Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo

?acaiiia Aaeai Iaioae?eiae/

OAeE 656.212.5:658.011:681.3

Iaoiaeieia?y i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? nenoai

cae?cie/ii? aaoiiaoeee ? oaeaiaoai?ee

05.22.08 — aenieoaoaoe?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? «Aeaeo?iii? ia/enethaaeuei? iaoeie»
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo cae?cie/iiai
o?ainii?oo i?i?noa?noaa o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ainia A?eaae?e A?eaae?eiae/,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao cae?cie/iiai
o?ainii?oo, caa. eaoaae?ith

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Niaie?a TH??e Aieiaeeie?iae/,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oea/ia A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee),

caa. eaoaae?ith «Aaoiiaoecaoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a»;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oao?o ?aaai Ie?iiiae/,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao cae?cie/iiai
o?ainii?oo, caa. eaoaae?ith

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a o?ainii?oieo
oaoiieia?e, i?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Eoaainuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «25»eenoiiaaea 1999?. i 11 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.820.04 i?e Oa?e?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e
aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo ca aae?anith: 310050, i. Oa?e?a, ie.
Oae??aaoa, 7, eiioa?aioecae.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «22» aeiaoiy 1999 a.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Caia?a A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??

No?oeoo?a ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? nenoai aaoiiaoecaoe?? ?
iaoai?caoe?? o?ainii?oiiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ona a?eueoa
oneeaaeiththoueny, i?aeaeuo?oueny ?oiy a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ? ?ieue a
oaeineiiaethaaii? ia?aa?ciiai i?ioeano ? caaacia/aii? aaciaee ?ooo
ii?cae?a.

O oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie ciaioeeeny ?iaanoeoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? aei??a
o aoae?aieoeoai ? ?aeiino?oeoe?th nenoai cae?cie/ii? aaoiiaoeee ?
oaeaiaoai?ee (cao). Oea, o naith /a?ao, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icoe?aiiy
iie?aii?a aei??a ?c noa??th/eie nenoaiaie cao, ui iio?aaothoue o ?yae?
aeiaaee?a ?ioiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeai?o no?aoaa?? i?io?eaeoeee ? ?ic?iaee
caoiae?a ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aaciaee e aenieoaoaoe?eii?
iaae?eiino? nenoai cao. O ca’yceo c oeei i?iaeaia iaae?eiino? oaoi?/ieo
cania?a ? iioei?caoe?? i?io?eaeoe/iiai i?ioeano caeeoa?oueny iaei??th c
aeooaeueieo.

O inoaii? ?iee niaoe?ae?noaie iaoee ? i?aeoeee ae??oaiee ?yae
i?eeeaaeieo ieoaiue oai??? iaae?eiino?, oaoiieia?? ianeoaiaoaaiiy,
iiaoaeiae nenoai cao ? ?i. I?ioa oe?ea eiei caaea/ caeeoaeinue
iaae??oaiei aai cian?i ia aoei ii?ooaia. Aei ieo ianaiia?aae aa?oi
a?aeianoe ieoaiiy ioe?iee aieeao a?aeiia nenoai cao ia aenieoaoaoe?ei?
iieacieee cae?cieoeue ? aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoai cao;
noai?aiiy iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?? ? ii?i
ianeoaiaoaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi aaoiiaoeciaaieo aei??thaaeueieo
eiiieaen?a ia aac? aii; noai?aiiy oai??? aiae?co ? neioaco, ?icoe?aiiy
noa?e ?nioaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo ?aeeiaeo eaioetha?a (?e) i?e cieaeaiiio
iii?o ?cieyoe?? ?aeeiai? e?i??; iaoiaeeee cai?o e ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i a?aeiiae, iaoiiaeaieo iayai?noth ia??iaeo i?e?ia?oee; aieeae ia ?e
?iioeuenieo ia?aoeiae oyaiaiai ia?ai?iiiai no?oio i?e iaeaeaaeaooai?aii?
ia eiioaeoi?e ia?aae?; aeei?enoaiiy iae?i?eieo aeanoeainoae ciai?oiuei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaea?ae oieo, cie?aia ia?aoai?thaa/?a /anoioe i/ 50/25,
aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?e; i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa iiaa?iaiiy
eie?eiiai i?eeia/a ? caoenoo noaioe?eieo eoe a?ae iiieeeiaiai
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy i?e aeayeeo a?aeiiaao ?aeeiai? e?i??. On? caaaeai?
i?iaeaie iai?yiee aieeaathoue ia iaae?ei?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue ae??
nenoai cao ? aaciaea ?ooo ii?cae?a.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe aecia/aia iio?aaaie ?icaeoeo iaoiae?a
? cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? nenoai cao ? aaciaee ?ooo ii?cae?a.

Aeaia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie ii i?aeaeuaiith
iaae?eiino? nenoai cao, ieai?a ?icaeoeo aaeoc?, ieai?a iae? nithciiai
i?i?noa?noaa oeyo?a niieo/aiiy e oe?cae?cieoe? ? ae??oo a ia??iae ?c
1970 ii 1997 ?.

Oe?eue ? iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Oe?eue ? iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaathoue o
?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo iniia ? i?aeoe/ieo iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? nenoaie cao.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? oe?e? ae??oothoueny oae? caaea/?:

1. Noai?aiiy iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo iaae?eiino?, ui a?aoiaothoue aeanoea?
i?eno?iyi cao iniaeeaino? aenieoaoaoe??, aeeth/ath/e i?neyioneiaee
ia??iae.

2. ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeey ioe?iee aieeao a?aeiia oaoi?ee
cao ia aenieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee cae?cie/ii? ae?eyiee.

3. ?ic?iaea iioeiaeueii? no?aoaa?? i?io?eaeoeee ia’?eo?a cao;
oaeineiiaethaaiiy iaoiaeee i?ecia/aiiy aeiione?a ? aeai?o iii?iaeueieo
cia/aiue ia?aiao??a aia?aoo?e, ui caaacia/othoue caaeai? oo iieacieee
yeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoai cao.

4. ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a aiae?co ? neioaco ?e c o?aooaaiiyi noioanoe/iiai
oa?aeoa?o iii?o ?cieyoe??, aacia?a?aiino? ci?ie aeo?aeii? iai?oae a
iae?i?ei?e iaeano? ciai?oiuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaea?aea neaiaeueiiai
no?oio a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?ia?aeiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui aeicaiey?
?icoe?eoe ?iai/o iaeanoue ?e ii i?i?iaeueiiio iii?o ?cieyoe??.

5. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ioe?iee ?iioeuenieo ia?aoeiae, ui aieeaathoue ia ?e ?
aeieeathoue i?e ai??ii? aeoae ia iaioia?ao? aeaeo?iaica a oiiaao
iaeaeaaeaooai?aiiy.

6. Iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a aeaea?ae no?oio ?e c caaeaiith ciai?oiueith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith (iai?eeeaae i/ 50/25), noai?aiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae
? aeai?eoi?a ae??oaiiy aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue aeaea?ae no?oio.

7. I?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? nenoai cao oeyoii ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a aei??o ?
ae?aaiinoeee iaoai?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iiaai?oieo aia?ao?a
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aei??thaaeueieie caniaaie.

9. ?ic?iaea oaoi?/ieo cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? nenoai cao ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ?oiueiio canoinoaaiith (?e, a?i, aeaea?ae no?oio oa
iio.).

Aeeiiaiiy ia?a?aoiaaieo caaea/ ia? aaaeeeaa ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea
cia/aiiy aeey aaeoc?, ine?eueee aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe iaae?ei?noue,
iioei?coaaoe ia?aiao?e i?io?eaeoeee nenoai cao ?, a inoaoi/iiio
i?aenoieo, cieceoe aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe i?e caaacia/aii? aeiia aei
yeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? aaciaee nenoai.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aacothoueny ia oai???
eiia??iinoae ? iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee, oai??? iaae?eiino?, oai???
aeiaaeeiaeo i?ioean?a, oai??? aiae?co ? neioaco aeaeo?e/ieo ?aeeiaeo
eaioetha?a, oai??? aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue.

Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe neeaaea?oueny:

1. O ?ic?iaoe? oai??? ? iiaeo iaoiae?a aiae?co ? neioaco ?aeeiaeo
eaioetha?a ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi cieaeaiiy iii?o ?cieyoe??
?aeeiai? e?i??, ui caaacia/o? a?eueo i?ae ia ii?yaeie i?aeaeuaiiy
?oiuei? iaae?eiino?;

2. O noai?aii? iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeey ioe?iee aieeao a?aeiia nenoai
cao ia aenieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee cae?cie/ii? ae?eyiee.

3. O ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeo iioei?caoe?? i?io?eaeoeee ia’?eo?a cao oa ??
no?aoaa?? ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aei??thaaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

4. O aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeaeo?e/ieo i?ioean?a o neeiaiio eaioethc?
aeaeo?iaica a ?aaeei? ai??iiy aeoae ia no?oiii?eeia/? i?e iaeaeaaeyo ?
noai?aii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeey ioe?iee ??ai?a aeieeath/eo
?iioeuenieo ia?aoeiae ? ?oi? aieeae ia ?aeeia? eaioethae.

5. O ?icaeoeo iaoiae?a ?nieo?a ia iaae?ei?noue ?aeaeii? aia?aoo?e cao o
ii?iaeueiiio ? oi?niaaiiio ?aaeeiao ? iioei?caoe?? ia??iaee/iino?
?aiiioo.

6. O ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a aiae?co ? neioaco ?e c o?aooaaiiyi iae?i?eiino?
ciai?oiuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaea?ae no?oio a ?aaeei? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy.

7. O ?ic?iaoe? aenia?eiaioaeueii-aiae?oe/ieo iaoiae?a aei??o ?
ae?aaiinoeee iaoai?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iiaai?oieo aia?ao?a.

