Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee oe?a?ie

Noa?inoaiei Aaiia A?eai??aia

OAeE 911.3:312

IaoiAeieia?y ? i?aeoeea

aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie (?aa?iiaeueiee aniaeo)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.09.01 — Aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe?,

nioe?aeueia aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aae? ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

Aei?iaoioeia Na?a?e ?aaiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie,

Eoe?iia ?aai ?ea??iiiae/

aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie,

Aeie?oi?e Ia?(yi ?aaiiae/

aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo ?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Eooeaiei A??a ?aai?aia

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii ?aaee ii aea/aiith

i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a noaoenoeee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny « 7 » /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.160.01 ?aaee ii aea/aiith
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252032, i. Ee?a,
aoeueaa? Oaa/aiea, 60

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?aaee ii aea/aiith
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee « 29 » ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
N.?. Aaiaeo?

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia
aeiaaeueiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?,
nioe?i-ineoieia?/ii? oa aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??, ui aaciina?aaeiuei
a?aeaeeinue ia ci?i? oa?aeoa?o oa iniiaieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano
aeaiia?aeoai?aiiy. Iinoa??iiy ianaeaiiy ? aeaoi?iaoe?y noaoaai-a?eiai?
no?oeoo?e a a?eueoino? ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie a ii?aeiaii? ?c caaaeueiith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith e?ecith oa iaae?iiyi ?aaeueiiai ??aiy aeeooy
oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, iaaeinoaoiueith aaeaioaoe??th aei i?eioeeiiai
iiaeo oiia aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ia oii? cia/iiai c?inoaiiy aeeoo?aeo
noaiaea?o?a, ia?aaeon?i iieiae?, iaieio/a i?ecaaee aei ii?ooaiiy
iniiaieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? a?aeoai?thaaeueii?
aeoeaiino?, ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo ianoaiia oa naiicaa?aaeoaaeueii?, oae caaii?
“a?oaeueii?” iiaaae?iee ianaeaiiy. ? oi/a ei??iiy oeeo i?iaeai
i?inoaaeo?oueny ua c na?aaeeie 60-o ?ie?a, no/ani?noue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iaaeoi oaeaeeeie c?ooaiiyie, ye? iio?aaothoue oi/iiai aii??e/iiai
aei??thaaiiy oa oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy. A?o/eciyia
aeaiia?ao?/ia iaoea ia? ni?aao ?c i?eioeeiiai iiaeie i?ioeanaie,
aeine?aeaeaiiy yeeo iio?aao? iiaeo iaoiae?a, a ?aaoethaaiiy — iiaeo
eiioeaioe?e. Ia aeaeue, i?aeoe/ii ia iiaea noaoe a iaaiae? ? iaeiie/aiee
i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae, ine?eueee ua i?eiee aeiaeia e?a?ia a ie?i? /ane
ia ia?aaeeaaea oaeiai no??ieiai i?ioeano aeaiiioeyoe??. iaoiiaeaiiai
niieo/aiiyi ye a?ae`?iiiai ciai?oiueii?a?aoe?eiiai naeueaei, oae ?
i?e?iaeiei ciaioaiiyi ianaeaiiy.

Aeey aoaeoeaiiai aieeao ia i?ioeane aeaiia?aeoai?aiiy iio??ai?
ei?ioeioa?i?iia? oa aeiaaio?eaae? caoiaee nenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?o, ia aac?
?ioaa?aoe?? coneeue aea?aeaaieo oa iaaea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? c iaoith
ii?aeiaiiy cania?a aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao ia ieaioaaiiy n?i’? oa
naiicaa?aaeoaaeueio iiaaae?ieo, oi?ioaaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo ianoaiia oa
?o ?aae?caoe?th, i?a?aoe?eiee ?oo oiui. ? an? i?aenoaae ?ic?aoiaoaaoe,
ui ?acoeueoaoii oeeo oe?eani?yiiaaieo ae?e noaia ci?ia
aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio oa a ?? ie?aieo
?aa?iiao, ui ia o?eueee iie?ioeoue no/anio neooaoe?th, a e caaacia/eoue
caa?aaeaiiy aeaiia?ao?/iiai iioaioe?aeo a iaeaooiueiio.

Ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ye oa?eoi??aeueii? nenoaie
oa ?? ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a, eiio?anoieo ca nai?i i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/iei
iieiiaiiyi, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii, no?oeoo?ith aeiiii?ee,
oa?aeoa?ii oa ci?noii o?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a, aeieia?/iith
neooaoe??th, cie?aia — Ee?anueei?, Eoaainueei? oa A?iieoeueei? iaeanoae.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue oaeiae ia i?eeeaae? i?eei?aeiiiiai ?aa?iio
o neeaae? an?o i?eei?aeiiieo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a, o ca`yceo ?c
nai???aei?noth ?oiueiai aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue i?iaeaie a?aeoai?aiiy
oa?eoi??aeueieo aeaiia?ao?/ieo ni?eueiinoae Oe?a?ie.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ocaaaeueith? aaoi?nuee? ia?iaee a oiae? i?aeaioiaee
Aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai, ieaiiaeo oai eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???
Oe?a?inueeiai o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo, a?aeae?e?a
noni?eueii-aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa aaia?ao?? ianaeaiiy ?inoeoooo
aaia?ao?? IAI Oe?a?ie (?? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01860044808,
02910005060, 02944001932, 8104712, 1328Oe94 oa ?io?): “Enneaaeiaaiea
i?iiuoeaiiuo, aa?ii?iiuoeaiiuo eiiieaenia e nenoai ?annaeaiey a oeaeyo
niaa?oainoaiaaiey eo oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey (ia i?eia?a Eeaaneiai I?eaeiai?iauey)” (1981-1985
??.); “Eiino?oeoeaii-aaia?aoe/aneea iniiau i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey a
Oe?aeineie NN? (i?iaeaiu oai?ee e iaoiaeeee)” (1986-1988 ??.);
“?ac?aaioea yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneeo iniia iauanoaaiii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
eiiieaenia aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey eo no?oeoo?u e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey” (1986-1990 ??.); aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?aieao
Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie iaa?aeeeaaeieo caoiae?a ii e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a
aaa??? ia *i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN” (1990 ?); “?ac?aaioea iao/iuo iniia
oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ianaeaiey” (1991-1994
??.); “Nioe?aeueii-aaia?ao?/i? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy a ia??iae aeeaieiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee”
(1994-1998 ??.); ?ic?iaea aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/ii? oeiieia?? ?aa?ii?a aeey
oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? ?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i? (caiiaeaiiy
I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ca ?31 a?ae 15.01.1997 ?.); “Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
iniiae ioe?iee noaio na?aaeiaeua i?iaeeaaiiy, aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a,
caei?ia”y ianaeaiiy (ia i?eeeaae? noiee/iiai ?aa?iio)” (1993 ?.)

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
?ic?iaea oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo
i?iaeai a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy eiioeaioe?? oa iniiaieo
canaae iaoai?cio ?o ?aaoethaaiiy.

?aae?caoe?y noi?ioeueiaaii? iaoe iaoiiaeea iinoaiiaeo oa ae??oaiiy oaeeo
caaaeaiue:

iiaeeaeaiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e
a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy;

aecia/aiiy oa ?ice?eooy nooiino? eaoaai??? “a?aeoai?thaaeueia
oa?eoi??aeueia nenoaia”, caeiiii??iinoae ?? oi?ioaaiiy, ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oa ?icaeoeo a i?inoi?? ? /an?;

?ice?eooy oa?aeoa?o nooiino? aca?iica`yce?a noaio iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, caei?ia`y ianaeaiiy oa i?ioean?a aeaiia?aeoai?aiiy;

?ic?iaea oeiieia?? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?ioean?a a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy ia iniia? aecia/aiiy ?o aca?iica`yceo c
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei oa i?e?iaeiei na?aaeiaeuai;

oi?ioaaiiy oa aiae?c eiiiiiaioii-i?iii?oe?eii? no?oeoo?e a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy oa ?ieue iniiaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo oa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o ooieoe?iioaaii? aeaiiaainenoai;

ioe?iea aeoeaiino? nioe?aeueieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a
a?aeoai?thaaiiy ianaeaiiy oa eiai caei?ia`y;

noai?aiiy iiai? eiioeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiai? iayoieeiai? i?a?aoe??
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy o ca`yceo ?c nioe?aeueieie, aeiiii?/ieie oa
aeaiia?ao?/ieie i?ioeanaie ia nae?;

anoaiiaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae, ianooaa?a oa aeeiai?ee
o?oaeiai? iayoieeiai? i?a?aoe?? a ?ic??c? aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a;

oei?caoe?y ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie ca iniaeeainoyie i?e?iaeiiai oa iaoai?/iiai
?ooo ianaeaiiy;

?ic?iaea eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia ?aa?iiaeueii? aeaiia?ao?/ii? iie?oeee a
Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeueiioai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy oa no/ani? eiioeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo nenoai, ye? ?ic?iaeythoueny a ?aieao
aeiiii?/ii? oai???, aeaiia?ao??, ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee oa ?ici?uaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, nioe?ieia?? oa noni?eueii? aaia?ao??.

Iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy ?iaioe nie?a?oueny ia i?eioeeie nenoaiiiai
aiae?co oa i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaee i?aeo?ae; eiie?aoiee iaoiaee/iee
?ino?oiaioa??e ii?aeio? o?aaeeoe?ei? oa no/ani? iaoiaee aeiiii?/ieo,
aeaiia?ao?/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aaia?ao?/ieo oa nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue: noaoenoeei-iaoaiaoe/iiai oa aeaiinoaoenoe/iiai aiae?co ?
iiaeaethaaiiy, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee, ea?oia?ao?/iee, aiaeiaiaee,
oeiieia?/iee oiui.

Aea/aii ? ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeai a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy, i?aaenoaaeai? a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo aeaiia?ao?a, aeiiii?no?a oa
nioe?ieia?a, ye? i?aoeththoue a Oe?a?i? (N.?.Aaiaeo?a, Ae.I.Aiaei?,
A.I.Aeaieeeoeia, I.?.Aeie?oiueiai, N.?.Aei?iaoioeiaa, A.?.Aeioeaiea,
O.Ae.Canoaaiiai, O.A.Cayoeue, N.I.Ceoiea, ?.I.Ea/aia, I.N.Eiaaeaiea,
I.I.Eiaoiithea, TH.I.Ei?/aea-*aio?e?anueeiai, A.?.Eooeaiei,
A.I.E?aaiiai?, I.I.Eae?ce-Na/oe, ?.?.Eoe?iiaa, A.?.Iaoeea,
A.?.Ioaeaeueiaia, I.?.Iiaeyioey, A.A.Ii?e??iea, I.I.Iaeaia?/oea,
I.I.Iaeaia?/oea, I.I.Iae?e, E.A.Ia?eianueeiai, E.A.Ie?iaa,
N.?.Ie?iaeeiaa, A.I.I?neoiiaa, TH.?.Ieoth?aiea, A.A.Iiiiae?ia,
?.I.I?eaeoeiai?, I.A.Ioooe, ?.I.?iaiaeeia, E.A.?oaeaiea,
I.I.?oaeieoeueeiai, A.A.Neo?ao?anueeiai, A.A.Noaiaiaiea, N.A.Noaoeaiei,
A.N.Noaoaiei, I.O.Oei/oea, N.A.Oii?e?ia, I.?.Oauaanueeiai,
A.I.Oaaei?euaai?, A.N.Ooiiiaa, A.I.Oiiaiea, I.O.Oii?e, E.A.*oeei,
A.A.Oaaoea, E.O.Oaa/oe oa ?i.), aeeaeiueiio ca?oa?aeae?
(A.ss.Aiy?nueeiai, Ae.?.Aaeaioay, A.A.Aeoiaanueeiai, A.A.Aieeiaa,
I.Aae?oa, I.A.Ca???ai?, I.ss.Eaao?, A.A.Einoaeiaa, I.A.Ea?i?ia,
TH.I.Iaouein?ia, I.A.Iaie?aoue?ai?, A.A.?aeiaa, E.E.?eaaeianueeiai,
ss.?.?oa?ia, A.Oe.O?eai?na, A.I.Oaaei?iaa, A.N.Oi??aa, I.I.*a?iiai?,
Ae.E.Oaeanoiaa oa ?i.) ? aeaeueiueiio ca?oa?aeae? (I.Aa?iooaia,
E.Aaooia?a, A.Aaoaaa, Ae.Aaea?aeoa, I.Aea?oa, I.Eaeaoaa??, A.Ee?iaa?a,
E.Eioaaea, I.Eioa?a, A.Eioea, I.I?ieiaa, I.Iaoeo?e, E.I?eueoaiue?,
C.Iaaeeea, ?.I?anna, A.?iiaithea, A.?innaoa, A.?ioa?/aea, A.Naaaae?,
A.Nia?, A.N?aa, A.O?eaeeyeia, A.ssaaeueneiai oa ?i.).

