1903-1905 ??. //
Ieoaiiy iiai? oa iia?oiuei? ?noi??? e?a?i ?a?iie ? I?ai?/ii? Aia?eee:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. — Aei. 2. — *. 1. — *a?i?aoe?, 1993. — N.
65-76.

7. Oe?a?inuee? ia?iaeianuee? ia?o?? ia Aoeiaei? o 1905 — 1914 ?ieao //
A?niee Oeaio?o aoeiaeiiciaanoaa. — Aei. 1. — Na??y ?noi?e/ia. —
*a?i?aoe?, 1993. – N.130-143.

8. ?aaeueia iie?oeea // Aoeiaeinueeee aeo?iae. – 1993. – *. 3-4. – N.
115-136.

9. Eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiy ?iaioa oe?a?inueeeo oiaa?enoa ia Aoeiaei? o ae?.
iie. O1O — ia ii/. OO no. // Ieoaiiy ?noi??? iiaiai oa iia?oiueiai /ano:
Ca. iaoe. noaoae. — *a?i?aoe?, 1994. — Aei.3. – N.25-34.

10. I?ioenoiyiiy // Aoeiaeinueeee aeo?iae. – 1994. – *. 3-4. – N.
108-123 (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.Aeaieeaieii)

11. “Nithc N?/ae” ia Aoeiaei? o 1905 — 1914 ??. // “Caaaeuenueea n?/” —
ii/aoie ianiaiai ?ooo iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo nee ca a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. — Niyoei, 1995. — N. 58-65.

12. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? noinoiee ia Aoeiaei? o 80-90-o ?ieao O?O no.
// Aoeiaeia. Aeene ? o?i? “?a?iie a i?i?aoth??”. – Aa?oaaa: Aia?a?y,
1995. – N.113-122 (Iieueua).

13. Ai?noiey?ia niaaeueia N.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai ye aeaea?aei c ?noi???
a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy ia Aoeiaei? 80-o — 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. // C
?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai Aoeiaeie: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. — *a?i?aoe?,
1996. — N.148-160.

14. ?aeaeia ni?yiiaai?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ia
ii/aoeo OO no. // Iaoeia? caienee c oe?a?inueei? ?noi???
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.Neiai?iaee. –
E.-Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1996. — Aei.3. — N.3-8.

15. Oe?a?inuee? i?uaie *a?i?aoe?a o iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on? ae?oai?
iieiaeie O1O — ii/. OO noie?oue // O?ao?e I?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an
oe?a?i?no?a. 26-29 na?iiy 1996 ?. Oaenoe aeiiia?aeae oa iia?aeiieaiue.
?noi??y. — O.: Iei, 1996.- N.15-20.

16. Oe?a?inuee? eoeueoo?i? oiaa?enoaa ia Aoeiaei? iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia
ii/. OO no. // Oe?a?ia OO no.: eoeueoo?a, ?aeaieia?y, iie?oeea. Ca??iee
noaoae. – E.: ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, 1996. — Aei. 2. — N.
191-199.

17. Oe?a?inueea ?aaeeeaeueia ia?o?y Aoeiaeie (ii/aoie OO no.) //
Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.
Aei.6-7: ?noi??y. – *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1996. – N. 96-104.

18. Iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa ia Aoeiaei? iaaeiei e?aeiaeo ?aoi?i ia ii/aoeo
OO no. // I?aaeaiiino?aeiii?iaoeueeee a?o?a. – Ithioai, 1995/96. –
O.OOOVIII/XXXIX. – N.117-132 (I?ia//eia).

19. “Aoeiaeieci” eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue ?aaeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey a
Aano?i-Aaia?ee eiioea O?O — ia/aea OO aa. // Aano?i-Aaia?ey:
eioaa?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu e iaoeeiiaeueiay niaoeeoeea. — I.: Einoeooo
neaayiiaaaeaiey e aaeeaienoeee ?inneeneie Aeaaeaiee iaoe, 1997. —
N.75-83 (?in?y).