8. O noai?aii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeaea?ae no?oio, cie?aia i/ 50/25
aoe, ui aeicaieythoue aeine?aeaeoaaoe ?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee a caeaaeiino?
a?ae i?ia?aeiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy, aeeth/ath/e iaeanoue ia?aaaioaaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? oaoi?/ieo
??oaiue ii i?aeaeuaiith iaae?eiino? ye ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy, oae ? i?e
aenieoaoaoe?? nenoai cao. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee noaee iniiaith aeey
noai?aiiy ?iaeaia?ieo iaoiaeee ?nieoo ia iaae?ei?noue aia?aoo?e cao.
Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee aiae?co ? neioaco ?e c o?aooaaiiyi eiia??ii?
i?e?iaee iii?o ?cieyoe?? ?aeeiai? e?i?? iineoaeeee iaoeiaith iniiaith
aeey iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy ?e, ?ic?iaee ii?iaeae
ia ieo ? oaeineiiaethaaiiy iaoiaeo ianeoaiaoaaiiy, a oaeiae aeey
canoinoaaiiy oiiaeueieo ?e oei?i/aii? aeiaaeeie ye ?aca?ao
iecueei/anoioieo ?e. Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee ii iioei?caoe??
ia??iaee/iino? i?io?eaeoeee ? iaoeiaith aacith aeey ci?ie no?aoaa??
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?aeaeii? aia?aoo?e c aeei?enoaiiyi a?i ?oo.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a o?ainii?oiiai iioieo i?e a?aeiiaao nenoai cao
ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaieo ?i?oaoe?eii? ? eiia??ii? iiaeaeae ? aacith
aeey anoaiiaeaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ??aiy iaae?eiino?
nenoai, ia??iaee/iino? i?io?eaeoeee, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/i?e
caaacia/aiith c o?aooaaiiyi ?aaeueieo ?ici??ii ?ooo ii?cae?a.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee aei??o aeaeo?e/ieo oa iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? a?i ?oo; i?aeaeuaiiy (ia 60…80%)
eiao?oe??ioa iiaa?iaiiy ?iaeoeoe?eieo ?aea, caaacia/eei iie?ioai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aeeiaei eaioethaai. ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae
?ic?aooieo iineoaeeea aacith aeey oaeineiiaethaaiiy eiino?oeoe?? i/
50/25 aoe , ui aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe iaiao?aei? ciai?oith oa?aeoa?enoeeo
? ?iai/o ciio aaia?aoe??, ?icoe?eoe ni?oaiaio noaeae aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
iaai?oii?iaiae?a ? caaeiaieueieoe aeiiae aaciaee ? na?oeo?eaoe??
i?iaeoeoe??.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie

Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aeoe/i? ?ic?iaee aeeiioaaeeny a ?aieao
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ? aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o, i?iaaaeaieo ii
iaeacao ion n?n? o ia??iae 1968… 78 ??, ae??oo oa oe?cae?cieoe? — o
1979…98 ??. ?iaioe aeeiioaaeeny ii oaiao:

1. Oaeineiiaethaaiiy iaoiae?a ianeoaiaoaaiiy e aenieoaoaoe?? i?eno?i?a
noea (1968… 1978 ??).

2. Aiae?c iiaeeeainoae i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?e i?e cieaeaiiio iii?o
?cieyoe?? (1972 ?.).

3. Aaoiaeieoaaiiy c ?aeeiaeie eaioethaaie 25/12,5 aoe (1980… 1984 ??).

4. Noaiae aeey ia?aa??ee ?aea noea. ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e ii noai?aiith
noaiaea ia aac? iaii (1983 ?.).

5. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeaeo?e/ii? aeoae i?ae iaioia?aoii ? eiioaeoiei
i?iaiaeii i?ae /an iaeaeaae? ia ?aeeia? eaioethae 25 aoe (1985 ?.).

6. Oaeineiiaethaaiiy eiino?oeoe?? ia?aoai?thaa/?a /anoioe i/?50/25-300
(1985… 1987 ??.).

7. Iiaea?i?ciaaia aaoiaeieoaaiiy onaa-i (1986… 1989 ??).

8. ?ic?iaea i?e?ii?ioeani?iiai i?eno?ith eiio?ieth ia?aiao??a ae (1988,
1989 ?.).

9. ?ic?iaea ? i?iaaaeaiiy ?nieo?a ae?inaeueieo ia?aie/ie ?c
iaeiaeao?oeeoieo iaoa??ae?a (1994-1995 ?.).

10. ?ic?iaea oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue ii caoenoo ?e a?ae ia?aoeiae oyaiaiai
no?oio ? ii?iaeae ia ia?aoeiaeicaoeuai? ?e (1997-1998 ??).

?acoeueoaoe ?ia?o aeei?enoai? aieiaiei oi?aae?iiyi neaiae?caoe??,
ca’yceo ? io ion ?o ? oe?cae?cieoe?, i?iaeoiei ?inoeoooii
«aei?io?ainneaiaenaycue» ?o, eaeocueeith o?e??th iineianueeiai
aeaeo?ieaiiiaiai caaiaeo, aeaoeueeei aeaeo?iiaoai?/iei caaiaeii ion ?o ?
caaiaeii «na?oeioi?» oe?cae?cieoe?.

?iaioe cae?enithaaeeny i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a aai i?e eiai iniaeno?e
o/ano?.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ci?i? ia??iaee/iino? ?aiiioo ?aeaeii?
aia?aoo?e ia aei?iaao nithco ?n?, caaacia/eei iaea?aeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
aoaeoo iiiaae 5. 106 ?oa. O oe?iao 1980 ?. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
ii aenieoaoaoe?? ? ii?iaeae ia ?e a oiiaao cieaeaiiai iii?o ?cieyoe?e
cieceei, a?eueo i?ae ia ii?yaeie, /enei a?aeiia ? aeaei aeiiii?/iee
aoaeo a?ey 200. 103 ?oa./ Ei ??e (o oe?iao 1989 ?.).

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoai? a ?iai/eo i?ia?aiao iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a «iniiae iaae?eiino?
ono?i?a cae. Aaoiiaoeee, oaeaiaoai?ee ? ca’yceo», «ia?aa?ii? nenoaie
aaoiiaoeee ? oaeaiaoai?ee», o eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo i?iaeoao ca oaoii
«aaoiiaoeea ? aaoiiaoecaoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ia cae.
O?ainii?o?».

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, no?oeoo?a
e ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia aaeocaaeo ia?aaeao
«oaeineiiaethaaiiy i?io?eaeoeee ? aei?? ii?i ia??iaee/iino? ?aiiioo ?aea
noea» (eai?ia?aae, 1970 ?.); «iaoiaee aei???a ia?aiao??a ?aeaeii?
aia?aoo?e a ?oo aeenoaioe?e neaiae?caoe?? ? ca’yceo» (oeyi?anuee — 1971
a); «caaea/a a?oi ? a?aeae?e?a iaae?eiino? ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
nenoai cao» (oa?e?a, 1972); «caaea/a eaoaae?, «aaoiiaoeea ?
oaeaiaoai?ea» aoc?a ion ii oaeineiiaethaaiith ? i?aeaeuaiith iaae?eiino?
i?eno?i?a noea» (iineaa, 1984 ?.); «ia?aaea aenia?o?a e?a?i nya ii oai?
«?aea noea» (iineaa, 1977 ?.); I?aeia?iaeii? oeie?-nai?ia?? «ia?niaeoeae
nenoai ea?oaaiiy ia cae., I?iieneiaiio ? i?nueeiio o?ainii?o?» aeoooa,
1996, 1997 ??); i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? «?ic?iaea eiioeaioe??
?icaeoeo ono?i?a cae. Aaoiiaoeee ? oaeaiaoai?ee» (aiiaeue, 1997);
«aaoiaeieoaaiiy c ?aeeiaeie eaioethaaie 25 aoe onaa (iineaa, 1988, 1989
?.); «i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?aeaeii? aia?aoo?e» (oaoeaio, 1976 ?.);
«i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?iaioe ono?i?a cae. Aaoiiaoeee ? oaeaiaoai?ee»
(naa?aeeianuee, 1975 ?.), A oaeiae ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo cae. O?ainii?oo (aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1985-1995
??).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, o o./. 3 iiiia?ao??, io?eiaii 20 aaoi?nueeeo iina?ae/aiue ?
aeeiiaii 19 ca?o?a ii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?iaioao, ui i?ieoee aea?aeaaio
?a?no?aoe?th.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?noueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? aeiaeaoeo. ?oeiien iae?/o? 365 noi??iie oaenoo, o
o./. 286 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, 30 oaaeeoeue, 87 ?enoie?a. Nienie
e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 218 iaeiaioaaiue.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai iniaenoiai aianeo aeena?oaioa a ?ic?iaeo iiaeo
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O aeena?oaoe?? iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeeiiai? oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

?icoe?aia iaeanoue canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeeee ciaoiaeaeaiiy iaa?aeiieo
ia?aiao??a caaeaiiai caeiio ?iciiae?eo /ano iai?aoethaaiiy ia a?aeiiao
noiniaii aei noaiaeiaeo ?nieo?a ia iaae?ei?noue, ui aeicaiey? a 2…2,5
?aco i?enei?eoe iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iaae?ei?noue ia’?eo?a;

Onoaiiaeaii, ui a i?neyioneiaee ia??iae nenoai cao i?ioyaii 1,5…2
?ie?a ia?aaeuaiiy ii/aoeiai? ?ioaineaiino? iioieo a?aeiia iaae noaeei
cia/aiiyi iiaea aeinyaaoe 6…8 ?ac?a ? aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
iineeaiith i?io?eaeoeee a oeae ia??iae;

Iaoiaee eiia??iiai oa ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy o?ainii?oiiai iioieo
i?e a?aeiiaao ia’?eo?a cao, ui aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe aieea a?aeiia ia
i?iioneio ni?iiiaei?noue ? noia?i? cao?eiee ii?cae?a;

Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ? no?aoaa?y i?io?eaeoeee ia’?eo?a cao ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aei??thaaeueieo eiiieaen?a ia aac? aii, ui
aeicaieythoue ?noioii cieceoe aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe;

Oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea i?ecia/aiiy aeiione?a ia ia?aiao?e ?
anoaiiaeaiiy iii?iaeueieo ia?aiao??a ia’?eo?a cao, ui aeicaiey? a
1,5…2,0 ?ace ca?eueoeoe i?ae?aiiioiee ia??iae i?io?eaeoeee;

Iaoiae iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo i?ioean?a i?e ai??ii?
aeoae ia no?oiii?eeia/? aeaeo?iaica a oiiaao iaeaeaae?, ioe?iee ??ai?a
?iioeuenieo ia?aoeiae, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei cai?a ?e ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
?oiueiio caoenoo;

Iaoiaee aiae?co ? neioaco ?e c o?aooaaiiyi aacoieiii? ci?ie aeo?aeii?
iai?oae a iaeano? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy aeaea?aea neaiaeueiiai no?oio ? c
o?aooaaiiyi «aeaeo?e/iiai» noa??iiy ? ?iciiae?eo iii?o ?cieyoe??, ui
aeicaieythoue ?icoe?eoe iaeanoue ?nioaaiiy ?e, i?iaanoe ia’?eoeaiee
aea?? iioeiaeueii? aeiaaeeie e iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiae ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?e.

