?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?IAI? A.N. NEIAI?IAeE

IAOe?IIAEUeII? AEAAeAI?? IAOE OE?A?IE

Ia
i?aaao ?oeiieno

OIIA Ieaa ?ai?iae/

OAeE 130. 2: 101. 9

IIAeA?IA OA IINOIIAeA?IA IA?NIAEOEAE

A O?EINIO?? EOEUeOO?E

Niaoe?aeuei?noue — 09. 00. 04. — o?einionueea aio?iiieia?y, o?einio?y
eoeueoo?e

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? o?einio?? eoeueoo?e, aoeee oa anoaoeee

?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe

Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

Aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe A?EEE Ieaa Aaneeueiae/, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee a?ee?eo o?einio?? eoeueoo?e, aoeee oa anoaoeee ?inoeoooo
o?einio?? ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Aiiaea?/oe ?iia Aiaoie??aia,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith o?einio?? Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

2. Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, Ia?aoiinueeee Ai?en Ieaenaiae?iae/,
ea??aiee naeoi?o no?aeii? iie?oeee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo
no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaee iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie
Oe?a?ie

3. Aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiai??eee Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith eoeueoo?ieia?? oa a?oaieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo «Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y»

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
eaoaae?a o?einio??

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny » 17 » aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.1161.02 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa)
o?einionueeeo iaoe a ?inoeooo? o?einio?? ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie
(252001, Ee?a-1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 10 » na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?

?aaee, eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe Neoie/aiei
E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Na?aae /eneaiieo i?iaeai, c yeeie
ethaenoai noeeioeinue a inoaii?e /aa?o? OO no. /e ia iaeaino??oith
aeyaeeanue ia aeieia?/ia aai yaea?ia, ia a?aei?noue aai ae/a?iaiiy
caian?a aia?aiiin??a, a ?aaeoa i?iaeaia aeiaaeueii? iaaecia/aiino?
oeyo?a ?icaeoeo na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe??, ooiaeaiaioaeueieo canaae
iie?oeee, ui caaacia/eea a aa?iii?eiee ?icaeoie ye on??? ?icia?oi?
na?oiai? ni?eueiioe c i?eoaiaiieie ?e noia?a/eeaeie ?
aaaeeiocaiaeaeoaaieie ?ioa?anaie, oae ? eiaeiiai c ie?aieo noni?euenoa,
o iaaeao yeeo oaae iaeiie/o?oueny iioaioe?ae ?iciiae?e?a ?
a?aeoeaio?iaeo oaiaeaioe?e. Ni?iae ?aaeueiiai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
??aiii?aaiino? a i?aeia?iaeieo noinoieao iani?aaae? ii?iaeeee aino??
eiioe?eoe c i?eaiaeo anoaiiaeaiiy ni?aaaaeeeaiai na?oiaiai ii?yaeeo,
ni?iae iiaoaeiae noni?euenoa, o yeeo ae iaeneiaeueii iiaaaeaeenue i?aaa
ethaeeie, i?ecaaee aei aeieeiaiiy ioeueoeeoeueoo?ae?cio ? iiaii?
iaaecia/aiino? uiaei i?eeiyoieo cania?a caaacia/aiiy aioo??oiuei?
?aeiino? e iaiao?aeii? oi?o?eiaaiino? oaeeo noni?euenoa. Iiaeia
iaa?oioiaaii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a?ae iinooio o ae??oaii? naia oeeo
i?iaeai caeaaeeoue ae??oaiiy ?aooe i?iaeai ethaenoaa.

Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui oaea noaiiaeua coiiaeaia ae??th iiooaeieo
noni?eueieo oaeoi??a, oaeeo ye no??iea iioe?aiiy iino?iaeono??aeueieo
yaeu a aeiiii?oe?, oaiaeaioe?e aei iiaoaeiae a?aee?eoeo, nioe?aeueii
i???ioiaaieo noni?euenoa, o?aa?/iee aeina?ae oioae?oa?eci?a OO no. oiui.
Inyaiaiiy an?o oeeo oaeoi??a ? aoaeoeaia ?ica’ycaiiy ii?iaeaeaieo ieie
i?iaeai aeiaaa? iiaeo i?aeoiae?a, aeiaaa? ieneaiiy, yea a a?aeiia?aeaei
?aae?yi, ui ci?ieeenue.

A o?einio?? oe? yaeua ciaeoee a?aeaeoie o aeieeiaii? eiioeaioe?e
“?aaeeeaeueiiai ieth?ae?cio” (60-o? — 70-o? ??.), ye? iacaaa?ii i?ecaaee
aei ao/ieo aeeneon?e uiaei “iinoiiaea?io” (e?i. 70-o — 80-o? ??.), aei
iiooeo oeyo?a ye “ca?eueiaiiy” iioaioe?ae?a oi?eaeueiiai ? iaiiaoi?iiai,
oae ? aeinyaiaiiy “oi?aa?naeueiiai eiinainono”, noai?aiiy ni?eueiiai
i?inoi?o aeey aca?iiii?icoi?iiy i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?e.

O?einio?y e?ioey OO no. ? ia?o ca ana o?einio??th eoeueoo?e ?
o?einio??th iie?oeee, aiia iieeeeaia ia o?eueee ooeaoe nooi?ni? iniiae
iiaiai ieneaiiy, aea e inyaaoe iiaeeeaino? i?aeoe/ii?, ia?o ca ana
iie?oe/ii? ? aoe/ii?, ae?? a iiaeo nioe?aeueieo oiiaao. Aaeaea o
a?aee?eoiio noni?euenoa? iaaecae/aeii? aaae iaaoaa? ieoaiiy eaa?oeiaoe??
oeo /e ?ioeo i?aeoee aai ?inoeoooe?e, oae ui i?iaeaiaoeco?oueny iaa?oue
i?aaii??i?noue aoe/ieo canaae, ye? i?euaieththoueny ae?oyi a aea?aeaaieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, ia eaaeo/e aaea i?i i?aaa ?iicaioe?a,
ia?a?iaeueieo a?oi ianaeaiiy oiui. Aea noni?euenoai iiaeiia iaoe
ni?eueio iniiao, ui i?aeiineoueny iaae ?ica?aeiinoyie. Ooi aecia/aoeia
??? Ooi aecia/aoeia iaae? ?aaeeeae?cio i?aa ethaeeie?

Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ooieoe?e o?einio?? o ?ica’ycaii? oeeo ieoaiue
? nooi?nia inyaiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai oeyoo ?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e, iniaeeai
ii/eiath/e c XVII no., ? oeo iaoai?ci?a, ui oiiaeeeaeththoue no/ania
noaiiaeua inoaiiuei?. Ia?o ca ana, o?einio?? iaeaaeeoue oeiieia?coaaoe e
aeoeoia/oaaoe eieeoi? e no/ani? niiniae ieneaiiy, aecia/aoe ?oi? ?aca?ae
? i?eoiaai? iiaeeeaino?, ?oith aca?iiiia’ycai?noue ? a?aeiia?aei?noue
no/aniei oi?iai aoooy, oeyoe ?oiuei? iiaeeeai? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Iaeiei c
iaei??i?eoaoi?oeo ia’?eo?a oaeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?noi??y
o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy, ine?eueee a o?einio?? iaeae?aci?oa
a?aeaeaathoueny ieneeoaeuei? iaoai?cie eoeueoo?e (iaaia ??/, oaeiio
aeine?aeaeaiith i?ui ia caai?iiy? ?iaeoe nai?i i?aaeiaoii oaeiae e ?io?
noa?e ieneeoaeueii? ae?yeueiino?).

A oeueiio eiioaeno? iniaeeai? i?ciaaaeueii? aaae iaaoaa? i?iaeaia
noai?aiiy iaoiaeieia?? aiae?co ?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai iaoa??aeo c
iiceoe?e o?einio?? eoeueoo?e. Aaeaea i?yia ?aaeoeoe?y caaaeueieo
iinooeao?a o?einio?? eoeueoo?e aei ?noi?eei-o?einionueei? aii???? ia
a?aoiao? ?? niaoeeo?ee naia ye aii??e/iiai, ?icia?oiai, eiie?aoiiai
ia’?eoo ? caa?iaeo? iaaei?aaaeaiei iaa’ycoaaiiyi oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae, a
oi e i?inoi aeieo?eia?noaii. O?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeii? iaoe ?ai?acaioaoeaio aii??e/io iniiao, aeoiaeeoe
c ia?, a ia aaeiaieueiyoenue yeeie-iaaoaeue yne?aaeie aeoeeaeaioaeueieie
ooai?aiiyie /e oaiiiaiieia?/ieie niiaeyaeaiiyie.

Nueiaiaei?oi?e o?einio?? eoeueoo?e ae?ae iio??aiee iaoiaeieia?/iee
aia?ao, yeee aeicaieea ae aecia/eoe ooiaeaiaioaeuei?, aei??iai? a aacen?
eoeueoo?e, niiniae ieneaiiy, ui coiiaeththoue iiea ?a?iiaenueeiai
o?einiooaaiiy inoaii?o /ioe?ueio noie?oue, iieacaoe aca?iiae?th ?
aoaeoeaio aca?iini?aa?aeianai?noue oeeo niinia?a ieneaiiy, iaae?
nooi?niiai e ianooi?niiai a ?oi?o o?ainoi?iaoe?yo. Aaeaea ieoaiiy i?i
ae/a?iai?noue /e aeeoo?caeaoi?noue “i?iaeoo Iiaea?io”, i?i ae?eni? oeyoe
o?e?aoe?? ?aeae ? noa?aioei?a, i?i oai?aoe/i? aeaea?aea oioae?oa?ecio
iio?aaothoue iiia?aaeiueiai aecia/aiiy nooi?nieo ?en “o?einio??
Iiaea?io” ye neeaaeiai? “ieneaiiy Iiaea?io”, a inoaiiueiai — ye
neeaaeieea “eoeueoo?ii? ?aeiino? Iiaea?io”. Noai?aiiy oaei? iaoiaeieia??
cacae/ae ia iinoaaaei ye naiino?eia i?iaeaia
o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui, c?aooith, e i?ecaaei
aei iecee iaaei?aaaeaii ?aaeeeae?nonueeeo eiinoaoaoe?e a aeaaaoao i?i
“iinoiiaea?i”. Aeieeiaiiy a 70-o? ?iee oe?eiai iai?yio o?einio??
eoeueoo?e, i???ioiaaiiai ia “iino”-iiaea?io ia?niaeoeao, ia
aeenoaioe?thaaiiy a?ae iiaea?ieo noaiaea?o?a ieneaiiy ? ae?yeueiino?, c
iaiao?aei?noth noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i nooi?noue a?aeiia?aeii? iiaea?ii?
ia?niaeoeae, i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue ia?aco Iiaea?io, noai?aiiai
iinoiiaea?iii.

Canoinoaaiiy iiae?aii? iaoiaeieia?? aeyaeeinue ae ae?ae ei?eniei aeey
ae??oaiiy caaaeaiiy iaio aeiaaeueiiai, aea aaeueie aaaeeeaiai aeey
aioo??oiueiai ?icaeoeo naii? o?einio??: ni?inooaaiiy iaaaeaeaaoieo
?ioa?i?aoaoe?e oai?/ino? ie?aieo i?aaenoaaiee?a o?einio?? Iiaea?io,
?ioa?i?aoaoe?e, ui iaaoee yeino? onoaeaieo ? caaaeueiiaeciaieo
noa?aioei?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee a
aeena?oaoe?? iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue iia’ycaiee c oaiaie, ye?
?ic?iaeythoueny o A?aeae?e? o?einio?? eoeueoo?e, aoeee oa anoaoeee
?inoeoooo o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie ? ia eaoaae?? o?einio?? A?iieoeueeiai
aea?ae. oaoi?/i. oi?aa?neoaoo:

Nooi?iue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. No/ani? aa??aioe
o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e, a?aei?iiith ?enith yeeo ?
oeoia/aiiy eoeueoo?e ye niiniao ethaenueeiai aoooy, aeieeathoue
aiane?aeie neioaco o?aaeeoe?? ?a?iiaenueeiai o?ainoeaiaeaioae?cio
(Aeaea?o — Eaio — Aonna?eue ? oaiiiaiieia?/i? oeiee OO no.) ?
ia?enenonueeeo oa iaiia?enenonueeeo eiioeaioe?e aeaoa?i?iaoe??
na?aeiiino? oa ?? aeeth/aiiy a i?aeoe/ia aoooy ( Ae. Eoea/, O. Aaei?ii,
I. Oi?eoaeia?, E. Aeueothna?, E. Aieueaeiai, I. Iaia?aeaoa?e? ?io.).
Iaeiine?aeiai?o? ni?iae iioieia?caoe?? eoeueoo?e, ii?aeiaiiy ??
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueieo ? i?aaiaoe/ieo aniaeo?a aoee cae?eniai? a i?aoeyo
a?o/eciyieo o?einio?a (A. ?aaiia, ?. Aeno?eoeueeee, A. Iaeaoia, A.
Oaaa/eianueeee, A. Oeiea?oe, ?io.), ye? iaaeaaaee iiiyooth eoeueoo?e ?en
a?aie/ii? eiie?aoiino?, ia?ai?acaioiaaiino?, anaioiiiino?, oiaoi — ?en
ia’?eoeaii-aooo?aiai aiaeiaa aeaea?o?anueeiai cogito.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeiee ia aeiaaeeiai, eiai iaoiaeieia?/ieie
iiia?aaeieeaie, ni?yiiaaieie uii?aaaea ia ?io? ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
i?aaeiaoe, iiaeia aaaaeaoe aecenoaioe?ae?ci AE.-I. Na?o?a, aeaye? oaie
ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iioieia?? I. Yaeaeaaa?a, o?einionueeo aa?iaiaaoeeo
A.-A. Aaaeaia?a, no?oeoo?ae?nonuee? eiioeaioe?? 50-o — 60-o ??.,
iniaeeai no?oeoo?io aio?iiieia?th E. Eaa?-No?ina.

Aaaaoee iaoa??ae aeey ?icoi?iiy i?ioean?a iioieia?/ii? aeaoa?i?iaoe??
ethaeeie c aieo eoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua ye oe?eiai aeathoue oai?e
i?aaenoaaiee?a “iiai? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee” (O. A?’?n, O. A?iaeaeue, A.
Ao?aa?/, AE. Aetha?, AE. Ea Aioo, ?io.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a iaaeao iioieia?/ieo aa??aio?a o?einio??
eoeueoo?e i?iaeaia noai?aiiy iaoiaeieia?? aiae?co ?noi?e/ieo oi?i
ieneaiiy iiee ui ??aeei iaaoaa? naiai ie?aiiai oi?ioethaaiiy, a
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao ii?aoeueiaaii oe?ieee niaeo? aeioe/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee.
Eaeaoueny ia?o ca ana i?i o?einionueeo aio?iiieia?th (A. Ieania?, I.
Oaea?), aonna?e?anueeo eiioeaioe?th aeeoo?aiai na?oo, aeine?aeaeaiiy
na?aeiiino? i?aaeaai?o ? i?ei?oeaieo ia?iae?a (E. Eaa?-No?in, ?io.),
oai??th ae?aeia?/iino? eoeueoo?e (I. Aaoo?i, A. A?aea?, ?io.) ?
ethaenueeiai aoooy (I. Aoaa?, A. Eaa?ian, ?io.), caaaeuei?
no?oeoo?ae?nonuee? (A.-AE. A?aeian, TH. E??no?aa, Oe. Oiaei?ia, TH.
E??no?aa, ?io.) e iinono?oeoo?ae?nonuee? (AE. Aeaeueic, AE. Aea??aea,
AE.-O. Eueioa?, I. Ooei, ?io.) ?ica?aeee. I?ioa oe? aeeaie? e
i?ea?iaeuei? i?aeoiaee iicia/ai? ni?eueiith ?enith, yea nooo?ai
a?ae??ciythoue ?o a?ae iniiaiiieiaeaiue a?o/eciyii?
o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/ii? o?aaeeoe??: oea iaiaei?iia
“?ai?acaioiaai?noue” eoeueoo?e, aecia/aiiy ?? nooo?aiai a?aeiia?aeieea
(oaeno, iiaa, aeeoo?aee na?o, ai?noaia, i?iaeo aoooy oiui), oiaoi iaaiee
a?aeo?ae a?ae ?? aacenii? iioieia?/iino?. I?ioa, eiee “eoeueoo?a”
iieeaaea?oueny ye a?aie/ii i?inoa, eiie?aoia e i/aaeaeia ??/, iainyaeiee
ai?eciio ethaenueeiai ieneaiiy ? a/eieo, aeiaaeueiiai i?ioeano,
?noi?e/ii? iiae??, neiii?i ethaenueeiai aoooy, oi oea ia?aaeaa/a?
iio?aao a noai?aii? niaoeeo?/ii? ?ioa?i?aoaoeaii? iaoiaeieia??.

Iaeaaoi?eoaoi?o? aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoiiaea?ieo yaeu a ienoaoeoa?
iaeaaeaoue Ae. Aaeeai?, O. Aeaeaeiniiia?, Ae. Eiaeaeo, E. Iae-Eaoo?, E.
O?aiioiio, ?. Oannaio; a o?einio?? — E. Aaoea?ia?, A. Aaeueoo, A.
O?eia?o, ?io.; oai??y o?einionueeiai iinoiiaea?io iaea?eueo a?oioiaii
?ic?iaeaia a oai?ao AE.-O. Eueioa?a, Ae. A?eeioa?, ?io.).
Noni?eueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae iinoiiaea?iiai ieneaiiy ?ice?eoi a
oai?ao oai?aoee?a iino?iaeono??aeueiiai noni?euenoaa (Ae. Aaee, ?.
Ianoaea, I. Oiooea?, ?io.) ? a eiioeaioe?? a?aee?eoiai noni?euenoaa E.
Iiiia?a. Nioe?ieia?/iee aniaeo oeeo yaeu aeine?aeaeoaaany a oai?ao N
Eeiiaaoeueee, A. Oo?aia, ?io.