20. Iaineaa?nonuee? i?aai?caoe?? a ?in?? oa oe?a?ioe? Aano?i-Oai?ueie ia
ii/aoeo OO no. // Ieoaiiy ?noi???, ?noi??ia?ao??, aeaea?aeiciaanoaa oa
a?o?aiciaanoaa Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. — Aei.1. – E.-*a?i?aoe?, 1997. — N.61-66.

21. Iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa iaaeiei ?ai?aai?caoe?? Aoeiaeinueeiai naeio ia
ii/aoeo OO no. // Ieoaiiy ?noi??? iiaiai oa iia?oiueiai /ano: Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo noaoae. – Aei.5. – *a?i?aoe?: I?oo, 1997. – N.17-26.

22. Oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?a E?aeiaiai oi?aae?iiy aa?oeianoaa Aoeiaeia o 50 –
60-o ?ieao O?O no. // Aiiaee Aoeiaeie. — Aooa?ano-?aae?aoe?: Aeae-ai
?oioinueei? Aeaaeai?? iaoe. — 1997. — ?3. — N.771-792 (?oioi?y).

23. Ca?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia Aoeiaei? (60-o?
?iee O?O no.) // Iaoeia? caienee c oe?a?inueei? ?noi???
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.Neiai?iaee. –
Aei.V. – E.-Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee — *a?i?aoe?, 1998. – N.16-24.

24. *enaeuei?noue oe?a?inueeiai ? ?oioinueeiai ianaeaiiy Aoeiaeie ca
noaoenoeeith O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. –
1998. — ? 6. – N.37-46.

25. Aeaaeai?e Noaiai Niaeue-Noioeueeee // Ee?anueea noa?iaeia. – 1998. —
?6. – N.116-129 (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.Aeaieeaieii).

26. ?aeaeia ai?ioueaa a oe?a?inueeiio ?on? ia Aoeiaei? (90-o? ?iee O?O
no.) // Ieoaiiy ?noi??? Oe?a?ie: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. – *a?i?aoe?:
Cieio? eeoaa?e, 1998. – O.2. – N. 213-236.

27. ?iciaaeoaaiiy ia?iaeiaoe?a oa iineaio?e?a a oe?a?inueeeo oiaa?enoaao
Aoeiaeie (na?aaeeia 80-o – 90-o? ?iee O?O no.) // Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aei.36: ?noi??y.
– *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1998. – N. 124-140.

28. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? aca?ieie ia Aoeiaei? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O
noie?ooy // Aoeiaeia iae?a? ae?aeia: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. – Naeie
(Iieueua): Iia?aie//y, 1999. – N. 111-117 (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c
TH.Iaea?ii).

E??i oiai, ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ua 40 ioae?eaoe?e o
aeo?iaeao, iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a ? oac iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e.

Aoeiaeia, cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie?, iaoe?y, iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo,
iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa,

ia?o?y, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia oiaa?enoai, ia?iaeianoai,
iineaio?euenoai.

Aoeiaeia, iaoeey, iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, iaoeeiiaeueiua i?aaa,
ia?oey,

iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iia iauanoai, caiaaeiioe?aeineea caiee,
ia?iaeianoai,

iineaioeeuenoai.

Bukowyna, nation, national movement, national rights, party,
national-cultural

society, west-ukrainian area, narodovstvo, moscwofilstvo.

Aeia?aeainueeee I.A. Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – *a?i?aaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, *a?i?aoe?, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo
OO no. I?iaiae?ciaaii i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
oe?a?ioe?a e?ath, oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe?th ?aeaeieo oa/?e,
ae?yeuei?noue iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?enoa, ie?aieo
e?aea??a. Aeae?eaii aieiai? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo,
aecia/aii iniaeeaino? eiaeiiai c ieo. Aeine?aeaeaii iaeaaaeeea?o?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oa iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? caeiaooee oe?a?ioe?a
e?ath. Aecia/aii i?noea iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a Aoeiaeie a
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on?, eiai iniaeeaino?. Iieacaii
o?ni? noinoiee c noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie ?ooaie Aaee/eie oa
Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie.

