Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?na Oaa/aiea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 316. 6: 37. 02

Aoiaithe Ienaia ?anoao??aia

Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia ye ia’?eo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co

niaoe?aeuei?noue 19.00.05 –Ineoieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? ea??aieo eaae??a ina?oe AII
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

Aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ao?iai Aiaoie?e Aaneeueiae/,
Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y ea??aieo eaae??a ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie,

. caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo nenoai ina?oe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaee Aai?a?e Ieaen?eiae/, ?inoeooo
ineoieia?? ?i. A.N. Einothea AII Oe?a?ie. Caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???th
iaoiaeieia?? ? oai??? ineoieia??;

Eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, Naiai?nueea Ieaia Aieiaeeie??aia, noa?oee
aeeeaaea/ eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? ? nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee
Oa?iii?euenueei? aeaaeai?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

I?eea?iaonueeee ea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A. Noaoaieea, eaoaae?a
nioe?aeueii? ? iaaeaaia?/ii? ineoieia??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
?aaii-O?aie?anuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 6 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.16 a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60,
cae 317.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252017. i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 1 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ei?i?a I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/aia aena?oeaiith nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/i?a o nenoai?
iiaeoeueii-?ic-aeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue oa nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie. Iaoe?iiaeueia ina?oa
ia?aaeeaa? aoai e?eoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy ae?eniino?, ui iia’ycaia c
aeeaieei ia?aoai?aiiyi on?o noa? noni?eueiiai aeeooy.
I?ciaaaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?aeo?ae aei a?aeai?o ?? ci?noo
iinooia?oueny nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiio, iiiieia?/iee noeeue aaaeaiiy
o/eoaeai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano — ae?aeia?/iiio, ?icaeaaeueiiio.
Caaaeii oe?eueia aeeooy ana a?eueo i?aai?co?oueny ca caeiiaie
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai ?aeiaiiy o/eoae?a ? o/i?a ia ci?noiaiiio oe?
eoeueoo?iiai aeina?aeo ethaenoaa, iaoe??, iaeaeeae/iai ioi/aiiy.

Cacia/aiei oaiaeaioe?yi ? aeiiaai a?aeiia?aea?
iaoeiai-aenia?eiaioaeueia i?ia?aia c iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii? nenoaie
ina?oe, ui noai?aia ? ?aae?co?oueny a?oiith iaoeiaoe?a ? i?aeoee?a i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii A.A.Oo?iaia. Aiia i?iiiio? a?eueo aoaeoeaio ca ?nioth/o
oaoiino?oeoo?o i?aai?caoe?? ina?oiueiai i?ioeano a oeie? caaaeyee
?aae?caoe?? aeiia i?eioeei?a iaioaeueiino?, aeooiaiino?, ?icaeoeiaino?,
iiaeoeueiino?. Oiio ni?e/eith? noai?aiiy oaeiai nioe? i eoeueoo?e ioi
iiina?aaeeiaaiiai i?inoi?o, ui ia? ye?nii iiaa ci?noiaa iaiiaiaiiy ye
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? (iaoeia? ciaiiy, nioe?aeuei? ii?ie,
eoeueoo?i? oe?iiino?, oae ? ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/i?a
(ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee, iaa/aeueii-i?aaeiaoiee ? iaoiaee/ii-caniaiaee
neeaaeieee), ui caeiiii??ii aeoea?cothoue ineoinioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie
iniaenoino?.

Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia iiaea aooe i?iaiae?ciaaia c iiceoe?e
no/anii? nioe?aeueii? ineoieia?? ye: a) neeaaeia nioe?aeueia
i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo i?ioean?a o aoiai?oa?i?e noa??
noni?euenoaa, a) nenoaia ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
niaoeeo?/iith nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iith ?aaoeyoe??th oa i?aai?caoe?eiei
ee?iaoii (A.I.Eaci??aiei), ? a) ye iaia?a?aia ?icaeaaeueia aca?iiae?y
a/eoaey ? o/iy, ui i?aai?co?oueny ca caeiiaie nioe?aeueii?,
iaaeaaia?/ii? aai ae?aeia?/ii? ni?aaeoeaiino? o/aniee?a iaa/aiiy
(A.I.Aaee, A.N.A?aea?, I.A.Ee?e/oe, A.I.Eiaaeueia, I.I.Ei?i?a,
A.I.Naaa/, I.A.Oaoaiei, O.I.Oeoa?aiei, I.A.*aiae?aa oa ?i.).

O cacia/aiiio eie? i?iaeai ieoaiiy ineoieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e, ci?noo ?
iaoai?ci?a ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? — o?aaeeoe?eii no?eaeiaa? aeey
nioe?aeueii? ineoieia?? (A.I.Eiaaeueia, I.A.Ee?e/oe, E.?iaeaea?n).
Aiaeii/an, iacaaaeath/e ia iaaia iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy, ie?ai? aniaeoe
i?aai?caoe?? oe??? aca?iiae?? ia ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ineoieia?a, nioe?ieia?a, iaaeaaia?a. Cie?aia,
aeooaeueiei ? caaaeaiiy iaia?a?aiino? ?icaeaaeueieo aieea?a o/eoaey ia
o/i?a, aeinyaiaiiy aioo??oiuei? ae?aeia?/iino? ina?oi?o oaoiieia?e,
aeaeici?ie noeeth iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii o
iai?yi? aoiai?caoe?? ? aeaiie?aoecaoe?? i?aeiniaiaeo aca?iei.

Iaoeiaa ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ineoieia?/iiai aieeao aeanoue ciiao
a?aeooeaoe niiniae ei?aeoiiai ni?yioaaiiy ineo?/ieo yaeu iniaenoino?,
oiaoi a?aeiia?noe ia caieoaiiy: “sse? aieeae ia o/iy ni?e/eiyoue o? /e
o? ci?ie eith noa’?eoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee —- iio?aa, onoaiiaie,
i?aaiaiue, noaaeaiue, iioea?a, cae?aiinoae, ae?yeueiino?, iiaaae?iee,
a/eie?a oiui?” Caaaeii iiaeeea?noue ea??aieoeoaa ineo?/iith aeoeai?noth
?iaeea?aea i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iaoeia? oaeoe oai??? ineoieia?/ii?
aca?iiae?? A.I.Eiaaeueiaa, yea ciaeoea i?aeo?eieo e iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
o aeine?aeaeaiiyo oe?a?inueeeo ineoieia?a — A.I.Aaeea, I.N.Ao?a?ia,
A.A.Oo?iaia oa ?i.

Caaaeueiiiaoeiaa cia/aiiy ? ia?niaeoeai?noue ?icaeoeo cacia/aii?
i?iaeaie iaoiiaeee aea?? oaie aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:
“Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia ye ia’?eo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co”. Oae, c iaeiiai aieo, iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia,
nie?ath/enue ia oi?aa?naeueio iiaeaeue iiaiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai oeeeeo
iaa/aeueiiai iiaeoey, noai?th? niaoeeo?/iee nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee
i?ino?? oa aenia?eiaioaeueia ?aae?co? noeoii?noue ?iiiaaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e eoeueoo?iiai aaaeaiiy ina?oiueiai i?ioeano (a?ae
onoaiia/i-iioeaaoe?eii? aei aeooiaii-anoaoe/ii?), c ?ioiai — oeae
i?ino?? ? oaoiieia?? ia iaea?aeaee iaeaaeiiai oai?aoe/iiai oa
i?eeeaaeiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy a eiioaeno? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ? aeiia
nioe?aeueia-ineoieia?/ii? eiioeaioe?? i?aai?caoe?eiiai ee?iaoo oa
ineoieia?/ii? oai??? ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: cae?enieoe iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??, ui
i?iaeoo?oueny ? ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny ca iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii? nenoaie
iaa/aiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— cae?enieoe nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee aiae?c oe?e?niiai
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano i?ae /an iaoeiaiai i?iaeooaaiiy ?
i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy caeiiii??iinoae iie?aiioeaiaaii? ?icaeaaeueii?
aca?iiae??;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeieia?th nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa aoaeoeai?noue ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/i?a ca
ianoithaaii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy;

— aecia/eoe iiaeeeaino? iiaeoeueiiai caiyooy o noai?aii? ?aaoeyoe?eiiai
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o, aeei?enoaii? ?iiiaaoe?eieo
i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/ieo cania?a oa i?aai?caoe?? ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??
a/eoaey ? eeano.