?ioi?iaoe?eio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue aeai? aea?aeaaii?
noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?, iaoa??aee nioe?ieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy
i?aeiinaeainueeeo o?oaeiaeo ca`yce?a, ?acoeueoaoe ianoaaeaiiy ianaeaiiy
i?e ia?anaeaii? ?c ciie ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy, aeai? oi?aae?iue
ioi?iie caei?ia`y iaeanieo aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?e, iaoa??aee ia?aien?a
ianaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ? iiaeeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo iniia ?aa?iiaeueieo
aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a oa iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a
a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy. Oe? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? iiaaoe?? eiie?aoeciaai? a oaeeo ?ic?iaeao:

aaaaeaii? a iaoeiaee iai?io, aecia/aii? oa ?ice?eoo? nooiino? eaoaai???
“a?aeoai?thaaeueia oa?eoi??aeueia nenoaia”;

iiaeeaeaii? oai??? eiiiiiaioii? no?oeoo?e a?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a,
cie?aia anoaiiaeaii? ?o oa?eoi??aeueieo iniaeeainoae a?aeiia?aeii aei
iaaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa aeieia?/ieo oiia;

?ice?eoo? nooiino? no?oeoo?ii-eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy oa
aiae?co /eiiee?a a?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a, noai?aii? a?aeiia?aeiiai
iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy oa eiai ai?iaaoe?? ia ia?aieo oa?eoi??aeueieo
nenoaiao;

aecia/aii? nooiino? oa aii??e/iiio aecia/aii? aca?iica`yce?a noaio
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (cie?aia aaiaeieia?/ii? nenoaie), caei?ia`y
ianaeaiiy oa i?ioean?a aeaiia?aeoai?aiiy;

oeiieia?? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueieo
i?ioean?a oa aecia/aii? aieeao iniiaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo,
aeaiia?ao?/ieo oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo /eiiee?a ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aaiaeaiinenoai;

aecia/aii? iniaeeainoae ? oa?aeoa?o aeaiia?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a o
?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, oaiaeaioe?e ?o ci?i o aca?iica’yceo c iniiaieie
ia?aiao?aie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa i?e?iaeiiai iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua;

?ice?eoo? ci?noo oa anoaiiaeaii? ianooaa?a o?oaeiai? iayoieeiai?
i?a?aoe?? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy oa ?? ?ie? a nioe?aeueieo, aeiiii?/ieo
oa aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioeanao ia nae?, aecia/aii? ?aa?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae oa aeeiai?ee o?oaeiai? iayoieeiai? i?a?aoe?? a ?ic??c?
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a;

oei?caoe?? ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie ca iniaeeainoyie i?e?iaeiiai oa iaoai?/iiai
?ooo ianaeaiiy;

i?iiiceoe?yo uiaei iniiaieo iai?yi?a iie?ioaiiy oiia aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
ianaeaiiy ye i?aea?oioy aeey caa?aaeaiiy aeaiia?ao?/iiai oa o?oaeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie;

oi?ioaaii? eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia ?aa?iiaeueii? aeaiia?ao?/ii? iie?oeee
a Oe?a?i?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai
a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy ? ooiaeaiaioii ?ic?iaee aeaiia?ao?/ii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae oa ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo ieoaiue ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a
aeaiia?aeoai?aiiy a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao:

oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaoeiai? aeiiia?ae?
“?icnaeaiiy ianaeaiiy, caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? caeiyoino? o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a ? aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ciie
?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy *i?iiaeeuenueei? AAN”, iai?aaeaii? Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie (1990 ?.);

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aeeiai?ee /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy ? ?ie?
i?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo a i?ioeanao aeaiia?aeoai?aiiy canoiniaaii i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii aaeineiiaeaiith aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a *a?i?a?anueei?, AEeoiie?nueei?, *a?eanueei? iaeanoae oa i.
Ee?aa;

aiae?c oa?eoi??aeueieo a?aei?iiinoae aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a a
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeiiao iaeano? oa oei?caoe?y ?aeii?a ca
oa?eoi??aeueieie a?aei?iiinoyie a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy aeei?enoaii a
eiiieaeni?e ioe?ioe? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo A?iieoeueei?
iaeano? (1989, 1990 ??.);

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o ?aae?ciaaii i?e
?ic?iaoe? ieai?a eiiieaeniiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
Oi?aae?iiyi c i?aoe? ? nioe?aeueieo ieoaiue, a?aeae?eaie ioi?iie
caei?ia`y ? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy A?iieoeueei? iaeano? (1990 ?.);

aiae?c ?ici?uaiiy ianaeaiiy oa noaio i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i?
aeei?enoaii i?e neeaaeaii? ui??/ii? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiia?ae? Aa?oiai?e
?aae? Oe?a?ie (1993 — 1998 ??.);

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iniia ioe?iee noaio
na?aaeiaeua i?iaeeaaiiy, aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a ? caei?ia`y ianaeaiiy
(ia i?eeeaae? noiee/iiai ?aa?iio) aeei?enoai? Oi?aae?iiyi ioi?iie
caei?ia`y iaeanii? aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe?? i?e aiae?c?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy
Ee?anueei? iaeano? (1993 ?.);

aiae?c o?oaei?ano?nii? aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? a i?eei?aeiiieo ?aeiiao
Oe?a?ie aeei?enoaii I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie i?e cae?eniaii?
aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/ii? oeiieia?? ?aa?ii?a, canoiniaaii? aeey oi?ioaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i? (1998 ?.).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
naiino?eiith ?iaioith, a iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iniaenoei aianeii aaoi?a
a iaoeo. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoaii o?eueee iniaeno? ?aea?,
aeeeaaeai? a iaeiiin?aieo oa ni?eueieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo. Noeoiiee aianie
aaoi?a a?aeia?aaeaiee a ?acoeueoaoao aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaea?oueny c
oaeeo eiiiiiaio?a:

?ic?iaea oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo iniia aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? a?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a o ???a?o?/i?e
noni?euei?e nenoai?;

anoaiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo ? niaoe?aeueieo i?eeii?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy o oa?eoi??aeueieo nenoaiao;

?ic?iaea iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? noaie aecia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae oa oaiaeaioe?e aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a;

oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo iieaciee?a, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoiiaeai?noue aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a
oa?eoi??aeueieie iniaeeainoyie oiia aeeooy;

oei?caoe?y oa aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aeeiai?ee iniiaieo
aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a, a oaeiae ni?aa?aeiioaiue ia?aiao??a
a?aeoai?aiiy;

?ice?eooy nooiino? oa i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy a?aeoai?thaaeueii?
oa?eoi??aeueii? nenoaie ianaeaiiy, aecia/aiiy ?? no?oeoo?e, cie?aia,
aieeao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a;

?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo iniia oei?caoe?? a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy;

iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeeee ?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeoai?thaaeueieo
nenoai oa iiaoaeiaa ???a?o?/ii? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? noaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy;

aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oa ?ice?eooy aca?iica’yceo ?
aca?iicoiiaeaiino? naieo a?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a c
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei oa aeieia?/iei na?aaeiaeuai o aea?aeaa? a
oe?eiio, a oaeiae ia i?eeeaae? i?eioeeiiai ??cieo oa?eoi??aeueieo nenoai
ieae/iai ??aiy, i?eei?aeiiieo ?aeii?a oa ?aeii?a Ee?anueei?,
A?iieoeueei?, Eoaainueei? iaeanoae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? aeniiaee ? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue oa ioae?eoaaeeny a iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e, ia?aae, c’?cae?a.

I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo:

«Aeaiia?ao?/i? aniaeoe i?enei?aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo»
(Oa?e?a, 1987),

«Oaiaeaioe?? oa i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aaeeeeo i?no — ye oeaio??a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo eiiieaen?a» (Eai?ia?aae, 1988),

«Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie eiiieaeniiai aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a» (Na?ainuee, 1988),

«Naiii?aai?caoe?y a i?e?iae? ? noni?euenoa?» (Eai?ia?aae, 1988),

«Aeieia?y ia?iaeiianaeaiiy-?icnaeaiiy: oai??y ? iie?oeea» (Eai?ia?aae,
1989);

iaoeiaeo nan?yo ?aaee ii oa?eoi??aeuei?e i?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa
(Aeia-Aoa, 1989, A?oaiaaeuenuee, 1993);

«I?iaeaie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy, ioi?iie oa a?aeoai?aiiy
i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo O?N?» (*a?i?aoe?, 1991),

«Caei?ia’y oa a?aeoai?aiiy ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie» (Ee?a, 1991),

«I?iaeaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ?aae?iaeieia?? — i’youe ?ie?a i?ney
aaa??? ia *AAN» (AEeoiie?, 1991),

«Aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i?» (Ee?a, 1993),

«No/ani? i?iaeaie aaia?ao?? ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?» (Eooeuee, 1993),

«I?iaeaie oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa» (Ia?i, 1993),

«Aeieia?/ia aaciaea cii i?noii?iieneiaeo aaeiia?aoe?e cao?aeiiai O?aeo»
(Ia?i, 1993),

«Ea?iaoe — Oe?a?inueeee i?no a ?a?iio: i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae (Euea?a,
1993),

«Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aaia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, noai i?iaeaie ? iai?yiee»
(Ee?a, 1994),

«Aaeeea Aieeiue: ieioea ? no/ania» (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1994),

«Nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane a ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie» (Oa?e?a, 1994),

«?icaeoie ?ooo ca i?iaeoeoeai?noue a Oe?a?i?» (E?aiaoi?nuee, 1995),

«I?iaeaie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo
Oe?a?inueeiai I?eacia’y ? noi?aeieo oa?eoi??e» (Iae?oiiieue, 1995),

«?aa?ii ? aaia?ao?y» (Ia?i, 1995),

«I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee iieaoe oa ii?ioaaiiy i?aoe? a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a» (Oiaeueieoeueeee 1995),

«?a?i?aa?ii Aoa: i?iaeaie o?ainei?aeiiiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa» (Eooeuee,
1995),

«Iia? i?aeoiaee aei i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaiiy e?eoaaiiy, ?aaa?e?oaoe??
oa ?ae?aaoe?? a oiiaao eo?i?oo» (O?oneaaaoeue, 1995),

«No/aniee noai oa oeyo ae??oaiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai *a?i?a?anueei?
iaeano?» (I?aeei, 1996),

«Oai?aoe/i? oa i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe nioe?iaeieia??» (Euea?a, 1996),

«I?ea?aie/i? oa?eoi??? aai o?aina?aie/i? ?aa?iie — aaia?ao?/i?,
nioe?aeuei?, iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie» (A?nea, 1996 ?.),

«Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei ocaiaeaeaiiy ??oaiue
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe» (Ee?a,
1996),

«*i?iiaeeue oa caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy (10 ?ie?a i?ney aaa???)» (Ee?a,
1996);

«Aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?: ?aaeuei?noue,
i?iaeaie, i?iaiice ia XXI noie?ooy» (*a?i?aoe?, 1996),

«AEeoiie?ueia e??cue i?ecio noie?oue» (AEeoiie?, 1997),

«Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a (Oa?iii?eue, 1997),

«EIIAAI’97» (Eaaeieoey, 1997),

«O?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie ? eiai ?aae?caoe?y a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee» (Euea?a, 1997),

«O?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane a no?oeoo?? aeiiii?ee ? nioe?aeueii? noa?e
a Oe?a?i? oa aea?aeaaao Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?iie (?aa?iiaeuei?
a?aei?ie, ?acoeueoaoe ? iai?yie ?icaeoeo)» (??i?iue, 1997),

«Oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie oa ?ioi?iaoe?eieie nenoaiaie o
iaiaaeaeiaio?» (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1997),

«Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie a Oe?a?i? oa noai oe?a?inueei? aoi?/iino? a
ae?anii??: nooi?noue, ?aae??, eiioe?eoiino?, i?iaeaie oa i?iaiice ia
ii?ic? XXI noie?ooy» (Ee?a, 1997),

«?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee: aeina?ae,
i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae» (Eooeuee, 1998),

«I?iaeaie aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee a no/anieo oiiaao»
(Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1998),

«?aa?iiaeueia iie?oeea Oe?a?ie: iaoeia? iniiae, iaoiaee, iaoai?cie»
(Euea?a, 1998).

«Iie?eoeueoo?i? ?aa?iie oa i?noa» (E?eieoey Ii?nueea, 1998)

I?aeia?iaeieo nai?ia?ao:

«Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ooieoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a oa noai aeinenoai»
(*a?i?a?a, 1987),

«Ea?oia?ao?/ia caaacia/aiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo O?N? oa ?? ?aeii?a» (*a?i?aoe?, 1987),

«Iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa oa ?ioaeaeooaeueiee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie» (Euea?a,
1996).

Iaoe?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo:

«Nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie i?aoe?» (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1989),

«Aeoea?caoe?y ?ie? ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a» (A?iieoey, 1989),

«I?iaeaie ioi?iie i?e?iaee ? a?aeoai?aiiy i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai
iioaioe?aeo Cao?aeiiai Iiae?eey» (Oa?iii?eue, 1990),

«Oo?eci a Oe?a?i?: aeiiii?ea oa eoeueoo?a» (Eooeuee, 1998),

«I?iaeaie oa oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie a Oe?a?i?»
(??i?iue, 1998).

?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c aeiiia?aeae, aenooi?a ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo,
neiiic?oiao, nan?yo, nai?ia?ao, c’?caeao, ia?aaeao oa ioae?eaoe?e aea?
iiaeeea?noue i?aeoaa?aeeoe eia?/io caaa?oai?noue aea/aiiy aeaii?
i?iaeaie.

Ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iioae?eiaai? a 142 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 134 ae?oe.
a?eoo?, 88,8 ae?oe. a?e. iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi aaoi?o (o o./. a iaei?e
iniaeno?e ? naie eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?yo oa neiaieeo, 83 noaooyo a
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa 48 iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 7
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a; caaaeueiee ianya — 380 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai
oaenoo, 39 ?enoie?a, 12 oaaeeoeue; nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
iae?/o? 300 aeaea?ae.