Iaeaecia/i?oeie caaaeueiio?einionueeeie i?aeoiaeaie aei oai?/ino? A.
Ianeaey iinoathoue: yinai?nonueeee (AE. Ia?’?, E. Ia?’?, I. I?eieue,
?io.), i?ina?oieoeueeee (AE.-A. Eiiaei?na, Ae. Ae?ae?i, Aieueoa?, I.
Aieueaao, ?io.), ia?niiae?noe/iee (E. Oanoia). Oi/a a e?i. O?O — ia
ii/. OO no. iaeaaei?noue aaoi?a “Aeoiie” aei o?einio?? i?aeaeaaaeanue
aeoaea na?eiciei noii?aai (A. A?iaeaeueaaiae, ?io.), o?aaeeoe?y
aeine?aeaeaiue “o?einio?? Ianeaey” oi?io?oueny aaea a XVII — XVIII no.
(yinai?ci, I?ina?oieoeoai) ? a?aeoiae? aacia?a?aii i?iaeiaaeo?oueny (E.
Oae??aao, A. Eocai,.?io.). A OO no. na?aae aeine?aeiee?a, ye?
iaiaaaeenue ?ioa?i?aooaaoe o?einionueeo oai?/?noue Ianeaey aeoiaey/e c
?? aeanii? aioo??oiuei? eia?ee, ia?aaeian?i ne?ae aeae?eeoe E.
A?thioa?ea ? A. Ea?i, iaeiae ? aiie ia caaaeaee iine?aeiaii
aeio?eioaaeenue oaeiai i?aeoiaeo. Oaco i?i nooi o?einionueeo iniiao
anueiai ianeaeaanueeiai ieneaiiy, aeeth/ath/e e ?ae?a?eia, aoei aenoiooi
O.I. Oa???iaoiiii. ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee i?aeo?ae aei ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
o?einionueeeo iiaeyae?a A. Ianeaey oni?oii canoiniaoaaee E. A?thioa?e,
Ae. Aeaeio, E. Eaothia, N. Iaia?, ?io., i?ioa aeiaiaeeoueny
eiinoaooaaoe, ui e iei? a?aenooiy /?oea e iiaia ?aeiino?oeoe?y
eaoaai??aeueiiai aia?aoo, i?eoaiaiiiai ?aiiueiio ia??iaeia?
o?einionueei? oai?/ino? Ianeaey. Aeineoue oe?ieee niaeo? ni?ia
ni?aa?aeianaiiy o?einionueeeo iiaeyae?a Ianeaey ? Aeaea?oa (E.
A?thioa?e, I. Eaaa?i, A. Iao?, A. No?aeueoeiaa, ?io.) ia aea? /?oeiai
oyaeaiiy i?i ?ica?aei?noue ?oi?o iiaeyae?a noiniaii eeth/iai? aeey
o?einio?? XVII no. i?iaeaie — i?iaeaie i/aaeaeiino? ye e?eoa??y ?noeie.
Caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao aeine?aeaeaiiy ianeae?anueeiai iaoiaeieia?/iiai
ieth?aethcio A. Aeaa?aeniiii, a oaeiae ?aeiino?oeoe?y
o?einionueei-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee aaoi?a “I?ia?ioe?ae?e” (E. Eaca??).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — nie?ath/enue ia iaoiaeieia?/iee aia?ao o?einio??
eoeueoo?e aecia/eoe nooi?noue iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi an?o
eiai o?aaeeoe?e.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1) aecia/eoe oi?io aca?iini?aa?aeianaiino? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo
i/aaeaeiinoae o?einiooaaiiy;

2) ?ice?eoe nooi?nio noaio ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?einio?? a eoeueoo??
Iiaea?io (ii/eiath/e c XVII no.);

3) i?i?ioa?i?aooaaoe iiiyooy “iinoiiaea?iiai o?einiooaaiiy” ? “i?iaeoo
I?ina?oieoeoaa” ca uieiicaaaeaiith noaiith;

4) i?iaeaiiino?oaaoe iiaeeeaino? ae?iaeaii? iaoiaeieia?? oeyoii
oe?e?nii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? o?einionueei? aeieo?eie Ianeaey.

Aaciina?aaei? aeeiiaiiy oeeo caaaeaiue iio?aao?: ?aeiino?oeoe?? iniiaieo
ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e, i?eoaiaiieo ?a?iiaenuee?e o?einio?? XVII—XX no.
? iieno iaoai?ci?a eoeueoo?e, ui caaacia/othoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeeo
ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e.

Iaoiaeieia?/io ? oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee i?aoe?
a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a c o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/ii? iioieia?? (A.
?aaiia, ?. Aeno?eoeueeee, A. Iaeaoia, ?io.) ? c ieoaiiy i?eioeeiiai?
i?iaeaiaoe/iino? ethaenueeiai na?oia?aeiioaiiy (A. Ai?ae, A.
Oaaa/eianueeee, ?io.), noaiaoeea ooiaeaiaioaeueieo nai?ioe/ieo
iaoai?ci?a eoeueoo?e TH. Eioiaia ? A. Oniainueeiai, iioieia?/ia
aeoeoia/aiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueii? ianoaiiae (A. Eaeaaaaeca),
no?oeoo?ii-aio?iiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei iieno eoeueoo?ieo oe?e?niinoae
(E. Eaa?-No?in).

?ic?iaea caaaeueii? iaoiaeieia?? o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai aiae?co
?noi?e/ieo oi?i o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy i?iaaaeeeanue c o?aooaaiiyi
?ioa?i?aoaoe?e ? e?eoeee oaiiiaiieia?/iiai iaoiaeo a oai?ao N.
Eioa?iiai, A. Eiy, ?. I?e/ai?y, e?eoeee aacia?aaeoiiaieo o?aeooaaiue
?icoi?iiy A.-A. Aaaeaia?ii, a??noioaeaanueei? eiioeaioe?? iieeaaeaiiy
aeo?aeiiai ioieoo o?einionueeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
o?einionueeiai iinoiiaea?io a oai?ao I. Aaoiiiiiai? ? I. A?eiai.

Ia ??cieo aoaiao aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaio caa?oaany aei oai?aoe/ieo
iai?aoethaaiue I. Aoeaoiaa, A. A?iieaiea, I. Eaae?ianueeiai. I.
E?einueeiai, A. Eoe’yioey, A. ?eaeea, I. Iiiiae/a, I Niaieue, A.
Oeiea?oea, N. ssoeaiei, O.ssuoe.

Aeoeoia/aiiy ? oeiieia?caoe?y oaeno?a, aecia/aiiy nenoaiiaeoa??ieo
i/aaeaeiinoae neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? i?iaaaeeeiny c
o?aooaaiiyi eiioeaioe?? ?noi?eei-o?einionueei? aii???? TH. Eooaeiaa ?
aenoiooeo iei i?eioeei?a oe?e?niiai a?aeoai?aiiy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae
?noi?eei-o?einionueeeie yaeuaie, iaoiae?a, noai?aieo AE. Aeaeueicii aeey
aaiaoe/ii? ? aaiaaeia?/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? iiiyoo?aiai ooiaeaiaioo
o?aaiaioa?ieo o?einionueeeo oaeno?a, iaoiaeieia?? “?aoaeueiiai
i?i/eoaiiy” (E. A?oen, A. ??/a?aen, ?.I. Aa??ai).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiei ?acoeueoaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
nooi?nia aeoeoia/aiiy ? oeiieia?caoe?y ?noi?e/ieo oi?i ieneaiiy
Iiaea?io; oeueiai ?acoeueoaoo aeinyaiooi caaaeyee iaoiaeieia??, yea
aeoiaeoue c aacenieo iioieia?/ieo canaae o?einio?? eoeueoo?e.
Aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aiiai ?acoeueoaoo noaei iiaeeeaei caaaeyee
iaa?oiooaaiith iecee iieiaeaiue, ui i?aoaiaeothoue ia iaoeiao iiaecio ?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

eiaei?e ie?ai?e eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i?e aiin? ieneaiiy i?eoaiaiiee iaaiee
iaa?? a?aie/ieo i/aaeaeiinoae, ye? iaaeathoue oeueiio ieneaiith eiai
iioieia?/io aecia/ai?noue;

ia oeeo i/aaeaeiinoyo, iicia/aieo i?eioeeiiaeie ?ica?aeiinoyie,
caniiaaii ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ieneeoaeuei? no?aoaa?? a?aeiia?aeiiai
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai oeio ieneaiiy;

nooi?noue eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? “aiioe ieneaiiy” c iaiao?aei?noth iinoa?
ye noaea noaia aca?iiae?? aeae?eueeio ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ieneeoaeueieo
no?aoaa?e; i?i ianoaiiy iiai? aiioe ieneaiiy ne?ae aiai?eoe eeoa a ?ac?
ci?ie iniiaiiieiaeieo iiceoe?e caaaeaii? noaie aca?iiae??;

oey noaia aca?iiae?? caaacia/o? aca?iiaeiiiaithaai?noue ieneeoaeueieo
no?aoaa?e, a, a?aeoae, aoaeoeai?noue oeio eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio;

iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe /?oea ?ic??ciaiiy caaaeueieo aiio ieneaiiy ?
ia??iae?a oei/aniaiai aeii?ioaaiiy iaei??? c ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e a
iaaeao ?oiuei? no?oeoo?ii coiiaeaii? aca?iiae??;

ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ieneeoaeuei? no?aoaa?? ia iiaeooue aaciina?aaeiuei
?aaeoeoaaoenue aei ieneeoaeueieo ooai?aiue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ??aiy;
aeieo?eie, ?aeaieia?/i? noaie oiui caaaeaee ? neioacii e?eueeio
ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e; ei?aeoii aanoe iiao eeoa i?i oae?
aeieo?eiaeuei? ooai?aiiy, ui a?eueoith aai iaioith i??ith
a?aeia?aaeathoue ieneeoaeuei? no?aoaa?? aeaii? eoeueoo?ii? aiioe, ia
ioioiaeithth/enue c ieie; iaeaaeaeaaoi?oei a?aeia?aaeaiiyi aca?iiae??
ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e ? o?einio?y (yeui a?aeiia?aeiee oei eoeueoo?e
acaaae? ii?iaeaeo? o?einio?th);

iinoiiaea?ia ia?niaeoeaa, ui aecia/eeanue a no/ani?e o?einio??
eoeueoo?e, ? no/aniei ao?eaiiyi neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ieneeoaeueii?
no?aoaa??; niaoeeo?ea oe??? neiioiiaoieia?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui aiaeii/an
aiia ? e oi?iith no/aniiai neaioe/iiai ieneaiiy;

oae caaio “iiaea?io” ia?niaeoeao a o?einio?? eoeueoo?e ne?ae ?icoi?oe ye
aiaeia aeiaiaoe/ii? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? Iiaea?io a ?? aeeneon?eiiio
c?oeiaii? c neiioiiaoieia?/iith ? aeiaeiei /eiii ia ye iin?y an?o
nooi?nieo ?en iiaea?ii? eoeueoo?e.

Canoinoaaiiy oe??? iaoiaeieia?? aei aiae?co ieneaiiy, i?eoaiaiiiai
eoeueoo?? ?a?iiaenueeiai Iiaea?io (oiaoi Iiaiai /ano, XVII– XX no.)
aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe, ui

nooi?noue ieneaiiy, eio?a cacae/ae iaceaa?oueny iiaea?iei, iieyaa? a
eiioe?eo? o?ueio ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e:

1) aeiaiaoe/ii?; 2) neaioe/ii?; 3) neiioiiaoieia?/ii?;

nai?? eeane/ii? oi?ie oeae eiioe?eo iaaoaa? aaea a na?. XVII no., ui
iaaeaicia/ii cana?ae/o?oueny oeie i?ioeanaie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a
o?einio??, oaieia??, iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?, ii?ae?noe/i?e e?oa?aoo??
cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo;

no?oeoo?ia iniiaa oeueiai eiioe?eoo caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiith oaeiae ? a
iao /an;

iaeae?aci?oei ao?eaiiyi cacia/aiiai eiioe?eoo ? ?noi?e/iee oeyo
iiaea?ii? o?einio??;

aeiaiaoe/ia, neaioe/ia ? neiioiiaoieia?/ia ieneeoaeuei? no?aoaa??,
i?eoaiaii? iiaea?i?e o?einio??, caniiaai? ia i/aaeaeiinoyo, iicia/aieo
niaoeeo?/iith iioieia??th, ui aeania e aeicaiey? aanoe iiao i?i ?oith
iaeaaei?noue aei iniaeeai? eoeueoo?e Iiaea?io;

neiioiiaoieia?/ia ieneeoaeueia no?aoaa?y a o?einio?? cacia/aii? aiioe
(Ianeaeue — aea Naae — I?oeoa — ?aaeeeaeueiee ieth?ae?ci) aeinyaaea
nai?o eeane/ieo oi?i ia an?o aoaiao ?? ?noi???;

nooi?nieie ?enaie neiioiiaoieia?/iiai ieneaiiy Iiaea?io ?:

1) iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeeiiaiai ieth?ae?cio ?noeie /a?ac iineeaiiy ia
iaaeineiiae?noue ? iaiaaeai?noue ethaenueeeo nee ? iiaeeeainoae;

2) caia?a/aiiy aaoiiiiiino? noa’?eoa, ?aaeoeoe?y noa’?eoeaiino? aei
??aiy ciai?oiueiai i?iyao ia’?eoeaieo aooo?aeo i?ioean?a;

3) oeoia/aiiy aoaeue-yei? iiae?? ye neiioiio iaaiiai i?eoiaaiiai
“eiioe?eoo nee”;

4) naiiioe?iea (i?eoiaaia /e a?aee?eoa) ?inoaioe??, ui aeoeoia/o?, ye
ao?eaiiy ia?aaaaeii? neee, ni?iiiaeii? aei “?noeiiiai” /e i?eiaeii?
“a?eueo i?eeiyoiiai” aeoeoia/aiiy iiae?e;

aeeneon?? inoaii?o ?ie?a i?ae i?eoeeueieeaie ? e?eoeeaie “o?einionueeiai
iinoiiaea?io”, noinothoueny ia eoeueoo?ii? ?aeiino?, ui ?nio? c XVII ii
XX no., ye oaei?, a eeoa /a?aiai? ci?ie noaoon?a ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e
a iaaeao no?oeoo?ii iaci?iiiai eiioe?eoo i/aaeaeiinoae;

o?einionuee?e neiioiiaoieia?? XVII no. i?eoaiaii? an? aieiai? ?ene, ui
noaiiaeyoue niaoeeo?eo o?einio?e “?aaeeeaeueiiai ieth?ae?cio” II iie. OO
no., i?e/iio oe? ?ene ia ? “ia?a?iaeueieie” aeey aeiae Aeaea?oa ?
Eaeai?oea;

iei? iaia? i?aenoaa aiai?eoe i?i no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a eiioe?eo?
ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e, i?eoaiaiiiio ?a?iiaenuee?e o?einio?? inoaii?o
/ioe?ueio noie?oue;

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ecaaei oaeiae aei iecee aeniiae?a, ui
ciooothoue ia?ainieneeoe o?aaeeoe?ei? oyaeaiiy i?i o?einionueeo
aeieo?eio A. Ianeaey oa ?? noaoon a o?einio?? Iiaea?io.

A. Ianeaeue ? iaeia?oei eeane/iei i?aaenoaaieeii iiaea?iiai
neiioiiaoieia?/iiai ieneaiiy, a, a?aeoae, iaeaaeeoue aei o??? ae
ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa??, ui e aea Naae, I?oeoa, Aeaeueic, ?io.;

o?einio?? Ianeaey ia i?eoaiaiia i?ioeeaaei?noue iaoeiaeo ? ?ae?a?eieo
?ioaioe?e, ine?eueee oeyo ?? oi?ioaaiiy iinoa? ia ye ia?ao?ae a?ae
noee?ioecio aei ?ae?a?eii? i?noeee, a ye iine?aeiaia noaiiaeaiiy
neiioiiaoieia?/ii? eiioeaioe??;

oe?e?niee aiae?c aaiaaeia?? eeth/iaeo o?einionueeeo iiiyoue
(“iane?i/aii?noue”, “?noeia”, “?icoi”, “na?oea”, “Aia”, “neea” oiui) a
oaenoao Ianeaey iai/ii ?ice?eaa? niaoeeo?/io ?aaeeeaeueii-ieth?ae?noe/io
eiioeaioe?th, ui eaaeeoue a iniia? o?einio?? oeueiai aaoi?a;

o?einio?y Ianeaey i?noeoue a nia? an? /ioe?e iniiaieo ?ene
neiioiiaoieia?/iiai ieneaiiy Iiaea?io;

o?einio?y Ianeaey aeoiaeeoue c eeane/ii? aeey XVII no. i?iaeaiaoeee,
iniaeeaino? ?ic?iaee yei? (iai?eeeaae, ?ica?aeiino? c ea?oac?ainueeith
iaoiaeieia??th) iaei?aeoii aeoeoia/oaaoe ye iciaee “ianai?/aniino?”;

Ianeaeue ia iiaea aaaaeaoenue “o?aa?/iei ieneeoaeai”, a eiai oai?/?noue
eeoa aeioe/ii iia’yco?oueny c aecenoaioe?ae?ciii.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui
?ic?iaeaia aeena?oaioii iaoiaeieia?y aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe ei?aeoiee ?
eiioeaiooaeueii i???ioiaaiee aiae?c oaiiiai?a iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy /a?ac
aecia/aiiy iioieia?/ii coiiaeaieo i/aaeaeiinoae inoaiiueiai.
Eiioeaioe?y aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoiaeieia?/i?
?acoeueoaoe e o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/i? ?ica?aeee ni?eythoue
?ica’ycaiith aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai no/anii? iie?oe/ii? o?einio?? ? o?einio??
eoeueoo?e: 1) i?iaeaie nooiino? iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy ? aeieeiaiiy
oioae?oa?eci?a; 2) i?iaeaie noaoono ieth?ae?cio a eoeueoo?? Iiaea?io ?
noaoono iie?oeee a ieth?ae?noe/ieo noni?euenoaao; 3) i?iaeaie
o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/ii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai
i?ioeano; 4) i?iaeaie ia?niaeoea ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e Iiaea?io.

Aaciao eiioeaioe?th aeine?aeaeaiiy aei?a/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe c iaoith
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy eo?n?a o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai
oeeeeo aeey nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.
Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? aaaeeeaeie aeey i?eeeaaeieo aoiai?oa?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iia’ycaieo c i?iaeaiaoeeith ?aeiino? oa ia?niaeoea
eoeueoo?e Iiaea?io. Eiiaioa?? e iaoeia? noaoo?, i?aeaioiaai?
aeena?oaioii aeey aeaaeai?/iiai c?a?aiiy oai??a A. Ianeaey (aeae-ai
Ii?-?iyeue, Ee?a, 3 oiie, 1994—1997 ??.) ? aei o?aeoaoo AE.-AE. ?onni
I?i noni?eueio oaiaeo a?oioothoueny ia eiioeaioe??, aeeeaaeai?e o
aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?th iaaiai?aii ia
can?aeaii? A?aeae?eo o?einio?? eoeueoo?e, aoeee ? anoaoeee ?inoeoooo
o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aei caoenoo. ?acoeueoaoe ?
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?eethaeithaaeenue
ia oai?aoe/iiio nai?ia?? A?aeae?eo o?einio?? eoeueoo?e, aoeee oa
anoaoeee ?inoeoooo o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i?enay/aiiio i?iaeaiaoeoe?
i?ci?o i?aoeue AE.-O. Eueioa?a (Ee?a, 1996), ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 400-??//th c aeiy nia?o? ?. Aeaea?oa (Ee?a,
1996), ia O?einionueei-aio?iiieia?/ieo /eoaiiyo, i?enay/aieo iai’yo?
A.I. ?aaiiaa (Ee?a, 1997), ia I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo
“Iaioaeuei?noue. Aeooiai?noue. Naii?icaeoie iniaenoino?” (Eooeuee, 1994)
? “Aeooiai?noue oa oaoi?/iee i?ia?an” (A?iieoey, 1996). Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iiiia?ao?? (21, 09
ae?oe. a?e.), a ?icae?e? eieaeoeaii? iiiia?ao?? eaoaae?e o?einio??
A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (0,6 ae?oe. a?e., o
ni?aaao.), ainueie noaooyo caaaeueiei ianyaii o 6, 25 ae?oe. a?e.,
ei?ionao eiiaioa??a aei o?einionueeeo ? oaieia?/ieo oai??a A. Ianeaey ?
oaeno?a AE.-AE. ?onni caaaeueiei ianyaii 21 ae?oe. a?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ci?no ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noeoue Nienie
nei?i/aiue, Anooi, /ioe?e ?icae?ee iniiaii? /anoeie, Aeniiaee, Nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 383 noi?., o
Nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e 465 iiceoe?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? aeena?oaio ?icaeyaea? noai ? iaa?oioiao? aeooaeuei?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai, aecia/a? iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
c’yniao? iaoeiao iiaecio, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny
ia caoeno.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e?, yeee ia? iacao “Aiae?c iinoiiaea?iiai aecia/aiiy
Iiaea?io”, aeena?oaio cae?enith? iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c ia?aii?
i?iaeaiaoeee, ?ice?eaa? nooi?noue no/anieo iinoiiaea?ieo yaeu ?
oa?aeoa?i? ?ene ?o o?einionueei? eiioeaiooae?caoe??. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny aiae?cia? e?ioa??anueei? eiioeaioe?? iinoiiaea?ii?
o?einio?? ? aecia/aiith oiia, ye? aeicaieeee a ei?aeoii aecia/eoe
iiiyooy “o?einio?y Iiaea?io”. Oeyoii c?noaaeaiiy i?eioeeiiaeo iiceoe?e
noi??i, ui aa?ooue o/anoue a aeeneon?? i?i iinoiiaea?i, aeena?oaio
?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue oaeiai aecia/aiiy Iiaea?io (? oeio
ieneaiiy, i?eoaiaiiiai oe?e aiin?), yea a a?aoiaoaaei eiai
??ciiiai?oi?noue ? neeaaei?noue.