Oai?aoe/i? iniiae ?ic?aooieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a /anoioe c o?aooaaiiyi
iae?i?eiino? ciai?oiuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee a ?aaeei? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy, ui
aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe ia?aiao?e ia?aoai?thaa/?a , ui ?icoe?ththoue
?iai/o iaeanoue ?e ii iii?o ?cieyoe??;

Iaoiaee aiae?co e aeai?eoie aei??o ? ae?aaiinoeee iaoai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeo?iiaai?oieo aia?ao?a, aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aei??thaaeueiiai eiiieaeno;

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa iiaa?iaiiy
?iaeoeoe?eiiai eie?eiiai i?eeia/a, ui aeicaieythoue a?eueo i?ae o 1,5
?aco ?icoe?eoe iaeano? ?nioaaiiy ?e ii iii?o ?cieyoe??.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeaeuo? iaae?ei?noue nenoai
cao ? aaciaeo ?ooo ii?cae?a.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee, ui aeieeaathoue ?c iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie ? iai?yiee ?ic?iaee oai???
? iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? e iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a
i?io?eaeoeee ono?i?a cao, ui aeicaieythoue cieceoe aenieoaoaoe?ei?
aeo?aoe e oaeineiiaeeoe oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ianeoaiaoaaiiy;
noi?ioeueiaaia oe?eue aeena?oaoe?? ? aecia/ai? iniiai? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «i?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? e iniaeeaino?
ioe?iee ?? oa?aeoa?enoee o nenoaiao cae. Aaoiiaoeee ? oaeaiaoai?ee»
i?eaaaeaiee noeneee aiae?c caaea/ ii i?iaeai? iaae?eiino? ? aaciaee
i?eno?i?a cao, ye-io: onoaiiaeaiiy aieeao a?aeiia oaoi?ee cao ia
aenieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee cae. Ae?eyiee, iaoiaee ?nieoo ia iaae?ei?noue;
iioei?caoe?y ia?aiao??a i?io?eaeoeee ? no?aoaa?? ?aiiioii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo
?ia?o ?c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo aei??thaaeueieo cania?a ? aii;
i?ecia/aiiy aeiione?a ? iii?iaeueieo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a ia’?eo?a cao;
iaoiaee aiae?co ? neioaco ?e ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi
cieaeaiiy iii?o ?cieyoe??; iaoiaee ioe?iee ?iioeuenieo ia?aoeiae
oyaiaiai oieo a ?aaeei? ai??iiy aeaeo?e/ii? aeoae ia no?oiii?eeia/?
aeaeo?iaica i?e iaeaeaaeyo ? ?oiueiai aieeao ia ?e; oai??? ?ic?aooieo e
oaeineiiaethaaiiy eiino?oeoe?? i/ 58/25 aoe ?c aeei?enoaiiyi iae?i?eieo
aeanoeainoae ciai?oiuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee a iaeano? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy c
iaoith ?icoe?aiiy ?iai/i? iaeano? ?e; iaoiae aei??o iaoai?/ieo
ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iiaai?oieo aia?ao?a ? ?i.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ia?a?aoiaaieo ieoaiue iaoiiaeaia ao?aoaie aei??a
ii a?aeiiaao i?eno?i?a cao oiane?aeie cieaeaiiy ieoiiiai iii?o ?cieyoe??
?aeeiai? e?i??; iaaeinoaoiuei? iaae?eiino? ie?aieo aoce?a nenoai cao;
a?aeiinii aenieei ??aiai aeo?ao ia oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? ?aiiio, ?
?i.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue iaae?eiino? ? ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee a?o ciaeoee
a?aeaeoie o i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo o/aieo: aa?aiiaa a.i.,
a?eea?aa a.i., ainiaa a.a., aa?ceeiae/a a.a., ai/eiaa e.a., aiaaeaiiaa
ae.ae., aiaaeaiei a.a., aeieo?aiei e.a., ae?oaeei?ia a.a., ?aai/aiei
a.i., e?aaoeiaa th. A., Eieo?eia e.i., eioey?aiei i.o., ei?aaeaaa a.a.,
caaa??y a.e., eenaieiaa a.i., iaie?ia i.o., iie?ianueeiai i.a.,
iaeue/eea e.a., iaca?iaa o.a., naiiaeieeiaa a.a., naiiaeieeiaa ae.a.,
niaie?aa th.a., nainiie?ia a.o., no?ieiaa a.a., oaeya?ia ae.a., oaeoo?ia
a.e., oaiaiiaa a.e. ? ?i.

aeaiaio?a, ii/eiath/e a?ae iiiaioo aaaaeaiiy nenoai a aenieoaoaoe?th.
Ia?iaeith aaeeeiai noaoenoe/iiai iaoa??aeo i?i a?aeiiae nenoai
aeaeo?e/ii? oeaio?ae?caoe?? c iiiaioo ioneo ?o a aenieoaoaoe??
anoaiiaeaia iayai?noue ia??iaeo i?e?ia?oee ia’?eo?a 1,5…2 ?ieo.

Aei iiiaioo ioneo nenoaie a i?e caaaeaee aaaaoi i?eoiaaieo aeaoaeo?a, ui
aeyaeythoueny iniaeeai ?ioaineaii a ia?o? i?nyoe? aenieoaoaoe??. I?e
a?aeiia?aei?e ia??iaee/iino? i?io?eaeoeee eiia??i?noue a?aeiia iiaea
aooe ?noioii cieaeaia. ?ic?aooiie ci?ie noia?ii? ?ioaineaiino? a?aeiia
i?ney ioneo nenoai iiaeia i?eaeecii cae?enieoe ca ??ai?noth

,

? ii??aiyoe aoaeoeai?noue i?io?eaeoeee e iia?aoeai?noue aieeao
ia?niiaeo ia i?ioean i?e?ia?oee i?eno?i?a.

. Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeeee aeicaiey? a 2…2,5 ?aco i?enei?eoe
iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iaae?ei?noue ae?iao, a c o?aooaaiiyi
nei?i/aiiy oeeeeo eiiooaoe?e — aei 200 ?ac?a.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino? i?eno?i?a cao ia aaeee?i
iie?aii? cae. ? ii?aoethaaiiy noaoenoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeicaieeee
anoaiiaeoe i?e/eie ? oa?aeoa? a?aeiia, ?iciiae?e /ano a?aeiiaeaiiy
i?eno?i?a; aeyaeeiny, ui iiiaae 65% a?aeiia i?eiaaea? ia neoaeao eie??,
a?ey 30% — ca’yceo; a?eueo 70% a?aeiia a?aeaoaa?oueny aaeaiue ? o
aa/??i?e /an i?ae 8…20 aiae.

o ?icae?e? 2 «oaoi?/ia aoaeoeai?noue nenoai cao ? aieea ?oiuei?
iaae?eiino? ia aenieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee cae. E?i?e» ?icaeyaea?oueny
aoaeoeai?noue oaoi?/ieo nenoai, ioe?ieith yei? a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? ?
iaae?ei?noue ? aaciaea.

?icaeyiooi iiaeae? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aaoiaeieoaaiiy , o eio??e
ao?aeiei iioieii ? iio?e ii?cae?a, caaeaiee a?ao?eii ?ooo ae?eueie/ii?
noaioe?? a?aei?aaeaiiy, a aeo?aeiei — iio?e ii?cae?a, ui i?eaoaathoue ia
ae?eueie/io noaioe?th i?eeiio. O caaaeuei?e iinoaiiaoe? caaea/a ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aa caiaeeoueny aei aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a
aeo?aeiiai iioieo: i?iioneii? ni?iiiaeiino?, noia?ieo cao?eiie,
a?aeoeeaiue a?ae caaeaii? oaeaeeino? ?ooe e ?i. On? oe? iieacieee
iinyoue eiia??iee oa?aeoa? ? ii ie?aiino? aai a noeoiiino? aenooiathoue
o yeino? e?eoa???a aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie, oa’ycaieo c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
iaae?eiino? ? a?aeiiaethaaiino? aa.

Caaea/a ae??oaia iaoiaeaie a?aoiaiae?oe/iei, ?i?oaoe?eiei oa eiia??iei,
ui aeicaieythoue aeine?aeaeoaaoe ia?aiao?e o?ainii?oiiai iioieo i?e
a?aeiiaao aa. Aeai?eoi ? iaoiaee ?ic?aooie?a neeaaeai? c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ??aiyiiy ?ooo ii?caea c o?aooaaiiyi
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ? oaoiieia?/iiai ??ai?a ?iaioe aa. I?e ?i?oaoe?eiiio
iiaeaethaaii? iio?e ao?aeieo ii?cae?a iiaeaethaaany a?eaiaiaei oa
?aaoey?iei iioieaie, a oaeaee?noue ao?aeieo ii?cae?a — ii?iaeueiei
caeiiii.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooie?a aecia/ai? noia?i? cao?eiee a?ae /ano
a?aeiiaeaiiy, ui ai?ieneiiaai? ooieoe?yie

, (1)

? ao?aoe in —

. (2)

— a?aeiia?aeii ?ic?aooieiaee ?ioa?aae ? ?ioa?aae i?e a?aeiiaao.

C o?aooaaiiyi (1) ? (2) io?eiai? u?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo noia?ieo cao?eiie

Aeei?enoiaoth/e ae?ace (3) ? (4), ciaeaeai? na?aaei? cia/aiiy noia?ieo
cao?eiie ii?cae?a ? i?iioneii? ni?iiiaeiino? a?ae na?aaeiueiai /ano
a?aeiiaeaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii/eiath/e ?c na?aaeiueiai /ano a?aeiiaeaiiy 0,5 1/aiae
??no na?aaei?o noia?ieo cao?eiie iii?oii i?ia?ano?. Iniaeeai
?ioaineai?noue cao?eiie ca?eueoo?oueny a i??o ?inoo ?ici???a ?ooo, ui
aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue o ?icoiaeaeaii? no?aoaa?? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aa o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici???a ?ooo.

Iaoiaeai iioei?caoe?? i?ae?aiiioiiai ia??iaeo i?io?eaeoeee ia’?eo?a cao
iinay/aiee c ?icae?e aeena?oaoe??.

Caaea/? i?io?eaeoeee nenoai aeineoue neeaaei? ? ?o ?icaeyaeathoue ye
aeno?aiaeuei? ? a?aeiinyoue aei iioeiaeueieo caaea/ iaae?eiino?.

, o a?eueoiio nooiai?, i?ae a?aeii? aeiiii?/i? e?eoa???, i?aeoiaeyoue
aei aeai?o ia?aiao??a i?io?eaeoeee ?aeaeii? aia?aoo?e, a?ae iaae?eiino?
yei? caeaaeeoue aaciaea ?ooo ii?cae?a.

, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ciin ia’?eoa. Ia’?eo caeeoa?oueny a ?iaio? ca oiiae,
ui a?i ?c caaeaiith eiia??i?noth i?i?iaeoue aei /a?aiai? i?io?eaeoeee.
Iaoiae ?icai?iooi ia ?aea 1 eeano iaae?eiino?.

— iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy ni?eueiiai oiaeo i?ney ?aiiioo.

Aaaaeaii eiia??i?noue ? i?ioean ciino iaaaaeaii nenoaiith
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue

(5)

— aeiaaeeiaa aaee/eia. Iieeaaoe

(6)

a?aeaoaeaoueny a?aeiiaa

, (7)

— ??oaiiy nenoaie (5) i?e i.o. (6)

aecia/a?oueny c ??oaiiy caaea/?

(8)

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy nenoaie (5) iaiao?aeii ciaoe ia?ao?aei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
, ui i?eeiathoueny o aeaeyae?