ANOOI.

?icae?e 1. OAI?AOE*I? INIIAE AeINE?AeAEAIIss A?AeOAI?AIIss IANAEAIIss
1.1. Nooi?noue, i?eioeeie, caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy a?aeoai?thaaeueieo
oa?eoi??aeueieo nenoai; 1.2. Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy oa eiai oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??; 1.3. Iaoiaee/i? iniiae
ioe?iee oa?aeoa?o, iniaeeainoae ? oaiaeaioe?e a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy;
1.4. Caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy ye oaeoi? eiai a?aeoai?aiiy.

?icae?e 2. AeAIIA?AO?*IEE ?ICAEOIE ? OAEOI?E A?AeOAI?AIIss IANAEAIIss OA
EIAI CAeI?IA’ss A OE?A?I?. 2.1. ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? noa?e oa ?? aieea
ia i?ioeane a?aeoai?aiiy ? caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy; 2.2. Aeieia?/iee noai
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, eiai aieea ia iniaeeaino? a?aeoai?thaaeueii?
aeoeaiino? oa caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie; 2.3. Aeeiai?ea, oaiaeaioe??,
oa?aeoa? oa niaoeeo?ea a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, oeie
oa?eoi??aeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??; 2.4. ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
iayoieeiai? i?a?aoe?? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ?? ianooaae ?
aeeiai?ea; 2.5. Aiae?c ci?i caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy oa ?o aieeao ia
a?aeoai?thaaeuei? i?ioeane.

?icae?e 3. AeAIIAEIIII?*IA NIAOeEO?EA I?EEI?AeIIIEO ?AEII?A OE?A?IE:
IAOIAeIEIA?ss OA I?AEOEEA AeINE?AeAEAIIss

3.1. Aeaiia?ao?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo i?eei?aeiiieo ?aeii?a Oe?a?ie;
3.2. Oa?eoi??aeueia i?aai?caoe?y a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy i?eei?aeiiieo
?aeii?a Oe?a?ie; 3.3. ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? o?oaeiaeo ca’yce?a
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?eei?aeiiiy; 3.4. ?eiie i?aoe? i?eei?aeiiieo
?aa?ii?a.

?icae?e 4. OAIAeAIOe?? A?AeOAI?THAAEUeIEO I?IOeAN?A ? CAeI?IA’ss
IANAEAIIss A O?AAI?CIAAIIIO NOIEE*IIIO ?AA?II? C
AENO?AIAEUeIITH AEIEIA?*IITH NEOOAOe??TH. 4.1. Aecia/aiiy oa ioe?iea
oa?eoi??aeueieo iniaeeainoae ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua oa nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaeo oiia aeeooy ianaeaiiy; 4.2.
Oa?eoi??aeuei? iniaeeaino? i?e?iaeiiai oa i?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo ianaeaiiy
noiee/iiai ?aa?iio; 4.3. ??aaiue caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy ? eiai ci?ie a
oa?eoi??aeueieo noni?eueieo nenoaiao noiee/iiai ?aa?iio; 4.4. Aieea
/i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy Ee?anueei? iaeano?;
4.5. Aca?iica’ycie aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a ? iieaciee?a caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy.

?icae?e 5. AeINE?AeAEAIIss OIIA AEEOOss, A?AeOAI?THAAEUeIEO I?IOeAN?A ?
CAeI?IA’ss ETHAeAE O NEAAIO?AAI?CIAAIEO ?AA?IIAO ?C CAAeIA?EUeIITH
AEIEIA?*IITH NEOOAOe??TH. 5.1. ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e; 5.2. Iniaeeaino? aeaiia?ao?/ieo
i?ioean?a o eieaeueieo nenoaiao ?icnaeaiiy; 5.3. ?aa?iiaeuei?
a?aei?iiino? ??ai?a ?icaeoeo ioi?iie caei?ia’y oa caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy A?iieoeueei? iaeano? ye oeiiaiai ?aa?iio ?c caaeia?eueiith
aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th; 5.4. Oei?caoe?y aca?iica’yce?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi???.

?icae?e 6 A?AeOAI?AIIss IANAEAIIss O AENIEIO?AAI?CIAAIEO ?AA?IIAO C
IAI?OAEAIITH AEIEIA?*IITH NEOOAOe??TH. 6.1. Aeaiia?ao?/i? ia?aaeoiiae
?ic?iaee oa?eoi??aeueii? eiiieaenii? noaie ioi?iie i?e?iaee.
6.2. Iniaeeaino? a?aeoai?thaaeueieo
i?ioean?a ianaeaiiy o ??cieo o?aiaeieia?/ieo oiiaao.

?icae?e 7 ?AA?IIAEUeIA NIOe?AEUeII-AeAIIA?AO?*IA IIE?OEEA: NO*ANI? ?
IA?NIAEOEAI? IAI?ssIE. 7.1. Iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo
i?ioean?a o ?aa?iiao iiaeeeaeo aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?e; 7.2.
?aa?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae o nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i?e iie?oeoe?; 7.3.
Iniiai? iai?yie ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?iaeai a ?aa?iiao.

AENIIAEE.

E?OA?AOO?A.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

A aeena?oaoei? ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaiooaeueii iieiaeaiiy uiaei iaoiaeieiai?
oa i?aeoeee ?aaiiiaeueiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie, nooue yeiai iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

1. Ethaeeio oi?io? na?aaeiaeua ?? i?iaeeaaiiy (ciaiioi? na?aaeiaeua).
Aiii neeaaea?oueny c aaaaoueio eiiiiiaioia, ui aecia/athoue iniaeeainoi
niiniao aeeooy, aeaiia?aoi/ii? iiaaaeiiee i o.ae.:

Aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy — oea ianaiia?aae iniiaia neeaaeiaa eiai
aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi. O oeie yeinoi aiii ? ia eeoa ?ano?nii, a e
aeeiaii/iei /eiieeii. Iniiaiei i aecia/aeueiei o i?ioeani
aeaiiaiaeoai?aiiy ? oice/ia aiaeiiaeaiiy ianaeaiiy, oiaoi ciiia
iieieiiue, aiaeiiaeaiiy yeinieo oa?aeoa?enoee ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae
ia?aiiuaiiy ii oa?eoi?i?. O oe?ieiio ?icoiiiii aeaiiaiaeoai?aiiy
ioiieth? ani i?ioeane ?ooo ianaeaiiy — i?e?iaeiee, iia?aoeieiee oa
nioe?aeueiee.

A?aeoai?thaaeueia oa?eoi??aeueia nenoaia — oea i?inoi?iaa ooai?aiiy, ui
neeaaea?oueny c oa?eoi?iaeueieo niieueiio ethaeae, a oaeiae oeo
eiiiiiaioia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (aeeoea, ?iai/eo iinoeue, iinoeue
aiaeii/eieo, io?eiaiiy iineoa), yei caaacia/othoue aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoue i
aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy oa eiai caei?ia’y. I?e oeueiio
aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoue ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?aaiicoth/a oa?eoi?ith, a
ianaeaii ioieoe — ye iioaa?aeueii aeaiaioe aeaiiaainenoaie.
Aeaiiaainenoaio iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe a noaoeoei (ye aeaiiaaineooaoeith) oa
a aeeiaiioei (ye aeaiiaaii?ioean).

Iniaeeainoth anio aeaiia?aoi/ieo i?ioeania ? ia?iinoue, i?ioeeaaeia
ni?yiiaaiinoue, aca?iicoiiaeaiinoue oa caeaaeiinoue (ia?iaeaeaiiy —
nia?oue, aeaoooy — i?eaoooy, oetha — ?iceo/aiiy oa ii.) (?en.1). Oei
aeanoeainoi ? nenoaiiooai?thth/eie /eiieeaie, ui oi?iothoue ianaeaiiy ye
nenoaio c oniia eiai yeinoyie. Eiaeiee ?icaeyiooee eiiiiiaio iia’ycaiee
ic /eneaiieie iioeie ye no?oeoo?ii, oae i ooieoeiiiaeueii.

Aeineiaeaeaiiyie aeiaaaeaii, ui eieueeinii oa yeinii iieacieee
aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy

aecia/athoueny /eiieeaie ciaiioiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ianaiia?aae oiiaaie
aeeooy. Aeey iaoi? aea?aeaae aeanoeaee aeoaea aaeeeee aeiaiacii
eieeaaiiy oeeo oiia i aiaeiiaiaeii inoioii oa?eoi?iaeueii aiaeiiiiinoi a
?iaiyo oa aeeiaiioei iieacieeia aiaeoai?aiiy.

C iaoith oieeiaiiy aieeao noa’?eoeaieo /eiieeia, oea caaaeaiiy aoei
?ica’ycaia ia aeey eiaeii? ie?aii? ethaeeie, a aeey noeoiiinoi ethaeae,
oiaoi ianaeaiiy iaaieo ianaeaieo ioieoia, aai oa?eoi?ie. Uia io?eiaoe
ia’?eoeaio ea?oeio, eiai/ii ia’?aeiaoe ianaeaii ioieoe aai oa?eoi?i? c
aeecueeeie nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieie oa aeieiai/ieie oiiaaie i?iaeeaaiiy
a a?oie, a iioii aeey eiaeii? a?oie aecia/eoe naciiii cia/aiiy
/eiieeiaeo iciae (oiaoi ia?aei/aieo nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo oa
aeieiai/ieo oiia) i ?acoeueoaoeaieo (oiaoi iieacieeia ia?iaeaeoaaiinoi,
nia?oiinoi, i?eaoooy, aeaoaaiiy, caei?ia’y oa ii.).

Iaeiei c iaeaieiaiioeo iaoiaeieiai/ieo i?eeiiia ? a?aooaaiiy iinoieii?
ciiie oa ?icaeoeo yaeu i i?ioeania, ui aecia/athoue oa?aeoa?
aiaeoai?aiiy. O oiaei iinooiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo noniieuenoaa ciiiththoueny
aeiiiii/ia aaca, noniieueii aiaeiineie oa ani /eiieee, ui neeaaeathoue
ia’?eoeaii oiiae aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae ciiiththoue
oaiaeaioeith eiai ?icaeoeo.

2. Aeey aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy ye iaeii?? c oi?i aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi,
oaeeie iaiaoiaeieie iieiaeaiiyie ? aiaeianaiiy aiaeiiaiaeieo i?ioeania
aei noniieueieo yaeu oa coiiaeaiinoue ?iaiai aeiiiii/iiai ?icaeoeo.
Iniiaiiieiaeia cia/aiiy ia? ciino iiiyooy «aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy». Ie
aeio?eio?iiny ?icoe?aiiai eiai o?aeooaaiiy — aeeth/a?ii a oea iiiyooy ia
eeoa /enaeueia aiaeoai?aiiy noa’?eoia aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi, a e
aiaeoai?aiiy ani?? noeoiiinoi ?o nioeiaeueieo yeinoae, yei a
aiaeiiaiaeaee iio?aaai noniieuenoaa. Ia iniiai oeeo iieiaeaiue c
aeio?eiaiiyi i?eioeei?a nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo noi?ioeueiaaii
caaaeueiiiaoeiai i?eeiie aeineiaeaeaiiy oa?eoi?iaeueii? i?aaiicaoei?
aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi ianaeaiiy uiaei eiai aiaeoai?aiiy.

Iieieiiiiiaioiinoue. Aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy — oea neeaaeia nenoaia c
eiiiiiaioaie aai iiaenenoaiaie ieae/iai ?iaiy. Oaeeie neeaaeiaeie ?
i?ioeane i?e?iaeiiai, iaoaii/iiai oa nioeiaeueiiai ?ooo ianaeaiiy —
ia?iaeaeoaaiinoue, nia?oiinoue, oethaiinoue, ?iceo/oaaiinoue, iia?aoeiy,
a oaeiae oi?ioaaiiy nioeiaeueieo yeinoae (?iaiy caei?ia’y, inaioe,
eaaeioieaoei? oa ii.) oa no?oeoo?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee (aeaiia?aoi/iiai,
nioeiaeueiiai, iaoeiiiaeueiiai neeaaeo oa ii.). Eiaeiee ic ia?aei/aieo
eiiiiiaioia, o naith /a?ao, aeeth/a? ?yae neeaaeiaeo ua ieae/iai ?aiao.
Ioaea, aeey aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ia iieieiiiiiaioiinoue ci
neeaaeiith i??a?oi/iith no?oeoo?ith eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaioia.

Oeieiniinoue. Eiaeiee ?icaeyiooee eiiiiiaio iia’ycaiee ic /eneaiieie
iioeie ye no?oeoo?ii, oae i ooieoeiiiaeueii, e oiio a aiaeici ia iiaea
ciaoiaeeoenue icieueiaaii. Oae, i?ioeane i?e?iaeiiai oa iaoaii/iiai ?ooo
ianaeaiiy caeaaeaoue aiae eiai aeaiia?aoi/ii? no?oeoo?e, nioeiaeueiiai
neeaaeo, iioaioeiaeo caei?ia’y, iaoeiiiaeueiiai neeaaeo, inaioiueiai
?iaiy oiui; o naith /a?ao, oi?ioaaiiy nioeiaeueieo yeinoae,
cie?aia iioaioeiaeo caei?ia’y oa inaioiueiai iioaioeiaeo, oinii
iia’ycaia c i?ioeanaie i?e?iaeiiai oa iaoaii/iiai ?ooo ianaeaiiy, eiai
neeaaeii ca noaooth i aieii, nioeiaeueieie a?oiaie oa ii.