A ia?aa?ao? ?.1, “I?eioeeiia? ioieoe iinoiiaea?ii? e?eoeee Iiaea?io”,
aeena?oaio ie?aneth? iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? aeoiee c ia?aii?
i?iaeaiaoeee ? cacia/a?, ui o?einionueea eiioeaioe?y iinoiiaea?io noaea
?acoeueoaoii ocaaaeueiaiiy iaaieo ?en ?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai i?ioeano
inoaiiueiai o?eaeoeyoe??//y. A?aeoae, ?? aeio?eiothoueny aieiaiei /eiii
o?, ooi ?? noai?ea, a ia a?eueo?noue aaoi??a, yeeo iei? aaaaeathoue
“iinoiiaea?i?noaie”. I?ioa, iaia? aeiaeieo noii?a?a o oiio, ui a
no/ani?e eoeueoo??, iii?e a?aenooi?noue caaaeueiiaeciaiiai nieneo
oa?i?io “iinoiiaea?i”, noi?ioaaany nai???aeiee noeeue ieneaiiy,
iicia/aiee no?eeei iani?eeiyooyi aeayeeo aaoi?eoaoieo ua e iinueiaiaei?
eoeueoo?ieo noa?aioei?a. Oeae noeeue ieneaiiy ? nai???aeiei ae?acieeii
i?ioean?a aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy, ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? ? nioe?aeueii?
e?aa?ae?caoe??, ui aecia/athoue aeeooy a no/anieo ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao.
Aeena?oaio iae?a? oaenoe AE.-O. Eueioa?a o yeino? iiaeae?
iinoiiaea?i?nonueeiai o?einiooaaiiy ? aecia/a? aieiai? iciaee
inoaiiueiai: 1) iaoin ieth?ae?cio, iani?aaei??iino?, a?aenooiino?
?aeeieo e?eoa???a ?noeie; 2) e?eoeea i?aoaic?e ia oi?aa?naeuei?noue
iaoiaeo, iioea eieaeueii? aoaeoeaiino?, a?e oiui; 3) e?eoeea
?aoe?iiae?noe/ieo ?aeaae?a, aeciaiiy ?o iani?iiiaeieie aei aoaeoeaii?
naiieaa?oeiaoe??; 4) “aee?eooy” anacaaaeueiiai ye neiioiia
oioae?oa?iino?. Aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i oa, /e iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui
ia’?eoaie iinoiiaea?ii? e?eoeee ? naia nooo?a? ?ene Iiaea?io a oe?eiio,
aeena?oaio aecia/a? naith iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ? ?ic?iaey?
iaoiaeieia?th aiae?co ieneaiiy ye aeaiaioo eoeueoo?ii? oe?e?niino?.
Iniiaiei ?iai/ei iiiyooyi oe??? iaoiaeieia?? ? iiiyooy “ieneeoaeueii?
no?aoaa??”. Iinoiiaea?ia ia?niaeoeaa a o?einio?? eoeueoo?e iiaea
aeciaaaoeny naiiiiaeieaiiyi, aeaeiino?oeoe??th, aeaeaa?oeiaoe??th,
aee?eooyi Iiaea?io, yeui ciaeueiaaiee iath ia?ac Iiaea?io a?aeiia?aea?
ae?eniino?. Aeena?oaio aecia/a? iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy: ?icaeyiooe ieneaiiy
Iiaea?io /a?ac aca?iiae?th eiai aieiaieo ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e.

A ia?aa?ao? ?.2, “I?iaeaia nooiino? ieneaiiy Iiaea?io”, aeena?oaio
aeiaiaeeoue, ui nooi?noue iiiyooy “o?einio?y Iiaea?io” ia iiaea
aecia/aoenue ye “i?iaeo I?ina?oieoeoaa”, aiia ? neeaaeiei eoeueoo?iei
yaeuai, nooi?noue yeiai aecia/a?oueny ia a?aeiia?aeyie ia niaoeeo?/i?
caieoaiiy aiioe, a oa?aeoa?ii naieo oeeo caieoaiue, yeee aecia/a? niaeo?
iiaeeeaeo a?aeiia?aeae ia ieo. Aeena?oaio iaa?oioiao? oaco i?i oa, ui
noa?oiaei ioieoii o?einio?? Iiaiai /ano ? neaioe/ia e?eoeea eoeueoo?e
(Iiioaiue, Oa?ii, ?io.). Iiaeia aiaaiaii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iiooee
“i?aaeeueiiai” iaoiaeo ieneaiiy a o?einio?? XVII no. ca iaiao?aei?noth
ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeieaiiy neaioeoeecio ? eiai canaae, ine?eueee neaioeoeeci
Iiaiai /ano ? eeoa ia?oei, iaaaoeaiei aoaiii noaa?aeaeaiiy iiaea?iiai
oeio eoeueoo?e, ui, ao?i, i?e?iaeii ? i?aai?/ii ia?aaeaa/a?oueny oe??th
eoeueoo?ith. I?ioa, neaioeoeeci ia iiaea aooe caniaii iiceoeaiiai
noaa?aeaeaiiy eoeueoo?e, i?eiaeii? aaciina?aaei?i. Neaioe/ia
a?aoiaioaoe?y a XVII no. iinoa? ye iine?aeiaia ?icoeooaaiiy oiaaiaiino?
a naiii/aaeaeiiio, a nai?e iiaeeeaino? ?nioaaiiy /iainue
naiii/aaeaeiiai. Ieoaiiy i?i ae?enio naiii/aaeaei?noue neaioeoeeci
caeeoa? a?aee?eoei, aeeeeeath/e aei aeeooy iiooaeiee ?oo, ni?yiiaaiee ia
“iiaeieaiiy neaioeoeecio”, oiaoi ia noaa?aeaeaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iiaea?ieo
naiii/aaeaeiinoae.

Cacia/aia noaa?aeaeaiiy cacae/ae cae?enith?oueny oeyoii i?inoiai
iineeaiiy, eio?a iaei /ei a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aiethioa?enonueeiai
iinooethaaiiy. Iaeiei c cania?a oaeiai iinooethaaiiy ? Aeaea?o?a
iaoiaee/iee noii?a, ui ia?a?inoa? o iinooethaaiiy a?aie/ii? i/aaeaeiino?
cogito ergo sum. Nie?ath/enue ia oea aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui
Aeaea?oiaa ?icoi?iiy naiii/aaeaeiino?, yea aeiei??iii a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae ?? ?icoi?iiy Iiioaiai ? Ianeaeai, ? iani?inoiaiei a?aoiaioii ia
ei?enoue nooi?niiai iie?oii?cio o?einio?? Iiaiai /ano, coiiaeaiiai
iani?aaei??i?noth i/aaeaeiinoae.

Aeena?oaio, ia i?eeeaae? aeaea?o?anueeiai ?icoi?iiy “a?/ieo ?noei”,
aeiaiaeeoue, ui aeaye? iiiceoe?ei? ieneeoaeuei? no?aoaa?? a o?einio??
Iiaea?io iicia/ai? ia eeoa i?ioeeaaei?noth i?aeoiae?a, aea e
iaeiinoaei?noth o aeayeeo ieoaiiyo. I?e/eiith oeueiai neeaaeiiai oeio
noinoie?a ? oa, ui cacia/ai? ieneeoaeuei? no?aoaa?? — ia i?ino?
iiiceoe??, aiie ? eeoa ??cieie aa??aioaie caa?oaiiy aei ni?eueii? aeey
ieneeoae?a XVII no. i?iaeaie i/aaeaeiino?.sseui ea?oac?ainoai e iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye iiaeaeue o?einio?? Iiaiai /ano, oi eeoa /a?ac eiai
i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie naiii/aaeaeiiai, a ia /a?ac “?aoe?iiae?ci”.
Aeaea?o, iiaeaaoe ianeaioe/iee aa??aio ?? ae??oaiiy, aenoaa? ieceo
canoa?aaeaiue, aac yeeo oeae aa??aio ao?a/a? nain. A?aeoae,
ea?oac?ainoai ia iiaea aooe oiniaeaiiyi oiai “Iiaea?io”, yeee ? ia’?eoii
e?eoeee iinoiiaea?ii? e?eoeee. Ao?i, oaeei oiniaeaiiyi iiaeia aaaaeaoe
o?einio?th Eaeai?oea, aaeaea naia a i?e ciaoiaeeoue nai? caaa?oaiiy
i?ioean aaniethoecaoe?? ?icoio, eiai ia?aoai?aiiy (o iiiyoo?
“aiaeanoaaiiiai ?icoio”) ia ?inoaioe?th-iin?y “a?/ieo ?noei”, ciooaio
caaaeaee ?iaeoe eeoa “iaee?auee” aea?? ? iacaeaoio i?aeianoenue iaae
aeiiaith ianoia?a/iino? e caeiiii aeinoaoiuei? i?aenoaae.

Ia i?eeeaae? neeaaeiiai ca’yceo ea?oac?ainueeeo ?aeae c neaioe/iith
ieneeoaeueiith no?aoaa??th, aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
iiaea?ia ieneaiiy a?aeii/aoeiai iinoa? ye iie?oii?/ia ooai?aiiy, ye
eiiieaen ye?nii ??cieo neeaaeiaeo, ui ne??iethaaany ?aei?noth ni?eueii?
i?iaeaiaoeee, oa?aeoa?ii? ia eeoa aeey XVII, aea e aeey ianooiieo
noie?oue: i?iaeaiaie noaoono i/aaeaeiino? e a??ia?aeiiai iaoiaeo
i?ciaiiy ?noeie. A oeueiio eiioaeno? o?einio?y Ianeaey iinoa? ia ye
oeaiie o?aea?nonueeiai ieioeiai, a ye iaeia c aaeaeaaoieo oi?i
naii?aoeaen?? iiaea?iiai ?icoio.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e?, “Ieth?ae?noe/ia aiinaieia?y a XVII no.”, aieiaiei
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy neoao? noaiiaeaiiy o?einio?? A. Ianeaey,
a?aeia?aaeaia a oaenoao 1647—1658 ??. Aiae?c naia oeeo oaeno?a (oiaoi
aiae?c ia?oii/aaeaeiinoae, iieeaaeaieo o ?oi? i?aea?oioy, iaai?o
nooo?aeo aeieo?eiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ye? aeieeathoue i?ae aieeaii
oeeo i/aaeaeiinoae, ?oi? ii??aiyiiy c ?ioeie iaai?aie oaeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee, i?eoaiaiiei oaenoai ?ioeo ieneeoae?a-no/aniee?a Ianeaey)
? aeo?aeiei ioieoii o aeinyaiaii? ia?oi? c aeaio iniiaieo oe?eae
aeine?aeaeaiiy: ?aeiino?oeoe?? iniiaieo ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e
o?einio?? XVII no. Caniiaoth/enue ia caaaeueiiaeciai?e a?aei?iiino?
i?eioeei?a o?einio?? Ianeaey a?ae i?eioeei?a, iieeaaeaieo a iniiao
a/aiue Aeaea?oa, Aaeiia, Aanaiae?, aeena?oaio iaiaaa?oueny oi/ii
aecia/eoe nooo?a? ia?aiao?e oe??? a?aei?iiino?, iieacaaoe i?e oeueiio ia
?noi?eei-o?einionueea noaiiaeaiiy ie?aiiai a/aiiy, a oi?ioaaiiy iaaii?
ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa??, caniiaaii? ia niaoeeo?/iiio iaai??
i/aaeaeiinoae, ui neeaaeaany i?aeoe/ii iaeii/anii c ?ioeie oaeeie ae
iaai?aie, oeie, ui iinoathoue ye canaaee o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy
Aannaiae? (a oaeiae eiai iiia?aaeiee?a, Iiioaiy ? Oa?iia), Aaeiia,
Aeaea?oa, Aiaana.

Ao?i, oaca i?i iaeaaei?noue o?einio?? Ianeaey aei iniaeeai?
ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa??, ye aei ?a/? e naia iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai
canoinoaaiiy iiiyooy “ieneeoaeueia no?aoaa?y” aei aiae?co
?noi?eei-o?einionueei? aii????, ia aenoaa?oueny ye a?aeii/aoeiaa oaca
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaaiaee, aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioeaaeo?a
ia?aa??ee oe??? oace. ?icae?e i?enay/aii cae?eniaiith oe?e?nii?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ianeaeaanueeeo oaeno?a 1647—1658 ??., eio?a ia?aaeaa/a?
aecia/aiiy ?oiueiai eaoaai??aeueiiai aia?aoo aeey iiaeaeueoeo
?ioa?i?aoaoe?e, aaeaea caaaeaiee aia?ao cacae/ae aaeeaaany aaoi?ii a
iaa?ae?aoeaeniaaiiio aeaeyae?, a nai? caaaeai? oaenoe iathoue
o?aaiaioa?io e iacaaa?oaio oi?io. I?eioeeiiaith aeiiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy
? canoinoaaiiy oeueiai aia?aoo aeey aeoeoia/aiiy an?o oaeno?a Ianeaey, a
iaaeao yeeo iiae?aia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeyaeeany a iiaeeeaith. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueia a?aeoai?aiiy o??? aioo??oiuei?
?aeiino?, yeith i?a ae iicia/aoenue i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ianeae?anueei?
o?einio??, e nooo?ai iaiaaeeoe iaei?aeoi? caa?oaiiy aei a?ia?ao?/ieo
eie?c?e o?einioa ? oeo canoa??eeo noa?aioei?a, ui e iinueiaiaei? nooo?ai
aieeaathoue ia ianiaa ni?eeiyooy eiai oai?/ino?. Ioaea, a ae?oaiio
?icae?e? a?aeoai?th?oueny oi?ioaaiiy aioo??oiuei? eia?ee ianeaeaanueeiai
o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy /a?ac aecia/aiiy eiai aeo?aeieo i/aaeaeiinoae, a
oaeiae, eiai eaoaai??aeueieo cania?a ? aeine?aeieoeueeeo i???ioe??a.
Aeyaeai? o oaeee niin?a nooo?a? aeaiaioe oe??? eia?ee ii??aiththoueny c
a?aeiia?aeieie aeaiaioaie eia?e ?ioeo aecia/ieo aaoi??a-no/aniee?a
Ianeaey, cie?aia Aeaea?oa, aeey aeyaeaiiy ae?enieo oi/ie ni?aiaaeaiiy ?
?ica?aeiino? i?ae cacia/aieie eia?eaie.

A ia?aa?ao? ??.1, “Oi?ioaaiiy ianeaeaanueei? eiioeaioe??
iane?i/aiiino?-?noeie”, a?aeoai?ththoueny iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? i?aeoiaee aei
aeoeoia/aiiy o?einio?? Ianeaey ? i?aeaeathoueny e?eoeoe? ?oi? aieiai?
iaaeie?ee (i?eienoaaiiy eiioeaioe?? “aeai?noi? ?noeie”, a?aenooi?noue
oe?e?nii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaeno?a o ?oi?e o?iiieia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino?,
canoinoaaiiy a?ia?ao?/iiai ? ineoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo aeey
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oeo /e ?ioeo ci?noiaieo oneeaaeiaiue oiui). aecia/a?oueny
oeaio?aeueia o?einionueea ?aeay Ianeaey, i?enooiy aaea a eiai o?aaiaio?
“O?aeoaoo i?i ii?iaeia/o” (1647), ?aeay iane?i/aiiino?. Aeinoaoiuei
a?oioiaii ciaeiiee c ea?oac?ainoaii, Ianeaeue iaa?oioiao? ?noeii?noue
i?ciaiiy ia i?ioeaaeo?ith ?aaeoeoe?? aeaieo aeina?aeo aei ego cogito, a
oacith i?i ?noi?e/iee oa?aeoa? i?ciaiiy, ui aaeineiiaeth?oueny i?aoeath
aaaaoueio iieie?iue aeine?aeiee?a ia oe? iane?i/aiii? ?noi???.
I?iaieioaiiy iane?i/aiii? i?e?iaee ?noeie ? oaeoe/ia ioioiaeiaiiy oeeo
iiiyoue ii?iaeaeothoue nai???aeio oaeaieia?th iane?i/aiiino?, ca
aeiiiiiaith yei? Ianeaeue oi/a a?aeia?aceoe aeeiai?/iee oa?aeoa?
i?ciaiiy, ui iino?eii iiaeeaeth?oueny, ? iaaeaoe ?noeiai nueiaiaeaiiy
ciy/aiiy iaaiiai iiiaioo a iane?i/aiiiio ?icai?oaii? aaniethoii? ?noeie.
naia c o?aooaaiiyi oe??? eiioeaioe?? Ianeaeue noai?th? naith
eeaneo?eaoe?th iaoe, cae??ieth? ca i?e?iaeiciaanoaii noa?o ?noei oaeoo,
oiaoi ?noei nueiaiaeaiiy, ui aaaaeathoueny ?noeiaie eeoa aeey iaaiiai
?noi?e/iiai aoaio i?ciaiiy. Aiaeii/an, iane?i/aiiy ?noeia
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia iaaeinyaeiee ai?eciio oaeiai ?noi?e/ii coiiaeaiiai
i?ciaiiy ?, iaeii/anii, ? ia oa, ui aeyaey? naaa a ?noi?e/ii aeai?e
noeoiiino? ne?i/aiieo ?noei.

O?einionueeei ?aeayi Ianeaey a?aeii/aoeiai i?eoaiaiia ae?aeaeoeea
aeooaeueii? i?enooiino? aaniethoii? ?noeie ?, aiaeii/an, ?? iainyaeiino?
a yeino? aaniethoii?. Aaniethoi?noue aeyaey? naaa a noeoiiino?
ne?i/aiiiai aeina?aeo, aea ia iiaea aooe noiieaia ye oaea. A?aeiia?aeii,
an? i?ciaaaeuei? caeaoiino? ethaeeie ?icaeyaeathoueny a ?oiueiio
?noi?e/iiio o?eaaii?, a ethaenoai a oe?eiio, noeoii?noue an?o
ethaenueeeo iieie?iue, ui a?ae?eoee a ieioea, ?niothoue iei? aai ua ia
ia?iaeeeenue, — ye ae?eniee noa’?eo, iaiaaa?oueny a nai?e ?noi???
noiieoe oo ?noeio, aeooaeueia aeaii?noue yei? aeyaey?oueny iaaeinyaeiith
aeey iueiai.