(9)

— eiao?oe??ioe, cia/aiiy yeeo aecia/ai? c aenia?eiaioaeueii?
caeaaeiino? ciino

(10)

Nenoaia (5) o iao?e/ii-aaeoi?i?e oi?i? caieoaoueny oae

(11)

Aea

,

??oaiiy nenoaie (11) aeey aeia?eueiiai iiiaioo iiaeaii o oi?i?

;

Aeei?enoiaoaai?e i?e /enaeueiiio ?ica’ycaii? nenoaie.

=0,001…0,1…

O ?icae?e? i?eaiaeyoueny iaoiaeeea ? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaae?eiino? aia?aoo?e cao ? a?aie/ieo ?nieo?a; noaoenoeea
i?i a?aeiiae. I?enei?aiiy noaiaeiaeo ?nieo?a ?aea o ii?iaeueiiio ?aaeei?
aeinyaiooi ca?eueoaiiyi /anoioe ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy a?eueo, i?ae o 100
?ac?a ia?aaeuoth/e aenieoaoaoe?eiee oaii ?iaioe. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
ciaioaiiy ni?eueiiai oiaeo o?iioiaeo eiioaeo?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ii
iae?i?eiiio caeiio (10). Aeei?enoiaoth/e (10) i?e caaeai?e eiia??iino? e
oiia? a?aeiiae

— a?aie/iee o?ae).

Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo oi?niaaieo ?nieo?a ia iaae?ei?noue neeiai?
eiiooaoe?eii? aia?aoo?e — ioneiaeo ?aea cao. Ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a
cae?eniaia caniaii iiaea?eii? iine?aeiaii? aeno?aiieyoe??. O iniiao
iaoiaeeee iieeaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino?

, (12)

— ieoiia aeo?aoa iaoa??aeo eiioaeo?a ia oeeee eiiooaoe??,

— eiao?oe??ioe,

— a?aie/ia /enei oeeee?a o oi?niaaiiio ? ii?iaeueiiio ?aaeeiao; ?

,

,a — eiao?oe??ioe.

?aaeeiao. Caaaeueiee eiao?oe??io i?enei?aiiy ?nieo?a neeaa 600. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a ?nieo?a aecia/ai? ia??iaee/iino?
?aiiioo ioneiaeo ?aea.

O ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee aeai?o iii?iaeueieo cia/aiue
ia?aiao??a ae?ia?a ? i?ecia/aiiy aeiione?a (ia?aiao?e/ia ei?aeoe?y).

— aeiionoei? iaae? ci?ie e?eoa??th yeino?). Iaoiae ?ethno?iaaiee ia
i?eeeaae? ?aea cao.

, (13)

Aea .

cnoao iii?iaeo, uia eiia??i?noue (13) aoea iaeneiaeueiith. Aeey
oeueiai o?aaa ae??oeoe ??aiyiiy

, (14)

I?ney aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy (14) ? ni?iuaiue ,iieacaii, ui

, (15)

aeey iiiioiiiiai aaoniaa i?ioeano caieoaoueny o aeaeyae?

, (16)

— aeo?aeia cia/aiiy iii?iaeo; , — a?aeiia?aeii i.i. ? aeenia?n?y
aeiaaeeiai? ooieoe?? (13).

I?ney i?aenoaiiaee a (10) aeine?aeieo aeaieo aecia/aii iii?iaeueiee o?ae
o?iioiaeo eiioaeo?a. Aeiionee ia ia?aiao?e aecia/ai? c a?aie/ieo
?nieo?a.

Aiaeia?/ii io?eiai? cia/aiiy iii?iaeueiiai oiaeo ? aeiione?a aeey
oeeiaeo eiioaeo?a.

.

.

.

, a iaiao?aeia iai?aoethaaiiy oiae?

, (17)

.

, a ni?aaa — a?ae??ceaie i?yieo

.

Oiae? (17) iiaea aooe caienaii

,

iiaoaeiaaia iaoiaeaie /enaeueiiai ?ioaa?oaaiiy.

Aiae?c iieacaa, ui io?eiai? iii?iaeuei? cia/aiiy ? aeiionee
aeicaieythoue ca?eueoeoe ?ano?n ?aea, iai?eeeaae iio, ia 106 oeeee?a ? a
1,5…1,6 ?ac?a — i?ae?aiiioiee ia??iae, i?aeaeueoe iaae?ei?noue oa
aaciaeo cao.

?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeai?o aeiione?a ? iii?iaeueieo cia/aiue
ia?aiao??a, iioei?caoe?? ia??iaee/iino? ?aiiioo aia?aoo?e cao o ?oo, ui
i?eeiyo? ion aaeoc? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia aei?iaao e?a?i
ni?aae?oaeiino?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee «aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao aeaeo?e/ii? aeoae
i?ae iaioia?aoii aeaeo?iaica ? eiioaeoiei i?iaiaeii i?e
iaeaeaaeiooai?aii? ia ?aeeia? eaioethae».

neeaaea? 30…1000 0i. O noai? cai?uaiiy (c3) neeiaiai eaioethaa
aeaeo?iaica ia?aeaeueii iii?o aeoae aeeth/aiee aeaiaio — iia?o?yiee
i?ii?aeie i, ii?? yeiai ci?ith?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei ooieoe??

.

ia? aeaeyae

— aiie?ooaea iai?oae ia iaiiooe? o?ainoi?iaoi?a. Aaiaey/e iicia/aiiy

. (18)

??oaiiy (18) iaoiaeii iaeiai ia?aiao?a i?e ioeueiaeo io c o?aooaaiiyi
iicia/aiue, i?eeiyoeo i?e iaea?aeaii? (18), ia? aeaeyae

. (19)

Iaeneiaeueiee iio?e iiaea aeinyaoe ?ici??o . O oeueiio aeiaaeeo a
eaioethc? iaiaai?/oaaiiy o?ainoi?iaoi?a aoaea iaeneiaeueiee eeaeie
no?oio.

ae?acii

, (20)

— eiao?oe??ioe ai?ieneiaoe??.

o ?yaee oo?’?. Iaea?aeo?ii, ui

(21)

, ui a?aeaaeoaeo?oueny a eiei iaaaioaaeaiiy o?ainoi?iaoi?a; no?oi
aeaeo?iaica .

i?eeiyo? iicia/aiiy: — eiao?oe??ioe, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae ia?aiao??a nc,
oaciaeo ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae ieie oa ooieoe?? aannaey 1,2…n-ai
ii?yaeeo.

?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui aiie?ooaea oieo aeaeo?iaica a ia?ao?aeiiio
?aaeei? aeinyaa? 550… 620 a, ui aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ?acoeueoaoaie
iiaeaethaaiiy aeoae a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao.

Aecia/aii a?aie/iee eiao?oe??io aneiao??? e oiiae, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei
ii?ooaiiy ?iaioe eaioethaa.

?icaeyioo? aeaa iaoiaee ??oaiiy oe??? caaea/?.

Ia?oee iaoiae. I?eionea? e?i?eiee ?aaeei i?aoe? eie?eieo
ae?inae?a-o?ainoi?iaoi??a (aeo). Oyaiaee no?oi aneiao??? ia caeaaeeoue
a?ae ia?aiao??a noaie ?aeaeiiai e?ioey (?e) ? aei??aith?

, (22)

— eiao?oe??io, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae aneiao??? ?aeeiai? e?i?? ? oiia
?ico?eaiiy oyaiaiai no?oio. O iia?aoi?i?? oi?i? iai?oaa ia iaiiooe?
i?eeia/a

, (23)

— ii?? ?e (o ?ic?aooieao i?eeiyoa aeaiieoeiaa ?e a?aeiia?aeii aei
ii?iaeae ?e 25-05n).

— cia?aaeaiue no?oio e iii??a ? ia?aoai?aiue iaea?aeo?ii i?ea?iae
iai?oae (23).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oyaiaee no?oi caoaeaeo? a eiioo?? «iaiioea ?aea —
o?eueo?» iiooaei? aa?iii?ee c /anoioaie a?eueiiai eieeaaiiy eiioo?o,
oyaiaiai oieo ? e?aoieo eiio aa?iii?e. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui
aiie?ooaea aa?iii?ee, ia /anoio? neaiaeueiiai oieo, iiaea aeinyaaoe
169…187 o (iioieic/aieaiiy 110 a? ? 125 a?) oa aecaaoe a?aeiiao ?e; o
cai?iiiiiaai?e ia?aoeiaeino?eei? noai? aiie?ooaea cieaeaia a 2,5…2…2,8
?aco, a eiaa?eoi?/iee aeae?aiaio caaanaiiy i?ioeano c??n o 4,2 ?aco.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui e?eoe/iee eiao?oe??io aneiao??? a ?nioth/i? ?e neeaaea?
0,063…0,075, o cai?iiiiiaai?e noai? ?e — 0,61…0…0,675

aeaiiiethniee?a — iae?i?eiiai, ui cai?ua? eiei iaiaai?/oaaiiy aeo, ?
e?i?eiiai, ui a?aeiia?aea? iii?ia? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia /anoio? iniiaii?
aa?iii?ee oyaiaiai no?oio.

Caeaaei?noue iioieic/aieaiiy a?ae no?oio a na?aea/ieeo aeo

,

— eiao?oe??ioe ai?ieneiaoe??.

Iai?oaa ia iae?i?eiiio aeaiiiethnieeo

Aeeoa?aioe?aeueia ??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieiai? noaie ia? aeaeyae

, (24)

— iino?eia.

ia ia?aaeuo? 24%, a iai?oae ia eie?eiiio aeaiaio? — 21…23…23%.
Oeueiai yaii iaaeinoaoiuei aeey ii?ooaiiy ?iaioe i?eno?i?a noea.

Iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ii? aeoae ia no?oiicieia/? aeaeo?iaica a oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe?? aia?oa i?iaaaeaii a eenoiiaae? 1983 ?. Ia no. Aeea?aea
iaeanueei? cae. ? iiaoi?ii — o o?aai? 1997 ?. Ia no. Ia?aiiaeneay
i?ai?/ii-eaaeacnueei? cae. Niaoe?ae?noaie eaoaae? a?o i??oo ? ae??oo i?e
o/ano? aaoi?a.

Iai??thaai? i?e iiaeaethaaii? aeoae aaee/eie ia?aiao??a aeia?a
ocaiaeyoueny c io?eiaieie ?ic?aooieiaeie aeaieie. ?ic?iaeaii noaio
ia?aoeiaeicaoeuaiiai ?aeeiaiai eaioethaa c oei/aniaei naeaeoi?ii, ?nieoe
yei? ia no. Ia?aiiaeneay, i?aeoaa?aeeee ?? ia?aaaae: cai?a o ?iaio? i?e
iiaeaethaaii? aeoae ia niinoa??aaeiny. Ii?iae? ia ia?aoeiaeino?eee
?aeeia? eaioethae caoaa?aeaeai? oe?cae?cieoeath aeey ae?eyiie aei??a c
?ioaineaieie a?aeeeaaeaiiyie iaeaeaae?.