Aeia?aeaineee A.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea oe?aeioeaa Aoeiaeiu
aoi?ie iieiaeiu OIO – ia/aea OO a. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. – *a?iiaeoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, *a?iiaoeu, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey oe?aeioeaa Aoeiaeiu aoi?ie iieiaeiu OIO –
ia/aea OO a., yaeythuaainy naiiauoiui e aaaeiui yaeaieai ioa/anoaaiiie
enoi?ee. Iaaieueoay /anoue oe?aeineiai ia?iaea, i?aauaay a iniaaiiuo
oneiaeyo ioaeaeueiie ei?iiiie caiee Aano?ee (Aano?i-Aaia?ee) ia oieueei
noiaea ionoiyoue naith iaoeeiiaeueioth naiiauoiinoue, ii e aeinoeaea
aieueoeo oniaoia a i?aaiecaoeee e iinooiaoaeueiii ?acaeoee
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey.

I?iaiaeece?iaaia enoi?eia?aoey iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey oe?aeioeaa
Aoeiaeiu e oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacaii, /oi aeaiiay i?iaeaia aei neo ii?
inoaaaeanue a oe?aeineie e ca?oaaaeiie enoi?eia?aoee ia enneaaeiaaiiie.
Aeey iaienaiey ?aaiou i?eaea/ai oe?ieee e?oa ia aaiaeeaoeony ?aiaa a
iao/iue iai?io aeieoiaioia ec a?oeaia Eeaaa, Eueaiaa, *a?iiaoeia,
Eaaii-O?aieianea, Iineau, Aaiu. Eniieueciaaiu oaeaea iioaeeeiaaiiua
aeieoiaiou, iaioa?iay eeoa?aoo?a, iaoa?eaeu i?annu.

Ia aieueoii noaoenoe/aneii iaoa?eaea iieacaiu iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?u oe?aeineiai ianaeaiey e?ay, ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu nioeeaeueiua
a?oiiu, i?eieiaaoea iaeaieaa aeoeaiia o/anoea a iaoeeiiaeueiii
aeaeaeaiee. I?iaiaeece?iaaii iieeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea oe?aeineiai
ianaeaiey, aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?aca??ouaaiey eaaaeueiie ai?ueau ca
iaoeeiiaeueiua i?aaa. Ioia/aii, /oi a n?aaiaiee n Aaeeoeeae, ia Aoeiaeia
neiaeeeenue aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?aaeecaoeee
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ii?i aano?eeneie eiinoeoooeee.

A naiai ?acaeoee iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea oe?aeioeaa Aoeiaeiu aoi?ie
iieiaeiu OIO – ia/aea OO aaea i?ioei /aou?a ia?eiaea, eioi?ua, a oeaeii,
niaeanothony n oai?aoe/aneeie iieiaeaieyie ia yoaiao ?acaeoey
iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee “iaeuo” ia?iaeia Aa?iiu.

Ia?aue ia?eiae – ca?iaeaeaiea e ia?aua oaae iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey
(eiiaoe 50-o – aoi?ay iieiaeia 60-o aiaeia OIO a.) Iaoeeiiaeueiia
aeaeaeaiea oe?aeioeaa Aoeiaeiu ca?iaeeeinue a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea
Aano?eeneie eiia?ee io iaiaaniethoecia e eiinoeoooeeiiiie oi?ia
i?aaeaiey. O aai enoieia noiyee ecaanoiua ienaoaee TH?ee Oaaeueeiae/,
Neaei? e A?eai?ee Ai?iaeaae/e. Eo oai?/anoai ieacaei ?aoathuaa aeeyiea
ia ii?aaeaeaiea i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee aeaeaeaiey. A ?aaioa ia
iniiaaiee aieueoiai eiee/anoaa enoi?e/aneeo enoi/ieeia aeieacuaaaony,
/oi ooaa?aeaeaiey i ia/aea oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey ia
Aoeiaeia a 1848 aiaeo yaeythony iaiainiiaaiiuie.

N eiioea 60-o aiaeia OIO a. ia Aoeiaeia ia/eiaaony aoi?ie ia?eiae
oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey. Ca?iaeaeathony oe?aeineea
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiua, iieeoe/aneea, iieiaeaaeiua iauanoaa,
oi?ie?othony iineaioeeueneia e ia?iaeianeia iauanoaaiiua oa/aiey.