I?ae /an ?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th iaie aeei?enoaii eiiieaen iiooeiaeo
iaoiae?a, ye? iiaii e aaeaeaaoii a?aeiia?aeathoue iinoaaeaiei
caaaeaiiyi, cie?aia, oai?aoe/iiai, i?iaeoiiai, ae?aaiinoe/iiai,
i?iaiinoe/iiai, aenia?eiaioaeueiiai, aeina?aeiiai ieaio, a oaeiae
iaoiaee aea/aiiy iaoeiai? aeieoiaioaoe?? oa aenia?oieo ioe?iie, iaoiaee
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Iaoeiao iiaecio i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeii-iiooeiai? ?iaioe, ia iao iiaeyae,
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iia? aniaeoe i?ciaiiy aaaeeeaeo aeey nenoaie ina?oe
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaiiiai?a (yaeu): a) aeeiai?ea
ineoinioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo o/iy a ?aeeiiio oeeee? aca?iiaeiiiaiaiiy
iaoeiaiai i?iaeooaaiiy ? iaenoa?iiai ao?eaiiy iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai
i?ioeano; a) i?aai?caoe?y ineoieia?/ieo aieea?a ca ?iiiaaoe?eii? iiaeae?
ina?oe ye iie?aiioeaiaaieo oi?i noi?nii? ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey ? o/i?a,
ui ?icaeaathoueny o ?aeeiiio i?inoi?? ?oiuei? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii?
iiaaae?iee; a) ii??aiyiiy ni?eueieo oa?aeoa?enoee o?aaeeoe?eiiai o?ieo ?
i?i?-iiaeoey ca 15-oe iniiaieie neeaaeieeaie iaa/aiiy a eiioaeno?
?aaeueii? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? ?aaoeyoe?? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?
a/eoaey ? o/i?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? aeaa aniaeoe —
iaoeiai-aenia?eiaioaeueiee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?eii-iaoiaee/iee: ia?oee
na?ae/eoue i?i ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino? i?ioeanoaeueia ao?eeoe ?icaeaaeueio
aca?iiae?th ca iiaeo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo ianoaaei iaa/aiiy,
ae?oaee — caiaeeoueny aei i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey ye ineoieiaa-aeine?aeieea,
yeee caeaoiee i?iaiaeeoe aoaeoeai? iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeuei? caiyooy,
cae?enithaaoe ?o iaoeiao aenia?oeco ? ia?niaeoeaia i?iaiicoaaiiy.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny
?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ee, eiee eiiieaeniei nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iei
ci?iai i?aeaeaia i?aai?caoe?y ae?yeueiino? oanoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e
(450 o/eoae?a ? 6,5 oen. o/i?a), a oaeiae noeoii?noth
ineoiae?aaiinoe/ieo, iaa/aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oa ina?oiuei-aenia?oieo
iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai iiooeo, ?aei?noth e?euee?nieo (iaoaiaoe/ieo) ?
ye?nieo (ineoieia?/ieo) niinia?a ia?iaee aeaieo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? oiia ? /eiiee?a
noaiiaeaiiy iaia?a?aii? ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/iy, ui ?
?ioaa?aeueiei ia?aiao?ii eiioeaioe?? iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii? nenoaie
iaa/aiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aena?oethaaeeny ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Ineoieia?/ia neoaeaa
oeiee ieioea, no/ania, iaeaooi?» (i. Oa?iii?eue, 1996 ?.);
I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? «Nioe?aeueia ina?oa a Oe?a?i?» (i. Ee?a, 1997
?.); Anaoe?a?inueeeo nai?ia?ao «A?ao-noaie iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a o nenoai?
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy: oaoiieia?? noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy»
(i. Aa?aee/?a, 1997 ?.); «Oai?aiiy iniaenoino? a oiiaao
iieoeueii-?icaeaaeueii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy» (i. Oa?nii, 1998 ?.); ca?oi?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? AeAEEI II Oe?a?ie c oaie «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
oai??? ? i?aeoeee i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ea??aieo ? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a» (i. Ee?a, 1998 ?.); ?aa?iiaeueiiio iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiio
nai?ia?? «Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ina?oi?o oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?th
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano iaoe?iiaeueieo caeeaae?a ina?oe» (i.
THaeia, 1998 ?.); Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Oi?aae?iiy iaoe?iiaeueiith ina?oith a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?» (i. Ee?a, 1998 ?.).

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii? o i?aeoeeo
?iaioe iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaeoea?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e Aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? ea??aieo eaae??a ioea?oe: e?oeae ?157 i. Ee?aa, CIO ?10 i.
Aa?aee/aaa AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?, CIO ?46 i. Oa?niio, CIO ? 19 i. Ea?/?
?anioae?ee E?ei, CIO ? 4 i. THaeiiai Iaeanueei? iaeano?, CIO ? 44 i.
Caii??aeaey.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? ? iane?aeeii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy i?iaeaie ?iceeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? oa aena?oeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a ?? ?ica’ycaiiy ? ia? oaea iaiiaiaiiy: anooi,
o?e ?icae?ee, aeniiaee, nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoee.
?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia ?enoieaie ? oaaeeoeyie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii 13 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii 10,6 ae?oeiaaieo
a?eoo?a, o o./. iiiia?ao?y «Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia iaa/aiiy:
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee aniaeo» (E,: «Oeiey?», 1998, —112 n.) ? 9
noaoae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaai? aeooaeuei?noue, nioe?aeueia i?iaeaia ? oaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai? ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, a?iioaca, iaoa, caaaeaiiy,
iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?
aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a; aeeeaaeai? iieiaeaiiy, ?ei
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a oa aeiinyoueny ia ioae?/iee
caoeno, a oaeiae iiaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y uiaei ai?iaaoe?? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe, ?? no?oeoo?e ? iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «Ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe iaa?oiooaaiiy oai???
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy» — aiae?cothoueny ?aea?, i?eioeeie,
eaoaai??? ? iiiyooy aenia?eiaioaeueii? ina?oiuei? nenoaie, iienothoueny
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? ia?aiao?e iiaeae? ineoinioe?aeueiiai c?inoaiiy
iniaenoinoae (iie?iioeaaoe?y, ?icaeaaeueia aca?iiae?y,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee ci?no, ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue oiui) ?
aena?oeththoueny oaoiieia?/i? ?iaa??aioe ‘?o aca?iicaeaaeiiai ao?eaiiy o
aeina?ae? ?iaioe caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e.

O i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeoie?a iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii? nenoaie iaa/aiiy
i?iaiae?ciaai? o?e eiioeaiooaeueieo iai?yie iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
aoaeoeaiiai ina?oiueiai i?ioeano: ii-ia?oa, ?aea?, i?eioeeie oa oiiae
i?aai?caoe?? ?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy, ui i?ioyaii e?eueeio aeanyoee?oue
?ic?iaeythoueny o ineoieia?? ? iaaeaaia?oe? (A.I.Aeaenthe,
E.N.Aeaionueeee, A.A.Aeaaeaeia, Ae.A.Aeueeii?i, E.A.Caieia, ?.A.Cycthi,
A.N.Einothe, I.I.Iaothoe?i, A.I.Naaa/ I.N.sse?iainueea oa ?i.);
ii-ae?oaa, oai?aoe/iee oa aenia?eiaioaeueiee aeina?ae ?aae?caoe??
iiaeoeueiiai i?aeoiaeo o nenoai? iaa/aiiy ca?oa?aeieie oa a?o/eciyieie
iaoeiaoeyie (A.I.Aeaenthe, E.ss.Aac?ia, A.Iaain, Aeae.?annae,
?.A.Neia?i, I.A.THoeya?/aia); ii-o?ao?, i?aaeiao, aeanoeaino? ?
ia?aiao?e nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o ye. iniiae
i?aai?caoe?eiiai ee?iaoo oeiee (I.?.Aiai?aa, TH.I.Caa?iae?i,
A.I.Eaci??aiei. I.I.Ei?i?a, N.N.Iaiiayi, A.I.Oaoaiei, O.I.Oeoa?aiei,
E.?.Oiainueeee, Aeae.Iaa?-E???, I.A.Ni?ie?i oa ?i.). ?ioaa?aoe?y
cacia/aieo iaoeiaeo iai?yi?a cae?eniaia a oai??? iiai? ina?oiuei?
nenoaie o eiioaeno? i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? ia?aaeeaie ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe, ca
yei? iaa/aeueii-aeoiai? caeeaaee ? neeaaeieie i?aai?caoe?yie
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iaeiie/aiiy ? aeooiaiiai oai?aiiy iaioaeueiiai aeina?aeo
iaoe?? o ?aeiino? iaoeiaeo ciaiue, nioe?aeueieo ii?i ? aoiaiieo
oe?iiinoae, a a/eoaeue ? o/aiue — aeoeaieie iin?yie oeueiai aeina?aeo.

Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia ?aae?co? eiino?oeoea /ioe?ueio
caaaeueieo i?eioeei?a — iaioaeueiino?, aeooiaiino?, ?icaeoeiaino? ?
iiaeoeueiino? o ?aeiino? ?oiuei? aaaaoici?noiaii? no?oeoo?e,
oaoiieia?/ii? ianooiiino? oa i?aai?caoe?eii? nenoaiiino?. Cie?aia,
i?eioeei iaioaeueiino?, ci???ioiao? caaaeueiiina?oith oeieo ia oa, uia o
?? ae?yeueiino? ciaoiaeea oo?eaiiy e?auee nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iee
aeina?ae iaoe??, a?oie, ?iaeea?aea; i?eioeei aeooiaiino? caaacia/o?
?ioaineaio aioo??oith ?iaioo a/eoaey ? o/iy iaae naiei niaith,
iaeneiaeueii ?aae?co? ?oi? aiioe?eii-?ioaeaeooaeuei? oa
aeooiaii-aieueia? ?aca?ae; i?eioeei ?icaeoeiaino? noino?oueny ia o?eueee
no?oeoo?oaaiiy iaoeiaeo ciaiue ca iaaieie e?eoa??yie, a e aeiaaa?
iniaeeaiai oaoiieia?/iiai ? i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy aeey
i?enei?aiiy eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?; i?eioeei iiaeoeueiino?,
aeoioethth/e iaeoe?ii?o? caeiaooee nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo, aeiaaa?, uia
aoaeue-yeee ina?oi?e iiaeoeue ye aeiaa?oaiee o?aaiaio ciiaeaeueiaaii? i
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai aeina?aeo iaa aeniei-no?oeoo?io ci?noiao
oe?e?ni?noue, eia?/io caaa?oai?noue ? ooieoe?iiaeueio aeioe?euei?noue.

Eiioeaiooaeueia iiaecia iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii? nenoaie iieyaa? a oiio,
ui ?aeay ?icaeoeo iioe?th?oueny ia caaaeaiiy, ci?no, oi?ie, oaoiieia??,
caniae, oa?aeoa? ? ?acoeueoao ae?yeueiino? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.
A?aeoae, an? noi?iie, aniaeoe, eiiiiiaioe iaaeaaia?/ii ea?iaaiiai
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano noeioeththoue, ?aaeueii i?enei?ththoue /eneaii?
i?ioeane ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, ye? iiaeai? a caaaeuei?e ea?oei? ??
ineoinioe?aeueiiai c?inoaiiy.

Iienaia iiaeaeue iiaiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai oeeeeo iaa/aeueiiai iiaeoey,
ui ?icai?oa?oueny a?ae /ooo?ai-anoaoe/iiai aei aeooiaii-anoaoe/iiai
aoaio, ni?ey? ineoinioe?aeueiiio c?inoaiith a/eoaey ? o/i?a /a?ac
iiaoaiia ? ??aiioe?iia caaaa/aiiy aeooae?ciaaieo no?oeoo? iaioaeueiiai
aeina?aeo o/aniee?a ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??. Inoaiiy iaaeaaia?/ia
i?aai?ciao? iniiai? nioe?ae?coth/? aieeae ioi/aiiy ia iniaeno?noue oaeei
/eiii, ui i?ioeane iaa/aiiy ii?iaeaeothoue ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino?,
aeoiaaiiy — ii?iioai?/?, a ina?oa — eoeueoo?i?.

Ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai iiaeoey ia? o?eoaciee oa?aeoa?, o oie yeiai
a?aeaoaa?oueny aeiaoaaiiy ? inieneaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue, a?aee?eooy
aeei?enoaiiy nioe?aeueieo ii?i, inyaiaiiy oa ianoithaaiiy eoeueoo?ieo
oe?iiinoae. A?aeoae iiaiee ooieoe?iiaeueiee oeeee
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii? nenoaie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny:

— ie?aiith inoith ? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iei ci?noii ?aeeiei aeey
eiaeiiai aoaio iaa/aeueiiai iiaeoey, ui niiioea? iae?aoe aoaeoeaio
oaeoeeo oi?aae?iiy ina?oi?i i?ioeanii;

— ?aei?noth nioe?aeueia-ineoieia?/ieo ooieoe?e o/eoaey ? o/i?a, ui
ii?iaoeaia caaeathoueny ye nenoaia nioe?aeueia i?eeiyoeo ii?i ? i?aaee
?oiuei? ni?eueii? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?;

— ooieoe?iiaeueiith oe?e?ni?noth iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano, oi
aeinyaa?oueny eeoa i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae ia?oi? oace ?icaeoeo iaa/aeueiiai
iiaeoey aei ae?oai? ? o?aouei?, oiaoi a?ae ?ioi?iaoe?eii-i?ciaaaeueieo
cania?a ae?yeueiino? aei ii?iaoeaii-?aaoeyoe?eieo ?
oe?ii?nii-anoaoe/ieo;

— aeiaa?oaiith iine?aeiai?noth naie-ainueie aoai?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iith eia?eith ?icaeoeo ?
aca?iiia?aoiaeaie;

— ?ioaineaiei ?ioi?iaoe?eiei oa ae?eiaei iai?iii i?ae o/eoaeai ? o/iyie,
yeee ? ?aaoeyoi?ii nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee o nenoai? ?oiuei? ina?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? oa aeooae?co? eiiieaene i?aai?caoe?eii cia/eieo aeey
?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? iioea?a, noaaeaiue ? oe?iiinoae eiaeiiai;

— nai???aei?noth nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o i?aeiniaeno?nieo
aca?iei, aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee yeiai ni?eeiathoueny,
ia?aaeeaathoueny, ioe?iththoueny ? ?icoi?thoueny eiaeiei o/anieeii
iaa/aiiy ye oiiae ?icai?oaiiy iiaiioe?iiiai iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai
i?ioeano;

— iie?iioeaaoe?ei?noth ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey ? o/i?a (oai?/a
aeooae?caoe?y, iaa/aeuei? aeinyaiaiiy, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai, aaoi?eoao ?
nioe?aeueia aeciaiiy, aeenoeeie?ia ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
i?aai?caoe?eia i?eiaeaaei?noue, niene aeeooy oiui), yea caaacia/o?
oi?ioaaiiy aeeiai?/iiai nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai aeina?aeo
i?ae?inoath/i? iniaenoino?.

I?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e ? aaaeeeaei neeaaeieeii aoaeue-yei?
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, a eio??e aiie, aeeiioth/e oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe??,
caaacia/othoue aeinyaiaiiy aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino?. I?e
oeueiio oaoiieia?y ye ienoaoeoai ?aae?caoe?? caaeoio ia? aaciina?aaei?
a?aeiioaiiy aei eiio?ieueiaaiiai ia?aa?ao i?ioeano, cie?aia aoai?a,
niinia?a ? cania?a oi?aae?iiy iei. Oiio iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia
ia?aaeaa/a? ???a?o?th oaoiieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy iaa/aiiy ia /ioe?ueio
??aiyo: no?aoaa?/iiio — ye nenoaia oi?aae?inueeeo oaoiieia?e
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aenia?eiaiooaaiiy;
oaeoe/iiio — ye noeoii?noue ina?oi?o oaoiieia?e, ui ?aae?cothoue aeiiae
aeeaeaeoe/ieo iiaeoe?a aeey na?aaeiuei? oeiee; aeeaeaeoe/iiio — ye
iiaiee ooieoe?iiaeueiee oeeee naie iniiaieo oaoiieia?e aaaeaiiy
?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??; oaoi?/iiio — ye aaaaoiaa??aioia nenoaia
i?iaeaiii-ae?aeia?/ieo iaoiae?a ? ineoieia?/ieo i?eeii?a i?aai?caoe??
iaia?a?aiiai iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano.