I’yoee ?icae?e «iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?aeeiaeo eaioetha?a».
Aeina?ae aenieoaoaoe?? iieaco?, ui ia aeayeeo iai?yieao aei??a
«aeaeo?e/ia noa??iiy» ?cieyoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ioaineai?oa, a ??aaiue
?cieyoe?? ia? no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy aiane?aeie ae??
??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a (cani?/aiiy aaeanoiai? i?ecie nieyie, aeia?eaaie
? o.i., cieaeaiiy aneaioaaiue ia eie?ei? ?iaioe e ?i.). O ia??iae
aeiiii?/iiai niaaeo eieae?coaaoe ae?th oeeo oaeoi??a ia
i?aaenoaaey?oueny iiaeeeaei.

O?aaeeoe?eii oai??y aiae?co ? neioaco ?e aeei?enoiaoaaea /enaeuei?
cia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a. Aiaeii/an, aaaaoi??/ia i?aeoeea
iieaco?, ui ia?aiao?e iinyoue, ocaaae? aiai?y/e, eiia??iee oa?aeoa?.
Aaoi?ii o oai??th i?iaeooaaiiy e aiae?co ?e ai?iaaaeaeaia noioanoe/ia
iiaeaeue.

ia? aeaeyae:

, (25)

I?e/iio

A — eiao?oe??io, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeo ? noaio aaeanoo;

B — iino?eiee eiao?oe??io.

aecia/a?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, ?iciiae?eii iii?o oiae ? iiaea aooe
iienaia on?/aieie ?iciiae?eaie — eiaa?eoi?/ii-ii?iaeueiei ? aaonniaei
(iiaa eie?y ia cae?ciaaoiiieo oiaeao).

, iiaeia iaea?aeaoe ooieoe?th a?aeiiae f(?). Oey ooieoe?y aeicaiey?
anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeueio (o niene? iaea?eueoi? aoaeoeaiino? ?e) aeiaaeeio
eaioethaa, ui caaacia/o? i?i?iaeuei? eiia??i?noue a?aeiiae ? aeo?aoe
i?aoe? ia ?? oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

O ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe iioei?caoe?? aeiaaeei ?e o ae?aiacii?
a?ae ?io?aiecueeeo (>12,5 aoe) aei oiiaeueieo /anoio.

cia/aiiy ?, oei naiei, aeicaiey? a 8…10 ?ac?a nei?ioeoe /enei ianoaei
i?aoethth/eo ?e.

?inoeoooii «aei?io?ainneaiaenaycue» ?o o 1988…90 ?.?. ?ic?iaeai? iia?
ii?iae? ?e c o?aooaaiiyi ?icaeyiooiai iaoiaeo ?aaoethaaiiy oa
iioei?caoe?? a?aie/ii? aeiaaeeie.

O ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iaoiae i?aeaeuaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? ?e, ui
aeei?enoiao? iae?i?eio ae?eyieo ciai?oiuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee (co)
aeaea?aea neaiaeueiiai no?oio. Iaoiae ?ethno?o?oueny ia i?eeeaae?
ia?aoai?thaa/a /anoioe 50/25 aoe.

, ??aiei a?aeiioaiith iiooaeiinoae iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ?? iaaeao.

, iiaoaeiaai? c o?aooaaiiyi aeanoeainoae co, ?icoaoiaai? ?noioii aeua
oae?e nai?e caeaaeiino?, ?ic?aoiaai?e cae/aeieie iaoiaeaie. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ia?aaaae aiae?ciaaiiai iaoiaeo.

, ioe?ithaaiiai eiao?oe??ioii

, (26)

— oaae, neioaciaaia cai?iiiiiaaiei iaoiaeii.

a?aoiaoth/?, ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a, aacia?a?aia
ci?ia iai?oae aeaea?aea no?oio a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy,

, (27)

;

— i?eaaaeai? iii?e ia?aaea/? iniiaii? noaie cai?uaiiy (inc) a iniiaieo
?aaeeiao; , , ;

— i?eaaaeaiee eiao?oe??io ia?aaaioaaeaiiy;

— aia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io;

— eiao?oe??ioe caiano ? ianoaa?eueiino? iai?oae ia?aae?;

— eiao?oe??io iaae?eiiai iiaa?iaiiy.

, a ia aoai? neioaco ao?aei? ii??e ii e?ioeyo ?aeeiai? e?i?? ca (27).

Oeyoii neioaco ?e onoaiiaeaii, ui aeey eiaeii? /anoioe neaiaeueiiai
no?oio ?nio? ae?aiacii aeiaaeei ?aeeiai? e?i??, ui aeinoaaeythoue
iaeneioi e?eoa??th (26). O oeueiio ae?aiacii? iaea?eueoa aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiao?oueny aiae?ciaaiee iaoiae: ?e iecueeeo /anoio (<75 aoe) aoaeoeai? i?e aeiaaeeiao a?eueo 1500 i, oiiaeueieo - i?e aeiaaeeiao iaioa 500 i. >0,3…0…0,50 i.ei aoaeoeai?noue eaioetha?a aeua, yeui /anoioa no?oio
12,5…25aoe (canoiniaaia, o nenoai? onaa).

Aeei?enoaiiy aeanoeaino? co aeaea?aea no?oio aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ?e iio?aao? aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aiao??a aeaea?aea no?oio, ui
caaeiaieueiythoue aeiiaai aei o?a?eoi??? co a iaeano? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? ia i?eeeaae? ia?aoai?thaa/a /anoioe i/
50/12,5. O ?ic?aooieia?e noai? ? o?e iae?i?eieo aeaiaioe: oe?enoi? ?
aea? ?iaeoeoeaiino? na?aea/iee?a. I?ioean ?iciiae?eo /anoioe ca eiaeiee
iieoia??iae eieeaaiue eiioo?o ?icaeoee ia /ioe?e noaae??, o
i?iaeiaaeaiiy eiaei?e ?c ieo noai on?o iae?i?eieo aeaiaio?a caeeoa?oueny
iaci?iiei.

?icaeyiaii nenoaio ??aiyiue, iai?eeeaae aeey ia?oi? noaae?? i?ioean?a
(aeeiiaii iaoiaeii i?eianiaoaaiiy):

(28)

— no?oie ia aoiae?, o eiioo?i?e iaiiooe? e o iaaaioaaeaii?.

Ia?aoai?thth/e nenoaio (28), iaea?aeeii iaiaeii??aeia e?i?eia
aeeoa?aioe?aeueia ??aiyiiy ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo c iino?eieie eiao?oe??ioaie

, (*)

Aea — eiao?oe??ioe, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae ia?aiao??a nc

— iino?eia ?ioaa?oaaiiy.

??oaiiy ??aiyiiy (*) ia? aeaeyae:

(29)

— iino?ei? ?ioaa?oaaiiy, aecia/athoueny c ii/aoeiaeo oiia:

— ei?ai? oa?aeoa?enoe/iiai ??aiyiiy.

.

.

Ii??aiyiiy oai?aoe/ieo e?eaeo ? inoeeeia?ai a?aeiia?aeieo i?ioean?a
iieacaei iiaiee ?oi?e ca?a.

. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?icoe?aiiy ?iai/i? ciie, ciaioaiiy eni , a, oaeei
/eiii, ? ??no e?eoa??th (26), iiaea aooe aeinyaiooa ca ?aooiie
ca?eueoaiiy iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio na?aea/iee?a ? eiino?oeoeaieo ci?i
ia?aoai?thaa/?a, ?icaeyiooeo ieae/a.

?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui aeieeaathoue ?c aeine?aeaeaiue, aeei?enoai? i?iaeoiei
?inoeoooii aei?io?ainneaiaeiaycue ?o i?e oii?yaeeoaaii? ii?iaeae ia
?aeeia? eaioethae ? caaiaeaie-aeaioiaethaa/aie ii oaeineiiaethaaiith
eiino?oeoe?e ia?aoai?thaa/?a /anoioe.

? aeai? i?i i?inoi?iaa iieiaeaiiy eiioaeo?a (e?ie 20 ien) ?c
?a?no?aoe??th a ianea? iai’yo? aii iiiaio?a eiiooaoe?? eiioaeo?a. Oey
?ioi?iaoe?y c caaeaiiai aeai?eoio ia?iaey?oueny, o ?acoeueoao?
?ic?aoiaothoueny iaoai?/i?, aeaeo?e/i? ? oei/ania? ia?aiao?e ?aea.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aei??o eiioaeoiiai oeneo, ui iieyaa? a ??oaii? nenoaie
??aiyiue, ye? iienothoue aeeiai?/iee i?ioean ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy ?aea:
(aeaeo?e/iiai eaioethaa aieeaiiy iaiioie, ia?ai?uaiiy yei?y ? oyaiaiai
coneeey)

(30)

, ciaoiaeeoueny c ??aiyiue aeaeo

,

-noiaaiee o?ae j-ai eiioaeoo.

Aiaeia?/iei ia?acii io?eiai? ??aiyiiy aeey iiooeo noiaaieo oiae?a
o?iioiaeo eiioaeo?a.

— /enei aeoe?a iaiioee. Neea ?aaeoe?? i?oaeei o ??aiyii? (30)

, (31)

— aeiaaeeia i?oaeeie.

ii?io?oueny oo.

— caaeaia oi/i?noue.

A aeaiee /an iia??oeeiny noaiiaeua c aenieoaoaoe??th aeaiaio?a ?aeeiaeo
e?i?e — ae?inaeueieo ia?aie/ie (aei) ? c’?aeioaa/?a (nyo). Aeooaeueii? ?
i?iaeaia aeei?enoaiiy aeey oeeo ae?ia?a iaeiaeao?oeeoieo iaoa??ae?a:
noaeue, noaeue-i?aeue, noaeue-aethi?i?e. Cai?iiiiiaaii eiino?oeoe??
ia?aie/ie ?c oeeo iaoa??ae?a ? iaoiaee aeai?o ia?aoeio ia?aie/ie,
?ic?iaeai? oo ia ae?iae. ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? aenieoaoaoe?? aei,
cie?aia iiaeeeaa iiieeeiaa ii?ooaiiy eie?eiiai i?eeia/a o neooaoe?yo:
ia?oa — caieeaiiy ?ciethth/iai noeeo (?n) ia iaae? noi?aeieo ?e »
e?iaoeue aeeaeaiiy — ?aeaeiee e?iaoeue», e?eoe/iee ii?? ia?aie/ee ?
iayai?noue ninoaaa ia eie??. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui a oeiiaeo
oaci/ooeeaeo ?e (ii?iaeue ?e -25-yo50-n-8) i?e c?inoaii? iii?o aei
iiiaae 0,25 0i eie?eia ?aea caieea? o?iioia? eiioaeoe (iiieeeiaa
a?euei?noue). Eiio?ieue i?eeia/ai iani?aaiino? aoaea iaae?eiei i?e iii??
ia?aie/ee a?eueo 0,65 0i. sseui ii?? 0,25…0…0,650 i — iaaacia/ia
a?aeiiaa ?e iiaeeeaa i?e iaei?e a?aeiia? – ?n (ae?oaa neooaoe?y).