???a?oi/iinoue. Iniiaiiieiaeiei /eiieeii aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy ?
aeiiiii/ia aaca noniieuenoaa: aeiiiii/ia aeiyeueiinoue aiaeia?a?
ae?ioaeueio ?ieue o aiaeoai?thaaeueiiio i?ioeani, a aeiiiii/ii
aiaeiineie ? i?iaiaeiei /eiieeii noniieueiiai ?icaeoeo, neeaaeath/e
iniiao anio iioeo nioeiaeueieo aiaeiinei. Iioneath/enue ia ianooiiee
?iaaiue eiie?aoecaoei? i?e/eiii-ianeiaeeiaeo ca’yceia o aaeoci
aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy, aecia/a?ii, ui i?iaiaeiei eiai /eiieeii ?
i?aoey, yea oi?io? nioeiaeueii yeinoi o/anieeia o?oaeiaiai i?ioeano.

Aeeiaii/iinoue. O?aooaaiiy iinoieii? ciiie oa ?icaeoeo yaeu i i?ioeania,
ui noaiiaeyoue ciino aeaiiaiaeoai?aiiy, ? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeeaioeo
iaoiaeieiai/ieo i?eioeeiia. O oiaei iinooiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo noniieuenoaa
ciiiththoueny aeiiiii/ia aaca, noniieueii aiaeiineie oa ani /eiieee, ui
neeaaeathoue ia’?eoeaii oiiae aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy.

Nioeiaeueia i?ii?eoaoiinoue. I?e aeineiaeaeaiii o?aaa a?aoiaoaaoe
iiaeaeuaiiy ?iei nioeiaeueieo oiia oa /eiieeia o i?ioeanao aiaeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy. Oea coiiaeth?oueny ia eeoa c?inoaiiyi cia/aiiy nioeiaeueii?
noa?e o oi?ioaaiii oiia ye oice/iiai aiaeiiaeaiiy aeeooy iiaeeaiaeia oa
oeieeo ethaenueeeo niieueiio, a e aiaeoai?aiiy ?o nioeiaeueieo yeinoae
ia ?iaii, ui aiaeiiaiaea? iio?aaai noniieuenoaa.

Aeeoa?aioeieiaaiinoue. Oeae iaoiaeieiai/iee i?eeii noiniaii aei
aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy icia/a?, ui ia aaci iaaioue iaeiioeiieo
noniieueieo aiaeiinei aiaeoai?thaaeueii i?ioeane inoioii ?iciyoueny a
?icieo oa?eoi?iaeueieo, nioeiaeueieo, iaoeiiiaeueieo oa iioeo
niieueiioao ethaeae.

Ia’?eoiinoue. Aeey aecia/aiiy caeiiiii?iinoae oiaeo aeaiia?aoi/ieo
i?ioeania aeeeth/ii aaaeeeai i?aaeeueii aea?aoe ia’?eo aeineiaeaeaiiy.
Ooo ia?oi?yaeia cia/aiiy iathoue iciaee oa e?eoa?i? aiaeie?aieaiiy
niieueiio. Ca aeiiiiiaith oeeo iciae iiaeia anoaiiaeoe oeie niieueiio,
aiaeiiiii ca iniaeeainoyie aeaiiaiaeoai?aiiy.

Nenoaiiinoue. Oeae i?eeii icia/a?, ui aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy a
eieueeiniiio oa yeiniiio aniaeoao aiaeaoaa?oueny a nenoaiieo oi?iao,
ia’?aeio? nenoaio ?iciiiaiioieo nioeiaeueieo aiaeiinei, yei i?yii /e
iina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia aiaeoai?aiiy aeeooy aai nooiinieo
aeanoeainoae ethaeae. Aiaeii/an eieueeinii ia?aiao?e oa yeinii
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaiiaiaeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioeania ? iaeiei c inoioieo
e?eoa?i?a aiaeie?aieaiiy ?icieo noniieueieo nenoai.

I?inoi?iai-/aniaa ?aeiinoue. Aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy ia iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe aano?aeoii, iica /anii /e iinoeai caeieniaiiy. *an i iinoea
— oea aeaa aaeoi?e, ui iaiaaeothoue iiea i?ioieaiiy i?ioeania o nenoaii
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo eii?aeeiao e iaaeathoue ?i aecia/aiinoi a
?icoiiiii a?aooaaiiy ye ?aaiiiaeueieo iniaeeainoae noniieueieo nenoai,
oae i aoaiia ?o ?icaeoeo.

?aeiinoue aiaeico oa neioaco. Oeae i?eioeei aea? ciiao ia?aeoe aiae
aeyaeaieo ie?aieo /anoeiaeo yaeu oa oaiaeaioeie aei ocaaaeueiaiue i
aeyaeaiiy ia oeie iniiai noieeeo aca?iica’yceia, noaaieueieo
niiaaiaeiioaiue oa caeiiiii?ieo i?ioeania o aaeoci i?e?iaeiiai,
iaoaii/iiai oa nioeiaeueiiai ?ooo ianaeaiiy.

Nioeiiaeieiai/iee iiaeoiae. Aeieiai/ii oiiae aeeooy ianaeaiiy inoioii
aieeaathoue ia iieacieee eiai ?ooo oa aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoue. Caa?oaeiaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua iaaaoeaii aiaeaeaa?oueny ia caei?ia’? ia eeoa
no/aniiai, a e iaeaooiio iieieiiue. Nioeiieiai/ii ianoaaeaiiy
naiae/aoue, ui aeieiai/ia neooaoeiy aeoiaeeoue o ?ic?yae iaeaaaeeeaioeo
/eiieeia iia?aoei?. Cieaeaiiy iioaioeiaeo caei?ia’y i?ecaiaeeoue aei
i?yieo aeiiiii/ieo ao?ao noniieuenoaa. O?aooaaiiy aeieiai/ii? neooaoei?
? iaia’yceiaith oiiaith anaai/iiai aiaeico aeaiiaiaeoai?thaaeueieo
i?iaeai.

E?ii ?icaeyiooeo .caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo i?eeiiia aeineiaeaeaiiy
oa?eoi?iaeueii? i?aaiicaoei? anio oi?i aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi ianaeaiiy
aiaeie?aieththoueny e niaoeeoi/ii i?eeiie, yei eaaeaoue a iniiai aiaeico
eeoa aiaeoai?thaaeueii? aeiyeueiinoi. Iaeaieiaiioeie c ieo ? oaei:

— ii?aeiaiiy aiieiai/ieo oa nioeiaeueieo /eiiee?a; nai? i?ioeane
ia?iaeaeaiiy ethaeeie, noa?iiiy oa aie?aiiy ? aiieiai/ieie, a ?iaii
ia?iaeaeoaaiinoi, na?aaeiuei? o?eaaeinoi aeeooy, nia?oiinoi —
aeaoa?iiiiaaieie nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieie oiiaaie, oiaoi iaaei
aiieiai/iei i?ioeanai noaaeyoue noniieueii aiaeiineie;

— nenoaiiinoue /eiieeia aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy; aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy
a oe?ieiio ?icoiiiii neiaa c oniia eieueeinieie oa yeinieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ia?aaeaa/a? aeaeieaiiy ia iiaiio ?iaii oaeiae oni??
nenoaie noniieueieo aiaeiinei, ui ? i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii /eiieeaie
aeaiia?aoi/iiai ?icaeoeo.

— aiaeiiaiaeiinoue eieueeinieo oa yeinieo ia?aiao?ia aiaeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy ?iaith nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai ?icaeoeo noniieuenoaa; o
ca’yceo ci ciiiaie aeiia noniieuenoaa aei eieueeinieo oa yeinieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ianaeaiiy ciiiththoueny ia eeoa ia?aiao?e aeaiia?aoi/ieo
i?ioeania, a e e?eoa?i? ?o iioeiaeueiinoi.

Noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeiai i?eeiie iineoaeeee aiaei?aaiei ioieoii
aeineiaeaeaiiy oa iaiaoiaeiith ia?aaeoiiaith aeyaeaiiy ?aaiiiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae, caeiiiii?iinoae oa oaiaeaioeie i?ioieaiiy
aeaiiaiaeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioeania, oa eiai caei?ia’y.

3. Iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua o?aeoo?oueny ye ii?aeiaiiy eiai i?e?iaeii?,
aeiiiii/ii? oa nioeiaeueii? neeaaeiaeo, aecia/a?oueny ye neeaaeia
nenoaia oice/ieo, oiii/ieo, aiieiai/ieo oa nioeiaeueieo /eiieeia, ui
ni?aaeythoue ia i?aaiici eiiaiiiaaiee, niieo/iee aoaeo i?e eiiieaeniiio
aieeai. Ioaea, iiiyooy «iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua» ioiieth? ana ioi/aiiy
ethaeeie, oni aeaiaioe ciaiioiueiai naioo, yei aieeaathoue ia ia? i?yii
/e iiina?aaeeiaaii.

Iiiyooy «aeieiai/ia neooaoeiy» aiaeaeaa? noai iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny, ii-ia?oa, eaiaeoaooii-aaia?aoi/ieie
oiiaaie aeeooy ethaeae (na?aaeiuei?i/iith oaiia?aoo?ith, aieiainoth
iiaio?y, aoiinoa?iei oeneii oiui oa inioaaiiyi aiaeaii/ieo ina?aaeeia
caoai?thaaiue), i, ii-ae?oaa, oiceei-oiii/ieie aeanoeainoyie aeaiaioia
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua — iiaio?y, aiaee oa caiei. Oei aeanoeainoi
iiaeieythoueny ia i?e?iaeii oa aio?iiiaaiii, ui coiiaeththoueny
ae?iaie/ith, ?icnaeainueeith oa ?ae?aaoeieiith aeiyeueiinoth ianaeaiiy.
Ioaea, yeui oa?iii «iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua» a?aeaeaa? noai onueiai
na?aaeiaeua ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie (i?e?iaeiiai oa nioe?aeueiiai), oi oa?i?i
«aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y» oa?aeoa?eco? noai eeoa i?e?iaeii? neeaaeiai?
oeueiai na?aaeiaeua. ?ioeie neiaaie, aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith oa?aeoa?enoeee noaio iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Anoaiiaeaii eiiiiiaioio no?oeoo?o iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ui
aecia/a? oiiae o?ce/iiai ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie oa oi?ioaaiiy anio ??
nioeiaeueieo yeinoae, aeeth/ath/e caei?ia’y. Ianaiia?aae iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua a i?eeiyoiio a ?iaio? oeoia/aiii iiaeiey?oueny ia aeaa
aaeeeeo aeiee — i?e?iaeii-aaia?aoi/ii oa nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ii oiiae
inioaaiiy ethaeeie (?en.2). Ia?oi aeeth/athoue eaiaeoaooii iniaeeainoi
oa?eoi?i? (?aeue?o, oaiia?aoo?o, aieiainoue, aoiinoa?iee oene, aiioo oa
ii.), a oaeiae oiceei-aeieiai/ii aeanoeainoi aeaiaioia i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua (iiaio?y, aiaee oa caiei). Ui ae aei
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo oiia, oi na?aae ieo aeaeieythoueny oiiae
inioaaiiy ethaeeie: iaoa?iaeueii (i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy, iaeya, acoooy,
aeeoei, i?aaeiaoe o?eaaeiai ei?enooaaiiy oa ii.), iaiaoa?iaeueii
(?iciiiaiioii iineoae nioeiaeueii- iio?ano?oeoo?ii? noa?e — ioi?iie
caei?ia’y, inaioe, eoeueoo?e, oi?aiaei, iiaooiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy,
o?ainii?oo, ca’yceo oa ii.) oa noniieueii aiaeiineie (oi?ie aeaniinoi,
oa?aeoa? ?iciiaeieo, o?oaeiaa aeiyeueiinoue, nii’y oa ii.).

Anoaiiaeaii nenoaio /eiieeia caei?ia’y. Caei?ia’y iaeaaeeoue aei
aieiaieo i?ii?eoaoia na?aae onio aeeoo?aeo oeiiiinoae.. Oea oie
neioaoe/iee iieaciee, eio?ee a iaeaieueo eiioeaio?iaaiiio
aeaeyaei oa?aeoa?eco? yeinoue aeeooy. Caei?ia’y ie?aii?
ethaeeie aiaeia?aaeathoue ?? iiaeeaiaeoaeueii oiiae aeeooy, a oaeiae
i?eaeaoia oieueee ?e yeinoue iiaeeaiaea ye aiieiai/ii? inoioe. Caei?ia’y
anueiai ianaeaiiy ? aieiaiei iieacieeii i?i?ioiaaiinoi
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai oa aeieiai/iiai ?icaeoeo noniieuenoaa ia
ei?enoue ethaeeie i aiaeii/an aaaeeeaei /eiieeii oaeiai ?icaeoeo.