C oeeo i??eoaaiue Ianeaey aeieeaa?, ui ae?enia iaoiaeieia?y iaoee,
ca?aeii eiai iiaeyae?a, iiaeeeaa eeoa oiae?, eiee aiia a?aoiao?
aioo??oith iane?i/aii?noue ?a/ae. Oaea aeiaaeueia ?aeyoea?caoe?y
i?ciaiiy c iaieio/?noth noaaeoue ia?aae Ianeaeai i?iaeaio iiaeeeaino?
aeinyaiaiiy aaniethoii a??ia?aeiiai ciaiiy, ine?eueee aei
ea?oac?ainueeiai i?eioeeio cogito a?i ia aaea?oueny.

I?e?iaeie/iiaoeiaa iaoiaeieia?y Ianeaey aeyaey?oueny caniiaaiith ia
iaoao?ce/ieo oacao i?i: 1) ai??i?io iane?i/aii?noue “caaaeaee ??aii?
nia?” i?e?iaee; ? 2) oaeaieia?/io i?ecia/ai?noue, “noai?ai?noue”
ethaeeie aeey iane?i/aiiiai. (A oeeo oacao ua iaia? oaieia?/iiai ci?noo,
i?eiaeii? aeey oiai, uia ?o aeaanoe, aeinoaoiuei nooi iaoiaeieia?/ieo
i??eoaaiue Ianeaey.) Oaeei /eiii, a 1647 ?. aecia/a?oueny iai?yiie
iaeaooi?o o?einionueeeo iiooe?a Ianeaey ? o? ieneeoaeuei? caniae, ye?
a?i aeei?enoiaoaaoeia. Aeena?oaio iniaeeai i?aee?aneth? i?eioeeiiao
?ica?aei?noue i?ae ?aii?ie ianeae?anueeeie eiioeaioe?yie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aaniethoii? ? a?aeiinii? ?noeie, aei?aaaeaiino? ni?ia i?ciaiiy
iane?i/aiiiai, noanoaioe?eiino? ethaeeie ? a?aeiia?aeieie eiioeaioe?yie
Aeaea?oa.

A ia?aa?ao? ??.2, “Ineoieia?/i? ? ieth?ae?noe/i? aniaeoe ?noeie a
Ianeaey”, cacia/a?oueny, ui i?iaeaiaoeea o?aaiaioo “O?aeoaoo i?i
ii?iaeia/o” aeiaaaea a?ae aaoi?a ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i e?eoa???
?noeiiiai ciaiiy, yea ia?aaeaa/aei: 1) a?eueo oi/ia ?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee
?icoio; 2) ?ice?eooy niiniao, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iane?i/aii?noue iiaea
aooe i?enooiueith a ne?i/aii?e ethaenuee?e inia?; 3) iiyniaiiy
??ciiiai?oiino? oi?i oe??? i?enooiino?. ?ica’ycaiith oeeo caaaeaiue
i?enay/aia “I??eoaaiiy i?i i?eno?ano? ethaia?” (1653?). Aeena?oaio
cacia/a?, ui oeae oaeno, ia ia?oee iiaeyae iiae?aiee aei
ea?oac?ainueeiai, iani?aaae? i?noeoue ?aea?, ?noioii a?aei?ii? a?ae
Aeaea?oiaeo. Ii-ia?oa, oea noino?oueny ianeaeaanueeiai ?icoi?iiy
i?eno?ano?. I?eno?ano?, ca Ianeaeai, ? ia aeoieaie /e ii/oooyie, ye?
iaia’yceiai o?enothoueny na?aeii?noth, a iniaeeaeie noaiaie, ?iinoanyie
naiiai ?icoio, ?icoi ia ? eeoa ciai?oi?i noa’?eoii, ui ?o ona?aeiieth?;
a?i ia cao?th?oueny i?eno?anoth, a nai noa? iath, ao?eth?oueny a ia? ye
a naith aeooaeueio ?iinoanue. Oey ao?eai?noue ?icoio aaoiiaoe/ii
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui a?i ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ooai?aiiy, yeiio ia
caaaeaee i?eoaiaiia naiina?aeii?noue. Ianeaeue caa?oa?oueny aei
i?iaeaiaoeee aacna?aeiiiai, eio?a iinoa? a “I??eoaaii?” ye i?iaeaiaoeea
iaona?aeiiethaaieo aaoiiaoeci?a, oae caaii? “i?e?iaee ?icoio”, ui oa?iii
iaeaooiaothoue ?icoi ia ni?eeiyooy iaaieo ?a/ae o yeino? ?noeiieo. Oaea
iaeaoooaaiiy caaacia/o?oueny /a?ac i?euaieaiiy ii/ooo?a caaeiaieaiiy /e
iacaaeiaieaiiy, aei?noei ni?aa?aeianaieo ?c caaaeaieie ?a/aie.

A ca’yceo c i?iaeaiaoeeith aaoiiaoeci?a caaeiaieaiiy/iacaaeiaieaiiy
Ianeaeue aaiaeeoue iiiyooy “na?oey” ye caeaoiino? a?ae/oaaoe i?eno?anoue
? aiaeii/an i?eoiaoaaoe ?? aeaea?aei. Iniaeeaee ono??e na?oey,
i?eoaiaii? eiio “ia?ace” (ethaia?, e?ane, ?io) a?aeii/aoeiai
aecia/athoue oa?aeoa? a?ae/oooy i?eno?ano?. Oe? ia?ace ?noioii
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aeaea?o?anueeeo a?iaeaeaieo ?aeae. Caaaeyee
ia?acai na?oey ?icoi-i?eno?anoue aacna?aeiii iaeaooiao?oueny ia iiooe a
yeino? ?noeiieo eeoa oeo ia’?eo?a, ye? c oeei ia?acii ocaiaeaeothoueny.
Ia?ace ia ? ci?noiaii noa?aioeiieie, aiie ?iciaaeathoueny ia aace?/
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo c?ace?a, i?eoaiaiieo eiaei?e ie?ai?e ethaeei? ? a
ae?eniino? iinoathoue ye no?oeoo?ia caeaoi?noue na?oey iaiaei?iii
i?noeoe a nia? yeee-iaaoaeue “c?acie e?ane”.

Aeena?oaio eiie?aoeco? iniiai? canaaee ianeaeaanueei? eiioeaioe??
ia?aeiiaiiy a ?noeiiino? oaa?aeaeaiue, noaeaeaiue oiui: 1) /enoeo oi?i
?icoio ?aaeueii ia ?nio?, ?icoi caaaeaee iinoa? ye nenoaia ao?eaiue; 2)
iane?i/aiia ?noeia i?enooiy a ethaeei? no?oeoo?ii ? aacna?aeiii, ye
ia?ac, ui aei??iaith?oueny a na?oe? e /a?ac a?ae/oooy
caaeiaieaiiy/iacaaeiaieaiiy, ?aaoeth? i?ciaaaeueio aeoeai?noue; 3) oe?
ia?ace ? nooi ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie, caaaeaee a?aei?iieie iaeei a?ae
iaeiiai, a iane?i/aiia ?noeia a?aeia?aaea? naaa a ?o noeoiiino?, a ia a
yeiionue iaeiiio c ieo.

Aeena?oaio aecia/a? iniaeeaino? ianeaeaanueeiai ieneaiiy, coiiaeai?
iiiyooyi iane?i/aiii? ?noeie, ui aeooae?co?oueny a on?e noeoiiino?
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo c?ace?a ? iia’ycaieo c ieie iaoai?ci?a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caaeiaieaiiy, ui anoaiiaeththoue eiio?ieue iaae
?icoiii-i?eno?anoth. Ioaea, ?ica?aei?noue ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aioo??oi?o
c?ace?a nooo?ai aecia/a? Ianeaeaao eiioeaioe?th ?aeiino? ?noeie.
I?eiaeii? ia ??ai? ?icoio-i?eno?ano? ?noeia ye oaea neeaaea? eeoa
caaaeueieee no?oeoo?iee eiioaeno ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? aca?iiae?? oeo
aioo??oi?o c?ace?a, ia ye? aiia “?iciaaea?oueny”. Oea ?iciaaeaiiy
noaiiaeoue niaith ?aeeio oi?io, a ye?e ?noeia ye oaea (iane?i/aii?noue)
iiaea aooe aeinooiiith ?icoiia?-i?eno?ano?.

Oey ianoaaeia iaa?oioiaaii iiynith? noeeuei?noue Ianeaey aei noai?aiiy
oeiieia?e, ?aoaeueii? eeaneo?eaoe?? ?ica?aeiinoae, i?eoaiaiieo oei
i?aaeiaoai, ye? a?i aeine?aeaeo?. Aeena?oaio aiae?co? iae?noioi?o?
?ica?aeiino?, aecia/ai? Ianeaeai o “ I??eoaaii?” (oeiieia?y ?icoi?a,
eeaneo?eaoe?y ?noeiieo/oeaieo caaeiaieaiue, ethaia?, aeoii/aiino?,
inieneaiiy noaoaaeo ?ica?aeiinoae), ? ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
eeaneo?eaoe?y ?ica?aeiinoae ? iien no?oeoo?e ?oiueiai eiioe?eoo aaea a
oaeno? 1653 ?. iinoa? aeey Ianeaey ye iaoiae o?enaoe?? iane?i/aiii?
?noeie, ?ai?acaioiaaii? a ne?i/aiiiio na?o?. ?ica?aeiino? ioe?iththoueny
Ianeaeai ye iaonoaai?, coiiaeai? iioieia?/ii (“i?noeai a aooo?”), ?icoi
?ioa?i?aoo?oueny a oa?i?iao c?oeiaiiy nee. I?ioa aeena?oaio iaaieioo?,
ui aiae?co ?icoio-i?eno?ano? iaaeinoaoiuei aeey inyaiaiiy caaaeueii?
ianeaeaanueei? eiioeaioe?? ?icoio.

A ia?aa?ao? ??.3, “Ianeaeaaa oeiieia?caoe?y i/aaeaeiinoae ? i?iaeaia
i?ciaiiy”, iaa?oioiao?oueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aaiethoe?y o?einionueeeo
iiaeyae?a Ianeaey o1647—1653 ??. iicia/a?oueny aeeaieith, iine?aeiaiith
?ic?iaeith i?iaeaiaoeee, ui aeieeea a iaaeao iaoiaeieia?? iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy ? ?icaeaaeanue oeyoii nooi?nii iioieia?/iiai aiae?co iaoai?ci?a
?ai?acaioiaaiino? aaniethoii? (iane?i/aiii?) ?noeie a ne?i/aiiiio na?o?.
Iieaciaei oaeoii ? oa, ui oeth aaiethoe?th iiaeia iiynieoe ia
?ae?a?eieie ia?aeiiaiiyie Ianeaey, a caaaeueiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th eiai
o?einionueeeo ?ioa?an?a, oi/i?oa ni?eueiei i?aea?oioyi ye iaoeiaeo ?
o?einionueeeo, oae ? ?ae?a?eieo ia?aeiiaiue aaoi?a “Aeoiie”.

Ia iaoa??ae? o?aeoao?a “I?i aaiiao?e/iee ?icoi” (aeae? — A?) aeena?oaio
?ica’yco? ieoaiiy i?i oa, /e ei?aeoii ioioiaeithaaoe niiniae o?enaoe??
aaniethoii? ?noeie, i?eoaiaii? iiiyooyi ?icoio-i?eno?ano? e
?icoio-?icnoaeeo. A A? Ianeaeue aaciina?aaeiuei caa?oa?oueny aei
i?iaeaiaoeee i/aaeaeiinoae (aaiiao?e/ieo aen?ii), iinooethth/e
iayai?noue oe?eiai eeano ne?a, ui ia iio?aaothoue aecia/aiiy —
naiii/aaeaeieo ? aeeneo?neaii aacci?noiaieo aen?ii, ye? noaiiaeyoue
ooiaeaiaio aeeneo?neaieo aeiaaaeaiue; naia oe? aea? aeanoeaino? aen?ii
coiiaeththoue, ca Ianeaeai, “na?aaeeiia noaiiaeua ethaeeie”, oiaoi
i?iaeaiaoeea naiii/aaeaeiino? a?aee?eoi iia’yco?oueny c i?iaeaiaoeeith
oaeaieia?? aoooy.

Aooo?ao oaeaieia?th naiii/aaeaeiinoae ?icoio-?icnoaeeo Ianeaeue caniiao?
ia aacna?aeiieo iaoai?ciao ooieoe?iioaaiiy ii/oooy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
?noioio aeecuee?noue aen?ii ? “c?ace?a e?ane”, ye? aecia/athoue
?icoi-i?eno?anoue. Cacia/aia aeecuee?noue i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeeie ?o
aeanoeainoyie, ye 1) a?iaeaeai?noue; 2) aeeneo?neaia aacci?noiai?noue;
3) i?e/aoi?noue aei aeeneo?neaii ia?ica’ycii? aeeneon?? i?i “nooi?noue”
?ioo?oeaii c?icoi?eiai; 4) ii/ooo?aa i?e?iaea ?oi?o ia?oii/aaeaeiinoae.
?icoi-i?eno?anoue ? ?icoi-?icnoaeie Ianeaeue ?ic??ciy? ye “ii/oooy” ?
“aeoieo”, inoaoi/ii a?aeeeaeath/e, oaeei /eiii, ea?oac?ainueeo
eiioeaioe?th i?eiaoo ona?aeiieaiiy. Ioaea, naiii/aaeaeiino? A?
aeyaeythoueny aaciina?aaeiueith a?aeiia?aeaeth ia i?iaeaie ?noi?e/iino?
i?ciaiiy, i?aeiyo? o “O?aaiaio?”. Ethaeyi, ye iin?yi iiae, a?ae i?e?iaee
i?eoaiaii? noiae? i?ae niaith ?aaeoe?? ia aeaye? neiaa, i?e/iio oe?
?aaeoe?? coiiaeai? ii/oooyi “a?aie/ii? yniioe”. Iaeiae ona?aeiieaiiy
oeueiai ci?noo ii/oooy ? aeeneo?neaiei ? ao?eth?oueny ia a yeanue iaeia
“?noeiia” ?icoi?iiy nooiino?, a a aeeneon?th, ui o?eaa? ye a iaaeao
iaeiiai iieie?iiy, oae ? i?ioyaii on??? ?noi??? ethaenoaa. Ioaea, ci?no
aeeneo?neaieo ?noei ?icoio-?icnoaeeo, ca Ianeaeai, aaciina?aaeiuei
caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaea?ae, ui ni?yiiaothoue ii/oooy.

Aeena?oaioii aeine?aeaeo?oueny ianeaeaanueea ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie caiaee
i?ae ethaeueie, ui ea?othoueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie “c?aceaie” ?noeie,
aei??iaieie o na?oe?. Oey i?iaeaia ? iaeiei c aieiaieo i?aaeiao?a A?
(1655?). Ca?aeii iiaeyae?a Aeaea?oa, iacaiaea c ?noeiith, oiaoi oeaa,
aeieea? ye ?acoeueoao ?iceaaeiaiiy ae?yeueiino? aie?, ui aeoeoia/o?oueny
ye ?ioaeaeooaeueia caeaoi?noue. Ianeaeaaa eiioeaioe?y aie? ? aeiei??iii
?ioith: aiey ea?o?oueny ia i/aaeaeiinoyie i?e?iaeiiai na?oea, a
ni?eueieie aeey an?o aaaeaiiyie, oiaoi iaaieie ii/oooyie, ui ianooue a
nia? caaeiaieaiiy aai iacaaeiaieaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, ?icoi-i?eno?anoue
aeyaey?oueny no?oeoo?ii iaeiioeiiei c ?icoiii-?icnoaeeii, aaeaea
caaeiaieaiiy ye iniiaa aecia/aiiy ?noei ? ?ica?aeiino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
c?ace?a (iaci?iieo ia’?eo?a caaeiaieaiiy ae?ae iaei), iaeiaeiai
i?eoaiaiieo iaii ao?eaiiyi ?icoio. ?icoi-?icnoaeie iinoa? a Ianeaey ye
neioac aeania ?icnoaeeo, aai /enoi? caeaoiino? i??eoaaiiy ?
a?aoiaiooaaiiy, ? aie?, yea i?eioniai iaa’yco? ?icnoaeeia? aeaye?
ii/ooo?a? i/aaeaeiino? a yeino? e?eoa???a ?noeie.

Ia??aeiee eai?iue A? — i?iaeaia ocaiaeaeaiiy aiiaeeeoe/iino? ?noei c
iani?aaei??i?noth ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo c?ace?a i/aaeaeiiai. Ianeaeaaa ??
ae??oaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ii/ooo?aa i?e?iaea i/aaeaeiino?
oiaiiaeeeaeth? no?iao aeeneo?neai?noue ?noeie e i?eiooo? ?icnoaeie
ni?eeiaoe aeaye? i/aaeaeiino? ye iicia/ieee ?noeiiino?. ioaea, yeith a
aiiaeeeoe/iith ia aoea ethaenueea ?noeia, aiia, ca Ianeaeai, ia iiaea
iaoe aaeaeaaoiiai aeeneo?neaiiai aeiaaaeaiiy. Oiio a?aoiaioe ?icnoaeeo
ia ? ia?aeiieeaeie aeey an?o ethaeae, ine?eueee ia?aeiieea?noue aeieea?
a?ae ni?aiaaeaiiy ciai?oiueiai ia’?eoa c ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei c?aceii,
aei??iaiei o na?oe?.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiai a ae?oaiio ?icae?e?, iiaeia
oaeiae i?eionoeoe, ui iniiaith eiioe?eoo i/aaeaeiinoae, oiaoi eiioe?eoo
“na?aeaoeue”, ? i?eoiaaiei eiioe?eoii nee, ui ai?youeny ca iaioaaiiy
iaae na?oeai. Aei oaeiai aeniiaeo niiioea? ianeaeaanueea i??eoaaiiy i?i
iaiaaeai?noue iaiiao?e/iiai iaoiaeo inyaiaiiy ?noeie ? i?i neeiao
aca?iiae?th ??cieo ??ai?a noa’?eoa i?ciaiiy. Aeae?eyth/e ?noeie o?ueio
aaooie?a: 1) aeeneo?neai? ?noeie ?icnoaeeo; 2) ?noeie aie?, oioiaei? ??
caaeiaieaiiyi; 3) aiaeanoaai? ?noeie. An? oe? ?noeie ??cieie oeyoaie
i?iieeathoue a ?icoi. ?noeie ?icnoaeeo aecia/athoueny iaiaaeoaaeueiei
aieeaii aie?, caaeiaieaiiy aie? — ni?aiaaeaiiyi ciai?oiueiai ia’?eoa ?
aioo??oiueiai c?acea, yea aeeeeea? a iaoiio ?noa? caaeiaieaiiy ?
ni?yiiao? aieth. Aiaeanoaai? ?noeie i?iieeathoue a /oaeo aeooo
aiane?aeie iaeiiooaei?oiai aieeao, yeee i?eaeooo? “caeieio c?iniaaii?
aie?”, a iio?i, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?aeei?aio aieth, iaeaooiao? iaaiei
/eiii ?icoi. Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia iiooaei?noue aiaeanoaaiiiai aieeao,
iaaei?e?iaei? ?noeie, oae naii, ye ? i?e?iaei?, ia iicia/ai? caaaeueiei
aeciaiiyi, ine?eueee oeae aiaeanoaaiee aieea noino?oueny iaioino?. Oaeei
/eiii, aiaeanoaaii? ?noeie ia onoaathoue eiioe?eoa i/aaeaeiinoae, a eeoa
o??ciiiai?oiththoue eiai niaith.