Ca i?iiiiiaaii? ina?oiuei? nenoaie oe?e?nia ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai
iiaeoey iaoiaee/ii i?aai?co?oueny ca a/eoaeuenueeeie noeaia??yie, ye?
yaeythoue niaith iaoeiai-ienoaoeueeee iien ia?aa?ao aeiaa?oaiiai noa’?eo
– noa’?eoiiai oeeeeo /a?ac iine?aeiaio ci?io neooaoe?e ?icaeaaeueii?
aca?iiae?? iaaeaaiaa ? oeiey?a (ci?no, oi?ie, iaoiaee, caniae, i?noea,
/an). Oaea ?icoi?iiy 4aa/aeueiiai noeaia??th aea? ciiao aeae?eeoe iaai?
aniaeoe i?aai?caoe?? ni?eueii? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey ? o/i?a,
ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue nai???aei?noue eiai ci?noo, niaoeeo?eo
eiiiiceoe?eii? aoaeiae.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy o oaoiieia?/iiio caaacia/aii? iiai? nenoaie ian
eiioeaiooaeueia ?iciaaeoaaiiy ? aca?iicaeaaeia a?aenoaaeaiiy o?ueio
??ciiaeae?a ci?noo ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??: A —
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai, A — iaa/aeueii-i?aaeiaoiiai, A —
iaoiaee/ii-caniaiaiai, ui caaaa/o? oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?ica’ycaiiy
aeooaeueieo nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai. Ca ?icaeaaeueieo aca?iinoinoie?a ci?no
A oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia?a?ni?noth uiaei ci?noo A ? A. Oiio aeey a/eoaey
iniiaia cia/aiiy ia? iiceoeaia aiioe?eii-ineoieia?/ia aoiinoa?a ia
caiyoo? — iiaiioa ao?eaiiy ie?aii? ina?oiuei? oaoiieia??, eio?a ?aae?co?
a?aeiia?aei? caaaeaiiy aoai?a iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano, e
iio?aeia — aea?? oi?i, iaoiae?a ? cania?a iaa/aiiy. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
oaeiae ia? ?iiiaaoe?eia i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy, aei ?
iaiao?aeiei ?ino?oiaioii aoaeoeaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
?icaeaaeueiith aca?iiae??th (ina?oi?e noeaia??e ? i?i?-i?ae?o/iee).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Iaoiaeieia?y ineoieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/i?a» — cae?eniaiee aiae?c iaoeiaeo
i?aeoiae?a aei iaa?oiooaaiiy i?e?iaee nioe?aeueieo aca?iinoinoie?a,
ioa?aeoa?eciaai? eiiiiiaioe ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy iiaiiai ina?oiueiai oeeeeo, iienaia iaoiaeieia?y
eiie?aoiiai nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano.

Eaoaai??y aca?iiae?? aea? ciiao oieeiooe ni?iuaieo aa??aio?a o?aeooaaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo aoaeue-yei? nenoaie. Iica
aca?iiae??th eiiiiiaio?a (aeaiaioe, aoaie, noaae?? oiui) nioe?aeueia
nenoaia ?nioaaoe iani?iiiaeia. O oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ia ? aeiyoeii
oaeiae ina?oi?e i?ioean, o no?oeoo?? yeiai a?aeaoaa?oueny aca?iiaieea
o/eoaey ? o/iy, ?oi? aca?iicaaaa/aiiy ciaiiyie, eoeueoo?ieie ii?iaoeaaie
? oe?iiinoyie, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiei aeina?aeii caaaeii, a a?aeoae c?inoa?
?icoiiaee iioaioe?ae oa eiino?oeoeaiee i?ino?? aeeoo?aeoeaiino?
iniaenoino?. Ca?aene aaeeea cia/aiiy i?iaeaie iie?ioaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a noni?euenoa? caaaeyee a?aooaaiith caeiiii??iinoae ?
niinia?a ?icaeaaeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aieeao ia ?iaeea?ae?a, a?oie,
i?ioan?ei? a?iiaaee.

Aiae?c a?aeiieo no?aoaa?e i?aeiniaeno?niiai aieeao (?iia?aoeaia,
iai?ioeyoeaia, ?icaeaaeueia) iieaco?, ui ia?o? aea? a?aeia?aaeathoue
ia’?eoeaiee, iiiieia?/iee iiaeyae ia ethaenueeo i?e?iaeo, a?aeiia?aeii
aei yeiai inia? a?aeaiaeeoueny ianeaia ?ieue o nenoai? nioe?aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?. ?icaeaaeueia no?aoaa?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noa’?eo –
noa’?eoiei aai ae?aeia?/iei i?aeoiaeii o ?icoi?ii? nioe?aeueii? i?e?iaee
ethaeeie ye i?iaeoeoo ni?eeoaaiiy c ?ioeie ?iaeea?aeaie, oiaoi
iniaeno?noue ? ?ioa?noa’?eoeaiei ooai?aiiyi (A.I.Aaee, I.A.Ee?e/oe,
A.I.Eiaaeueia, I.N.Ao?a?i, E.A.?aaeceoiinueeee, O.A.Oei?ainueea,
A.A.Aiaeaeueia, A.O.Eiiia, I.I.Iaothoe?i, TH.?.Eioiai oa ?i.).

Ca ae?aeia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo ii ?ioiio oi?ioeth?oueny i?iaeaia
ineoieia?/iiai aieeao, oeaio?aeueiith eaieith yei? ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
?icaeaaeueii? no?aoaa?? a i?aai?caoe?? noa’?eo – noa’?eoii? aca?iiae??.
Nioe?aeueiith oiiaith ?? ?aae?caoe?? ? ae?aeia, ye iniiaa i?iaeoeoeaieo
eiioaeo?a i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi oa ineoieia?/ii?
i?aai?ciaaiino? aoiaiiiai ni?yioaaiiy, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaieie
eoeueoo?ieie ii?iaoeaaie (E.?iaeaea?n).

Ae?y aoaeoeaiiai ea??aieoeoaa ?icaeaaeueiith aca?iiae??th ca
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiith nenoaiith ?ic?iaeythoueny ?iiiaaoe?ei?
i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/i? caniae: a?ao-noaie iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a, iao?eoe?
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ci?noo ?icae?e?a (oai), iaoeia? i?iaeoe
iaa/aeueieo iiaeoe?a, noeaia??? iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueieo caiyoue,
?icaeaaeuei? i?i?-i?ae?o/ieee, ina?oi? i?ia?aie naii?aae?caoe??
iniaenoino? o/iy (?en.).

?en. Iiaeaeue ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? eeaniiai eieaeoeao ca
aeiiiiiaith ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/ieo cania?a o nenoai?
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy

Oiio iiaa ina?oiy nenoaia ia? a?aeieoo i?ae eeanii-o?i/ii?
i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/io iaaeaoaeiao, ui ni?e/eiaia ?o ??cieie oe?eyie ?
caaaeaiiyie, i?eioeeiaie ? iaoai?ciaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Oae, ca
o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy a/eoaeue ia?oi/a?aiai i?aoeth? c
iaoeiai-i?aaeiaoiei ci?noii, a oiio ia eiio?ieth? ia?aa?a
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai ci?noo a eiai oe?e?niiio ianyc?, ia aaa/a? a
iaia?a?ai?e ?icaeaaeuei?e aca?iiae?? c o/iyie iniiaio iaaeoe?ii?noue
?oiuei? nioe?aeueia cia/eii? oe?eueii? ae?yeueiino?. Ca
aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeae? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe iaaeaaia i?aoeth? c
o?ueiia ??ciiaeaeaie ci?noo — ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iei, ui aecia/a?oueny
aoaiii ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeoeueiiai i?ioeano, iaa/aeueii-i?aaeiaoiei
(o?aaeeoe?ei? ieaie, i?ia?aie, i?ae?o/ieee) ? iaoiaee/ii-caniaiaei
(cacia/ai? eiiiiiaioe ?iiiaaoe?eii? i?iaeaiii-iiaeoeueii? i?ia?aie).