?c ?iaiai nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai ?icaeoeo noniieuenoaa iia’ycaii, c
iaeiiai aieo, eiie?aoii oaoiiei-oaoiieiai/ii ia?aiao?e
ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi, c iioiai — ?? aeiiiii/ii
?acoeueoaoe. ? oi e iioi a iaeieo aeiaaeeao i?yii, a iioeo —
iiina?aaeeiaaii aieeaathoue ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

Aiae nooiaiy aeineiiaeinoi oa aaciaee ai?iaaaeaeoaaieo o ae?iaieoeoai
oaoiiee, ne?iaeie oa oaoiieiai?, aoaeoeaiinoi oiia caoenoo e ioi?iie
i?aoei caeaaeaoue oiiae, a yeeo ia?aaoaa? ethaeeia iiae /an o?oaeiaiai
i?ioeano (yeinoue na?aaeiaeua ae?iaie/eo i?eiiuaiue). O aeaiiio
aeiaaeeo oaoiiei-oaoiieiai/ii ia?aiao?e ae?iaieoeoaa i?yii aecia/athoue
?iaii i?ioanieieo caoai?thaaiue oa ae?iaie/iai o?aaiaoecio. Oei naii
ia?aiao?e i?yii aieeaathoue oaeiae ia caei?ia’y anueiai ianaeaiiy
(aeeth/ath/e ae?iaie/ee o?aaiaoeci), ineieueee aiae ?iaiy aeineiiaeinoi
inioth/i? oaoiiee oa oaoiieiai?, neeaaeo ne?iaeie, aoaeoeaiinoi i/enieo
nii?oae caeaaeeoue eieueeinoue oeiaeeeaeo ?a/iaei, ui iio?aieythoue o
iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua i aieeaathoue oaea ia ana ianaeaiiy. A iioeo
aeiaaeeao ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi ethaeeia naia ii niai
ia /eieoue i?yiiai aieeao ia caei?ia’y iioeo ethaeae. Aea a oaeeo
aeiaaeeao /anoi iiaeia aeyaeoe aieea ?yaeo i?iiiaeieo eaiie: aeayei
aeaee ae?iaie/i? aeiyeueiinoi (aoaeiaieoeoai aiae?iaeaeo?inoaioeie,
inooaiiy oa caieiaeaiiy caiaeue, ae?oaoaaiiy einia oa ii.) i?ecaiaeyoue
aei ciiie i?e?iaee, eaiaeoaooo, eeiiaoo, aiioe (o oiio /enei) i /a?ac
oei i?iiiaeii eaiee aieeaathoue ia caei?ia’y ethaeae.

Ia aiaeiiio aiae oaoiiei-oaoiieiai/ii? ni?yiiaaiinoi
ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi, iia’ycaii? ci caei?ia’yi ethaeae
ye i?yii, oae i iiina?aaeeiaaii, aeiiiii/ia ?? noi?iia aieeaa? ia
caei?ia’y oieueee coiiaeaii, /a?ac eaioethaeie i?iiiaeieo eaiie.

Aeiiiii/ii ?acoeueoaoe ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi
iaoiiaeththoue ?iaaiue iaoa?iaeueiiai aeia?iaooo ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae
iaoo?aeueii-?a/iaeiiee neeaae oiiaeo niiaeeaaiiy. Eiie?aoiee ?iaaiue
(ianya) niiaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiy caeaaeeoue aiae ?iaiy oa no?oeoo?e eiai
iio?aa, iaoa?iaeueiiai aeia?iaooo oa iane/aiinoi ?eieo niiaeea/eo
oiaa?ia i iineoa. Na?aae iaoa?iaeueieo aeaa — oea ianaiia?aae i?iaeoeoe
oa?/oaaiiy oa aeeoei, a oaeiae iioi i?aaeiaoe niiaeeaaiiy (iaeya,
acoooy, iaaeeeaiaioe, iaeeai oa ii.); na?aae iineoa, ui iaaeathoueny
ioi?iiith caei?ia’y, noa?ith i?aaiiciaaiiai aiaeii/eieo, iiaooiaei
ianeoaiaoaaiiyi, ia?iaeiith inaioith, eoeueoo?ith oiui.

?iaaiue niiaeeaaiiy iaoa?iaeueiiai aeia?iaooo oa iineoa aecia/a? oiiae
aeeooy, iiaooo oa aiaeii/eieo; aieeaa? ia eieueeinoue aieueiiai /ano; ia
?iaaiue aiai?ii/ii? a?aiioiinoi ianaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy a ethaeae
naiaeiiiai noaaeaiiy aei naiai caei?ia’y; o eiioeaaiio iiaenoieo
coiiaeth? aieea ia aanue niinia aeeooy.

Ioaea, a ia’?aeiaiiio oa?oioaaii? iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? /eiieee
caei?ia’y: noaiiaeua i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, ?iaaiue niiaeeaaiiy oa
iia’ycaiee c iei niinia aeeooy. Ia ?iaii iiaeeaiaea aieeaathoue oaeiae
aiieiai/ii /eiieee, aeeth/ath/e niaaeeiainoue.

Aeaeieaii ?ieue aeieiai/ii? neooaoei? na?aae /eiieeia caei?ia’y. sse
iiaee?anethaaeiny, ia caei?ia’y ethaeeie aieeaa? ana iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua, oiaoi e i?e?iaeii, e nioeiaeueii eiai eiiiiiaioe. Aea ?o
niiaaiaeiioaiiy o oi?ioaaiii iioaioeiaeo caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy a ?icii
ia?iiaee aeeooy noniieuenoaa iaiaeiaeiaa. I?ioyaii aaaaoueio noieioue ia
aeieth i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua i?eiaaeaee eeoa oaei /eiieee ye
i?e?iaeiee aaioiii/iee neeaae aiaee oa a?oioo, a oaeiae inioaaiiy
ina?aaeeia iioe?aiiy caoaeieeia iioaeoeieieo oa ia?aceoa?ieo oai?ia.
I?ioa c ?icaeoeii i?ioeano iiaeono?iaeicaoei?, iniaeeai a ia?iiae
i?enei?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoii/iiai i?ia?ano, i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua cacia?
cia/ieo ciii i noa?, ii nooi, i?e?iaeii-oaoiiaaiiei. Eiai aieea ia
nioeiaeueia na?aaeiaeua iineeth?oueny. Oea noino?oueny aeiiiiiee,
o?aaeeoeieieo noa? i?eeeaaeaiiy i?aoei: oiia aeeooy oa /eiieeia
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, aeaiia?aoi/ieo i?ioeania.

O?ainoi?iaoe?y noni?eueii-aeaiia?ao?/ii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i?, iniaeeai a
ia??iae caeiaoooy iath aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? ? naiino?eiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei oa aeieia?/iei ?icaeoeii, aeiaaa?
anaa?/iiai aiae?co oa ?ic?iaee aeeaieeo iaoeiaeo canaae aaeineiiaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii? oa aeaiia?ao?/ii? iie?oeee caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai oa
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, iae?i- oa i?e?iiniiae eiie?aoieo ia?aoai?aiue,
i?iaiic?a ? iie?oeee ?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?euenoaa ia ei?ioei- oa
aeiaaino?ieiao ia?niaeoeao.

I?aenoaaith, ui coiiaeth? iio?aae ?ic?iaee oai???
noni?eueii-aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo noiniaii oiia ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo
a Oe?a?i?, ? o?eaaea ? anainyaeia aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia
e?eca, ui i?ecaaea aei iia??oaiiy an?o i?ioean?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
ethaeae ??aiy caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy, ?aaeeio eiai e?euee?niiai oa
ye?niiai ia?aoai?aiiy, ??aiy niiaeeaaiiy oiaa??a oa iineoa, ?icnaeaiiy,
aca?iiae?? c i?e?iaeiei na?aaeiaeuai oiui.

Neeaaeia aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y oa cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy
iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia aeaiia?ao?/i? i?ioeane a e?a?i?, noai ?eieo
i?aoe?, ni?e/eiythoue nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia iai?oaeaiiy a
noni?euenoa?. O naith /a?ao, ia ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy ?noioii
aieeaathoue ciaioaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa, iniaeeai oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai
niiaeeaaiiy, iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy niiaeea/eo oe?i oa iaaaeaeaaoia eiio
c?inoaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe o?oaeyueo, ui i?aoeththoue o aea?aeaaiiio
naeoi?? aeiiii?ee, iain?e, aeiiiiia ? noeiaiae?e.

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie caaaeueia aeiiii?/ia e?eca a on?o ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie
i?ecaaea aei iianthaeiiai ??ceiai iia??oaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe??.
E??i nooi aeiiii?/ieo oa aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a, i?e/eiaie iia??oaiiy
aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? ? aacnenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei ea?oaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaieie oa?eoi??yie oa ?aa?iiaie; a?aenooi?noue iaoiaeieia??
no?aoaa?/iiai ea?oaaiiy iaeaooiueith iiaaae?ieith i?aai?caoe?eieo nenoai
?aa?ii?a; a?aenooi?noue aa?iii?caoe?? a iaoa??aeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?
oa aeooiai?e noa??, a?aenooi?noue iaa?oioiaaieo ia?aiao??a iaiaaeaiue,
/a?ac ye? nenoaia ao?a/a? eiio?ieue iaae nai?i aioo??oi?i ? ciai?oi?i
na?aaeiaeuaie, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?? ?iciaaeo; cia/iith i??ith
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ooieoe?e, ui ?o aeeiiothoue oa?eoi??aeuei?
i?aaie ea?oaaiiy, ae?eniiio i?ecia/aiith oeeo ooieoe?e o nenoai?.
Oa?eoi??y ye nioe?aeueia, aeiiii?/ia, aeaiia?ao?/ia oa aeieia?/ia
nenoaia ia ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oe?e?ni?noue c? nai?ie caaaeueii- oa
aioo??oiueinenoaiieie caaaeaiiyie, iio?aaaie ? ?ioa?anaie. C
iiceoe?e oe?e?niino? oa?eoi??y ye nenoaia ia ae?aaiinoo?oueny.
A?aenooi? oaeiae a?aeiia?aei? neoaeae. Ia aeei?enoiaothoueny e
niaoe?ae?noe aeaiiai i?io?eth. Ona iaaaaeaia a noeoiiino? e
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy ? aac oiai neeaaeii? aeaiia?ao?/ii?
neooaoe?? a eiaeiiio ?aa?ii? oa a e?a?i? a oe?eiio.

Noni?eueii-oa?eoi??aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy c
on??? noeoiiino? i?ioean?a a?aeoai?aiiy ethaeae aeae?eythoue
oa?eoi??aeueio i?aai?caoe?th a?aeoai?aiiy aeaniiai oa noni?eueiiai
aeeooy , oiaoi nioe?aeueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?eoi??aeueii? ni?eueiino?
ethaeae o /an? ? i?inoi??, oa?eoi??aeuei? iniaeeaino? ?aeeiiai i?ioeano
a?aeoai?aiiy aeeooy, aaiethoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a,
oiia ? caeiiii??iinoae ?o o?ainoi?iaoe??. Aca?iiae?y oiia aeeooy ?
aeaiiaaia?ao?/ii? nenoaie cae?enith?oueny /a?ac aeaiia?ao?/io
iiaaae?ieo, oiaoi /a?ac ?ioaineai?noue aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a. Ci?ia
aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a i?enei?eeanue ? nueiaiaei? an?
aeaiia?ao?/i? i?ioeane oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeaeeith ci?iith ye ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiio, oae ? ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?. A 90-o ?ieao ia Oe?a?i?
?icai?ioeanue aeeaiea aeaiia?ao?/ia e?eca, yea iac??aaea ai?iaeiaae
inoaii?o o?eaeoeyoe ?ie?a, ye ca ?aooiie i?e?iaeiiai, oae ?
i?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo, a oaeiae iia??oaiiy ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ianaeaiiy.
A oiiaao aeeaieiai niaaeo ae?iaieoeoaa oa aeanoaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa
iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe?? a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy aeoaea oaeaeei
iineeththoueny.

Ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y ia Oe?a?i? cieaeoaaeanue ia?iaeaeoaai?noue,
iniaeeai iii?oii i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a (cieaeaiiy a?aeaoeiny c 1.8 —
1990 ?. aei 1.3 — 1997 ?.), o oiio /ene? o aaeeeeo i?noao noia?iee
eiao?oe??io ia?iaeaeoaaiino? cieceany aei 1 aeeoeie; o i?nueeeo
iinaeaiiyo — aei 1,1; o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? — aei 1,7. Aea
aeaiiioeyoe?y, yea ae?noaea a Oe?a?i? oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy, ? ia
o?eueee ?acoeueoaoii anaioiiethth/i? e?ece, aea ? iane?aeeii
o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?eiai? no?oeoo?e ianaeaiiy. A Oe?a?i? a?eueo?noue n?iae
iathoue iaeio aeeoeio, aai a?aeeeaaeathoue ?? ia?iaeaeaiiy. O?eueee
io?oe?eii cao?eniaaieo aai?o?a iaeaea aaea?/? a?eueoa e?eueeino?
ia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae. Ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue aai?o?a o
iaiiaiie?oi?o. Cia/io /anoeio iiaiia?iaeaeaieo noaiiaeyoue ae?oe,
ia?iaeaeai? iica oethaii (1996 ?. — 13.6%).

O?eaaea cieaeaiiy ia?iaeaeoaaiino?, ?icoe?aiiy ianooaa?a aacae?oiino? oa
iaeiiae?oiino? noai?eee aeaiia?ao?/i? oiiae aeaiiioeyoe??. N?i’? c
iaei??th aeeoeiith noaiiaeyoue 29,4% caaaeueii? e?eueeino? n?iae.
??aaiue n?iaeiino? a Oe?a?i? noaiiaeoue 3,2 /ie. O oaeeo oiiaao
aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? ? ae?ae iaaaoeaiith. Nei?i/aiiy
/enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie — yaeua iaaaoeaia ia eeoa c iaeyaeo ia
aeaiia?ao?/io neooaoe?th, aiii iaaacia/ia oaeiae ? c iaeyaeo ia
noaiiaeua a aeiiii?oe?, ine?eueee ci?ie a noaoaai-a?eia?e no?oeoo??
ianaeaiiy aieeaathoue ia ?ano?ni? iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. A
oiiaao caaino?aiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? ae?ae iaiao?aeii
?ic?iaeoe oa i?iaaaeeoe a aeeooy Iaoe?iiaeueio i?ia?aio
aeaiia?aeoai?aiiy, a ye?e aa?oi ia?aaeaa/eoe eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei
nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi ianaeaiiy, ioi?ii?
caei?ia’y, caoeuaiino? ianaeaiiy, noai?aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
oiia aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy n?iaeiino?.