A?aeoae, i?aeoe/ia ia?aeiiai?noue Ianeaey-a/aiiai a ?nioaaii?
ia’?eoeaieo ? aeinooiieo ?aoe?iiaeueiiio inyaiaiith i???iaeieo
caeiiii??iinoae, ia ae/a?io? aeeaeie eiai o?einionueeiai i?aeoiaeo aei
i?iaeaie ?noeiiino?. AEiaeai ?icoi, ca Ianeaeai, ia iiaea caeieaoe iaae
aeanii? nenoaie naiii/aaeaeiinoae ? oiio, iai?eeeaae, iaei?aeoii
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?ino?? ? iane?i/aiii iiae?eueiei a aaniethoiiio
niene?. A?i ? oaeei aeey aaiiao?e/iiai ?icoio, aaniethoi?noue
oaa?aeaeaiue yeiai aeiaanoe iaiiaeeeai.

Oea ia icia/a?, ui iaonoaaiith Ianeaeue aaaaeaa aoaeue-yeo ?ica?aei?noue
iiaeyae?a. Iaiiaeeeai ia?aeiiaoe eeoa oeo, ooi ia? oe?eeiaeoi ??ci?
i/aaeaeiino? na?oey. Ethaenueea i?e?iaea ia?aaeaa/a? aeeeth/ii
no?oeoo?io ?aei?noue caeaoiinoae, a oaeiae — a?aeii/aoeiao
iani?aaei??i?noue ci?no?a, ye? iaiiaiththoue oe? caeaoiino? a eiaeiiio
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aeiaaeeo. Iane?i/aiia ?noeia ?iciaaea?oueny ia aace?/
ne?i/aiieo, ia iicia/aieo ocaiaeaeai?noth ? caaaeueiii?eeiyoi?noth.
A?aeoae, ia?ao?ae Ianeaey a?ae iaoee aei ?ae?a?? iiaeia iiynieoe
iine?aeiai?noth noaiiaeaiiy eiai aeoiee: aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaea?ae ?
i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy i/aaeaeiinoae iaiiaeeeaa a iaaeao iaoee. C?icoi?oe
nooi?noue ?noeie icia/a? c?icoi?oe iaoai?cie i?enooiino? iane?i/aiiiai a
ethaeei?, oiio, a inoaii? ?iee aeeooy, iaoee a?i ?icaeyaeaa eeoa ye
“?aianei”. Ianeaeue aoa ciooaiee aeciaoe iaiiaeeea?noue aiiaeeeoe/iiai
aeiaaaeaiiy aaniethoiino? /e i?eiaeii? caaaeueiicia/ouino? aoaeue-yeeo
ethaenueeeo ?noei — ia eeoa /a?ac ?oith aei?noeo iia’ycai?noue c
eiioe?eoii i/aaeaeiinoae, a ua e /a?ac nooi?ni? iniaeeaino? ethaenueei?
i?e?iaee.

Oaeei /eiii, aioo??oiy eia?ea aeine?aeaeaiiy cioneea Ianeaey aecia/aoe
aeaea?aea aeieeiaiiy i/aaeaeiino?, ine?eueee aac oaeiai aecia/aiiy
iaiiaeeeai a?aeiia?noe ia ieoaiiy i?i oa, yeeie ? ethaenuee? ?noeie:
ia’?eoeaieie (a ioaea iii?noe/ieie) /e ia?aaaaeii aeaoa?i?iiaaieie
noa’?eoii (a, ioaea, iani?aaei??ieie ? ieth?aeueieie). Iai?ee?ioe?
ia?aa?aoo aeena?oaio aecia/a? aieiai? ?ene ieth?ae?noe/ii? aiinaieia??
Ianeaey, ye? noi?ioaaeeny i?ioyaii 1647—1655 ??.

1) ii/oooy “yniioe”, coiiaeaia iacaeaoi?noth aie? iinoaaeoe eiai i?ae
noii?a, a ia aeeneo?neaiei aeiaaaeaiiyi, ? aieiaiith canaaeith
ai??i?iiai canoinoaaiiy ?icnoaeeo, aaeaea aiii aecia/a? neee, i?eioeeie
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, aacna?aeiii i?eoaiaii? ethaeei?,

2) ii/oooy “yniioe” o?eno?oueny na?oeai ? noaiiaeoue iaaeo noii?a?a
?icnoaeeo;

3) ??cieoey oeeo ii/ooo?a coiiaeth? ??cieoeth iiaeyae?a ia ?noeio;
cacia/aio ??cieoeth iaiiaeeeai iiaeieaoe caniaaie aeeneo?neaiiai
ieneaiiy;

4) “i?e?iaei? ?noeie” ? oaeeie eeoa aeey oeo, ooi ia? a?aeiia?aeii
iaeaooiaai? na?oea ? ?icnoaeie;

5) ?ica?aei?noue ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oyaeaiue i?i i/aaeaeia ? oi?iith
i?enooiino? iane?i/aiii? (aaniethoii?) ?noeie a ne?i/aiiiio;

6) aoaeue-yea /anoeiaa ?noeia noaiiaeoue niaith nieaa ii/ooo?a ?
aeeneo?neaieo aeaiaio?a, a oiio ?? ci?no nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae na?oey.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e?, “Ieth?ae?noe/ia eiioeaioe?y ethaenueei? i?e?iaee a
XVII no.”, caaa?oo?oueny aiae?c ianeae?anueeiai o?einionueeiai a/aiiy,
ye i?iyao iniaeeai? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa??. A?aeii/aoeiaa a?aei?ii?noue
iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a Ianeaey ? Aeaea?oa iiaea oe?eeii aei?aaaeaii
?icaeyaeaoenue ye ?ica?aei?noue aeaio niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy eeane/ii?
i?iaeaiaoeee Iiaiai /ano — i?iaeaiaoeee iiaeieaiiy neaioeoeecio /a?ac
noai?aiiy ?noeiiiai iaoiaeo, caniiaaiiai ia naiii/aaeaeieo canaaeao.
Aeena?oaio iieaco? i?ioean iaaoooy eaoaai??aeueiei aia?aoii ?aii?o
ianeaeaanueeeo oaeno?a oeo ?en, ye? caiaeii (a oaenoao “Aeoiie”)
iaaa?ooue naiai eeane/iiai aeaeyaeo; o?einionueeee ci?no oeeo ?en
aecia/a?oueny eeoa ca o?aooaaiiy anueiai oeyoo noaiiaeaiiy
Ianeaey-o?einioa. Aeiaiaeeoueny oaca i?i oa, ui a 1657-1658 aa.
i?iaeaiaoeea oaeaieia?? iane?i/aiiino?, iiiaeeiiino? ?noeie,
aacna?aeiieo iaoai?ci?a aeoiee, aeiiiaith?oueny eiioeaioe??th
neee-aeaea?aea i/aaeaeiino?, caaa?ooth/e o oaeee niin?a oi?ioaaiiy
neiioiiaoieiai-ieth?ae?noe/iiai eiiieaeno. Iayai?noue eeane/ieo c?ace?a
oaeiai ieneaiiy a o?einio?? XVII no. naiei nai?i oaeoii ni?inoiao?
no/ani? ioioiaeiaiiy aiioe Iiaea?io c aei?noei oeaio?iaaiei,
iaieth?ae?noe/iei ?icoi?iiyi na?oo, yeee a iaee?auiio aeiaaeeo eeoa
i?eoiaaii, iioaioe?eii i?noea o nia? ca?ia ieth?ae?ci?a iaeaooiueiai.

O?ao?e ?icae?e iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe oaeiae ? a yeino? caaa?oaeueiiai aoaio
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? o?einio?? Ianeaey ye oaei?, aaca?aeiinii aei
oeiieia?caoe?? ia ??ai? ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e. Eaeaoueny i?i iia?
i?aeoiaee aei ianeae?anueei? eiioeaioe?? ethaenueei? i?e?iaee, nee, ui
ni?yiiaothoue na?oea, noni?euenoaa ? ni?aaaaeeeaino? oiui.

A ia?aa?ao? ???.1, “Ianeaeue i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ethaenueei? i?e?iaee ?
iane?i/aiiino?”, aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui oaca i?i ethaenueeo
iacaeaoi?noue iaieiae?oe iane?i/aiiith ?noeiith ? caeiiii??iei aoaiii
?icaeoeo aenoiooi? Ianeaeai o 1647 ?. eiioeaioe?? noai?aiino? ethaeeie
aeey iane?i/aiiiai. Aea a “Aeoieao” oaia iane?i/aiiino? ?icaeaa?oueny c
oi/ee ci?o iioieia?/iiai i?noey ethaeeie a na?oieaae?, a ia c iiceoe?e
?noi??? i?ciaiiy. Iioieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy “na?aaeeiiino?” ethaenueei?
i?e?iaee, a, a?aeoae, an?o ?? caeaoiinoae, iinoa? ye a?aoiaio ia
ei?enoue iaonoaaiino? eiioe?eoo i/aaeaeiinoae a ne?i/aiiiio na?o?.
Ioaea, aoaeue-ye? ethaenuee? ?noeie, ia aeoieo Ianeaey, ? ne?i/aiieie ?
iaiaaeaieie, a oiio ia iathoue caaaeueii? cia/ouino?, ine?eueee ca
aeaniith nooi?niith oi?iith ia a?aoiaothoue nai?? i?ioeeaaeiino?, a
iane?i/aiia ?noeia ao?eth?oueny naia o anth noeoii?noue iaiaaeaieo ?
ne?i/aiieo ?noei. A?eueoa oiai, an? ne?i/aii? ?noeie iinoathoue ye
iaeiiii?yaeeia? ia oe? iiaea?eii? iane?i/aiiino?, ui ?o ioi/o?, ?
“cieuothoueny” ia?aae ?? eeoeai, oiaoi aeiaeiei /eiii ia iiaeooue
ii??aithaaoenue ?c iath.

Aeena?oaio aeae?ey? o? iinooeaoe o?einio?? Ianeaey, ye? cana?ae/othoue
?? i?eioeeiiaee ieth?ae?ci: 1) na?aae ethaenueeeo ?noei iaia? aeiaeii?
a?/ii? ? iaii?ooii?; 2) ethaenueea aoooy ? i?eioeeiiai a?aei?iiei a?ae
aoooy ?noeie, a oiio ia ?nio? i?e/ei aeey aeciaiiy ia?aaaaeiino? iaeiiai
ethaenueeiai oaiiiaio a ii??aiyii? c ?ioei. ioaea, Ianeaeue noeeueiee ia
aei iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aaaa, a aei o?enaoe?? a?aei?iiinoae, ?oiuei?
oeiieia?caoe?? ? noaa?aeaeaiiy; aaeaea a ethaenueeiio na?o? ia ?nio?
aaniethoiiai noaiaea?oo ii??aiyiiy e ioe?iee ??cieo oei?a i/aaeaeiinoae;
oe? oeie ? iani?aaei??ieie. Oaeee iiaeyae coiiaea ?ica?aeiino?
ianeaeaanueeiai ? ea?oac?ainueeiai ?icoi?iue neaioeoeecio. sseui Aeaea?o
aeciaaaa iiaeeea?noue ni?inooaaiiy neaioe/ii? a?aoiaioaoe??,
?icaeyaeath/e ?? ye ??ciiaeae oeae, oi Ianeaeue aeciaaaa neaioeoeeci
iaonoaaiei no?oeoo?iei ao?eaooii ieneaiiy, yeee aei??iaii a ethaenueeee
i?e?iae?. Ioaea, ieth?ae?ci, ca Ianeaeai, ia ? oa?aeoa?enoeeith naii?
aaniethoii? ?noeie, oea eeoa oa?aeoa?enoeea ne?i/aiiiai na?oo,
c?noaaeaiiai c iane?i/aiiith iaaaoeai?noth.

Ia i?eeeaae? ianeaeaanueei? eiioeaioe?? i?aaaouee?anueeiai a??oa,
aeena?oaio a?aeoai?th? Ianeae?a iaoai?ci ooieoe?iioaaiiy ethaenueeeo
caeaoiinoae, coiiaeaiee aooo?aei noaiiaeuai ethaeeie. Ca Ianeaeai,
i?aaaouee?anueeee a??o oiiaeeeaeei Aiaea iiiouaiiy, oiaoi iineaaeaiiy
aieeao aeaaiaeao? ia ethaenueeo aieth, yea iae?aco caa?oa?oueny aei
“iaa?aeieo i?aaeiao?a”. Oea iineaaeaiiy aieeao ni?e/eiy? ci?io a
ia?aa?aia? eiioe?eoo i/aaeaeiinoae, ci?io onoaeaiiai neeiaiai aaeaino,
ii?iaeaeoth/e, ca i?eaeecii ??aii? iiooaeiino? i?ioeeaaeii ni?yiiaaieo
nee, yaeua ethaenueei? “naiaiaee”. “A?eueii oio?oe”, ca Ianeaeai,
ethaeeia iiaea o?eueee oiai, ui aeooaeueii ni?yiiao? ?? aieth, oiaoi
?aae?caoe?y naiaiaee, “aea??” c e?eueeio iiaeeeainoae, a?aeaoaa?oueny
eeoa aiane?aeie ia?aiiae iaei??? c i?eaeecii ??aieo nee. A?aeoae,
no/ania noaiiaeua na?oo ii?iaeaeaia iineaaeaiiyi aeaaiaeao?. Ci?ia neee,
ui iaio? iaae na?oeai, iinoa? a ianeaeaanueeiio a/aii? ye “ia?aoai?aiiy
na?oey”, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeciaiiy ieneeoaeai nooi no?oeoo?ii?, a ia
ci?noiaii? aaoiiii?? ethaenueei? i?e?iaee.

A oeueiio iai?yi? Ianeaeue eiie?aoeco? iaoai?cie noa’?eoeaiiai
ni?eeiyooy ?noeie. ?inoaioe??th, ui aeyaey? aeia??o, ? ?icoi, aea
“ioe?iea ?a/ae”, yea aecia/a? ia’?eo oe??? aeia??e, — i?a?iaaoeaa aie?.
Oaeei /eiii, aoaeue-yea oi?ia ?icnoaeeo iaiaaeaia ia/aeaie, ye?
nea?iaothoue aie? e anoaiiaeththoue a?aie/i? i/aaeaeiino?. Oiio
i?ioeeaaeiino? ethaenueeiai na?oo ia o?eueee iani?aaei??i?, a ua e
iinoathoue iaeia aeey iaeii? ye caii?oee ?nioaaiiy (ye i?iyae
iane?i/aiiino?-?noeie). An? i/aaeaeiino?, ui ia?aaoaathoue o
ieth?ae?noe/iiio eiioe?eo?, iaa?oue “aiaeanoaai? ?noeie”, iiaeooue
aeciaaaoenue inoaoi/ii ?noeiieie eeoa ye i?aaeiaoe ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
a??e.

A ia?aa?ao? ????.2, “Neea — i/aaeaei?noue — niene”, aeena?oaio
eiinoaoo?, ui oai?aoe/ia noii?ai?nue ethaenueeeo ?noei iinoaaeea Ianeaey
ia?aae iaiao?aei?noth iiyniaiiy ?oiuei? i?aeoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino?. Aaeaea
ethaee aaccanoa?aaeii iieeaaeathoueny, iai?eeeaae, ia “i?e?iaei? ia/aea
i?ciaiiy”, ?oiy i/aaeaei?noue, neaae?ii a aaiiao???, ia aa?aoueny i?ae
noii?a, oi/a e ia iiaeia iaoe oai?aoe/ii? aiaaiaiino? o oiio, ui oeei
ia/aeai ae?enii a?aeiia?aeathoue ye?nue ia’?eoe. A oeueiio ioieo?
Ianeaeue aeaco?, ui aiaaiai?noue o oeeo ?noeiao ia? ia aiinaieia?/iee, a
iioieia?/iee oa?aeoa?. I?ieea?noue oyaeaiue i?i ?noeio ? eiioe?eo
i/aaeaeiinoae ia i?noyoue i?aeoe/ieo caa?ic, ine?eueee aiie ?
a?aei?iieie ?enaie niiniao ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy, eio?ee
aeoeoia/o?oueny ia ye cogito, a ye iin?aeaiiy iaaii? “/anoee aoooy”.
“?noeia” ? “oeaa” ?icaeyaeathoueny ye iaa?ae’?ii? /anoeie iioieia?/iiai
eiioe?eoo i/aaeaeiinoae ? noaiiaeyoue i?iaeaio eeoa aeey niaoeeo?/ii
iaeaooiaaiiai oai?aoe/iiai ieneaiiy. Aea /iio aeieea? nooi oai?aoe/ia
aiaaiai?noue o oeeo ?a/ao? Ia aeoieo Ianeaey, ?noeie oea ia ciaiiy i?i
iaaiee “noai ni?aa”, aiia aeyaey? naaa ye iciaea a?aeiia?aeiino?
ieneaiiy aeiiaai o??? neee, ui ea?o? ye i?ciaaaeueiith, oae ?
aoaeue-yeith ?ioith ae?yeuei?noth noa’?eoa. ?noeia oea ia no?eueee
ciaiiy, ne?eueee aiaaiai?noue a i/aaeaeiino? ciaii?y, coiiaeaia neeiaei
aieeaii, ui ia?aoai?th? na?oea. A?aeoae, ethaenueeo i?e?iaeo, ca
Ianeaeai, iiaeia ?icoi?oe ye nenoaio iaeaooiaaiinoae, ui a?aeiia?aea?
neeiaei aieeaai, ao?eaiei o “iaoeio”, oiaoi nenoaio noaeeo
cae/ie-noa?aioei?a, ye? caaacia/othoue ?ic??ciaiiy i/aaeaeiiai ?
iai/aaeaeiiai. Oae? “iaoeie” iiaeooue ooai?thaaoenue on?ia
neeaie-o/anieoeyie eiioe?eoo i/aaeaeiinoae.

A?aenooi?noue aeaaiaeao? a?aeaea? na?oea neeai, ni?yiiaaiei ia
ne?i/aiia. ?oiy aeaaeaanoaiiaeth?oueny /a?ac oyao, yea oi?io? a ethaeei?
“ae?oao i?e?iaeo” (oiaoi iaiiaith? ci?noii /eno? caeaoiino?). Oey
i?ieea?noue nee, ye? aieiae?thoue na?oeai, aeaco?, ui ethaeeia ?
ao?eaiiyi onueai eiioe?eoo nee, a oiio aiey, ?icoi oiui cacae/ae ia
ia?aoaathoue i?ae aeeeth/iith aeaaeith iaei??? neee. Naia i?iaeaiaoeea
i/aaeaeiino? e neee aeyaey?oueny a Ianeaey oei ioieoii, yeee iia’yco?
/eno? no?oeoo?i? caeaoiino? ethaenueei? i?e?iaee ? iaici?o
??ciiiai?oi?noue ?oiueiai iioaioe?eiiai ci?noo.