I?eaaaeaii ioe?iee ii oai??? ia?eianeio i?ioean?a na?aaeiueiai /ano aei
iaaacia/ii? a?aeiiae (ia?oa neooaoe?y) (0,09. 1012 /.). *an io?eiaii i?e
a?aeiiaao aei 0,75o10-6 , ic – 2,75o10-6 1// oa eiia??iino? aeieeiaiiy
iaaacia/ii? a?aeiiae aeey ?ioaineaiino? noaiiaeaiiy 0,9 1//.

Iiaia eiia??i?noue oiai, ui a?aeaoaeaoueny ia?ae?eooy ?ioa?aae?a
«i?inoith» noeeo s1 ? aei s2 (ae?oaa neooaoe?y)

,

— ?ioaineai?noue a?aeiiae ia?aie/ee.

— ?ioaineai?noue a?aeiiae noeeo.

.

Ine?eueee iaaacia/ia a?aeiiaa — ne?aenoai aeaio ?icaeyiooeo aeiaaeeiaeo
neooaoe?e, oi na?aaei?e /an aei iaaacia/ii? a?aeiiae ciaioeany aei
0,069. 1012 1/aiae.

Eiia??i?noue iaaacia/ii? a?aeiiae i?ioyaii oa?i?ia aenieoaoaoe?? o=20
?ie?a ia aei?iaao oe?a?ie neeaaea 0,015. Oaeith eiia??i?noth iiaeia
ciaaaaeeoe, oei a?eueoa, yeui a?aooaaoe, ui /an ?nioaaiiy oiia aeey
iiyae iaaacia/ii? neooaoe?? ia ia?aaeuo?, ye iieacaee ?ic?aooiee, 2,5
/.

O ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooa iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ia?aiao?e/iiai aaia?aoi?a
/anoioe c i?oiaiiaeueieie iaai?oieie iieyie (iii), ui aeicaiey?
iaea?aeoaaoe ciai?oith oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?e ciaioaiiio eiao?oe??io?
ianoaa?eueiino? iai?oae iaaaioaaeaiiy eni. Ii?yae ?c oe??th i?iaeaiith
ae??oaia ?ioa, ia iaioa aaaeeeaa — ?icoe?aiiy ?iai/i? iaeano? aaia?aoe??
/anoioe ? iie?ioaiiy oi?ie aeo?aeii? iai?oae aaia?aoi?a, ui aeeeth/a?
iaaacia/i? ia?i? aa?iii?ee a eiai niaeo??. Oey i?iaeaia iaea?eueo aino?i
i?iyaeeany i?e cai?i? aa?y/aeaoaii? noae? ia oieiaeiieaoaio. Oe? oe?e?
aeinyaioo? ci?iith eiino?oeoe?? iaai?oii?iaiaeo aaia?aoi?a.

Aaia?aoi? iii o noaiao aeeaeaiiy ?e aeeiio? a?aeiia?aeaeuei? ooieoe??
o?eueo?a, oacicaaeath/aai i?eno?ith ? noaa?e?caoi?a iai?oae. O
e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoe/ii iaia? aeine?aeaeaiue aaia?aoi?a iii, oei a?eueoa
noiniaii ??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo ooo oe?eae.

E?eaa iaiaai?/oaaiiy noaee na?aea/iee?a ai?ieneiiaaia ooieoe??th

, (32)

. ??aiyiiy aaia?aoi?a o aeaeyae?

(33)

— ?iaeoeoeai?noue aeiaeaoeiaiai iaai?oii?iaiaeo.

=0). O ia?oiio c ieo ??aiyiiy (33) i?eaiaeeoueny aei aeaeyaeo

, (34)

— aiie?ooaea ?iaeoeoe?? eiioo?o, iieo/a?ii

, (35)

ae?eni? /enea.

0 ??aiyiiy (33) iiaea aooe caaaeaia aei aa??aoe?eiiai ??aiyiiy oeeea

, (36)

oa ?iaeoeoe?? iaea/oaaiiy.

Oiiaa iaae iaeano? iano?eeino? ia??iaee/iiai ??oaiiy ??aiyiue (35) ?
(36) ii ia?oiio iaaeeaeaiith ia? aeaeyae

(37)

, ?c (37) aeieeaa?, ui

(38)

I?aenoaiiaeith a (38) ia?aiao??a io?eiai? caeaaeiino? i?ae ?iaeoeoe??th
iaea/oaaiiy ? eiao?oe??ioa e, ui aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe iaae? iaeano?
iano?eeino? (a?oo?eaoe?ei? cia/aiiy ?iaeoeoe?? ia ii/aoeo aaia?aoe?? ?
i?e c?ea? eieeaaiue). ?ic?aooiee aeeiiai? aeey ia?aoai?thaa/a /anoioe
oeio i50/25-40 (iii).

=0,1…0,25 ai a eiioo? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai (o 1,5…1,7 ?ac?a)
?icoe?aiith iaeano? iano?eeino?, ui aeia?a ocaiaeeoueny c aenia?eiaioii.

0 aieeae ao?ao ia iaeanoue no?eei? aaia?aoe?? /anoioe.

0.

=0 ??aiyiiy ia? aeaeyae

, (39)

, oa io?eiaia ae?aaeaiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aiie?ooaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aaia?aoi?a.

0. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeeth/aii? ?iaeoeoeaiino? a eiioo? aiie?ooaea
eieeaaiue ci?ith?oueny iacia/ii (<3%). Aenia?eiaioe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?acoeueoaoe aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue: ?icoe?aii iaeanoue no?eeeo eieeaaiue ia?aoai?thaa/a (ia 65%) oa iie?ioaia oi?ia aeo?aeii? iai?oae aaia?aoi?a. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ci?i? eiino?oeoe?? iaai?oii?iaiae?a ? ?ioeo ia?aiao??a ia?aoai?thaa/?a /anoioe ai?iaaaeaeai? ia aeaoeueeiio aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiio caaiae? ion ?o ? eaeocuee?e o?e?? iineianueeiai aeaeo?ieaiiiaiai caaiaeo ?o, ui aeioneathoue oe? ae?iae. O ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi aeaa oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa iiaa?iaiiy ea ?aea aeno, oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaiiai ia aei?iaao niae: iioei?caoe?y eiioaeoiiai iaoeniaiiy ? oiaeo eiioaeo?a ? ci?ia eiino?oeoe?? aocea, ui noai?th? "i?ioeiiiaio" ?ooo naeoi?a. Ia?oee ?c ieo ?aae?co? eiao?oe??io iiaa?iaiiy ea=0,641 (ca?eueoaiee ia 42%), ae?oaee - 0,8. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue eiao?oe??ioa iiaa?iaiiy, aeei?enoai? eai?ia?aaenueeei caaiaeii ion ?o i?e iiaea?i?caoe?? ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ?aea ? eiai iiaeeo?eaoe?e aeno.16 ? aeno.15, a ?inoeoooii "ae?io?aineaiaenaycue" – i?e aeioneo ii?iae?a ia noaioe?ei? ?aeeia? eaioethae c ?aea oeio aeno.16. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee 1. Noi?ioeueiaaii i?iaeaio i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ? aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ioe?iee oa?aeoa?enoee iaae?eiino? i?eno?i?a cao. I?e ia?iaoe? noaoenoeee cai?iiiiiaaii a?aoiaoaaoe oie oaeo, ui a i?neyioneiaee ia??iae ia?aaeuaiiy ii/aoeiai? ?ioaineaiino? noia?iiai iioieo a?aeiia iaae noaeei cia/aiiyi iiaea aeinyaaoe 6...8. 2. ?ic?iaeaii a?aoiaiae?oe/iee, ?i?oaoe?eiee ? eiia??iee iaoiaee ioe?iee aieeao a?aeiia oaoi?/ieo cania?a cao ia aenieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee e?i?? cae?cieoe? - e?eoa??? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoai cao: i?iioneio ni?iiiaei?noue ? noia?i? cao?eiee ii?cae?a. Iieacaii, ui ? aeioe?eueiei aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei ??aiy iaae?eiino? nenoai cao, ia??iaee/iino? i?io?eaeoeee, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiio caaacia/aiith aeenoaioe?e neaiae?caoe?? ? ca'yceo a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici???a ?ooo ia ae?eyioe?. 3. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano i?io?eaeoeee, yea caniiaaia ia canoinoaaii? ia?eianueeeo aeiaaeeiaeo i?ioean?a, ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aei??thaaeueiiai eiiieaeno (a?io) ? aenia?eiaioaeueii-aiae?oe/ieo caeaaeiinoae, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ciin ia'?eoa. Ca aeiiiiiaith a?ia aeeiio?oueny ioe?iea ia?aiao??a ? ?iaeoueny i?iaiic iiiaioo i?iaaaeaiiy /a?aiai? i?io?eaeoeee, ca oiiae, ui ia'?eo i?i?iaeoue aei oeueiai iiiaioo c caaeaiith eiia??i?noth. Iiaeaeue ?icai?iooa ia iniiai? ia'?eoe cao - ?aea. 4. ?ic?iaeaii no?aoaa?th i?io?eaeoe/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia'?eo?a cao, yea, ia a?aei?io a?ae ieaiiai-iiia?aaeaeoaaeueii?, aeicaiey? ciaioeoe aeieth cai?i ?aea aei 15% ?, oei naiei caeaoaa?oe i?io?eaeoeeo. 5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ino?oiaioaeueii-aiae?oe/i? iaoiaee oai??? iaae?eiino? aeicaieythoue o ii?iaeueiiio ? iaaaioaaeaiiio ?aaeeiao ?nieo?a aei 200 ?ac?a i?enei?eoe iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iaae?ei?noue ia'?eo?a cao; o oi?niaaiiio ?aaeei? ?nieo?a neeiai? eiiooaoe?eii? aia?aoo?e eiao?oe??io i?enei?aiiy i?aeaeuaiee aei 2...3, a caaaeueiee eiao?oe??io - aei 600. 6. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo i?ecia/aiiy aeiione?a ? anoaiiaeaiiy iii?iaeueieo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a ia'?eo?a cao; iieacaii, ui anoaiiaeaiiy aeiione?a ia ia?aiao?e ?aea cao aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe iaae?ei?noue ? ca?eueoeoe i?ae?aiiioiee ia??iae i?io?eaeoeee a 1,8...2 ?ace. 7. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo i?ioean?a o ?aaeei? ai??iiy aeaeo?e/ii? aeoae ia no?oiii?eeia/? aeaeo?iaica a oiiaao iaeaeaaeae ? ioe?iee aieeao ?iioeuenieo ia?aoeiae oyaiaiai no?oio ia eie?ei? i?eeia/? i?e e?i?eiiio ? iae?i?eiiio ?aaeeiao ?iaioe ae?inae?a-o?ainoi?iaoi??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiith i?e/eiith ii?ooaiiy ?iaioe ?e ? ii?ooaiiy ?iioeueniith ia?aoeiaeith oyaiaiai no?oio a eiioo?? "eie?eiee aeaiaio - o?eueo?" aa?iii?ee ia /anoio? neaiaeueiiai no?oio, yea i?eaeooo? neaiae. 8. Noi?ioeueiaaii aeiiae ? ?ic?iaeaia noaia ?aeeiaiai eaioethaa c oei/aniaei naeaeoi?ii, ui caaacia/o? no?eeo ?iaioo eie?eiiai i?eeia/a a ?aaeei? ai??iiy aeoae ia no?oiicieia/? aeaeo?iaica; ?ic?iaeai? aeiiiaiaiiy aei ii?iaeae ?oe25-yo50-n-88, caoaa?aeaeai? oe?cae?cieoeath aeey aenieoaoaoe?eieo ?nieo?a. 9. Ooi/iaii eiia??iinii-aiae?oe/iee iaoiae aiae?co ? neioaco ?e c o?aooaaiiyi "aeaeo?e/iiai noa??iiy" ? caeii?a ?iciiae?eo iii?o ?cieyoe??, ui aeicaiey? i?iaanoe aea?? iioeiaeueii? aeiaaeeie ?e ?c ??ciiiai?oiith neaiaeueiith /anoioith. 10. Aecia/ai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?e: neioac eaioetha?a i?e ??ciiiai?oi?e neaiaeuei?e /anoio? ii caaeaiiio a?aie/iiio iii?o ?cieyoe??, iiaee iaoiae ?aaoethaaiiy oa ?i.; Aeieacaii, ui iaeneiaeueiith aoaeoeai?noth aieiae?thoue ?aeeia? eaioethae iecueei? /anoioe (iaioa 75 aoe) i?e aeiaaeei? 1...2 ei, oiae? ye eaioethae oiiaeueiiai ae?aiaciio (aeua 325 aoe) i?e aeiaaeei? 0,25...0,4 ei. Oey iniaeea?noue oiiaeueieo ?e aeei?enoaia i?e ?ic?iaoe? aaoiaeieoaaiiy aao; ?inoeoooii "aei?io?ainneaiaenaycue" ?o ?ic?iaeai? ii?iae?, ui a?aoiaothoue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei ?aaoethaaiiy ?e, canoinoaaiiy yeeo aei 10 ?ac?a ciaioo? /enei a?aeiia. 11. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae i?aeaeuaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? ?e oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy iae?i?eieo aeanoeainoae ciai?oiuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaea?ae neaiaeueiiai no?oio. ?icaeiaia oai??y aiae?co ? neioaco ?e c o?aooaaiiyi aacoieiii? ci?ie aeo?aeii? iai?oae aeaea?aea neaiaeueiiai no?oio a iae?i?ei?e iaeano? eiai caeaaeiino? a?ae i?ia?aeiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy. Iieacaii, ui iaoiae aeicaiey? ia 30...40% ?icoe?eoe iaeanoue ?nioaaiiy ?e ii i?i?iaeueiiio iii?? ?cieyoe??. 12. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ?ic?aooieo ia?aoai?thaa/a /anoioe 50/25 aoe a cii? ia?aaaioaaeaiue, yea aeaiiino?o? iiaeeeaino? iaoiaeo c o?aooaaiiyi iae?i?eiino? ciai?oiuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaea?aea oieo; iieacaii, ui iio??aia ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ianoaa?eueiino? aeo?aeii? iai?oae, yea aieeaa? ia ?iai/o iaeanoue ?e, aeinyaa?oueny aeai?ii ?ici???a ?iiino? eiioo?o ? ia?a??co iaai?oii?iaiaeo. 13. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee e aeai?eoie aei??o ? eiio?ieth eiioaeoiiai oeneo ? iaoai?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iiaai?oieo aia?ao?a. Iaoiaee aeei?enoai? i?e noai?aii? aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aei??thaaeueiiai eiiieaeno (a?ia) aeey ?oo aeenoaioe?e neaiae?caoe?? ? ca'yceo, yeee aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue. 14. Anoaiiaeaii iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy a ?e ae?ia?a (ae?inaeuei? ia?aie/ee, aeaeo?ioyaia? ?aeeia? c'?aeioaa/?) ?c iaeiaeao?oeeoieo iaoa??ae?a; cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee aeai?o ia?aiao??a ? iieacaii, ui i?e ei?ioeiio caieeaii? ?ciethth/iai noeeo e iii?? ae?inaeueii? ia?aie/ee a?eueo 0,25 0i iiaea a?aeaooeny iiieeeiaa ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy oaci/ooeeaiai eie?eiiai ?aea, i?e/iio i?e iii?? ia?aie/ee 0,25...0,6 0i iaaacia/ia neooaoe?y aeieea? i?e iaei?e eiio?ieueiaai?e a?aeiia? - caieeaiiy noeeo, a eiia??i?noue iaaacia/ii? neooaoe?? a aoaeue-yeeo aeiaaeeao ia ia?aaeuo? i?eeiyoeo ii?i. 15. Oaeineiiaeaii eiino?oeoe?th ia?aoai?thaa/?a /anoioe 25 aoe, ui aeicaiey? cieceoe eiao?oe??io ianoaa?eueiino? aeo?aeii? iai?oae; ?noioii ?icoe?eoe (aei 60%) iaeanoue no?eei? ?iaioe, o oiio /ene? i?e aeei?enoaii? oieiaeiieaoaieo noaeae aeey iaai?oii?iaiae?a; caaeiaieueieoe aeiiae aaciaee ? na?oeo?eaoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? nenoai cao. 16. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ia?aoai?thaa/a /anoioe oaeineiiaeaii? eiino?oeoe?? c i?oiaiiaeueiei ?icoaooaaiiyi iaiioie, ui aeicaiey? i?iaanoe aea?? ? ioe?ieo ia?aiao??a ? aeine?aeaeoaaoe iaeano? onoaeaiino? noaaa?iiie/ieo eieeaaiue i?e ??ciiiai?oieo ?aaeeiao ?iaioe. 17. Cai?iiiiiaaii iai?yiee ? aeieacaia iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa iiaa?iaiiy oaci/ooeeaiai eie?eiiai i?eeia/a aei 0,81, ui aeicaiey? ia 40...50% ?icoe?eoe iaeanoue no?eei? ?iaioe ?e ? i?aeaeueoe aaciaeo oaoi?/ieo cania?a cao. Iiaea?i?ciaaia ?aea aeionea?oueny caaiaeii ion ?o. ?aae?caoe?y ?ic?iaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? iaoiae?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue caaacia/eea iaea?aeaiiy ?noioiiai aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a oe?iao 1989 ?., I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiai aeieoiaioaie i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ioae?eaoe?? ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? 1. A.e.nieieia, a.i.?acaiiia, e.a.iaiaeeia. Ianeoaeeaaiea yeaeo?e/aneeo ?aeueniauo oeaiae. - i.: O?ainii?o, 1971.-45 n. 2. Oaeueia a.a., ?acaiiia a.i. oaci/oanoaeoaeueiua ?aeueniaua oeaie 25 aoe - i.: O?ainii?o, 1972. - 95 n. 3. ?acaiiia a.i., iaiaeeia e.a. i?ioeeaeoe/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea ?aeueniauo oeaiae. - i.: O?ainii?o, 1980, - 143 n. 4. ?acaiiia a.i. enneaaeiaaiey iaaeaaeiinoe iaeo?aeueiuo ?aea nenoai noea.// Aanoiee aieeaeoa. - 1977. - ?6. - n. 37-42. 5. ?acaiiia a.i., aaeaeoae a.i. e auai?o aeiioneia e iiieiaeueiuo cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia ?aea noea // niaa?oainoaiaaiea e iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoe ae.ae. nenoai aoen: iaaeaoc. Na. Iao/. O?. - aeiai?iiao?iane: aeeeo. -1985. -n. 3-11. 6. Ainia a.a., ?acaiiia a.i., oieioa a.a. iioeiecaoeey i?ioeeaeoeee iauaeoia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie aaoiiaoeee n i?eiaiaieai ecia?eoaeueiiai eiiieaena.//aanoiee aieaeoa. -1998. - ?5. - n. 26-29. 7. ?acaiiia a.i.- enneaaeiaaiea iaaeaaeiinoe iaeo?aeueiuo ?aea nenoai noea.// Aanoiee aieeaeoa, -1977. -?6. N.46-48. 