Ioaea, ?icaeaaeueia aca?iiae?y a/eoaey ? o/iy — neeaaeiee i?aaeiao
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai iiooeo, ui aeiaaa? i?iaaaeaiiy ie?aii?
iaoiaeieia?/ii? ?iaioe aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie eiioeaiooaeueiiai,
iaoiaee/iiai oa ae?aaiinoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e. Uiaei inoaiiueiai, oi iaie cai?iiiiiaaia
nenoaia aenia?oii-ae?aaiinoe/ii? ?iaioe, yea aea? ciiao ??ciia?/ia
a?aenoaaeoaaoe aoaeoeai?noue aeooaeueii? ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? ca
o?ueiia ia?aiao?aie: a) oi?aae?inueei-oaoiieia?/iee (iayai?noue
iiaiioe?iiiai iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai caiyooy — i?i?-iiaeoey); a)
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee (ye?noue aca?ii?icaeoeo o/aniee?a aca?iiae??);
a) ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/iei (aeeiai?ea ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa
iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo oeiey??a). Oe? ia?aiao?e ia?aa?ao ina?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? iaea?aeaee eiie?aoecaoe?th o aeaeyae? e?eoa???a
?acoeueoaoeaiino? e iio?aeieo a?ae ieo iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino?
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano, a oaeiae iaai?o a?aeiia?aeieo
aenia?oieo ? ae?aaiinoe/ieo iaoiae?a. Oiio iaoiaeieia?y iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia o?eueee a aeaoaeyo ?ice?eaa? iniiai? oeyoe
aei??thaaiiy oaeiai neeaaeiiai ineoinioe?aeueiiai yaeua ye «?icaeaaeueia
aca?iiae?y», a e o?eno? iniiaiiieiaei? oa iiina?aaeeiaai? iieacieee
noa’?eo – noa’?eoieo aca?iinoinoie?a, ye? i?aeeyaathoue e?euee?niiio
ioe?ithaaiith ? ye?niiio aiae?co.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?iceeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/iy ca iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai
iaa/aiiy» — aena?oeai? ?acoeueoaoe nenoaiiiai aenia?oii-ae?aaiinoe/iiai
aea/aiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ? iieaciee?a ye ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ina?oiueiai
i?ioeano, oae ? ineoinioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo a/eoae?a ? o/i?a ca iiaeo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oiia. Cie?aia, aeyaeaiee ye?nii aeuee ?icaeoeiaee
aieea i?i?-iiaeoey ia c?inoaiiy iniaeno?niiai iioaioe?aeo eiaeiiai
o/anieea iaa/aiiy ii??aiyii c o?aaeeoe?eiei o?ieii, c’yniaai?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oiiae ?aae?caoe?? ?icaeaaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo
iiaeoeueiei caiyoue c aieo a/eoaey ? o/i?a o caaaeuei?e nenoai?
iiooeiai? ?iaioe e?eueeio aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e, aeiaaaeaia
aeioe?euei?noue iiai? nenoaie uiaei iie?ioaiiy ineoieia?/ii? ?
iaoiaee/ii? a?aiioiino? iaaeaaia?a, c?inoaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa
iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo oeiey??a, i?aeaeuaiiy iaii?eueii? caeaoiino? aei
ao?eaiiy iaia?a?aii? ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? o eean?.

I?i?-iiaeoeue ye iniaeeaei /eiii i?aai?ciaaia iaa/aeueia caiyooy ?
iaei??th c aoaeoeaieo oi?i oe?eueii? inaie, ui ia?aoai?th? o?ie ia yaeua
iaii?eueiiai iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo a/eoaey ? o/i?a. Cina?aaeaeoth/e
oaaao o/aniee?a iaa/aiiy ia ii?iaoeaia caaeaiiio
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiio ci?no? ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??, a?i
aioo??oiuei iioeao? ?oith ina?oith ae?yeuei?noue, oaoiieia?/ii
i?aai?co?oueny ye nenoaia eie?c?e, ia?aieo?e ? aca?iiaieea?a, iaoiaee/ii
caaacia/o?oueny iaai?ii ?iiiaaoe?eieo cania?a oa iaaea? eiaeiiio
iiaeeea?noue cae?enithaaoe naiieiio?ieue ? ?aoeaen?th aeanieo oni?o?a o
iaa/aii? oa ?icaeoeo. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaoeiaa aenia?oeca aoaeoeaiino?
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueieo caiyoue ii??aiyii c o?aaeeoe?eiei o?ieii ca
a?aeiia?aeiiai iaoiaeeeith: o/eoae? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e cia/ii
a?eueoa /ano i?aoeththoue c iioeiaeueii caaeaiei ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iei
ci?noii ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??, ui ni?e/eith? no?eea ineoinioe?aeueia
c?inoaiiy iniaenoino?, a a?aeoae oa?aeoa?eco? ia?aaaaeaiiy ineo?/iiai
?icieoeo o/iy iaae i?ioeanii canai?iiy iei ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aoaeoeai?noue ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/i?a
ioe?ithaaeany ca e?eoa???i nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? aoiinoa?e
ina?oiuei? eiioi?eaoe?? ia iniaeno?niiio ? nieneiaiio ??aiyo .iaoiaeii
a?oiiai? aenia?oece 38 a?aee?eoeo i?i?-iiaeoe?a. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
(oaae.) iieacothoue, ii-ia?oa, ui a/eoae? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e
caaaeyee iiaiio oaoiieia?/iiio ? iaoiaeieia?/iiio caaacia/aiith
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia?aeoee a?ae iiiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo a
i?aai?caoe?? ina?oiueiai i?ioeano aei ae?aeia?/iiai, iaiiaieee
i?aeiniaeno?ni? eiioaeoe c o/iyie aoiaiiei ci?noii, i?i ui na?ae/eoue
aenieee a?aenioie ?aae?caoe?? ?icaeaaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo iiaeoeueieo
caiyoue ye c aieo a/eoaey (60,2%) oae ? c aieo o/iy (54,5%); ii-ae?oaa,
ui aoaeoeai?noue ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/a?oueny
??oioiai?noth ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ia?ai?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a (iiaa
eaea i?i aeeiiaiiy 750-ai-aeeiii? i?ia?aie aeenoaioe?eiiai iaa/aiiy
aei?ineeo), a a?aeoae caeaaeeoue a?ae aoaio ina?oiueiai
aenia?eiaiooaaiiy ? i?e?iaeii aeyaey? aenie? iieacieee ?aae?caoe??
?icaeaaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo aca?iei o/eoaeyie (75,4%) oa o/iyie (69,6%)
CIO ? 10 i. Aa?aee/aaa; ii-o?aoa, ui ia? i?noea o?niee iiceoeaiee
ca’ycie i?ae ?aae?caoe??th i?ioan?eii-iaioaeueiiai aeina?aeo a/eoaey ?
eoeueoo?ii-iniaeno?niiai o/iy: i?i ui na?ae/aoue cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo
ei?aeyoe?? I??niia, aoo =0,9; a caaaeuei?e oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeaaeueia
naiiaeoeai?noue oeiey?a ia 5-10% iinooia?oueny noa’?eoeai?e
naiiae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa, a ioaea, iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia iaa/aiiy
ae?enii i?aai?co?oueny ia ??ai? «‘ciie iaeaeeae/iai ?icaeoeo aeeoeie»
(ca E.N.Aeaionueeei).

Ni?iiiaei?noue o/eoaey aei i?aai?caoe?? ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? c
eeanii caeaaeeoue a?ae eiai ineoieia?/ii? a?aiioiino?, aoiai?caoe??
caaaeaiue, ci?noo ? noeeth ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?, ao?eaiiy iiaeoeueieo
oaoiieia?e aaaeaiiy oe?e?niiai iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano,
eoeueoo?ii? ia?ai???ioaoe?? iioeaaoe?eii-oe?ii?nii? noa?e ? ai?eiai
ei?enooaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiei i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/iei ?ino?oiaioa???i.
?ioaa?aeueiei iieacieeii oaei? ni?iiiaeiino? ? eiao?oe??io
naiiaeooae?caoe?? o/eoae?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e, yeee ian
oaiaeaioe?th aei no?eeiai c?inoaiiy ca oiia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai?
ina?oiuei? nenoaie.

Caeaoi?noue o/iy aei ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? ia?aaeon?i aecia/a?oueny
eiai aioo??oiueith aiioeaiaai?noth aei ia?eoaoii?, ineoieia?/ii
??aiii?aaii? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? c o/eoaeai, ca yei? iiaii
?aae?co?oueny eiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiee oa iniaeno?niee iioaioe?ae.
Aenia?eiaio c iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiith iaa/aiiy iaoiiaeth? ?noioia
c?inoaiiy ye ?icoiiaeo cae?aiinoae oeiey??a i?e??no ?ioaeaeooaeueiino?
eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 12,0% — 25,7%, oae ? iniaeno?nii? aaeaioiaaiino?
(i/aaeaeia ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aaeaioiaaieo ? ciaioaiiy
iaaaeaioiaaieo o/i?a). E??i oiai, iie?ioothoueny
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee ee?iao iaaeaaia?/ieo aca?iei oa
i?aeiniaeno?ni? aca?iinoinoiee a o/i?anueeeo eieaeoeaao.

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee i?aenoiiaothoue ? nenoaiaoecothoue ?acoeueoaoe
oai?aoe/iiai, iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iiooeo. Uiiaeia?oa
na?aaeiy caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea — ia o?eueee iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee
caeeaae, ui iieeeeaiee ?ica’ycoaaoe i?iaeaio i?aeaioiaee ae?oae ?
iieiae? aei i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeeooy o a?iiaaeyinueeiio noni?euenoa?, a e
neeaaeia i?aai?caoe?y nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o, a yeiio
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaeaaia?/ia ?icaeaaeueia aca?iiae?y eieaeoea?a, a?oi,
?iaeea?ae?a. Naia eiai caaaeaiiy, ci?no, oi?ie oa iaoai?cie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo caaacia/othoue iiaiioo. aeooaeueii?
nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino? a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeeeaino? o??? eiie?aoii?
ina?oiuei? iiaeae?, ui oa?aeoa?eco? aoiai?oa?ii-eoeueoo?io noa?o
noni?euenoaa.

Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia — aenia?eiaioaeueia ina?oiy iiaeaeue
na?aaeiuei? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee, ui iiaea aooe i?aeaeaia
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiio aiae?cia? i?eiaeii? o o?ueio aniaeoao:
ii-ia?oa, ye neeaaeia i?aai?caoe?y ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o no/ani?e
iaa/aeueii-aeoiai?e i?aeoeoe?; ii-ae?oaa, ye i?aai?caoe?eiee ee?iao
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?e?niiai iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano; ii-o?ao?,
ye iaia?a?aia ?icaeaaeueia aca?iiae?y o/eoaey ? o/iy, ui ?icai?oa?oueny
a oaoiieia?/iiio oeeee? eiie?aoiiai iaa/aeueiiai iiaeoey. I?e oeueiio
iniaeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c i?aaeiaoii oaeiai
aiae?co — aeooaeueiith ?icaeaaeueiith aca?iiae??th, yea ? iaeiei c
iniiaieo ?ioaa?aoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee (ia?aiao??a)
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii? nenoaie ?, i?e?iaeii, ?? i?aai?caoe?eiiai
ee?iaoo, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o, ?iiiaaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ?
ae?aeia?/ieo oaoi?e oo?eaiiy iiaiioe?iiiai ina?oiueiai i?ioeano.

Nenoaiaoecaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? i?aeoaa?aeeoe eiai
a?iioaco i?i caeiiii??iino? oa oiiae ?icai?oaiiy iaia?a?aii?
?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/iy ca iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy. Iiaa nenoaia, ia
a?aei?io a?ae eeanii-o?i/ii?, noai?th? eoeueoo?ii ci???ioiaaiee
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee i?ino??, ca yeiai aoaeoeaii
aca?iiaeiiiaiththoueny ??ci? oi?ie iiooeiai? aeoeaiino? oeiey??a
(aca?iiae?y, ai?ioueaa, eiioe?eo, eiieo?aioe?y, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai oiui),
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ioaineaiee ae?eiaee oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iai?i ciaiiyie,
ii?iaie ? oe?iiinoyie i?ae o/anieeaie iaa/aiiy oa oaoiieia?/ii e
caniaiai caaacia/o?oueny iie?iioeaaoe?y ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? eiaeii?
iniaenoino?. Iniiao oeueiai i?inoi?o noaiiaeoue nioe?ieoeueoo?iee ci?no
iaa/aeueieo iiaeoe?a, ui i?iaeoo?oueny ? i?aeoe/ii ao?eth?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith ?iaa??aioieo oaoiieia?e aaaeaiiy ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? o
eean?.

Oeaio?aeueiith eaieith oai??? iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano ?
eiioeaioe?y ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/iy, yea iaoeiaeie
caniaaie iieno? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iee ci?no iioeiaeueieo ineoieia?/ieo
aieea?a o/aniee?a iaa/aiiy iaeei ia iaeiiai. Oe? aieeae iiaeaeththoueny
o/eoaeyie aaciaeo oe?e AeAEEI a oiae? caii/aoeoaaiiy ? iiaeeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo e oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeeie
nooi?nieie iciaeaie, eio?? e iinoith? iiaa ina?oiy nenoaia:

— ia?aaaaa iaaea?oueny iaoe?iiaeueiei ?aeayi oa ?aeaaeai, eoeueoo?iee
caeiaooeai no/anii? oeea?e?caoe?? a neooaoe?? /?oei? i???ioaoe?? ia
iiceoeaiee i?aai?caoe?eiee iioaioe?ae oe?a?inueeiai iaioae?oaoo o
aeoiaaii? i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy;

— oe? aieeae i?aai?cothoueny ye oae? iaaeaaia?/i? oi?ie noi?nii?
ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey ? o/i?a, ui caaacia/othoue a?aee?eoee, aoiaiii
iane/aiee nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee ee?iao, ?ioaa?aoe?th oa
eii?aeeiaoe?th nioe?aeueii-?ieueiaeo ooieoe?e ? e?e eiaeiiai o/anieea
iie?aiioeaiaaieo ia?eoaoieo aca?iei;

— nioe?aeueia ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a a?oiiaiai iiooeo ciaoiaeeoue
oaoiieia?/ia ao?eaiiy /a?ac noeoii?noue ?iiiaaoe?eieo iaoiae?a ? oaoi?e
(niiniae, i?eeiie) ni?ai?aoe? a/eoaey ? o/i?a, ?oith i?aai?caoe?eio
i?e/aoi?noue aei oai?aiiy eoeueoo?iiai aeina?aeo aoiino ? iaoe?? a oiae?
nioe?aeueia i???ioiaaiiai iaa/aiiy;

— iioei?cothoueny ineoieia?/i? aca?iinoinoiee i?ae o/anieeaie
ina?oiueiai i?ioeano ca aeiiiiiaith ?iiiaaoe?eii? nenoaie
i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy aenia?eiaioo (a?ao-noaie, iaoeia?
i?iaeoe, ina?oi? noeaia???, ?icaeaaeuei? i?i?-i?ae?o/ieee);

— aeei?enoiao?oueny aoaeoeaia oi?ia nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
?icaeaaeueieo iaaeaaia?/ieo aca?iei — i?i?-iiaeoeue ye caeai?i?, no?i?i?
aai nenoaii? 30-oaeeeii? iieoeueii-?icaeaaeuei? caiyooy, aoaeoeai?noue
yeeo aecia/a?oueny o?ueiia /eiieeaie: ineoio?c?ieia?/iei,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iei ? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iei.

Ina?oi?e ci?no iiaiioe?iiiai iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano aecia/a?
ye?nia iaiiaiaiiy eiie?aoiiai nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o
?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??, yeee ni?eeia?oueny, ia?aaeeaa?oueny,
?icoi??oueny, inieneth?oueny ? ?aoeaeno?oueny eiaeiei noa’?eoeaii,
iie?iioeaaoe?eii ? iie?ae?aeia?/ii. Iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie oeueiai
i?inoi?o ?: a) eiioeaiooaeueii ci?noiaa oe?e?ni?noue aoai?a oeeee?/ii
i?aai?ciaaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai iiaeoey (a?ae
/ooo?ai-anoaoe/iiai oa onoaiia/i-iioeaaoe?eiiai aei
eiio?ieueii-?aoeaeneaiiai ? aeooiaii-anoaoe/iiai); a)
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo
caaaeaiue, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai ci?noo ? nioe?aeueiith iaiiaiaiiy
(ca ia?aiao?aie ianyao, ?ioaineaiino?, neeaaeiino?) aoai?a oe?e?niiai
ina?oiueiai oeeeeo ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??; iaoeia? ciaiiy — iaa/aeuei?
ai?iiy — nioe?aeuei? ii?ie — eoeueoo?i? oe?iiino?; a)
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia naiiaeinoaoi?noue a?oiiaeo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
noa’?eo?a aca?iiaieeao, yea iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? eiaeiith a?eueii
iae?aoe caniae ? niiniae, iaoiaee ? i?eeiie aeanii? iiooeiai?
ae?yeueiino? a ii?iaoeaiiio iie?nioe?aeueii i?eeiyoii? iiaaae?iee oa
neooaoeaii ?aoeaeooaaoe oe?e?niee ?icaeaaeueiee oeeee i?aeiniaiaeo
eiioaeo?a.

Aoaeoeai?noue ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? ca iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii?
nenoaie aecia/a?oueny, c iaeiith aieo. noai?aiiyi o oiae?
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai aenia?eiaioo iane/aiiai i?iaeaiii-ae?aeia?/iiai
i?inoi?o i?iaeoeoeaieo nioe?aeueieo aca?iia?aeiinei, i?i ui na?ae/eoue
aenieee a?aenioie ?aae?caoe?? ?icaeoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo iiaeoeueieo
caiyoue ye o/eoaeai (6(1,2%). oae ? o/iai (54,5%) oa no?eeee iiceoeaiee
ca’ycie i?ae aeyaii eoeueoo?ieo oi?i ?oiuei? naiiaeoeaiino? (aoo= 0,9),
c ?ioiai — caeaoi?noue iaaeaaia?a ? aeoiaaioe?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e
i?aai?ciaoaaoe aca?iiae?th cacia/aiiai ineoieia?/iiai ci?noo caaaeyee
aenie?e i?ioan?ei?e a?aiioiino?, aoiaiiiio noeeth aca?iei, iiceoeai?e
iie?aiioeaiaaiino?, iioeiaeuei?e aaeaioiaaiino? ? aioo??oi?e
a?aee?eoino? aei ae?aeia?/ieo eiioaeo?a.

Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue
i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui eiai aeo?aei? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ?
iaoiaeieia?/i? iiaeae? aei?aaaeaee nai? iaoeiaa i?ecia/aiiy, a?iioaca
aeiaaaeaia, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeinyaioo?. I?e oeueiio aena?oeai? o
iiiia?ao?? ? noaooyo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? canaaee
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii? nenoaie ciaoiaeyoue iei? oe?iea i?eeeaaeia
canoinoaaiiy o ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaeoea?a 18-oe aaciaeo oe?e
AeAEEI AIE Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae o nenoai? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
a/eoae?a iaeanieo ?inoeooo?a i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe.

Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? ciiao ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe oe?eueiei ineoieiaai.
nioe?aeueiei iaaeaaiaai ? ea??aieeai caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e aeai?eoi?/i?
?iaa??aioe i?aai?caoe?? ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae??, nenoaio aenia?oii?
ioe?iee yeino? iiaeoeueieo caiyoue ii??aiyii c o?aaeeoe?eiei o?ieii oa
oi?aa?naeueio oano-ea?oo aoaeoeaiino? iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano
ca iieacieeaie ooai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai
i?inoi?o iaa/aeueiith caiyooy, ui ?noioii caaaa/o? ae?aaiinoe/iee ?
iaoiaee/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e ?oiuei? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?iaaaeaiee nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee aiae?c iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueii?
nenoaie ye ?iiiaaoe?eii? iiaeae? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe i?e?iaeii ia
ae/a?io? on?o aniaeo?a i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii? ineoieia?? i?aai?caoe?e.
Iiaeaeueoiai oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy oa aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy
iio?aaothoue ieoaiiy ia?aiao??a aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iith
i?inoi?o, a naia oe?e?niino?, no?oeoo?iino? oa aaoiiiiiino? eiai
i?aeno?oeoo?. Aaaeeeai oaeiae i?inoaaeeoe aieea iiai? aeeaeaeoe/ii?
nenoaie ia ianya, ?ioaineai?noue ? neeaaei?noue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oa
ae?eiaiai iai?io i?ae o/eoaeai ? o/iyie ye caniao nioe?aeueii?
?aaoeyoe?? iiaaae?iee ? ineoinioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Iiiia?ao?y

1. Aoiaithe. I.?. Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia iaa/aiiy:
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee aniaeo/ Ca ?aae. aeieoi?a ineoie. iaoe
A.A.Oo?iaia. — E.: Oeiey?, 1998,- 112 n. — 5,2 ae?. a?e.

Noaoo?:

2. Aoiaithe I.?. ?aea? oa i?eioeeie iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy
// Ina?oyiei.- 1997. — ?6. — N.?5-16; 1998. — ?1.- N.22. — 0,6 ae?.a?e.

3. Aoiaithe I.?. I?i?-iiaeoeue — i?ia?aneaia oi?ia iaa/aiiy// ??aeia
oeiea.-1998,- ?6.-N.64-65.-0,4 ae?.a?e.

4. Aoiaithe I.?. Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia: iiaeaeue
ineoieia?/iiai c?inoaiiy a/eoaey ? o/iy //Ina?oa ? oi?aae?iiy. — 1998. —
O,2, ?2.-N.75-81. -0,65 ae?.a?e.

5. Aoiaithe I.?. Ineoiienoaoeuee? oaoiieia?? iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai
iaa/aiiy //Ina?oyiei. — 1998.— ?3,— N.12-13. — 0,55 ae?.a?e.

6. Aoiaithe I.?. ?icaeaaeueia iaaeaaia?/ia aca?iiae?y ye i?aaeiao
ineoieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy // Ina?oa ia Eoaaiuei?.— 1998. — ?2.
—N.42-47. — 0,7 ae?.a?e.

7. Aoiaithe I.?. Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia ye ia’?eo
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y : Iaaeaaia?ea. — 1999.—
?1.— N.8-13. — 0,5 ae?.a?e.

8. Oo?iai A.A., Aoiaithe I.?. Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia iaa/aiiy:
ia?aaeoiiae, iiaaoe??, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy //Ina?oa ? oi?aae?iiy. — 1997. —
O.1 ?4. —N.94-124. — 2,0 ae?.a?e (aaoi?nueeeo —1,0 ae?.a?e.).

9. Oo?iai A.A., Aoiaithe I.?. I?i?-iiaeoeue a i?aai?caoe?? oe?eueiiai
iaa/aiiy: neeaaeieee iaa?oiooaaiiy // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y 3: Iaaeaaia?ea ?
ineoieia?y. -1998.— ?2.— N. 15-21. — 0.6 ae?.a?e. (aaoi?nueeeo — 0.3
ae?.a?e.)

10. Oo?iai A.A., Aoiaithe I.?. I?i?-iiaeoeue o iaa/aii?: neeaaeieee
iaa?oiooaaiiy// Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. — 1998. — ?2. — N.96-108. —0,5
ae?.a?e. (aaoi?nueeeo —0,25 ae?. a?e.)

Oace:

11. Aoiaithe I.?. C?inoaiiy ineoieia?/ii? a?aiioiino? a/eoae?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e ca iiaeoeueii-?icieaaeueii? nenoaie //Iaoa??aee
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? «Oi?aae?iiy
iaoe?iiaeueiith ina?oith a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?». — E.: II Oe?a?ie, AII Oe?a?ie. AeAEEI, ?CII.-?998-
N.317-319. — 0,2 ae?.a?e.

12. Aoiaithe I.?. Ineoieia?/iee aieea o no?oeoo?? ?icaeaaeueii?
aca?iiae?? a/eoaey e o/i?a ca iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy
//Iaoa??aee ca?oii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie oai??? ?
i?aeoeee i?ney-aeeieiiii? ina?oe ea??aieo ? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a». —
*.1. — E-:AeAEEI. 1998. — N.162-163. — 0,05 ae?.a?e.

13. Aoiaithe I.?, Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia — ia?aaeoiiaa
i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey aei ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. //Iaoa??aee ca?oii?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ea??aieo ? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a»,—*.??. — E..
AeAEEI, 1998. — N.153— 155. — 0,2 ae?.a?e.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aoiaithe I.?. Iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueia nenoaia ye ia’?eo
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 19.00.05 — nioe?aeueia ineoieia?y. — Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aena?oeaiith nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeaaeueii? aca?iiae?? a/eoaey ? o/i?a a nenoai?
iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy ye nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e i?aai?caoe??.

I?iaiae?ciaai? ?aea?, i?eioeeie, eaoaai??? ? iiiyooy iiai?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? nenoaie, iienai? nioe?aeuei? ia?aiao?e iiaeae?
ineoieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? (iie?iioeaaoe?y, nioe?aeueia ?ieue,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee ci?no, ia?eoaoia ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue oiui) e
iaa?oioiaai? oaoiieia?/i? ?iaa??aioe ?o aca?iicaeaaeiiai ao?eaiiy o
aeina?ae? iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaeoea?a na?aaei?o oe?e. Ii??aiyiiy iaoeiaeo
i?aeoiae?a aei nioe?aeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy ?icaeaaeueieo nenoai iaa/aiiy
aeaei ciiao iienaoe no?oeoo?o nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?inoi?o
?icaeaaeueieo aca?iei o eean?, ui i?aai?co?oueny a oi?i? iiaeoeueiiai
caiyooy (i?i?-iiaeoey). Ioa?aeoa?eciaai? eiiiiiaioe ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
i?ia?aiiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy iiaiiai ina?oiueiai oeeeeo
(ciaiiy—oi?iiy—ii?ie—oe?iiino?), iienaia iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? iiaeoeueii-?icaeaaeueiiai i?ioeano,

Iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe nenoaiiiai aenia?oii-ae?aaiinoe/iiai aea/aiiy
iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ? iieaciee?a ineoinioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo a/eoae?a ?
o/i?a ca iiaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo oiia na?ae/aoue i?i ye?nii aeuee
?icaeoeiaee aieea i?i?-iiaeoey ia c?inoaiiy eoeueoo?iiai iioaioe?aeo
iniaenoino? ii??aiyii c o?aaeeoe?eiei o?ieii, a oaeiae i?i aaaeeea?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? /eiieee ?aae?caoe?? ?icaeaaeueii? aoaeoeaiino?
iiaeoeueieo caiyoue c aieo a/eoaey ? o/i?a. Aeiaaaeaia aeioe?euei?noue
iiai? nenoaie uiaei iie?ioaiiy ineoieia?/ii? ? iaoiaee/ii? a?aiioiino?
iaaeaaia?a, c?inoaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo
oeiey??a, i?aeaeuaiiy ?oiuei? caeaoiino? aei iaia?a?aii? ?icaeaaeueii?
aca?iiae??.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aoiaithe I.A. Iiaeoeueii-?acaeaathuay nenoaia eae iauaeo
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai aiaeeca. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 19.00.05 — nioeeaeueiay ineoieiaey. — Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo
caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeaathuaai acaeiiaeaenoaey o/eoaey e o/auaainy a
nenoaia iiaeoeueiiai iao/aiey eae nioeeieoeueoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee,
iao/iay i?ia?aiia eioi?ie nicaeaia e ?aaeecoaony a?oiiie o/aiuo e
i?aeoeeia iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii i?io. A.A. Oo?iaia.