Aeena?oaio i?aeaeaa? i?aenoiie iiia?aaeiueiai aeeeaaeo: yeui ?icoi
ea?o?oueny i/aaeaei?noth na?oey, oi an? aeeneo?neai? a?aoiaioe,
aeiaaaeaiiy, aeieace iiaeooue noaoe c?icoi?eeie eeoa i?ney iiyniaiiy
i?eoiaaiiai iioeao, /a?ac yeee aei ieo aaeathoueny. iioea, aei??iaiee a
na?oe?, ? aaciina?aaei?i ?acoeueoaoii neeiaiai aieeao, ui ia?aoai?th?
na?oea. Ioaea, a na?o?, aea a?aenooiy “?aeeia” ?noeia, “nooi?noth
ni?aae”, yeo cana?ae/othoue aeeneo?neai? a?aoiaioe ? aeiaaaeaiiy, ? eeoa
neea, yea aeeeeeaea ?o aei aeeooy.sse ? i??eoaaiiy, aaaeaiiy,
noeeueiino? oiui, aiie ? neiioiiaie oe??? neee. A?aeoae, ia iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ie c?icoi?ee yeonue aeoieo, yeui ia aeine?aeaeaii ooi
?? aeneiaeth?. Aaeaea ia ?nio? “a?/iiai”, “i?e?iaeiiai” nieneo ne?a,
neiaa io?eiothoue niene eeoa /a?ac eiioe?eo nee, ui iinooeththoue
i/aaeaeiino?. An? a?aoiaioe iiiiaioa, yeee ia ia? a nia? iaoeo “ia/ae
i?ciaiiy”, aoaeooue eeoa ii?iaeaeaiiyie aooo?ai? ?ica?aeiino? nee,
i?eaieaie, a?aeiiaaie, ye? ?icnoaeie ciooaiee aoaea aeooeoaaoe i?ae
aieeaii aie?, aienaii? a iaoai?ci “ae?oai? i?e?iaee”.

Ia aeoieo Ianeaey, ca ethaenueea na?oea oi/eoueny ai?ioueaa eean?a nee,
i???ioiaaieo o e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo aai ia iane?i/aiia, aai ia
ne?i/aiia. iane?aeeii oe??? ai?ioueae aeyaeythoueny iaai? neeia?
eiiieaene, ui e cae?eniththoue aaciina?aaeith aeaaeo iaae na?oeai. Oey
aeaaea ia?aaeaa/a? i?ioeaaeo?e ia?aeeth/aiiy oaaae ? ia?a?iaeooaaiiy
nieneo. Oae, iai?eeeaae, “ioaeueaa” iiaea neoaeeoe ye neeai ne?i/aiiiai,
oae ? neeai iane?i/aiiiai, ? o eiaeiiio c oeeo aeiaaee?a aiia iaaoaaoeia
??ciiai nieneo. Oaca i?i caeaaei?noue nieneo a?ae neee iaea?eueo iai/ii
canoiniao?oueny Ianeaeai aeey aecaaaoe/iiai c?noaaeaiiy oaeno?a Noa?iai
? Iiaiai caiia?o?a.

Ianeaeue noaa?aeaeo?, ui aaeaeaaoia ?icoi?iiy iiiiaioa ia?aaeaa/a?
aecia/aiiy neee, yea ni?yiiao? eiai na?oea. Aeey oeueiai canoiniao?oueny
iaoiae oeiieia?caoe?? ?ica?aeiinoae, ae?iaeaiee ua o “I??eoaaii?”.
Oeiieia?caoe?y neiioii?a aeicaiey? aecia/aoe aeeaeii? neeia? eiiieaene
ca ciai?oi?ie iciaeaie. Aeena?oaio aeine?aeaeo? aeae?eueea iaeyne?aa?oeo
i?eeeaae?a oaei? neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ioe?iee, cae?eniaii? Ianeaeai /a?ac
oeiieia?caoe?th. A oeeo oeiieia?caoe?yo ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aie/ia
ao?eaiiy ianeae?anueea eiioeaioe?y ?ica?aeiino? “ae?oaeo i?e?iae” ?
aooo?ai? ia??aiioe?iiino? oa i?ciaaaeueii? iani?aaei??iino? ?a/ae
ethaenueeiai na?oo. Eiioe?eo i/aaeaeiinoae, cae??ieaiee oe??th
?ica?aei?noth, iinoa? ia?ica’yciei, a?i o?eaaoeia aeioe, aeiee
?nioaaoeia iaaeineiiaeee ethaenueeee na?o, caieyiiaaiee a??oii.

C o?aooaaiiyi oeeo eiinoaoaoe?e Ianeaeue noai?th? naith iaoiaeeeo
ia?aeiiaiiy a ?noeiiino? o?enoeyinueei? ?ae?a??. Oey iaoiaeeea ?
nai???aeiith oa?ai??th, nai Ianeaeue iaceaa? ?? “coe?eaiiyi”. Eaeaoueny
ia i?i oi?iaeueio a?aoiaioaoe?th, a i?i aeoeaia iaa?thaaiiy iaaiiai
noaaeaiiy aei o?enoeyinoaa, oiaoi — i?i ni?iao ia?aoai?aiiy na?oey,
i?ney yeiai eeoa e aeinyaa? iaoe oi?iaeueia a?aoiaioaoe?y. Oni?o ni?aae
ia?aeiiaiiy ?ioiai, oaeei /eiii, caeaaeeoue a?ae c?a/aiiy “nai?? aeanii?
aie?”, ? iieeaaeaiiy ia neeo, ao?eaiiyi yei? ? oaiy ?noioa. O oaeee
niin?a a Ianeaeaao o?einio?th aoiaeeoue ?aeay iina?aaeieea: i?eeo/aiiy
aei neee, caeaoii? ia?aeiioaaoe, iiaeeeaa eeoa oeyoii a?aeiiae a?ae naaa
(oiaoi a?ae nai?? iiaa?oiaino?, neiioiiaoe/iino?) ? iiaiiai ceeooy c
neeith (eiiieaenii nee), ui aeeaeoue oaith “ae?oao i?e?iaeo”. Aea oaeee
aieea ia ?ioeo ia iiaeiai iaoe ia iao? “inoaoi/ia oi?aeanoai ?noeie”,
iaaeinyaeia a na?o? ne?i/aiiiai. Eaeaoueny eeoa i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue
nai?io i?noeth a aooo?, a ia i?i neanoaaiiy eiioe?eoo i/aaeaeiinoae ye
caaaeueii? oi?ie oeueiai aoooy. Oey neiioiiaoieia?y ? iniiaith
ianeaeaanueeiai i?aeoiaeo aei ieoaiue noni?eueiiai aeeooy ? ethaenueei?
eoeueoo?e.

A ia?aa?ao? ???.3, “Ieth?ae?noe/ia nioe?ieia?y Ianeaey”, aeena?oaio
aeiaiaeeoue, ui nooi?noue ianeaeaanueeiai i?aeoiaeo aei noni?euenoaa
ia?aaeaa/a? ni?iao neioaoe/iiai iiyniaiiy aca?iica’yceo noni?eueieo
(ciai?oiuei-i?eioniaeo) nee ? nee, ye? aioo??oiuei cae?eniththoue
ia?aoai?aiiy na?oey. Naia oeae i?aeo?ae coiiaeth? a?aenooi?noue i?yieo
oaieia?/ieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Ianeaeue noeeueiee
iienoaaoe i?e?iaeii-ethaenueeee aniaeo noni?euenoaa, caniiaaiee ia
eiioe?eo? i/aaeaeiinoae ? i?eioeeiao “ethaenueei? ni?aaaaeeeaino?”.
Oaeee iien noni?euenoaa iiae?aiee aei cae?eniaieo iei ?ai?oa iien?a
no?oeoo?e noa’?eoa ? iaoai?ci?a ethaenueei? i?e?iaee, ? iinoa? ye
cia?aaeaiiy nai???aeiiai iae?iiaoeiiiai ??aiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i/aaeaeiino?.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe noaaeaiiy Ianeaey aei eiioeaioe?e i?e?iaeiiai i?aaa,
aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui “i?e?iaeia i?aai”, ye aeaiaio
no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa, aiaeia?/ia “i?e?iaeiiio ?icnoaeeia?” ye
aeaiaioia? no?oeoo?e noa’?eoa. aiii ?nio? ia ye noeoii?noue ci?noiaieo
ii?i, a ye no?oeoo?ia aeanoea?noue i?aeei?yoenue onoaeai?e cae/oe? oae,
i?ae aiia ? aaniethoiei caeiiii. Ioaea, ?ice?eooy ci?noo i?e?iaeiiai
i?aaa ia?aaeaa/a? a Ianeaey neiioiiaoieia?/iee aiae?c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
“ae?oaeo i?e?iae”. Oaeei /eiii, i?i i?e?iaeia i?aai iiaeia aiai?eoe a
oiiaao a??oiaii? i?e?iaee. Iai?eeeaae, o?enoeyie, i?aeei?yth/enue
onoaeaiei cae/eai, ?icoi?thoue, ia aeoieo Ianeaey, ?oith a?aeiini?noue,
? i?aaiooue cian?i ?ioiai aeaea?aea ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Aeey ?icoi?iiy ae
oeo iiceoeaieo nenoai i?aaa, ui i?aoaiaeothoue ia “i?e?iaei?noue”,
Ianeaeue aaea?oueny aei aiae?co iane?aee?a aieeao oyae, ?aeeiiai
ni?aaaeiueiai aeaea?aea aaoi?eoaoiino? oeeo nenoai. Aea, ia ??ai?
noni?eueieo iae?iiaoei, oyaa iicia/a?oueny iaaiith niaoeeo?eith,
ine?eueee aiia cacia? ia o?eueee aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao nee, ui
ia?aoai?ththoue na?oea, aea e iiina?aaeeiaaiiai aieeao nee ciai?oiueiai
noni?eueiiai i?eiooaiiy. A ca’yceo c oeei aeena?oaio i?iaiaeeoue
aaaeeeaa ?ic??ciaiiy a?aeiia?aeii nee 1 ? nee 2.

A?aoiaoth/e oeth i?iaeaiaoeeo nee, aeena?oaio noaa?aeaeo?, ui noni?eueio
ai?ioueao Ianeaeue iiynith? i?e?iaeiith, nooi?niith ia??ai?noth ethaeae
(na?aeaoeue) ? a?aenooi?noth oi?aa?naeueii? noni?eueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?.
Naia aeieeiaiiy noni?euenoaa ? ?acoeueoaoii ia oaiaee, a ia?aiiae
iaei??? c noi??i, ui ai?ieenue i?ae niaith. TH?eaee/i? caeiie ?
iia’ycaia c ieie oyaeaiiy i?i ni?aaaaeeea?noue — i?ino? iane?aeee
??aiiaaae a eiioe?eo? nee, yeee i?ecaieeoue aei aeieeiaiiy noni?euenoaa.
Oey ??aiiaaaa ia?aaeaa/a? nooi?niee ca’ycie nee 1 ? nee 2: ?aaeoe?y ia
neeo 2 aecia/a?oueny niaoeeo?eith i/aaeaeiinoae na?oey, ia?aoai?aiiai
neeith 1. Iaeaeaa oeeo ??ciiaeaee nee iinoathoue ye caniae
i?iaeaeaioe?eii? ?aaoeyoe?? ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee a iaaeao
a?aeiia?aeii? “/anoee aoooy”. Neee 2 ooai?ththoue ?? ciai?oi? iiea
aeoeaiino?, na?o ?noi???, a neee 1 — noeoii?noue ?? aioo??oi?o iioea?a.
Ioaea, aeeooy noni?euenoa ? ni?yiiaai?noue ?noi??? aecia/athoueny o
e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo iaeaooiaai?noth ethaenueeeo na?aeaoeue.

Aeena?oaio ?aeiino?oth? ianeaeaanueeo neiioiiaoieia?/io eiioeaioe?th
ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Inoaiiy aecia/a?oueny Ianeaeai ye no?oeoo?ia
aeanoea?noue ethaenueei? i?e?iaee, ui iaaoaa? ci?noo caeaaeii a?ae nee
1. Ni?aaaaeeea?noue cacae/ae iinoa? ye oyaeaiiy, yea eaa?oeio? neeo 2.
Oaea ni?aaaaeeea?noue aeieea? a oya? /eai?a noni?euenoaa ? iieeeeaia
ca?eueieoe aeaaeo a?ae iaiao?aeiino? nie?aoenue ia a?aee?eoa
ianeeuenoai. Neea 2, ui “i?aeei?eeanue” ni?aaaaeeeaino?, ea?o?oueny
aecia/aieie caeiiaie ? cae/ayie; naaa?eueia neea 2 io?eio? a Ianeaey
iacao “oe?ai??”. Ni?aaaaeeea?noue a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oe?ai?? eeoa oei,
ui onoaeth? noni?euei? ii?ie ? a?aeaa?oa? a?iiaaeyinuee? caai?ooaiiy.
Oaeei /eiii, iie??i?noue i?aeaeaieo aae?iiyi caa?oiee?a ia
iaa?oioiao?oueny i?yeeie aaniethoieie i?aenoaaaie, ii?iaeaeo?oueny
oyaith ? ia? aeeeth/ii i?aeoe/iee niene. Aiia ia “a?/ia” ? ia
“i?e?iaeia”, a ?? i?aea?oioy — ?aeay aeuino? i?e?iaee caa?oiee?a — ia
a?eueo, i?ae aeaaaeea.

I?ioa Ianeaeue ia aeciaaaa i?e?iaeii? ??aiino? ethaeae. Ethaee, ia eiai
aeoieo, ??ai? a oiio niene?, ui aiie ineoio?c?ieia?/ii ia i?ecia/ai? aei
yei?nue iaaii? noni?eueii? ?ie?. Aea aiie iathoue iaaia i?noea a aooo? e
oiio ?oi? caeaoiino?, ye ? ?oi? oyaeaiiy i?i ?noeio, iani?aaei??i?.
Ianeaeue, ia a?aei?io a?ae Aeaea?oa, Aiaana, ?io. aeio?eioaaany oace i?i
nooi?nio ia??ai?noue ethaeae, aaeaea ethaenueea aeeooy caeaaeeoue ia oae
a?ae “?aaeueieo yeinoae” (neee, e?ane oiui), ye a?ae “ae?oai? i?e?iaee”.
Aieea nee 1, ca iaaieo oiia, iiaea acaaae? ci?aaethaaoe cia/aiiy
?aaeueieo yeinoae. Ni?aaaaeeea?noue, ui ia ia?aaeaa/a? ??aiino?, iinoa?
a Ianeaey ye ieth?ae?noe/ia. Aeena?oaio, i?iaiae?coaaaoe ianeae?anueeo
e?eoeeo i?iaaa?e?cio, a oaeiae iiiyooy noni?eueii? ?aeiino?, i?enooi? a
“Aeoieao”, aeiaiaeeoue, ui a?aeiiaa a?ae aeciaiiy “i?e?iaeieo caeii?a
noni?euenoaa” ? oi?iaeueii-oyaiee noaoon ni?aaaaeeeaino? ii?iaeaeothoue
eiioeaioe?th noni?euenoaa ye eiioe?eoo iani?aaei??ieo ooai?aiue, ui
aecia/athoueny aaoa?iaaiieie neeaie 1. Oaeei /eiii, canaaeith
ianeaeaanueeiai ?icoi?iiy noni?euenoaa ? o? nai? i?eioeeie, ye? a?i
canoiniaoaaa aeey inyaiaiiy noa’?eoa i?ciaiiy.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e?, yeee ia? iacao “Neiioiiaoieia?/ii-ieth?ae?noe/iee
eiiieaen a o?einio?? Iiaea?io”, aeena?oaio ia?aoiaeeoue aaciina?aaeiuei
aei ?aeiino?oeoe?? iniiaieo ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e Iiaiai /ano,
a?aeia?aaeaieo a o?einio?? ?icaeyaeoaaii? aiioe. Ii/aoeiaei aoaiii oe???
?aeiino?oeoe?? ? aecia/aiiy i?ia?aeii? o?einionueei? i?iaeaiaoeee XVII
no. ? ioioiaeiaiiy ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e c iiaeeeaeie oeyoaie ??
?ica’ycaiiy. Iio?i aeena?oaio ?icaeyaea? iiaeeea? oi?ie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
oeeo ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e. Noai?aia o oaeee niin?a eiioeaioe?y
iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy canoiniao?oueny aei aiae?co o?einio?? ?aaeeeaeueiiai
ieth?ae?cio ? aeeneon?e i?i iinoiiaea?i.

A ia?aa?ao? ?V.1, “Neiioiiaoieia?/ii-ieth?ae?noe/iee eiiieaen a XVII
no.”, aeena?oaio i?aeaeaa? caaaeuei? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy o?einio??
Ianeaey. Cacia/a?oueny, ui ianeaeaanueea a/aiiy ciaoiaeeoue i?aai?/ia
i?noea a ?a?iiaenuee?e o?einio?? XVII no., i?iiiioth/e nai???aeia
ae??oaiiy ?? canaaeie/eo i?iaeai ? e?eoe/ii ni?eeiath/e i?aeoiaee ?ioeo
o?einio?a-no/aniee?a. Aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ?nio?
/ioe?e aieiaieo ?ene niaoeeo?ee ianeaeaanueei? o?einio??: 1) iioieia?/ia
?icoi?iiy na?aaeeiiino? ethaenueei? i?e?iaee; 2) iioieia?caoe?y i?ciaiiy
? iia’ycaia c iath i?iaeaiaoeea na?oey ? neee; 3) ?aeay iaonoaaiiai
eiioe?eoo i/aaeaeiinoae ? ieth?ae?cio ?noeie; 4) iaoiaeieia?y
neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ioe?iee.

Oaeee niin?a o?einiooaiiy aaeueie a?aei?iiee a?ae o?einiooaaiiy Aaeiia,
Aeaea?oa, Aiaana, Iiioaiy, ?io., a oiio iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, iaeiei c
iaeaaoi?eoaoi?oeo ieneeoae?a XVII no. aoei noai?aia a/aiiy, yea
i?iaieiooaaei oace i?i iacaeaoi?noue ethaeeie aieiae?oe
caaaeueiicia/ouith ? oi?aa?naeueiith ?noeiith, aen?ieia?/io
“iaoeaio?iaai?noue” na?oo, iani?aaei??i?noue ethaenueeeo ?noei,
iaiaaeaieo ai?eciioii i/aaeaeiinoae na?oey, eiioe?eo aooo?aeo nee ye
aeaea?aei ooai?aiiy ? cieeiaiiy ?noei, iaiao?aei?noue
neiioiiaoieia?/iiai aeoeoia/aiiy inoaii?o, ianoanoaioe?ei?noue noa’?eoa.
Oe? oace iinoathoue ye aieiaiee ci?no o?einionueeiai a/aiiy Ianeaey ?
i?enooi? aaea a eiai ?aii?o oaenoao (1647—1653); c ieeiii /ano aiie
iaaoaaee aeaaeae? aeeaoiai inieneaiiy. Ia?aeiia iaoa ianeae?anueei?
o?einio??, yea iieyaaea o aea/aii? i?ciaaaeueieo caeaoiinoae ethaeeie,
aeecueei 1658 ?. o?ainoi?io?oueny a aeiiao oeiieia?caoe?? e
neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ioe?iee ciaiue. C iaeyaeo ia i?iaeaie, ui noiyee
ia?aae ieneaiiyi no/aniee?a Aeaea?oa, oe? oace o aeiaeiiio ?ac? ia
iiaeia aeciaoe aeiaaeeiaeie. A?aeoae, ieneaiiy “Iiaea?io” — oea uinue
a?eueoa ca a??o a oi?aa?nae?nonuee? iaoa?iciia?ae?, aiii a?aeii/aoeiai,
iai?eoiaaii ? iine?aeiaii aeeth/a? a naaa
ieth?ae?noe/ii-neiioiiaoieia?/iee eiiieaen.