Na?aaeeia e aoi?ay iieiaeia 80-o aiaeia OIO a. noaee a?aiaiai
?aciaaeaaaiey ia?iaeiaoeaa e iineaioeeia a oe?aeineeo iauanoaao, /oi
icia/aei ia/aei o?aoueaai ia?eiaea a ?acaeoee iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey. Ii noae a?aiaiai ia?aoiaea io ioaeaeueiuo
iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo e iieeoe/aneei o?aaiaaieyi.

Iineaaeiei, /aoaa?oui ia?eiaeii a enoi?ee oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey ia Aoeiaeia aoi?ie iieiaeiu OIO – ia/aea OO a. noaei
ia?aaeaiaiiia aeanyoeeaoea. A yoi a?aiy iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea
i?aa?aoeeinue a y?ei au?aaeaiiia iieeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea. Oe?aeioeu e?ay
i?iaiaeeee aeoeaioth ai?ueao, ionoaeaay iaoeeiiaeueiua eioa?anu a
?acee/iuo noa?ao aeecie, ia?aciaaeenue ioaeaeueiua oe?aeineea
iieeoe/aneea ia?oee.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec oi?ie?iaaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe eaeaeiuo oa/aiee,
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, iaoeeiiaeueiuo iauanoa. Enneaaeiaaiu aaaeiaeoea
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea e iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iua aeinoeaeaiey
oe?aeinoaa e?ay. Iaeaioia Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu Aoeiaeia ioee/aeanue
iaee/eai ?acaaoaeaiiie naoe oe?aeineeo eoeueoo?ii-iauanoaaiiuo,
aeiianoe/aneeo, iao/iuo, i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iauanoa, i?iaiaeeaoeo
iianaaeiaaioth ?aaioo ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio ainieoaieth ia?iaeiuo iann.
Ianiiiaiiui aeinoeaeaieai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey oe?aeioeaa Aoeiaeiu
noaei nicaeaiea oaa?aeie eaeaeiie iniiau iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey,
iainiiaaiea eiie?aoiuo o?aaiaaiee a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie,
iieeoe/aneie e iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?ao, ?acaeoea
ecaeaoaeueneiai aeaea, eioaineaiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia?eiaee/aneeo e
ae?oaeo ecaeaiee ia oe?aeineii ycuea, oi?ie?iaaiea oaa?aeuo
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo oaaaeaeaiee, oi?i/aiea ia?eaiaioneeo iaoiaeia ai?ueau,
oniaoiia aiaea/aiea a iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea oe?ieeo neiaa
e?anoueyinoaa, ?aai/eo, eioaeeeaaioeee, i?aa?auaiea oe?aeioeaa a oi?ioi
i?aaieciaaiioth iauiinoue, iniciathuoth naie i?aaa e oiathuoth ca ieo
iinoiyoue.

Ii?aaeaeaii ianoi iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey oe?aeioeaa Aoeiaeiu a
iauaoe?aeineii iaoeeiiaeueiii aeaeaeaiee, iieacaiu oaniua nayce n
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeie aeaeaeaieyie Aaeeoeee e Iaaeaeiai?yineie
Oe?aeiu.

Dobrzhanskyy O.V. National Movement of Bukovinian Ukrainians at the
second half of the XIX-th century to the beginning of the XX-th century.
– Manuscript.

Thesis is presented to compete the Doctor`s degree in History,
speciality 07.00.01 – History of Ukraine. – J.Fedkovich State
University of Chernivtsi, Chernivtsi, 1999.

The thesis deals with the consideration of main trends of the
development of national movement of Bukovinian Ukrainians at the second
half of the XIX-th century to the beginning of the XX-th century. In the
work we have analysed the process of generation of national movement of
Ukrainians of the area, formation and evolution of ideological trends,
activity of political parties, nationalistic societies and particular
leaders. The main stages of national movement and peculiarities of each
of them have been figured out in the discourse of investigation. The
work has also investigated social, political, national and cultural
achievements of Ukrainians of the area. The place of the Ukrainian
national movement of the area and its peculiar features in pan-Ukrainian
national movement has been defined. We have also showed close connection
of social and political movement of Halychyna and Head-Dnieper Ukraine
areas with it.

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