8. ?acaiiia a.i., eia?eaei i.a. i iaaeaaeiinoe ?aaiou oieii?iaiaeyueo noueia n oa?aeue/aouie i?oaeeiaie e niaaeeieoaeyie //aaoiiaoeea, oaeaiaoaieea e naycue. - 1994. -?8. - n.32-34. 9. Iaaaeiae/ e.a., ?acaiiia a.i., e?aaoeia a.a., eia?eaei i.a. ae?innaeueiua ia?aiu/ee e yeaeo?ioyaiaua niaaeeieoaee ec iaeiaeaoeoeeoiuo iaoa?eaeia. //aaoiiaoeea, oaeaiaoaieea e naycue. - 1966. - ?10. - n.22-26. 10. E?aaoeia th.a., ?acaiiia a.i., eo/eiei a.n., enneaaeiaaiea ?aaiou ia?aiao?e/aneiai aeaeeoaey /anoiou a ?aaeeia ia?aa?ocee //aanoiee aieeaeoa - 1982. - ?2. - n.47-49. 11. E?aaoeia th.a., ?acaiiia a.i., eo/eiei a.n. enneaaeiaaiea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe ?aeueniauo oeaiae i?e ieoaiee io iaaieoiuo aeaeeoaeae /anoiou //aanoiee aieeaeoa. - 1983. -?6. - n.50-53. 12. ?acaiiia a.i., aaeaeoae a.i. noaiae aeey aaoiiaoe/aneie i?iaa?ee ia?aiao?ia ?aea noea //aaoiiaoeea, oaeaiaoaieea e naycue. - 1991. - ?2. - n.13-16. 13. ?acaiiia a.i., eia?eaei i.a. i iaaeaaeiinoe ?aaiou oieii?iaiaeyueo noueia n oa?aeue/aouie i?oaeeiaie e niaaeeieoaeyie // aaoiiaoeea, oaeaiaoaieea e naycue. -1994. -?10. -n. 12-16. 14. ?acaiiia a.i., eecyeia a.y., aaeaeoae a.i. niinia ecia?aiey eiioaeoiiai aeaaeaiey yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo ?aea noea // iooe iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia ae.ae. o?ainii?oa: iaaeaoc. Na. Iao/. O?. – oaoeaio: oaoeeo. – 1984. -aui. 189/36. -n.59-63. 15. ?acaiiia a.i. i iaaeaaeiinoe ?aeueniauo oeaiae // aaoiiaoeea, oaeaiaoaieea e naycue. -1986. -?3. -n. 36-39. 16. ?acaiiia a.i. i auai?a no?aoaaee i?ioeeaeoeee iauaeoia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie aaoiiaoeee // ?ioi?iaoe?eii – ea?oth/? nenoaie ia cae?cie/iiio o?ainii?o?. ?1. 1997. N. 60-67. 17. ?acaiiia a.i., noaaeiee/oe a.e. enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey yeaeo?e/aneie aeoae iaaeaeo iaioia?aoii yeaeo?iaica e eiioaeoiui i?iaiaeii ia ?aeueniaua oeaie //niaa?oainoaiaaiea e iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoe aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo nenoai aaoiiaoeee, oaeaiaoaieee e nayce: iaaeaoc. Na. Iao/. O?. - aeiai?iiao?iane: aeeeo. -1990. –n.14-23. 18. ?acaiiia a.i. niaa?oainoaiaaiea eiino?oeoeee e oaoiieiaee ianeoaeeaaiey i?aia?aciaaoaeae /anoiou // aaoiiaoeea, oaeaiaoaieea e naycue. –1993. -?2. -n. 23-26. 19. ?acaiiia a.i. iiuo yenieoaoaoeee ?aeueniauo noueia n oa?aeue/aouie i?oaeeiaie ia i?eaeiai?ianeie ae.ae // oeo/oaiea yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaoaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aeueniaiai nouea: iaaeaoc. Na. Iao/. O?. – eoeauoaa:eeeo. - 1990. -aui. 3. -n. 52-56. 20. ?acaiiia a.i. niaa?oainoaiaaiea eiino?oeoeee e oaoiieiaee ianeoaeeaaiey i?aia?aciaaoaeae /anoiou // aaoiiaoeea, oaeaiaoaieea e naycue. -1993. -?3. -n. 23-27. 21. ?acaiiia a.i. ia ioeaiea iieacaoaeae o?ainii?oiiai iioiea i?e ioeacao nenoai aeo e iaeioi?ua aii?inu i?ioeeaeoeee//eioi?iaoeeiiii-oi?aaeythuea nenoaiu ia ae.ae. o?ainii?oa. –1999. -?1. -n.14-29. 22. A.n. 1185543. Nnn? ieeii2i5/161. Oa??iiaaieoiue aeaeeoaeue /anoiou ia aeaa /?acaiiia a.i., e?aaoeia a.a., noaaeiee/oe a.e., iieaeaaneee i.i. e eoeaoia i.i. (nnn?). ?3743866; cayaeaii 24.05.84, iioae. 15.10.85, ae.38. 23. A.n. 1486761. Nnn?.ieeg05a 23/02. Ono?ienoai aeey ecia?aiey ia?aiauaiey yei?y yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo ?aea / ?acaiiia a.i., eecyeia a.y. e aaeaeoae a.i. (nnn?). ?4294402; cayaeaii 05.02.89, iioae. 15.06.89, ae-22. 24. A.n. 1332267. Nnn?.ieeg05a 23/02. Ono?ienoai aeey ecia?aiey ?aciinoe ?anoai?ia eiioaeoia oiaea yei?y yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai ?aea / ?acaiiia a.ae., eecyeia a.y., aaeaeoae a.i. e aa?ineiia a.ae. (nnn?). ?3936658; cayaeaii 22.04.87, iioae. 23.08.87, ae-31. 25. ?acaiiia a.i., eecyeia a.y., aaeaeoae a.i., o?ioeaiei a.e. iieoaaoiiaoe/aneee noaiae aeey eiio?iey e ecia?aiey ia?aiao?ia ?aea // niaa?oainoaiaaiea e iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoe ae.ae. nenoai aoen: iaaeaoc. Na. Iao/. O?. - aeiai?iiao?iane: aeeeo. -1985.-n.11-20. 26. ?acaiiia a.i. i aeeyiee yeaeo?e/aneie aeoae ia oieinuaiieea yeaeo?iaica i?e aieieaaeiia?aciaaiee ia ?aeueniaua oeaie//eioi?iaoeeiiii-oi?aaeythuea nenoaiu ia ae.ae. o?ainii?oa. - 1998. -?4 , n. 28-30. 27. ?acaiiia a.i., eoieeia th.e., noaaeiee/oe a.e. enneaaeiaaiea ?aaiou iaaieoiuo oe?enoi?iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae // aii?inu iiauoaiey aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey e ono?ienoa aaoiiaoeee, oaeaiaoaieee e nayce ia ae.ae. o?ainii?oa. Iaaeaoc.na. Iao/. O?. Oaoeeoa.- Aui. 186/33, 1984, n.36-40. 28. ?acaiiia a.i., noaaeiee/oe a.e. niaa?oainoaiaaiea eiino?oeoeee i?aia?aciaaoaeae /anoiou ?aeueniauo oeaiae 25 aoe//niaa?oainoaiaaiea e iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoe ae.ae. nenoai aaoiiaoeee, oaeaiaoaieee e nayce: iaaeaoc. Na. Iao/. O?. - aeiai?iiao?iane: aeeeo. -1990. -n.4-13. 29. Aeanaiei a.a., ?acaiiia a.i. aeeyiea yeaeo?e/aneie aeoae eiioaeoiie naoe ia ?aeueniaua oeaie // aaoiiaoeea, oaeaiaoaieea e naycue. -?10. -1989. -n.11-13. ?acaiiia a. I. I?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? nenoai ? i?eno?i?a caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ?ooo ii?cae?a (iaoiaee ? caniae). Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.22.08 - aenieoaoaoe?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo. Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999. Ia caoeno aeianai? iaoiaee ? caniae i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? nenoai cae?cie/ii? aaoiiaoeee ? oaeaiaoai?ee (cao), caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ?ooo ii?cae?a, oai?aoe/i? iniiae iioei?caoe?? i?io?eaeoeee ?c canoinoaaiiyi aaoiiaoeciaaieo aei??thaaeueieo eiiieaen?a, aeine?aeaeaiue ia iaae?ei?noue, i?ecia/aiiy aeiione?a ? aeai?o iii?iae?a ia?aiao??a ia'?eo?a cao, aiae?oe/i? iaoiaee aieeao a?aeiia ia aenieoaoaoe?ei? iieacieee cae?cie/ii? ae?eueieoe? ? aoaeoeaiino? nenoai cao, ??ai?a ?iioeuenieo ia?aoeiae oyaiaiai no?oio, ye? aieeaathoue ia ?aeeia? eiea a ?aaeei? ai??iiy aeoae ia iaioia?ao? i?e iaeaeaaeeoeyo; iaoiaeo aiae?co ? neioaco ?e a oiiaao iiieaeaiiai iii?o ?cieyoe??, ?aeeiai? e?i??; ?ic?aooiie ia?aoai?thaa/?a /anoioe - aeaea?ae neaiaeueiiai no?oio c caaeaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie; ?acoeueoaoe aiae?oe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue (?e ? eiai aeaiaioe, ia?aoai?thaa/? /anoioe, eie?ei? i?eeia/? c i?aeaeuaiei eiao?oe??ioii iiaa?iaiiy, ii?iae? ia i?iaeooaaiiy ?e, a?i ?oae oa ?i.), Iioae?eiaaieo a 52 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, a oiio /ene? 19 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aeaeuo? iaae?ei?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoai cao, a cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee i?io?eaeoeee ?aaoethaaiiy ? oaoi?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy nei?i/o? aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe aaeoc?. ?ic?iaee ai?iaaaeaeai? a ae?iaieoeoai. ?acaiiia a.i. iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoe nenoai e ono?ienoa iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey iiacaeia (iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa). Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.08 - yenieoaoaoeey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa. Aeiai?iiao?ianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa. Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999. Ia caueoo auianaiu iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe nenoai aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie aaoiiaoeee e oaeaiaoaieee (aeao), iaania/eaathueo aaciianiinoue aeaeaeaiey iiacaeia: oai?aoe/aneea iniiau iioeiecaoeee i?ioeeaeoeee n i?eiaiaieai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo ecia?eoaeueiuo eiiieaenia, eniuoaiee ia iaaeaaeiinoue, iacia/aiey aeiioneia e auai?a iiieiaeia ia?aiao?ia iauaeoia aeao; aiaeeoe/aneea iaoiaeu aeeyiey ioeacia ia yenieoaoaoeeiiiua iieacaoaee aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o/anoea e yooaeoeaiinoe nenoai aeao, o?iaiae eiioeueniuo iiiao oyaiaiai oiea, aeeythueo ia ?aeueniaua oeaie a ?aaeeia ai?aiey aeoae ia oieinuaiieea i?e aieieaaeao; iaoiaeu aiaeeca e neioaca ?e a oneiaeyo iiieaeaiiiai nii?ioeaeaiey ecieyoeee ?aeueniaie eeiee: ?an/aou i?aia?aciaaoaeae /anoiou - enoi/ieeia neaiaeueiiai oiea n caaeaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie; ?acoeueoaou aiaeeoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee (?e e eo yeaiaiou, i?aia?aciaaoaee /anoiou, iooaaua i?eaiieee n iiauoaiiui eiyooeoeeaioii aica?aoa, ii?iaee ia i?iaeoe?iaaiea ?e, a?i ?oo e ae?.), Iioaeeeiaaiiua a 52 iao/iuo ?aaioao, a oii /enea 19 aaoi?neeo naeaeaoaeuenoaao. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aiaae?aiea ?ac?aaioie e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iiauoaao iaaeaaeiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoai aeao, a i?aaeeiaeaiiua iaoiaeu i?ioeeaeoeee, ?aaoee?iaee e oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey nie?auatho yenieoaoaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu io?anee. ?ac?aaioee aiaae?aiu a i?iecaiaenoai. Razgonov a.p. increasing of reliability system and apparatus provided safeguard movement of trains (methods and means). Dissertation for the acquirement of the degree of doctor of technical science in specialty 05.22.08 - exploitation of railway transport. Dnepropetrovsk, 1999. The following theses are submitted for the presentation: methods and means of increasing the reliability systems of railway automatics and telemechanics (a&t) provided safeguard the movement of trains: theoretical basis optimization preventive measure on base measure computer complex, exploration of reliability, designation of limits and nominal of parameters subjects a&t; theoretical methods value of influence hindrance on exploitation criteria of railways; degrees impulse of traction currents hindrance in condition of electrical are on the locomotive pantograph in during ice condition, which influence on railway circuits (rc); methods of analysis and synthesis rc in conditions of resistors reduction of railway line isolation; calculation of signal current generation with proper characteristics; results theoretical and experimental research (rc, converters of freacuance, rc relay with the highest coefficient return, normal of rc, aws rtp and so on). These are set forth in 52 research papers, including 19 patents. It has been proved that introduction research and recommendations increase the reliability and efficiency of operation systems at on railway transport, methods of preventive measure and technical services reduce costs of exploitation at systems.

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