A ia?aa?ao? ?V.2, “Caaaeueia ?aeiino?oeoe?y neiioiiaoieia?/ii?
ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? (XVII—XO)”, aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui
neiioiiaoieia?/ia ieneeoaeueia no?aoaa?y Iiaea?io ia iaiaaeo?oueny
naiith eeoa o?einio??th A. Ianeaey ? noaiiaeoue nooi?nio oaiaeaioe?th
ye a o?einio?? XVII—XVIII no., oae ? caaaeii a o?einio?? Iiaiai /ano.
Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui iniiai? ieneeoaeuei? no?aoaa??,
?aeiino?oeiaai? uiaei XVII no., caa??aathoue naith ye?noue iniiaieo ? a
ianooii? noi??//y, aae aei OO, a oiio “i?iaeo Iiaea?io” o eiai
?aaeeeaeueii-ieth?ae?nonueeiio, neaae?ii e?ioa??anueeiio, ?icoi?ii?
iani?aaae? aeaco? eeoa ia iaeio c oaiaeaioe?e iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy, a ia
ia eiai nooi?noue. O?einio?y Iiaea?io ? neeaaeiei, aaaaoiieaiiaei
ooai?aiiyi, nooi?noue yeiai ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c eiai
aaaaoiieaiia?noth

Aecia/a?oueny, ui ?aeaeieie aeaea?aeaie o?einionueei? neiioiiaoieia?? a
XVII no. iinoathoue i?iaaa?e?ci ? aaaonoei?ainoai. Aeae?eythoueny
iniiai? ?ene iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy: 1) aeciaiiy ieth?ae?cio ?
iacaaaeueiicio/ouino? an?o ethaenueeeo ?noei; 2) caia?a/aiiy
aaoiiiiiino? noa’?eoa, o?aeooaaiiy noa’?eoeaiino? ye ciai?oiueiai i?iyao
ia’?eoeaieo aooo?aeo i?ioean?a; 3) aeoeoia/aiiy an?o yaeu ethaenueeiai
na?oo ye neiioii?a i?eoiaaiiai eiioe?eoo nee; 4) ioe?iea ?inoaioe??th,
ui ?ioa?i?aoo?, naii? naaa ye ao?eaiiy ia?aaaaeii? neee eiioe?eoo
i/aaeaeiinoae, a ia ye i?inoiai neiioiio na?aae neiioii?a.

Aeena?oaio ?ic??ciy? aaaonoei?ainueeo ? ianeaeaanueeo oi?ie
neiioiiaoieia??, aeacoth/e, ui aeania Iiaiio /ania? iaeaaeeoue ae?oaa c
oeeo oi?i, ine?eueee ?? i???ioiaaii ia i?ia?aei? i?iaeaie iiaea?iiai
ieneaiiy — i?iaeaie i/aaeaeiino? e iaoiaeo. aeena?oaio aiae?co? aeiaaeee
i?enooiino? ie?aieo neiioiiaoieia?/ieo ?aeae, a iacaaae
ianeiioiiaoieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?yo (O. Nai/an, A. Aneiaa?, A. Aanean, O.
Ea?ioooei, ?io.). Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui a XV?II no. eeane/iei
i?aaenoaaieeii neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? iinoa? aea
Naae. Iaeaeaeaoi?oei i?aaenoaaieeii ?a?iiaenueei?
ieth?ae?noe/ii-neiioiiaoieia?/ii? o?aaeeoe?? aeena?oaio aecia? O.
I?oeoa, a oai?ao yeiai i?noyoueny an? i?ia?aei? ?aea? ?aaeeeaeueiiai
ieth?ae?cio OO no. I?oeoa cia/ii aeeaoa, i?ae Ianeaeue, ?ic?iaey?
i?iaeaiaoeeo neeiaeo eiiieaenoa, ye? cai?iththoue a iueiai an? yaeua
ethaenueeiai na?oo ? na?oo i?e?iaee. Aeena?oaioii ?ice?eaa?oueny
neiioiiaoieia?/ia ooieoe?y i?oeoaanueeeo iiiyoue “ithaino” ?
“ae?aiaoecaoe??”.

Aeena?oaio, ia i?eeeaae? “Aioe-Aae?io” (aeae? – AA), oai?a AE. Aeaeueica
? O. Aaoa??, i?ine?aeeiao? nooi?nio o?e?aoe?th ?aeae i?ae
neiioiiaoieia?yie I?oeoa ? no/anieo ?aaeeeaeueieo ieth?ae?no?a. AA
iae?a?oueny aeena?oaioii ye iiaeaeueiee c?acie iinoiiaea?ii?
neiioiiaoieia??; oaeee aea?? iaa?oioiao?oueny ni?eueiith
neiioiiaoieiai-ieth?ae?noe/iith iniiaith iinoiiaea?ieo oaeno?a, a oaeiae
noaaeueiei noaaeaiiyi aei oeueiai oaenoo aaaaoueio aaoi??a, yeeo
cacae/ae ca?aoiaothoue aei eiai?oe o?einionueeeo iinoiiaea?i?no?a.

C?noaaeaiiy eiioeaioe?e I?oeoa ? aaoi??a AA i?iaaaeeoueny aeena?oaioii
ca o?ueiia aieiaieie iiceoe?yie.

1. “Aiey aei aeaaee” — “iieaeoey?iee ??aaiue aaaeaiiy”.

Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui no?oeoo?iei aiaeiaii i?oeoaanueeiai iiiyooy
aiey aei aeaaee a AA ? iiiyooy “iieaeoey?iiai ??aiy aaaeaiiy”.
I?oeoaanueea ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y an?o yaeu na?oo, o oiio /ene? e iiiyoue
o?einio??, ye “aeeiai?/ieo e?eueeinoae, oiaoi nee, ui ia?aaoaaathoue o
eiioe?eo? e i?aaiooue naiai iaeneiaeueiiai i?iyao (oiaoi “aeaaee”),
a?aeoai?th?oueny a AA /a?ac eiioeaioe?th “ae?iaieoeoaa aaaeaiiy” ia
??ai? iieaeoe, oiaoi ooiaeaiaioaeueii? a?aenooiino? nieneo e iaoe
i?aaiaiiy, yea ? neeiaei ooai?aiiyi ? a?eueoa i?/ei.

2. “I?iaeoeo eoeueoo?e” — “aeaoa?eoi??ae?caoe?y aaaeaiiy”.

Ia aeoieo I?oeoa, e?ioeaaei i?iaeoeoii eoeueoo?iiai “ae?ane?oaaiiy”
iiaeiai aooe “aaca?aeiia?aeaeueiee ?iaeea?ae”, oiaoi ?iaeea?ae
naiioeaio?iaaiee, caeaoiee ia?aoai?eoe naith aieth ia aeaniee caeii, a
oiio a?eueiee a?ae iio?aae o iayaiino? caeii?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey n??i?
a?eueoino?. A AA oaeiae eiinoaoo?oueny, ui ?icaeiaia ae?iaieoeoai
aaaeaiiy aeiea? aoaeue-ye? iaae? oa?eoi??ae?ciaaii? no?oeoo?e
aoaeue-yeiai niiniao ae?iaieoeoaa. aaaeaiiy ia iiaea aooe
?ai?acaioiaaiei, iaiaaeaiei ciai?oi?ie ?aieaie, aiii naia ? caeiiii
aeaniiai ?icai?oaiiy ? aeiea? aoaeue-ye? ciai?oi? “oa?eoi??ae?caoe??”.

3. “Ca?aoono?a” — “oeci?aaiethoe?y”.

“Oeci?aaiethoe??th” aaoi?e AA iaceaathoue i?ioean ca?eueiaiiy aaaeaiiy
a?ae ciai?oi?o eiio oa?eoi??ae?caoe?e, iaiaaeaiue, eiae?a oiui. Aaaeaiiy
ae?eaa?oueny c-i?ae eiio?ieth ? ia?aoai?th?oueny ia /enoa
naiiae?iaieoeoai, yea ia ni?yiiao?oueny ? ia aii?yaeeiao?oueny i?/ei
ciai?oi?i. Iiaeaeeth “oeci?aaiethoe?iia?a” Aeaeueic ? Aaoa?? aaaaeathoue
naia Ca?aoono?o, yeee i?iaieioo? aieiaiith /aniioith neeo, aeinoaoith
aeey ii?iaeaeaiiy aeanieo oe?iiinoae. Iaoin iiaeieaiiy caoea?oaeeo “noa?
nayuaiiiai” ? iano?eiiiai aoyiiy oai?/eo nee, i?eoaiaiiee ye I?oeoa, oae
? no/aniei ?aaeeeaeueiei ieth?ae?noai c ?oi?i aaneii ai?ioueae i?ioe
“eoeueoo?iiai ?iia??ae?cio”.

A ia?aa?ao? ?V.3, “Eoeueoo?ia ?aei?noue Iiaea?io ? iinoiiaea?ia
ia?niaeoeaa”, aeena?oaio, nie?ath/enue ia iiia?aaeith ?aeiino?oeoe?th
neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa??, ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
caaaeaia no?aoaa?y, ?acii c aeiaiaoe/iith ? neaioe/iith, noaiiaeoue
iniiao iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy. Oaeee aeniiaie noia?a/eoue onoaeaiiio
noa?aioeiia?, ca?aeii yeiai nooi?noth o?einio?? Iiaea?io ? o?einio?y
noa’?eoa. aeena?oaio i?aeaea? e?eoe/iiio aiae?cia? oae? neeaaeia?
noa?aioeio, ye:

1) a??a a ?aoe?iiaeueio i?ici??noue na?oo, ?ino?oiaoaeueiee ?icoi,
ni?iiiaei?noue aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aceoe caeiie ia’?eoeaiiai na?oo, ?
iaoeo ye ?noeiio oi?io ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai ?icoio;

2) a??a a i?ia?an ethaenoaa;

3) a??a o anacaaaeuei?noue ? oi?aa?naeuei?noue iiiyooy.

Cai?iiiiiaaia aeena?oaioii iiaeaeue iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy aeicaiey?
oeoia/eoe oe? ??ciiaeaee a??e ye ?ene ie?aieo no?aoaa?e ieneaiiy Iiaiai
/ano, a ia eiai nooiino?. Oea noino?oueny e noaaeaiiy aei o?einio??
noa’?eoa a oe?eiio. Iiaea?iiio ieneaiith, ii/eiath/e c XVII no.,
i?eoaiaiia aeeneon?y c i?eaiaeo noa’?eoa aeaea?aea ?noeiiiai i?ciaiiy, a
ia anacaaaeueia “a??a” a oaeee noa’?eo. C ?ioiai aieo, oi/a e ia iiaeia
ia iiaiaeeoenue c oacith TH. Yaaa?iana i?i oa, ui iiaeeo?eiaaiee i?iaeo
I?ina?oieoeoaa i?iaeiaaeo? cae?enithaaoenue ? iei?, oeae i?iaeo ia ne?ae
ioioiaeithaaoe c “i?iaeoii Iiaea?io”, yeee ? iaaaaaoi oe?oei iiiyooyi.
Aeena?oaio i?aeaea? e?eoeoe? oaeiae ? no/anio iinoiiaea?io aiieiaaoeeo
(eiioeaioe?y “ia?aienoaaiiy Iiaea?io”). Aeoiaey/e c ?acoeueoao?a oe???
e?eoeee, aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui no/aniee ?aaeeeaeueiee ieth?ae?ci
iicia/aiee on?ia no?oeoo?ieie ?enaie o?einionueei? neiioiiaoieia??
XVII—XVIII no.

Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui eiioeaioe?? i?aaenoaaiee?a o?einio??
?aaeeeaeueiiai ieth?ae?cio oe?eeii iiaeooue aooe eaae?o?eiaai? ye
Iiaea?i?. Aeeth/ai?noue a no?oeoo?o eiioe?eoa i/aaeaeiinoae, ia?aeiiee
aea?? i/aaeaeiinoae, caniiaaiee ia iaaieo “iaoa?iciia?aeyo”, aeio?eiaiiy
aeiia iaaii? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? (aai neioaco no?aoaa?e)
ia?aoai?ththoue aoaeue-yeo o?einionueeo aeieo?eio, ui aeieeea a iaaeao
eoeueoo?iiai i?iaeoo Iiaiai /ano, a ??ciiaeae “o?einio?? noa’?eoa”.
O?einionueea ieneaiiy Iiaea?io aeooae?co?oueny eeoa /a?ac eiioe?eo
i/aaeaeiinoae, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ia?aeiiee ??aaiue aeayeeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ia?oii/aaeaeiinoae, eio?? iinoathoue ye ioieoe
oioiaeiino? ieneaiiy ? aoooy. A?aeoae, an? o?einionuee? aeieo?eie Iiaiai
/ano (a yai?e /e iayai?e oi?i?) aecia/athoue aooo?a? oiiae ?noeie. Oaeei
/eiii, any oey o?einio?y iinoa? ye “o?einio?y eoeueoo?e”, yeui
ioioiaeithaaoe eoeueoo?o c i?eoaiaiiei ethaeei? niiniaii aoooy. eeoa a
iaaeao oaeei /eiii ?ioa?i?aoiaaii? o?einio?? eoeueoo?e iaaoaa? naiai
a?aie/iiai nieneo ? yniioe aca?iiaeiiiaithaai?noue ieneeoaeueieo
no?aoaa?e Iiaea?io, eio??, ia?aaoaath/e a iaaeao eoeueoo?ii? ?aeiino?,
an? ?acii aeathoue iiaeeea?noue c iaeneiaeueii aeinyaeiith ei?aeoi?noth
c?iaeoe eoeueoo?o ia’?eoii inyaiaiiy ? ia?aoai?aiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeena?oaio eiinoaoo? a?aenooi?noue iniaeeai?
iinoiiaea?ii? neooaoe??, yea cana?ae/oaaea a nooo?aa ia?aoai?aiiy
o?einio?? Iiaea?io, eaeaoueny eeoa i?i niaoeeo?/io oaco oiai eiioe?eoo
i/aaeaeiinoae, eio?ee caaaeaee aoa i?eoaiaiiee iiaea?iiio ieneaiith.
Iii?oia aeoea?caoe?y neiioiiaoieia?/ii? no?aoaa?? a 60-80 ??. OO no. ia
noia?a/eoue nooiino? iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy ? aeeeeeaia aei aeeooy
i?aeoeeith iino?iaeono??aeueiiai noni?euenoaa, ?icoe?aiiyi oyaeaiue i?i
nioe?ieoeueoo?io aeaoa?i?iaoe?th ieneaiiy ? nooi i?aeoe/iith iio?aaith
no/aniino? a “?noi??yo no?oeoo?”, iaeiie/aii? iien?a eoeueoo?ii?
?aaeueiino?, ye? iathoue noaoe i?aea?oioyi aeey iiaiai ??aiy
eiioeaiooaeueieo ocaaaeueiaiue. Aeena?oaio ?ice?eaa? ca’ycie
neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? c niaoeeo?/ieie i?iaeaiaie,
ye? iinoaee ia?aae aoiai?oa?iei ciaiiyi inoaiiuei? /aa?o? OO no., c
iio?aaaie iiiaeaiiy eiai aii??e/iiai i?aea?oioy ? eiioeaiooaeueieo noai.
Iaeii/anii cacia/a?oueny, ui no/ania o?einionueea i?iaeaiaoeea ia
ae/a?io?oueny nooi neiioiiaoieia?/ieie i?aeoiaeaie, a?aeoai?thth/e
aooo?aee eiioe?eo ??cieo ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e, eiaeia c yeeo ia? nai?
noa?e aeooaeueiino? e aei?a/iino?.

O Aeniiaeao i?aeaeaathoueny iaea?eueo aaaeeea? iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i?
i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aea?oueny ?acthia aaoi?nueei? eiioeaioe??
o?ceei-oai?aoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

AENIIAEE. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaioii aeine?aeaeaiiy
c?iaeaii ieceo aeniiae?a, aaaeeeaeo aeey noai?aiiy ?ioa?i?aoaoeaieo
iaoiaeieia?e no/anii? o?einio?? eoeueoo?e, aea/aiiy iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy
? aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? o?einio?? Iiaiai /ano.

Caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/i?:

Eiaei?e ie?ai?e eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i?e aiin? ieneaiiy i?eoaiaiiee
niaoeeo?/iee iaa?? a?aie/ieo i/aaeaeiinoae, ye? iaaeathoue oeueiio
ieneaiith eiai iioieia?/ii? aecia/aiino?.

I?ae oeeie i/aaeaeiinoyie ?niothoue i?eioeeiia? ?ica?aeiino?, eio??
i?ecaiaeyoue aei iaieio/iai eiioe?eoo oeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e, ui ia ieo caniiaai?.

Nooi?noue eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? “aiioe ieneaiiy” c iaiao?aei?noth iinoa?
ye eiioe?eo aeae?eueeio ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e; i?i
ianoaiiy iiai? aiioe ieneaiiy ne?ae aiai?eoe eeoa a ?ac? ci?ie
iniiaiiieiaeieo iiceoe?e caaaeaiiai eiioe?eoo.

Oi?ia oeueiai eiioe?eoo caaacia/o? aca?iiaeiiiaithaai?noue ieneeoaeueieo
no?aoaa?e, a, a?aeoae, aoaeoeai?noue oeio eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio.

Ieneeoaeuei? no?aoaa??, a ?aaeuei?e i?aeoeoe? ieneaiiy, ia iinoathoue o
/enoiio aeaeyae?, ooai?thth/e neioaoe/i? eiiieaene, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
?noi?e/iei ianoaaeiai; a o?einio?? nooi?ni? iciaee ieneeoaeueieo
no?aoaa?e i?iyaeythoue naaa iaea?eueo iai/ii.

Noiniaii no?oeoo?e iiaea?iiai ieneaiiy:

Nooi?niith no?oeoo?ith ieneaiiy Iiaea?io ? aeeneon?y o?ueio
ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e (aeiaiaoe/ii?, neaioe/ii? ? neiioiiaoieia?/ii?),
caniiaaieo ia niaoeeo?/ieo oeiao ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i/aaeaeiinoae.

Noeoii?noue ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e Iiaea?io aeyaey? naaa a o?einio??
XVII—XX no. ye noeoii?noue ia?niaeoea iiaeeeaiai ae??oaiiy i?ia?aeieo
i?iaeai oe??? o?einio??: iiooeo i/aaeaeiinoae, ye? ? iciaeaie ?noeie, ?
noai?aiiy iaoiaeo, caniiaaiiai ia oaeeo i/aaeaeiinoyo.

?iaeea?aeoaeueia i?eeo/aiiy aei ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i/aaeaeiinoae
ii?iaeaeo? a?aeiia?aeio na?oiaeyaeio ianoaiiao. Oea i?eeo/aiiy
aecia/a?oueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei aeeooyi, iiea iiaeeeaeo i?eeo/aiue —
eoeueoo?ith Iiaea?io ye iniaeeaei oeiii aoooy.

Iiaea?io ieneeoaeueio no?aoaa?th nooi?nii aecia/a? caaaeueiee oei
aeoeoia/aiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiue i/aaeaeiino? e ?noeie, a ia o? /e ?io?
aa??aioe ?o eiioeaiooaeueiiai ii?aoethaaiiy (“?aoe?iiae?ci”,
“I?ina?oieoeoai” oiui).

Aeeneon?y o?ueio aeuacaaaeaieo ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e, i?eoaiaiieo
iiaea?i?e o?einio?? (a, ioaea, ? iiaea?iiio ieneaiith a oe?eiio),
i?ioyaii anueiai ?? ?nioaaiiy (XVII—XX); c ieeiii /ano oey aeeneon?y
caciaaaea eeoa oaeeo ci?i, ye? ia ia?aaa?ooaaee iaae ?? nooi?nii?
no?oeoo?e.