A eiioeaiooaeueiie /anoe ?aaioa i?iaiaeece?iaaiu eaeae, i?eioeeiu,
eaoaai?ee e iiiyoee iiaie yenia?eiaioaeueiie nenoaiu, iienaiu
nioeeaeueiua ia?aiao?u iiaeaee ineoieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey ee/iinoe
(iieeiioeaaoeey, nioeeaeueiay ?ieue, i?aaiecaoeeiiiue eeeiao,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneia niaea?aeaiea, ia?eoaoiay ia?aciaaoaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue) e iainiiaaiu oaoiieiae/aneea eiaa?eaiou eo
acaeiicaaeneiiai inouanoaeaiey a iiuoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo eieeaeoeaia
n?aaeieo oeie. A eoiaa auyaeaiu iiaua aniaeou iao/iiai iiciaiey aaaeiuo
aeey nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo yaeaiee: a)
aeeiaieea ineoinioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey o/auaainy a oeaeinoiii oeeeea
acaeiiaeiiieiaiey iao/iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey e ianoa?neiai aiaae?aiey
iiaeoeueii-?acaeaathuaai i?ioeanna; a) i?aaiecaoeey ineoieiae/aneeo
aeeyiee a eiiiaaoeeiiiie iiaeaee iao/aiey eae iieeiioeae?iaaiiuo oi?i
niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/eoaey e o/aueony, eioi?ua ?acaeaathony a
aaeeiii i?ino?ainoaa eo a?oiiiaiai iiaaaeaiey; a) n?aaiaiea iaueo
oa?aeoa?enoee o?aaeeoeeiiiiai o?iea e ieie-iiaeoey ii 15-oe
ninoaaeythuei iao/aiey a eiioaenoa nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie
?aaoeyoeee ia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ac?ineuo e aeaoae.

N?aaiaiea iao/iuo iiaeoiaeia e nioeeaeueiiio i?iaeoe?iaaieth
?acaeaathueo nenoai iao/aiey iicaieeei iienaoue no?oeoo?o
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa ?acaeaathuaai acaeiiaeaenoaey.
Yoi i?ino?ainoai i?aaiecoaony a oi?ia iiaeaeueiiai caiyoey
(ieie-iiaeoey) e i?aaeiieaaaao niciaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue o/eoaey e
o/auaainy n o?aiy ?aciiaeaeiinoyie ia?aciaaoaeueiiai niaea?aeaiey: A —
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneei; A — o/aaii-i?aaeiaoiui; A —
i?ia?aiiii-iaoiaee/aneei. Aeaoaeueii ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu eiiiaaoeeiiiua
eiiiiiaiou iineaaeiaai (a?ao-noaiu, iao/iua i?iaeou, o/aaiua noeaia?ee e
?acaeaathuea o/aaieee) a ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaia iieiiai
ia?aciaaoaeueiiai oeeeea (ciaiey—oiaiey—ii?iu—oeaiiinoe), a oaeaea
iienaia iaoiaeieiaey enneaaeiaaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
iiaeoeueii-?acaeaathuaai i?ioeanna,

I?aaenoaaeaiiua ?acoeueoaou nenoaiiiai yenia?oii-aeeaaiinoe/aneiai
eco/aiey iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia e iieacaoaeae eae eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, oae e ineoinioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey o/eoaey e
o/aueony a iiauo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
ea/anoaaiii aieaa aunieii ?acaeaathuai aeeyiee ieie-iiaeoey ia
aic?anoaiea ee/iinoiiai iioaioeeaea eaaeaeiai o/anoieea iao/aiey a
n?aaiaiee n o?aaeeoeeiiiui o?ieii, i aaaeiuo nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo
oaeoi?ao ?aaeecaoeee ?acaeaathuae yooaeoeaiinoe iiaeoeueiuo caiyoee ni
noi?iiu o/eoaey e o/aueony. Aeieacaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue iiaie nenoaiu
ioiineoaeueii oeo/oaiey ineoieiae/aneie e iaoiaee/aneie a?aiioiinoe
iaaeaaiaia, aic?anoaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiiai e ee/iinoiiai ?acaeoey
o/aueony.

Nenoaiaoecaoeey ?acoeueoao?a enneaaeiaaiey iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aai aeiioaco
i caeiiiia?iinoyo e oneiaeyo ?acai?a/eaaiey iai?a?uaiiai ?acaeaathuaai
acaeiiaeaenoaey o/eoaey e o/aueony i?e iiaeoeueii-?acaeaathuai iiaeoiaea
e i?aaiecaoeee iao/aiey. Iiaay nenoaia, a ioee/ea io eeannii-o?i/iie,
nicaeaao eoeueoo?ii i?eaioe?iaaiiia nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneia
i?ino?ainoai, i?e eioi?ii yooaeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaotho ?aciua oi?iu
iieneiaie aeoeaiinoe oeieueieeia (acaeiiaeaenoaea, ai?ueaa, eiioeeeo,
eiieo?aioeey, nio?oaeie/anoai), i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiue aeaeiaie e
eioi?iaoeeiiiue iaiai ciaieyie, ii?iaie e oeaiiinoyie iaaeaeo noauaeoaie
iao/aiey, a oaeaea oaoiieiae/anee iaania/eaaao iieeiioeaaoeeth
ia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeaeie ee/iinoe. Iniiao yoiai
i?ino?ainoaa ninoaaeyao nioeeieoeueoo?iia niaea?aeaiea o/aaiuo iiaeoeae,
eioi?ia i?iaeoe?oaony e i?aeoe/anee eniieuecoaony i?e iiiiue
eiaa?eaioiuo oaoiieiaee aaaeaiey ?acaeaathuaai acaeiiaeaenoaey a eeanna.

Humrnyuk O.Yc. Modular-Develupmfntal System as an Enlily of Socio-Fsycl
10 logical Analysis. — Manuscript.

Dissertation fur Candidate of Psychological Sciences Degree, speciality
19.00.05 — social psychology. The Kyiv National University named after
Taras Shevchenko, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the consideration of socio-psychoiogical
interdependcncics of teacher-students developmental interaction in the
modular instruction system as a so cio-cultural organisation.

The ideas, principles, categories and concepts of a new experimental
system have been analysed; social parameters of the personality
psychological development model /poly motivation, social role, the
psychological and pedagogical subject matter, educational activities on
parity basis etc/ have been described and the technological invariant of
their interrelated implementation iii the experience of secondary
schools educational staff have been substantiated. The comparison of
research approaches to developmental instruction systems social
projecting enabled a description of the structure of socio-psychoiogical
expanse of developmental relations in the classroom which are organised
in the form of ii modular lesson /mini-module/. The components of
innovational curricula and accompanying provision for a complete
educational cycle /knowledge — skills — norms — valued have been
characterised, the methodology of the modular developmental process
effectiveness research has been expounded.

The given results of the system expertise and diagnostic examination of
the key parameters and indicators of psychosocial development of
teachers and students under new experimental conditions testify about a
qualitatively higher developmental impact of a mini-module on the growth
of the cultural potential of the personality ia comparison with a
traditional lesson, as well as about important socio-psychoiogical
factors of developmental effectiveness implementation of module classes
on the part of teachers and students. The new system expediency as for
improvement of educators’ psychological literacy and methods competence,
the further intellectual and personality development of schoolchildren,
the enhancement of their abilities to continuing developmental
interaction have been shown.

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