Oi?ioaaiiy aeano?oeoeaieo, caeaa?eueoiai ?oei?aieo yaeu ? i?ioean?a o
no/ani?e aeaiia?ao?/i?e neooaoe?? Oe?a?ie aea? i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ie noaee no/anieeaie ni?aaae? oi?eaeueiiai,
aeno?ai?aeeia?iiai oaiiiaio iia?oiuei? aeaiia?ao?/ii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie:
aia?oa a ie?iee /an c’yaeeeny oa iaaoaathoue neee yaeua, ye? ?ai?oa
cae/aeii niinoa??aaeeny o?eueee o a?aeiinii ei?ioei/ani? ia??iaee a?ei.
Noai no/anii? aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? iiaeia eaae?o?eoaaoe ye
aeaiia?ao?/io eaoano?ioo, oiio ui aeaiiioeyoe?y ii?aeio?oueny c?
cieaeaiiyi yeino? ianaeaiiy.

C?inoaee ye aaniethoi?, oae ? a?aeiini? iieacieee nia?oiino?,
a?aeaoeiny aaci?aoeaaeaioia i?aeaeuaiiy ?? caaaeueiiai ??aiy. Cia/ia
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?aeaoeiny ca ?aooiie c?inoaiiy
?? ?ioaineaiino? na?aae an?o a?eiaeo a?oi /ieia?e?a oa na?aae ae?iie
noa?oeo 20 ?ie?a. Iieacieee nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy c?inoaee ii an?o
eeanao i?e/ei nia?oiino?, e??i oiai, oaeaeei c?inoathoue ianooaae
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae iai?e?iaeieo i?e/ei nia?o?. C 1995 ?.
iauani? aeiaaeee, io?o?iiy, o?aaie, naiiaoanoaa caeiathoue ae?oaa
i?noea na?aae i?e/ei nia?o? /ieia?e?a oa /aoaa?oa ae?iie, iniaeeai
oea c?inoaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?noao. Nei?i/o?oueny na?aaeiy
o?eaae?noue aeeooy ye /ieia?e?a, oae ? ae?iie. Oeae i?ioean ioiiea ye
naea, oae ? i?noa. I?ioyaii 1990 — 1995 ??. na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue
aeeooy ciaioeeanue o /ieia?e?a ia 4.1 ?ieo (a i?noao — ia 4.3 ?ieo, a
naeao — ia 3.2 ?ieo), a a ae?iie — ia 2.1 ?ieo (a i?noao — ia 2.1
?ieo, a naeao — ia 1.9 ?ieo). I?ioyaii 1996-1997 ??. a?aeaoeiny
iacia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a na?aaeiuei? o?eaaeino? aeeooy (ia 0,8
?ieo). C?inoathoue ao?aoe ianaeaiiy a?ae ia?aae/anii? nia?o?.

I?ioyaii 1996 — 1998 ??. iai?oeeanue iiceoeaia oaiaeaioe?y aei cieaeaiiy
??aiy nia?oiino? (1996 ?. 15.2 i/ii; 1997 ?. — 14,9i/ii; 1998 ?. —
14,2 i/ii).

Iaaaoeaiee aieea ia i?e?iaeiee i?e??no ianaeaiiy ia? aeineoue aeniea
aeeoy/a nia?oi?noue ae?oae aei 1 ?ieo (1996 ?. — 14.3 i/ii). Iniaeeao
o?eaiao aeeeeea? aeniea aeeoy/a nia?oi?noue a i?noao ?aaii-O?aie?anueeo,
Eooeueeo oa *a?i?aoeyo. Iaae?iiy ia?iaeaeoaaiino?, iia??oaiiy
caei?ia’y ia?iaeo, nei?i/aiiy o?eaaeino? aeeooy, ??no nia?oiino?
ci?ieee i?e?iaeiee i?e??no ianaeaiiy ia oaooie (aeaiiioeyoe?th).
Aeaiiioeyoe?y naea ?icii/aeany a 1979 ?. ? ioiieea 90% n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino? Oe?a?ie, a 1992 ?. — iioe?eeanue ia /anoeio i?nueeeo
iinaeaiue, a a 1991 ?. — ana ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia?aeoei a
aeaiiioeyoe?th. Caaaeueiee eiao?oe??io i?e?iaeiiai ciaioaiiy ianaeaiiy
a 1996 ?. noaiiaea a Oe?a?i? — 6.1 i/ii, a i?noao — 4.9 i/ii; a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? — 8.5i/ii. Cia/ii ieae/a iaae? (iaioa 1)
i?inoiai a?aeoai?aiiy aaee/eia a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy a i?noao ? a
naeao. Ca n?i ?ie?a o?eueee ca ?aooiie i?e?iaeiiai oaooeo
/enaeuei?noue ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ciaioeeanue ia 1488 oen. in?a.

E??i oiai, eaoano?ioa ia *AAN oa ?aae?aoe?eia caa?oaeiaiiy cia/ii?
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie coiiaeee nooo?a? ci?ie a ?icnaeaii? ianaeaiiy, a
oa?aeoa?? aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a, o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeaiia?ao?/ii?
no?oeoo?e ianaeaiiy. Iaea?eueo nooo?a? ci?ie a?aeaoeenue a cii?
iaea?eueoiai ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy: ca?aeee c ia?oeo aei?a i?ney
eaoano?ioe ii/aeinue ianiaa aenaeaiiy ethaeae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a o cii?
?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaea?eueoee nea/ie
iieaciee?a iino?eii? i?a?aoe?? ianaeaiiy a?aeaoany a ia?o? aeaa ?iee
i?ney eaoano?ioe, iio?i niinoa??aaeinue ciaioaiiy oeueiai iieacieea. Aea
? nueiaiaei? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ye i?aai?ciaaia, oae ? naiino?eia
ia?anaeaiiy ethaeae a ?io? a?eueo aacia/i? a ?aae?aoe?eiiio a?aeiioaii?
?aa?iie Oe?a?ie, oa ca ?? iaae?. Aea ? ethaee, ye? iiaa?oathoueny
aei nai?o aeii?aie. I?e?iaeiee i?e??no ianaeaiiy, ia?aeoia a i?e?iaeia
nei?i/aiiy. I?a?aoe?eiee a?aeo?e oa i?e?iaeia nei?i/aiiy nooo?ai
iia??oeee aeaiia?ao?/io ianoaiiaeo a cii? iaea?eueoiai caa?oaeiaiiy.
Oaeei /eiii, ?aa?ii c? noaa?eueiei ciaioaiiyi ianaeaiiy a ?acoeueoao?
eaoano?ioe ia *AAN ia?aoai?eany a ?aa?ii c ??ceei iineeaiiyi oeueiai
i?ioeano aae aei ao?aoe iiaeeeaino? i?e?iaeiiai a?aeoai?aiiy. Ana oea
iaaaoeaii aieeioei ia noaoaai-a?eiao oa n?iaeio no?oeoo?o ianaeaiiy.
Aeaiiioeyoe?eia ciia ia?aoai?eeany a ciio aeaiia?ao?/ii? aeaa?aaeaoe??
oa?eoi??aeueii? ni?eueiino? ethaeae. C 1987 ?. nia?oi?noue na?aae
o/aniee?a e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a eaoano?ioe ae?inea iaeaea o n?i ?ac?a.
Inoaii? n?i ?ie?a i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? iaaoee i?eioeeiiai
iiaiai ci?noo, oa?aeoa?o oa yeino?, ci?ieeenue i??i?eoaoe.
O?ainoi?iaoe?y iai?yieo aaia?ao?? ia?ai?uaiue, no?oeoo?e oa
?ioaineaiino? no/anieo i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a — ye?nii iiaa yaeua, yea
iio?aao? i?aeaeuaii? oaaae c aieo a/aieo, iie?oee?a, th?eno?a,
i?aaicaoeniee?a, aeaaee, i?aai?a i?aaiii?yaeeo.

Ca aanue iiai?iiee ia??iae a eieeoiueiio ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? ? a
Oe?a?i? cie?aia, aeeiai?ea, aaia?ao?y ia?ai?uaiue oa no?oeoo?a
i?a?aoe?eieo iioie?a aecia/aeany oa i?aeo?eioaaeany aenoaineaiei
?icaeoeii aeiiii?ee, iino?eiei ?inoii e?eueeino? ?iai/eo i?noeue a
i?noao. Aeo?aoia aeiiii?ea cano?eiiai ia??iaeo ii?iaeeea iania?
oeaio?ino??ie? iioiee iaeieaae?o?eiaaii? ?iai/i? neee c naea a i?noi, a
ceeaeaii?noue oa aaci?aai?noue naeyieia — aeaee oeueiio i?ioeano
i?enei?aiiy.

Caaaeyee a?aeoieo n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a aei i?no a?aeaoeenue ?aaeeeaeuei?
ci?ie oa?aeoa?o ?icnaeaiiy a iaaeao Oe?a?ie. Ooo noi?ioaaeenue nenoaie
?icnaeaiiy, a?aei?/ai? aenieith eiioeaio?aoe??th ia o?eueee i?nueeiai,
a e n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Aiie i?eo?i/ai? aei iaea?eueo neeaaeieo oa
aeeiai?/ieo ae?iaie/eo, o?aai?noe/ieo, o?ainii?oieo no?oeoo? Oe?a?ie.
Iaeii/anii a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? a aaaaoueio ?aa?iiao i?ioiaeeoue
oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icoe?aiiy iaoe?ieo neaai canaeaieo oa?eoi??e, a yeeo
iieieeenue aeaaaeai? c ainiiaea?nueeiai iai?ioo cia/i? ca ieiuath
caie?.

Ia?aaaaea? a?aeo?e n?euenueei? iieiae? o i?noa oa ca iaae? Oe?a?ie,
yeee ui??/ii a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaea 125 oen. /ie. C 1986 ?ieo
a?aeo?e n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a ciaioo?oueny ? iinooiiai, aaea c 1992
?ieo ia?aoiaeeoue a iiceoeaia naeueaei i?a?aoe??. Aaaaoi??/iee
a?aeieea n?euenueei? iieiae? a i?noa Oe?a?ie oa ca ?? iaae? aecia/ea
aeaoi?iaoe?th an?o aeaiia?ao?/ieo no?oeoo? ? i?ioean?a a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino?. Aaeaea naei caeeoaee ia?aaaaeii iieiae? oa i?aoeacaeaoi?
eiioeiaaioe, oeae i?ioean noi?iaiaeaeoaaee ca?eueoaiiy /anoee in?a
iain?eiiai a?eo, c?inoaiiyi nia?oiino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy,
nei?i/aiiyi eiai ia?iaeaeoaaiino?, cieaeaiiyi i?e?iaeiiai i?e?inoo
ianaeaiiy. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui o 1992 ?ioe? aia?oa ca aaaaoi
aeanyoee?oue naeueaei i?a?aoe?? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? noaei
iiceoeaiei, aiii ia i?ecaaei aei iie?ioaiiy a?eiai? no?oeoo?e
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, oiio ui a naei ii?oaee ethaee iain?eiiai a?eo.

Iai?i ianaeaiiy i?ae Oe?a?iith oa ?ioeie ?anioae?eaie eieeoiueiai
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, ca aeiyoeii e?eueeio inoaii?o ?ie?a,
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany onoaeai?noth i?a?aoe?eieo iioie?a ? iino?eiith
aaia?ao??th i?a?aoe?eieo ca’yce?a. Aieiaiei ia?oia?ii Oe?a?ie uiaei
i?a?aoe?eiiai iai?io an? oe? ?iee aoea ?in?y. Iieiaeue Oe?a?ie a?aea
aeoeaio o/anoue a inai?ii? oe?eeie a Eacaonoai?, iiaiaoaeiaao Nea??o, a
I?eaaeoeoe?. Aiaeii/an, i?ae?anioae?eainueeee i?e??no ianaeaiiy a
Oe?a?i? ai?iaeiaae inoaii?o o?eaeoeyoe ?ie?a noaiiaea iaeaea 25
a?aenioe?a.

Iniaeeai neeueiee iioaioe?eiee ca?yae ianea ?aiao??aoe?y
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo. C 1989 ii 1997 ??e ia Aaouee?aueio
iiaa?ioeinue 243 oen. e?einueeeo oaoa? ? 12 oen. aeaii?oiaaieo ?acii c
ieie a??iai, aieaa?, a?ae?a, i?ioe?a. Na?aae oeueiai ianaeaiiy
i?ioiaeyoue caeiiii??ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y ?aaeeio a?aeoai?aiiy, cieaeaiiy
eiao?oe??io?a i?e?iaeiiai i?e?inoo (1989 — 14.8 i/ii, 1994 — 5.2 i/ii)
ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy iieaciee?a ia?iaeaeoaaiino? (c 20.2 i/ii aei
10.7 i/ii) i?e iaeaea noaa?eueieo iieacieeao nia?oiino?. A?eueoa
/anoeia e?einueeeo oaoa?, ie??i aeanieo i?iaeai, ?icae?ey?
oaia? c ?ioeie ethaeueie ia Aaouee?auei? an? o?oaeiiu? anaioiiethth/i?
e?ece. O i?noeyo aeaii?oaoe?? /aeathoue ia iiaa?iaiiy ua 220 oen.
e?einueeeo oaoa? ? aeecueei 100 oen. a??iai, aieaa?,
a?ae?a ? i?ioe?a.