Neiioiiaoieia?/iith iaceaa?oueny ieneeoaeueia no?aoaa?y, nooi?nieie
?enaie yei? ?:

1) oaca i?i i?eioeeiiaee ieth?ae?ci oei?a ethaenueeiai ieneaiiy,
coiiaeaiee iaaeineiiae?noth ? iaiaaeai?noth ethaenueeeo nee ?
iiaeeeainoae;

2) caia?a/aiiy aaoiiiiiino? noa’?eoa, ?aaeoeoe?y noa’?eoeaiino? aei
ciai?oiueiai i?iyao ia’?eoeaieo aooo?aeo i?ioean?a;

3) oeoia/aiiy aoaeue-yei? iiae?? o yeino? neiii?io i?eoiaaiiai eiioe?eoo
nee;

4) naiiioe?iea (i?eoiaaia /e a?aee?eoa) ?inoaioe??, ui aeoeoia/o?, ye
ao?eaiiy ia?aaaaeii? neee, ?aeeii ni?iiiaeii? aei “?noeiiiai”
aeoeoia/aiiy iiae?e.

Noiniaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaea?ii? oa iinoiiaea?ii? ia?niaeoea a
o?einio?? eoeueoo?e:

Iiiyooy “iiaea?io” ? “iinoiiaea?io”, ye? o?ao?othoue a no/anieo
aeeneon?yo i?i iinoiiaea?i, ia a?aeia?aaeathoue nooiino? eoeueoo?e
Iiaiai /ano ?, cie?aia, ?? ieneaiiy.

Iinoiiaea?ia ia?niaeoeaa, ui aecia/eeanue a no/ani?e o?einio??
eoeueoo?e, ? no/aniei ao?eaiiyi n?iioiiaoieia?/ii? ieneeoaeueii?
no?aoaa??; niaoeeo?ea oe??? neiioiiaoieia?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui aiaeii/an
aiia ? e oi?iith no/aniiai neaioe/iiai ieneaiiy.

Oae caaio “iiaea?io” ia?niaeoeao a o?einio?? eoeueoo?e ne?ae ?icoi?oe ye
aiaeia aeiaiaoe/ii? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? Iiaea?io a ?? aeeneon?eiiio
c?oeiaii? c neiioiiaoieia?/iith ? aeiaeiei /eiii ia ye iin?y an?o
nooi?nieo ?en iiaea?ii? eoeueoo?e. “Iiaea?iei ieneaiiyi” iinoiiaea?i?
aaoi?e iaceaathoue eeoa iaeio c iiaea?ieo ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e —
aeiaiaoe/io; “i?iaeo Iiaea?io” ia aei??aith? “i?iaeoia? I?ina?oieoeoaa”.

No/ania iinoiiaea?ia ieneaiiy ? iaei??th c eeane/ieo oi?i
neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? e noaiiaeoue iaeio c iiceoe?e
no/aniiai aoaio aeeneon?? ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e Iiaea?io.

Noiniaii iiaiai aeoeoia/aiiy o?einio?? A. Ianeaey:

O?einio?y A. Ianeaey ? iaeia?oei eeane/iei c?aceii neiioiiaoieia?/ii?
ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? Iiaea?io.

Iii?e o?aaiaioa?i?noue oaeno?a Ianeaey iiaeia aecia/eoe noaeee
eaoaai??aeueiee aia?ao eiai o?einio??; oeae eaoaai??aeueiee aia?ao
canoiniao?oueny aeey aeeneo?neaiiai ii?aoethaaiiy aecia/aieo
niaoeeo?/ieo i/aaeaeiinoae.

Oea aeeneo?neaia ii?aoethaaiiy noaiiaeoue nooi?noue anueiai i?ioeano
noaiiaeaiiy ianeaeaanueei? o?einio??, i?eiaeii? — c 1647 ?.

Ianeaeaaa o?enoeyinoai ne?ae ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee
aeeoo?aee aea??, caaaeueiith oiiaith cae?eniaiiy yeiai ?
neiioiiaoieia?/ii-ieth?ae?noe/iee na?oiaeyae; a oeueiio ioieo? ieneaiiy
Ianeaey oioiaeia ieneaiith aea Naaea, I?oeoa, ?io.

Ioae?eaoe??:

Iiiia?ao?y:

Enoeia e i/aaeaeiinoue: neiioiiaoieiae/aneia iuoeaiea a oeeinioee
Iiaea?ia. — A?iieoey: Oi?aa?noi-A?iieoey, 1998, 259 N. — 21, 09 ae?oe.
a?e.

Noaoo? oa ?icae?ee a eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?yo:

Oaoi?/iee na?o ? ii?ea aoiai?caoe??: ieoaiiy i?i iaae?aceia a
eoeueoo??//A?niee AI?, 1994, ( 1, N. 47—49 — 0,1 ae?oe. a?e.

Oaiiiai “Iuneae”: /oi oaeia “oeeinioey Ianeaey”?//Ianeaeue A. Iunee. —
I.: ?AOE-aoe, 1994, N. 433—443, — 0,7 ae?oe. a?e.

I?iaeaia i/aaeaeiino? a ea?oac?ainoa?//Aeiiaa ?aoe?iiaeueiino?:
Niaaeueia ?aia Aeaea?oa o na?o? no/anii? eoeueoo?e. — E.: OOO, 1996, N.
11—17, — 0,4 ae?oe. a?e.

Aeooiai?noue a eoeueoo?? iinoiiaea?io: i?o ?
naeoey??caoe?y//Aeooiai?noue ? oaoi?/iee i?ia?an: I?iaeaia
aa?iii?caoe??. — A?iieoey: Oi?aa?noi-A?iieoey, 1997, N. 7—18,
— 0,8 ae?oe. a?e. (?icae?e a eieaeoeai?e iiiia?ao??, a ni?aaaoi?noa? c
I. Aaithoeiith).

“I?iaeioeeaeee” e eoeueoo?a Iiaiai a?aiaie: e i?iaeaia aeenneaeainoaa
Ianeaey//Ianeaeue A. Ienueia e i?iaeioeeaeo. — E.: Ii?-?iyeue, 1997, N.
501—518, — 1 ae?oe. a?e.

Ieou i Ianeaea: e i?iaeaia iiiaiia?acey iai?aaeaiee a oeeinioee XVII
noieaoey//Ianeaeue A. O?aeoaou. Iieaie/aneea ni/eiaiey. Ienueia. — E.:
Ii?-?iyeue, 1997, N. 391—438, — 2,37 ae?oe. a?e.

I?oeoa ? oeciaiae?c//O?einionueei-aio?iiieia?/i? /eoaiiy-96.— E.:
Noeein, 1997, N. 147—156, — 0,6 ae?oe. a?e.

Ianeaeue i?i ni?aaaaeeea?noue: neee, iaoeie, no?oeoo?e//Aeoo ? e?oa?a,
1997, ? 1—2, N. 282—292, — 0,6 ae?oe. a?e.

Iaoeia? eiiiaioa??:

Eiiiaioa?ee e i?eeiaeaiey//Ianeaeue A. Iunee…, N. 443—502, — 4,5
ae?oe. a?e.

Eiiiaioa?ee e i?eeiaeaiey//Ianeaeue A. Ienueia e i?iaeioeeaeo…, N.
519—558, — 3 ae?oe. a?e.

Eiiiaioa?ee e i?eeiaeaiey//Ianeaeue A. O?aeoaou. Iieaie/aneea
ni/eiaiey…, N. 439—554, — 10 ae?oe. a?e.

O?aeoao AE.-AE. ?onni «I?i noni?eueio oaiaeo»//?onni AE.-AE. I?i
noni?eueio oaiaeo. — E.: Ii?-?iyeue, Na??y «O?einionuee?
ia?oiaeaea?aea», 1999, N. 219—234, — 0, 75 ae?oe. a?e.

Eiiaioa?? oa i?ei?oee//?onni AE.-AE. I?i noni?eueio oaiaeo…, N.
235—297, — 4 ae?oe. a?e.

Oace aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo:

Iaioaeuei?noue: Aeaa aniaeoe iiioey?iiai oa?i?io//Iaioaeuei?noue.
Aeooiai?noue. Naii?icaeoie iniaenoino?. (Oace aeiiia?aeae oa iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??.). — E.- Eooeuee, 1994, N. 159—161, — 0,1
ae?oe. a?e.

Oiia I.?. Iiaea?ia oa iinoiiaea?ia ia?niaeoeae a o?einio?? eoeueoo?e. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.09 — o?einio?y eoeueoo?e. — ?inoeooo o?einio??
?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? o?einio?? Iiaiai /ano (?
a?aeiia?aeiiai ?noi?e/iiai oeio ieneaiiy) ye no?oeoo?ii iaoiiaeaiiai
eiioe?eoo aeae?eueeio ieneeoaeueieo no?aoaa?e.

I?iaaaeaia aaoi?ii oia?oa a o?einionuee?e e?oa?aoo?? ?aeiino?oeoe?y
neiioiiaoieia?/ii? ieneeoaeueii? no?aoaa?? (Ianeaeue—aea
Naae—I?oeoa—no/ania o?einio?y ?aaeeeaeueiiai ieth?ae?cio) iaa?oioiaaii
aeiaiaeeoue iaci?ii?noue no?oeoo?e oeueiai eiioe?eoo i?ioyaii inoaiieo
/ioe?ueio noie?oue ?, a?aeiia?aeii, no?oeoo?io oioiaei?noue o?einio??
Iiaiai /ano (XVII—XX no.). Eeth/iaei ioieoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
niaoeeo?/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oaeno?a A. Ianeaey, yea na?eicii ei?aeoo?
caaaeueiii?eeiyo? oyaeaiiy i?i oa?aeoa? o?einio?? XVII no. ? eoeueoo?e
Iiaea?io caaaeii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiaea?i, iinoiiaea?i, o?einio?y eoeueoo?e,
i/aaeaei?noue, ?noeia, ieneeoaeueia no?aoaa?y, ?aaeeeaeueiee ieth?ae?ci.

Oiia I.E. Iiaea?iay e iinoiiaea?iay ia?niaeoeau a oeeinioee eoeueoo?u. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeinioneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 09. 00. 09. — oeeinioey eoeueoo?u. — Einoeooo oeeinioee
ei. A.N. Neiai?iaeu IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea iauae iaoiaeieiaee enneaaeiaaiey
enoi?e/aneeo oeiia iuoeaiey n iiceoeee oeeinioee eoeueoo?u. Enoiaey ec
ii?aaeaeaiey eoeueoo?u eae niiniaa /aeiaa/aneiai auoey aeenna?oaio
oeacuaaao ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey oao ia?ae/iuo i/aaeaeiinoae e
i?eioeeieaeueiuo i?iaeai, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho nouiinoioth niaoeeoeeo
iuoeaiey aeaiiie eoeueoo?u. Iaiauaiea e oeiieiaecaoeey iieo/aiiuo oaeei
ia?acii aeaiiuo iicaieytho iienaoue no?oeoo?o yoiai iuoeaiey, oeiu aai
i/aaeaeiinoae, acaeiiaeaenoaea yoeo oeiia, eo aiciiaeioth ?ieue a
?ac?aaioea iniiaiiieaaathuae i?iaeaiaoeee. Oeiu iuoeaiey, aace?othueany
ia oii eee eiii ec oeiia i/aaeaeiinoae, aeenna?oaio iaicia/aao oa?ieiii
“iuneeoaeueiay no?aoaaey”. Iieacaoaeai naiieaeaioe/iinoe iuoeaiey
eoeueoo?u e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, naiieaeaioe/iinoe eoeueoo?iiai aaeeinoaa a
oeaeii, yaeyaony nio?aiaiea no?oeoo?u yoiai iuoeaiey. i?e yoii neaaeoao
o/eouaaoue, aiciiaeiinoue ?acee/iuo oi?i acaeiiaeaenoaey iuneeoaeueiuo
no?aoaaee, caaenyuoth io enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee. Iuneeoaeueiay no?aoaaey
ia aiieiuaaony oeaeeeii a oie eee eiie aeieo?eia, eaeaieiaee e o.ae.,
iineaaeiea anaaaea i?aaenoatho eae neioacu iuneeoaeueiuo no?aoaaee,
o?aaothuea ?aniiciaiey ninoaaeythueo.

Iineieueeo iinoiiaea?ienoneea aaoi?u ?anniao?eaatho oeeinioeth a
ea/anoaa eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai au?aaeaiey nouiinoe iuoeaiey Iiaea?ia,
aeenna?oaio enneaaeoao eo iino?iaiey eiaiii ia i?aaeiao niioaaonoaey
?aaeueiie ea?oeia iiaia?aiaiiiai oeeinionoaiaaiey. Eniieueciaaiea yoie
iaoiaeieiaee aeey aiaeeca nouiinoe iuoeaiey iiaea?ia iicaieyao iienaoue
aa ia eae “i?iaeo I?inaauaiey”, a eae no?oeoo?iue eiioeeeo
aeiaiaoe/aneie, neaioe/aneie e neiioiiaoieiae/aneie iuneeoaeueiuo
no?aoaaee, ioiineoaeueii ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu i/aaeaeiinoe (eae e?eoa?ey
enoeiu) e iaoiaea (o.a. yooaeoeaiiai niiniaa iiciaiey, iniiaaiiiai ia
oaeiai ?iaea i/aaeaeiinoe).

Iacaaeneii io noaoonia, iieo/aaiuo iuneeoaeueiuie no?aoaaeyie a yoii
eiioeeeoa, aai nouiinoiay no?oeoo?a nio?aiyaony ia i?ioyaeaiee XVII – XX
aa. Iao iniiaaiee, iicaieythueo ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey yoa no?oeoo?a i?aoa?iaea nouiinoiua eciaiaiey. E a XVII a.,
e iuia a iniiaa iuoeaiey aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u eaaeeo nouiinoiay
no?oeoo?a eiioeeeoa o?ao aeaaiuo iuneeoaeueiuo no?aoaaee; nio?aiythony e
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua i?iaeaiu, noiyuea ia?aae yoei iuoeaieai. A iineaaeiaa
o?eaeoeaoeeaoea iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue i n?aaieoaeueiii aic?anoaiee
/enea ieth?aeenoe/anee iuneyueo aaoi?ia, oi anoue ia eciaiaiee noaoai
eiee/anoaaiiiai ia?aiao?a a niioiioaiee aeiaiaoe/aneie e
neiioiiaoieiae/aneie iuneeoaeueiuo no?aoaaee, e i oii, /oi
neiioiiaoieiai-ieth?aeenoe/aneea eaeae oaniaa, /ai eiaaea-eeai naycaiu
ni neaioeoeeciii. Ii yoe yaeaiey aua ia iicaieytho aiai?eoue i iaeii
iniaii, “iinoiiaea?iii” ninoiyiee iunee.

Aeenna?oaio iainiiauaaao iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi iinoiiaea?iay e?eoeea
Iiaea?ia yaeyaony e?eoeeie aai aeiaiaoe/aneie iuneeoaeueiie no?aoaaee n
iiceoeee no?aoaaee neiioiiaoieiae/aneie. Iinoiiaea?iay ia?niaeoeaa
nia?aiaiiie oeeinioee eoeueoo?u, oaeei ia?acii, iaoiaeeo naia caeiiiia
ianoi a no?oeoo?a iiaea?iiai iuoeaiey, anee iiieiaoue iiae Iiaea?iii
auoaoeacaiiia aaeeinoai o?ao iuneeoaeueiuo no?aoaaee, a ia niaoeeoeeo
eaeie-eeai iaeiie ec ieo.

A?aoiaioaoeey aeenna?oaioa no?ieony ia oii, /oi
neiioiiaoieiai-ieth?aeenoe/aneee eiiieaen ioe?uoi i?enoonoaoao a
iiaea?iii iuoeaiee ia/eiay n XVII a. Iniiaaiea aeey oaeiai ooaa?aeaeaiey
aeaao i?iaaaeaiiay aeenna?oaioii n auoaoeacaiiuo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
iiceoeee eioa?i?aoaoeey oeeinioee A. Ianeaey. Aeenna?oaio ?aeiino?oe?oao
neiioiiaoieiae/aneoth iuneeoaeueioth no?aoaaeth Iiaea?ia, eeanne/aneeie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?ie aunooiatho Ianeaeue, aea Naae, Ieoeoa,
i?aaenoaaeoaee oeeinioee ?aaeeeaeueiiai ieth?aeecia.
Neiioiiaoieiae/anei-ieth?aeenoe/aneay oeeinioey Ianeaey ?anniao?eaaaony
aeenna?oaioii eae oaeoe/aneia ii?iaa?aeaiea iinoiiaea?ienoneeo
eiioeaioeee eoeueoo?u iiaea?ia.

Iineieueeo a ianeaeaaneie oeeinioee i?enoonoaotho ana iniiaiua /a?ou
neiioiiaoieiai-ieth?aeenoe/aneiai iuoeaiey (iainiiaaiea
i?eioeeieaeueiiai ieth?aeecia enoeiu ianiaa?oainoaii e ia?aie/aiiinoueth
/aeiaa/aneeo nee e aiciiaeiinoae; io?eoeaiea aaoiiiiiinoe noauaeoa,
?aaeoeoeey noauaeoeaiinoe aei o?iaiy aiaoiaai i?iyaeaiey iauaeoeaiuo
auoeeiuo i?ioeannia; enoieeiaaiea ethaiai niauoey eae neiioiia iayaiiai
“eiioeeeoa nee”; ioeaiea (yaiay eee iayaiay) enoieeiauaathuae
einoaioeeae naay eae aiieiuaiey i?aeiouanoaaiiie neeu, niiniaiie aeaoue
“enoeiiia” eee ii e?aeiae ia?a “iaeaieaa i?eaieaiia” enoieeiaaiea
niauoee), iiaea?ioth ia?niaeoeao a oeeinioee eoeueoo?u ia neaaeoao
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue iinoiiaea?iie (o.a.
neiioiiaoieiae/anei-ieth?aeenoe/aneie); ?a/ue a aeaiiii neo/aa eaeao i
i?aaeiaoao ?aciie noaiaie iauiinoe, ia ioiioaieyo /anoe e oeaeiai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiaea?i, iinoiiaea?i, oeeinioey eoeueoo?u, enoeia,
i/aaeaeiinoue, iuneeoaeueiay no?aoaaey, ?aaeeeaeueiue ieth?aeeci.

Khoma O.I. Modern and Postmodern Perspectives in philosophy of culture.
— Manuscript.

The thesis for doctor’s (philosophy) by speciality 09. 00. 09. —
philosophy of Culture. — Institute of philosophy of the NAS of Ukraine,
Kyiv, 1999.

The monograph is dedicated to the interpretation of philosophy of Modern
Time (and correspondent historical type of thinking) as structure
determinated conflitct of reveral thinking strategys.

Reconstruction of symptomatological thinking strategy (Pascal — de Sade
— Nietzche — modern philosophy of radical pluralism) for the first time
in philosophical literature gives author the possibility to
substantiate that structure of this conflict is invariable during last
four centuries, therefore philosophy of Modern Time (XVII—XX) is
structural unity. The key point of this investigation is specific type
of reading of Pascal texts, that essential correct traditional ideas
about philosophy of XVII century.

Key words: the Modern, the Postmodern, philosophy of culture, evidence,
truth, thinking strategy, radical pluralism.

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