Ua aei 1991 ?ieo i?eieea ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?io ia?aaeuoaaa eiai
a?aeieea. C 1994 ?ieo ca?a?no?iaaii iaaaoeaia naeueaei i?a?aoe??
(ai?a?aoe?y) anueiai ianaeaiiy. Oe?a?ia noa? e?a?iith ai?a?aoe??
oao?aoe?a oa aoiin?a. Ae?aeaeaeathoue ?a?a?, i?ioe?, a?aee, a??iaie.

Ioaea, a?aeaoeany oaeiae o?ainoi?iaoe?y i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a.
Oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie no/anieo i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? ?: iino?eia ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iioieo a e?a?ie
NIAe oa ciaioaiiy ?o iioieo a cai?ioiiio iai?yieo; ??no ai?a?aoe??
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a e?a?ie aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey; iiyaa iiaiai oeio
ei?ioeioa?i?iiaeo i?a?aoe?e a eiia?oe?eieo oa ?ae?aaoe?eieo oe?eyo,
ci?ia iai?yieo a?aeoieo ianaeaiiy naei-i?noi ia i?noi-naei; ??no
aeiooaii? oa aeieia?/ii? i?a?aoe??; ??no iaeaaaeueieo oa o?aiceoieo
i?a?aio?a.

Ca ?aooiie i?e?iaeiiai nei?i/aiiy ianaeaiiy caaaeueia /enaeuei?noue
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ciaioeeanue c 52.2 iei./ie. ia 1.01. 1993 ?. aei 50.1
iei. /ie. — ia 1.01.1999 ?.

Neeaeeny aeineoue no?ee? iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe??: ae?cae ia iino?eia
i?noea i?iaeeaaiiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ca iaae? Oe?a?ie; ?ioaineaia
i?aeaea?aeaaia o?oaeiaa i?a?aoe?y. I?ioyaii ?ieo ca iaae? Oe?a?ie ?c
n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? ae?aeaeaea? iaeaea 50 oen. /ie., ia?aaaaeii
iniae i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo. Ianyae ae o?oaeiai? oei/aniai? i?a?aoe?? ca
ei?aeii iaaaaaoi a?eueo? ? ia/eneththoueny a i?eueeiiao /ieia?e. Ia
aeaeue, io?oe?eia noaoenoeea oeueiai yaeua a?aenooiy ? ?ici??e eiai
iiaeia oyaeoe eeoa ca aenia?oieie ioe?ieaie. O Caea?iaonuee?e oa
Euea?anuee?e iaeanoyo, iai?eeeaae, ca ei?aeii ia ?iaioo iino?eii
ae?aeaeaea? a na?aaeiueiio ii 1,0 oen./ie. ia?aaaaeii iieiaeiai a?eo
(?en.3). Iayoieeia? i?a?aioe ca ei?aeii ia niea/othoue iiaeaoe?a ca
i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy, o oie /an ye /eaie ?o n?iae, oa e aiie i?ney
iiaa?iaiiy, iiai?noth ei?enoothoueny ?nioth/ith nioe?aeueiith
?io?ano?oeoo?ith, nioe?aeueiei caoenoii oiui, ye? iiai?noth
oo?eiothoueny ca ?aooiie iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo oa
nioe?aeueieo i?aai?a. E??i oeueiai ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui ca ei?aeii ia
?iaioo ?aea ianaiia?aae iieiaeue. Oei naiei c?inoa? aeaiiaeiiii?/ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?aoethth/eo, ui ni?e/eiy? nei?i/aiiy aaeiaiai
aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo, a a?aeiia?aeii e noie a?ioiaeo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo, cai?oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai.
Ia?aoo?, a?aenooi?noue i?aeaea?aeaaieo oaiae, ye? ca?aeii c /eiiei
caeiiiaeaanoaii iieeeeai? caoeuaoe ?ioa?ane oei/aniai i?aoethth/eo ca
ei?aeiiii, ia?aoai?th? ?o ia aeaoaao ?iai/o neeo (??aaiue iieaoe
ieae/ee ii??aiyii c i?noeaaeie i?aoe?aieeaie a 5 ?ac?a ? a?eueoa),
iicaaaey? aoaeue-yeeo aa?aio?e uiaei oiia iieaoe oa ioi?iie i?aoe?.
N?i’? oaeeo i?a?aio?a o?eaaeee /an ? oaeoe/ii iaiiaieie, ae?oe ia
io?eiothoue iaeaaeiiai aeoiaaiiy, ?iciaaeathoueny oethae oiui.

Aeeaieo noo?aiaai?noue aeeeeea? oa ianoaaeia, ui ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino?
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iia??oaiiyi eiai yeino?,
ianaiia?aae caei?ia’y. Aeooae?co?oueny i?iaeaia ia eeoa iie?ioaiiy
caei?ia’y, a e eiai aeaiaioa?iiai caa?aaeaiiy. Iia??oaiiy noaio
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ciaioaiiy i/?eoaaii?
na?aaeiuei? o?eaaeino? aeeooy, ianaiia?aae ii aeinyaiaii? iain?eiiai
a?eo. Iaaaoeai? ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny a noai? caei?ia’y an?o a?eiaeo
a?oi, o oiio /ene? i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy. C?inoathoue o?aaiaoeci
oa ?iaae?aeecaoe?y, a caoai?thaai?noue ia aeoeaiee ooaa?eoeueic
iaaeeaea?oueny aei iaae? ai?aeai??. Oaeaeei iioe?th?oueny A?E (NI?Ae).
Niinoa??aathoueny niaeaoe ?ioeo iaaacia/ieo ?ioaeoe?eieo caoai?thaaiue,
iaaa/aieo o ie?iee /an. Iioe?th?oueny nioe?aeueia iaoieia?y, iai?eeeaae
aeeiaie?ci, ia?eiiai?y oa oieneeiiai?y. Ona oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei
cieaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? aeoeaiino? ianaeaiiy, cie?aia eiai
i?aoeacaeaoiino?, a ioaea ? o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo.

Iia??oothoueny ye?ni? ia?aiao?e iae?iaeaiia?ao?/iiai ??aiy.
Eaoano?io?/ii cieceany iioaioe?ae a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy, iineeeeiny
iinoa??iiy ethaeiino?, iniaeeai a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, ui ia? ia
eeoa aeaiia?ao?/i?, a e aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee. Cie?aia, iaaecae/aeii
aeniea aeaiiaeiiii?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny a naeao Oe?a?ie,
aea eiaeiee i?aoeacaeaoiee ia? oo?eioaaoe a?eueoa, i?ae iaeiiai
iai?aoeacaeaoiiai, ui iia??oo? iiaeeeaino? c?inoaiiy ??aiy aeeooy
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Ia iniia? aeeiiaiiai ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai aiae?co
aeeiai?ee oa no?oeoo?e ?iaae?aeiino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a
anoaiiaeai? aeaye? no?ee? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa oaiaeaioe??. Caaaeueia
aaniethoia /enaeuei?noue ?iaae?ae?a iaei eieeaa?oueny a /an?,
caeeoath/enue i?ioyaii ?yaeo ?ie?a aeinoaoiuei noaa?eueiith, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i no?ee?noue /eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue ?iaae?aei?noue.
Iaeaieiai?oeie i?e/eiaie ?iaae?aeiino?, ui aeathoue iaea?eueo?
aaniethoi? oa ?ioaineai? iieacieee ?? ??aiy, ? ceiye?ni?
iiaiooai?aiiy, oai?iae nenoaie e?iaiia?ao ? o?aaie. ?ioaineai?
iieacieee ?iaae?aeiino? a?ae caoai?thaaiue c aiaeiaaiiith ao?ieia??th
(cie?aia, ceiye?nieo iiaiooai?aiue, oai?ia nenoaie e?iaiia?ao) ca
iiia?aaei? ?iee c?inoaee, a c aeciaaiiith (cie?aia, ooaa?eoeueico)
cieaeoaaeeny, aea inoaii?ie ?ieaie iaeaeaa oe? iieacieee c?inoathoue.
I?aeiaeani? a?aei?iiino? ?ioaineaieo iieaciee?a ?iaae?aeiino? a
aeeiai?oe? ciaioothoueny.

Aaeee? i?ae?aa?iiaeuei? a?aei?iiino? a e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao i?e?iaeiiai oa i?a?aoe?eiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy
aecia/athoue ? nai???aei?noue no?aoaa?? nioe?i-aeiiii?ei-aeieia?/iiai
?icaeoeo a eiaeiiio ?aa?ii?. No?aoaa?y aeoiaeeoue ?c
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo caaaeaiue, ye? a naith /a?ao aeieeaathoue ?c
?ic?iaeaii? i?ae aa?aeith III eiioeaioe?? noaeiai ?icaeoeo oa ?ioa?an?a
? iiaeeeainoae eiaeiiai ?aa?iio, eiai ianaeaiiy ? i?e?iaee. Naia a
?ic?iaoe? ? ?aae?caoe?? oaei? no?aoaa?? ? ao?eth?oueny ?aa?iiaeueia
iie?oeea aea?aeaae, ?aa?iiae?caoe?y an?o noi??i ?? noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo. Oaeoeea ? no?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee,
i??i?eoaoi?noue o oeeo neeaaeieo ? aca?iiiia’ycaieo i?ioeanao o??? /e
?ioi? noni?eueii-i?e?iaeii? aeoeaiino? aoaeooue ??ci? o eiaeiiio
?aa?ii?. O iaea?eueo ni?iuaiiio aeaeyae? iiaeia aecia/eoe, ui a
i?eei?aeiiieo ?aa?iiao i??i?eoaoiei noa? oaeoi? aaiiie?oe/iiai
iieiaeaiiy; a oeaio?aeueieo, c aaeeeei iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei oa eaae?iaei
iioaioe?aeii — noai?aiiy iaoei?ieeo i?iieneiaeo ae?iaieoeoa,
o?ainiaoe?iiaeueieo ei?eaei??a; o i?iieneiaeo ?aa?iiao — ?icaeoie
oaoiiiie?n?a oa oaoiiia?e?a; o aa?iae?iaie/eo — i??i?eoaoiee ?icaeoie
AIE, noai?aiiy iaeaaeieo iiaooiaeo oiia oa noa?e iineoa.

Aea a eiaeiiio c ?aa?ii?a aecia/aeueieie ? /eiieee aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?o ?ioaa?aeueiiai iioaioe?aeo, no?oeoo?a yeiai cia/iith
i??ith aoaea aieeaaoe ia no?oeoo?ii-o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane a
aeiiii?oe?.

Aeae?eai? oeie iathoue ??ciee ??aaiue ? iaiaeiaeia? oaiaeaioe??
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Oiio ?ic??ciythoueny
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? i?iaeaie ? oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy. A?eueo
aeaaiiieo/i? c ieo iiaeooue neoaeeoe i???ioe?ii aeey ?ioeo. Aiae?c
iniaeeainoae a?eueo ?icaeiooeo a nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iiio ieai?
?aeii?a iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo oei?a c
ieae/ei ??aiai ?icaeoeo. Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ia oeiieia?y,
cai?iiiiiaaia ? ia a?eueo iecueeeo oaeniiii?/ieo ??aiyo, aeicaiey?
aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe caoiaee aeaiia?ao?/ii? iie?oeee ? iaa?oiooaaoe
?aa?iiaeueia nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ia ?aaoethaaiiy.

Aeaiiaaia?ao?/ia oeiieia?y ? yne?aaei i?iyaii i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy
oa?eoi??aeueieo iniaeeainoae aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny a caeiiii??i?e aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino?. Anaa?/iee
oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee aiae?c ca’yce?a ianaeaiiy c ?ioeie eiiiiiaioaie
noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy, ui a?aoiao? ?ieue ? oa?aeoa? a?aeiinei
aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a c ??cieie oa?eoi??aeueieie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa aeieia?/ieie nenoaiaie, aeicaiey? ia?aeoe
a?ae iieno ie?aieo noi??i aaiaeaiia?ao?/ii? ianoaiiaee aei ?? iiyniaiiy,
ioe?iee ia iniia? ia’?eoeaieo e?eoa???a, i?iaiicoaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy.

sse iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy, o?ainoi?iaoe?th a?aeoai?thaaeueieo
i?ioean?a ianaeaiiy iio??aii ?icaeyaeaoe ye ooieoe?iioth/o nenoaio
/a?ac noeoii?noue ? aeeiai?eo eiiieaeno an?o i?ioean?a
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae. ?aa?iiaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy a ?o ?aeiino? ? aca?iicoiiaeaiino? aeicaiey?
c?iaeoe iaa?oioiaai? aeniiaee i?i oa?aeoa? ?o ci?i, nioe?aeueieo ?
aeiiii?/ieo iane?aeeao o?ainoi?iaoe?? oeeo i?ioean?a, a oaeiae
?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? ii iioei?caoe?? aaiaeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a
noiniaii eiie?aoieo oiia aeey ??cieo oei?a aaiaeaiia?ao?/ieo nenoai.
Oe? iaoa??aee aaaeeea? aeey ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo eiaeii? oa?eoi??aeueii? iaeeieoe?.

?eieiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?
iio?aao? iiaeo eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a ye aei ie?aii? ethaeeie,
oae ? aei oa?eoi??aeueii? ni?eueiino? ethaeae — ye ia’?eoa
nioe?aeueii?, aeaiia?ao?/ii?, aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. Oo?aioa i?i ethaeae
iiaeiia caeiyoe oeaio?aeueia i?noea a oiiaao ii caaacia/aiith no?eeiai
?icaeoeo. Ethaeeia iiaeiia iaoe ia o?eueee i?aai, a ? iiaeeea?noue
ia aeinoaoi?e aeeoo?aee ??aaiue aeey ia? naii? oa ?? n?i’?, ia
caei?iaa oa ie?aeia aeeooy a aa?iii?? c i?e?iaeith. Iiaa iiaeaeue
aeieia?/iiai, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai, aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo aenoaa?
i?eioeeiiai iia? aeiiae aei i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeoai?aiiy iaoe??.

Eiiieaenia ?aaiiiaeueia aeineiaeaeaiiy oiia aeeooy, aiaeoai?aiiy oa
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaeeaa? o ?icieo oiiaao o aca?iica’yceo ye ic
caaaeueiei ?iaiai nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai ?icaeoeo, oae i, cie?aia, ci
noaiii nioeiaeueii? iio?ano?oeoo?e, ?icnaeaiiyi, o?oaeiaith oa
nioe?ii?e?iaeiith aeaeaie ae?yeueiino?, aeaei ciiao anoaiiaeoe iniiaii
caeiiiii?iinoi aeeiaiiee, eieueeinii i?iii?oei? oa aca?iicaeaaeiinoi
?icaeyaeoaaieo iieacieeia oa aeaeieeoe oeie oa?eoi?iaeueieo ooai?aiue.

Aeniiaee. Iei? iieiioaiiy i?ioean?a aiaeoai?aiiy oa caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy
iia’ycaia c oiiaaie i?aoei oa iiaooo, onii niiniaii aeeooy ianaeaiiy,
ineieueee caoai?thaaiinoue iioaeoeieieie oai?iaaie coiiaeth?oueny
ia?aaaaeii nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieie /eiieeaie — caa?oaeiaiiyi
iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, oeiaeeeaeie oiiaaie i?aoei,
iecueeieaei?ieiei oa?/oaaiiyi, iecueeei ?iaiai aeioiaeo,
iacaaeiaieueieie aeeoeiaeie oiiaaie, ia?icaeiaiinoth ani?? nenoaie
?iciiiaiioieo iineoa, iaiaoiaeieo ethaeeii o noa?i i?aoei, iiaooo oa
aiaeii/eieo.

O ca’yceo c oeei iio?iaii /ioei noi?ioethaaoe aaia?aeueiee no?aoaai/iee
iai?yiie aea?aeaaii? aeaiia?aoi/ii? iieioeee, a oaeiae ieoaiiy ioi?iie
caei?ia’y ethaeae. Aiii ia iiaea iaiaaeoaaoeny eeoa eieueeiniei
ia?iuoaaiiyi caaacia/aiinoi ianaeaiiy iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith, oi/a
iio?aaa oeueiai aacia?a/ia a oiiaao aiaenoaeinoi iaoa?iaeueii-oaoii/ii?
aace iaaeeoeeie, iaaeinoaoiuei? eaaeioieaoei? iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo,
i?i ui naiae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe aoanoaoei?, ?iciiuaiiy cia/ii? eieueeinoi
eieoaaeueieo caeeaaeia o iai?enoiniaaieo nii?oaeao, ia iniauaieo
iaiaoiaeieie eiioiaeueieie c?o/iinoyie oiui.

Aaia?aeueiei iai?yiii oaei? iieioeee iiaeiia aooe eiiieaeniinoue, oiaoi
a?aooaaiiy anio nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo oa aeieiai/ieo /eiieeia, ui
aecia/athoue caei?ia’y ethaeae. Aaaeei ciaeoe na?aae oeeo /eiieeia oaei,
yei a i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii ia aieeaaee ia caei?ia’y. Oiio noai?aiiy
oiia aeey caa?aaeaiiy caei?ia’y ethaeae, i?ii?eoao
nioeiaeueii-aeieiai/iiai aoaeoo iaae aeiiiii/iei iaiaoiaeii ?icaeyaeaoe
ye aieiaiee e?eoa??e i?e ae?iaeaiii aaeeeeo ainiiaea?nueeeo ?ioaiue,
caeeaaeaoe oeae i?eioeei o ?icaeoie aea?aeaae.

Oaeee iiaeoiae iio?aao? ?aaeeeaeueieo ciii o oaoiioei, oaoiieiai? oa
i?aaiicaoei? ae?iaieoeoaa, iiaanoeoeieiie iieioeoei, ioi?iii
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ?icaeoeo nioeiaeueii? iio?ano?oeoo?e,
niiaeeaaiii ianaeaiiy. Aeiei?iiieo c?ooaiue o aeeoo?aiio ?iaii
ianaeaiiy, iieiioaii? eiai caei?ia’y, caieueoaii? o?eaaeinoi aeeooy
iiaeia aeinyaoe oieueee iiaeaeuaiiyi aoaeoeaiinoi aeiiiiiee, oa ia oeie
iniiai — niiaeeaaiiy iaoa?iaeueieo aeaa oa iineoa, aeiaaaeaiiy ?o aei
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ii?iaoeaia ye ca eieueeinoth, oae i ca yeinoth.

?c anueiai eiiieaeno aca?iiiia’ycaieo /eiieeia, ui aieeaathoue ia
aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy oa eiai caei?ia’y, iiaeia aiaeie?aieoe aieiaii
iai?yiee cieaeaiiy caoai?thaaiinoi, o?aaiaoecio oa iiaaeiaeiinoi:

A. Caoiaee ii iieiioaiith iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. ?icaeoie
ae?iaieoeoaa ca a?aenoaeeo oaoiieia?e ca?eueoo? caa?oaeiaiiy aiaee,
a?oioo oa aoiinoa?iiai iiaio?y oeiaeeeaeie aeey caei?ia’y ethaeeie
?a/iaeiaie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy caoai?thaaiinoi, caieueoaiiy
/anoioe a?iaeaeaieo aiiiaeie ?icaeoeo i ?icoiiai aiaenoaeeo inia. ?acii
ic oei i?e?iaeiioi?iiii caoiaee ca ianooaaaie oa aoaeoeaiinoth ia
caaacia/othoue iaeo?aeicaoei? oeiaeeeaeo aieeaia ethaeeie ia iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua. O?iainoaaiiy, ui aeaeiey?oueny ia oei oeiei, iaaeinoaoi?.
A Oe?a?ii ai?iaeiaae inoaiiio i’yoiaaeoeyoe ?ieia nei?i/oaaeiny
aaaaeaiiy a aeith i/enieo nii?oae. O ?yaei ?aaiiiia niinoa?iaa?oueny
aaaaoi?aciaa ia?aaeuaiiy a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo ii?i eiioeaio?aoei?
oeiaeeeaeo ?a/iaei. iniaeeai oo?aothoue oa?eoi?i? aeieiai/iiai eeoa oa
eaoano?io.

A. Iieiioaiiy oiia i?aoei. Oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai
aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoii/iiai i?ia?ano ni?ey? ciaioaiith oice/ieo
coneeue o o?oaeiaiio i?ioeani, iieaaoo? i?aoeth, aea a ?yaei aeiaaeeia
iiai?oo? ?? oiiae. Aeei?enoaiiy aeayeeo aeaeia ne?iaeie, oaoiiee oa
oaoiieiai? noai?th? a ?iai/ie ciii iiaeaeuaio caieeaiinoue,
caaaciaaiinoue, aia?aoeith, iiiicoth/a aei?iiiiaiiy oa iioi yaeua, ui
iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ethaenueeee i?aaiici. O?oae i?aoeiaieeia ia
iaoaiiciaaieo iioi/ieo i aaoiiaoe/ieo eiiiyo ? ae?ae iiiioiiiei,
neeaaea?oueny c iaaaeeei? eieueeinoi iao?eaaeeo iia?aoeie, ui
aaaaoi?aciai iiaoi?ththoueny. O?eaaea ia?aaoaaiiy a oaeeo oiiaao
aeeeeea? i?ioanieii caoai?thaaiiy oa ?aiith iiaaeiaeiinoue.

Ai?iaaaeaeoaai? iei? caoiaee c ioi?iie i?aoei iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaii,
ineieueee aiie aieueoith /anoeiith ni?yiiaaii ia ia aeeo/aiiy aeaea?ae
ae?iaie/eo oeiaeeeainoae, a ia eiiiainaoeith ca ?iaioo a oeiaeeeaeo
oiiaao.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaio ?iaioo c iieiioaiiy ioi?iie i?aoei, /enaeueiinoue
i?aoethth/eo o oeiaeeeaeo oiiaao ia cieaeo?oueny i i?ioyaii ?yaeo ?ieia
ia?aaoaa? ia ?iaii 10% onio caeiyoeo o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noai.
Aia?aoeieia oai?iaa caeia? na?aae i?iocaoai?thaaiue iaeia c ia?oeo
iinoeue.

Nioeiaeueii ianoaaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?e/eiith aaaaoueio i?ioanieieo
caoai?thaaiue ? iaaeieiee a eiino?oeoei? iaoei oa iaeaaeiaiiy. I?aaie
naiioa?iiai iaaeyaeo aiaeoeeythoue 30-40% i?iaeoia iiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy
/a?ac ia?aaeuaiiy na-iioa?ieo ii?i c aia?aoei?, ooio oa iioeo ia?aiao?ia
oiia i?aoei, a i?ioa iaeaaeiaiiy ic

na?eicieie eiino?oeoeaieie iaaeieieaie ae?iaey?oueny e aenieoaoo?oueny,
/ei caaiaeiii caeeaaea?oueny o ae?iaieoeoai aenieee ?iaaiue i?ioanieieo
caoai?thaaiue.

Aiaeiai/iee noai i c ae?iaie/ei o?aaiaoeciii. O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao
o?aaiaoeci, ye i i?iocaoai?thaaiiy, iia’ycaiee ic iaaeieieaie a
eiino?oeoei? iaoei oa iaeaaeiaiiy. O aeeiaiioei ae?iaie/iai o?aaiaoecio
ia aeaeii oaiaeaioei? aei cieaeaiiy i ?iaaiue eiai caeeoa?oueny aenieei,
iniaeeai ia iiaei?e?inoaao iaoaeo?ai?, aaaeeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,
aoaieueii? i?iieneiainoi. Uia cieceeeny i?iocaoai?thaaiiy oa ae?iaie/ee
o?aaiaoeci neiae ?aaeeeaeueii ciiieoe oiiae i?aoei. Oaea iinoaiiaea
ieoaiiy iio?aao? ia?aaeyaeo oaoii/ii? iieioeee iiae eooii ci?o iioa?ania
ethaeeie.

Ia?aianaiiy a caoiaeao c ioi?iie i?aoei oeaio?o aaae c eiiiainaoei? ca
ae?iaie/a caa?oaeiaiiy ia onoiaiiy eiai aeaea?ae iio?aao? aeiei?iiiiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiiee oa oaoiieiai? ae?iaieoeoaa, a ioaea, i aaeeeeo
eaiioaeiaeeaaeaiue, i?ioa aac oeueiai caaaeaiiy ?aaeeeaeueii? ciiie oiia
i?aoei ?ica’ycaoe iaiiaeeeai.

A. Iieiioaiiy iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy. Aaaeeeaei iai?yieii ai?ioueae
ca cieaeaiiy caoai?thaaiinoi oa iiaaeiaeiinoi ianaeaiiy ? iieiioaiiy
iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy. Ieii a ?aaiiiao Oe?a?ie aeniei ia eeoa
caoai?thaaiinoue oa iiaaeiaeiinoue, a e nia?oiinoue ianaeaiiy a
i?aoeacaeaoiiio aioei, iniaeeai na?aae /ieiaieia. I?e/ei oeueiai aaaaoi,
i iaeia c ieo — iacaaeiaieueiee noai iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae.

Iecueea aoaeoeaiinoue noniieueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa coiiaeea caeeoeiaee
i?eioeei aeaeieaiiy eaiioaeiaeeaaeaiue ia nioeiaeueio noa?o. Oiio
iaoa?iaeueii-oaoii/ia aaca iaaeeoeeie ia aiaeiiaiaea? iio?aaai aaeoci i
ia caaacia/o? ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo ia?aae iath caaaeaiue. Aeecueei
40% eiaeeiaiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie ?iciiuo?oueny a iai?enoiniaaieo
i?eiiuaiiyo, ui ia iathoue aiaeiiaiaeieo eiioiaeueieo c?o/iinoae.
Ianaeaiiy ia caaacia/aia iaaeeeaiaioaie /a?ac ?o aei?iaeia/o, iniaeeai
aino?i noi?oue i?iaeaia iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy nieuenueeiai
ianaeaiiy, eieueeinoue caa?iaiue yeiai aei eieoaaeueieo caeeaaeia iaioa,
iiae o iinoao, /a?ac iaioo aeinooiiinoue iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. Oi/eo ci?o
aaoi?a, ui ia?aoiae ia ieaoio iaaeeoeeio a oiiaao iaaeieao ca?iaioii?
ieaoe, iainie i noeiaiaeie ua aieueoa oneeaaeieoue ?iaaiue nioeiaeueiiai
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, iiaeoaa?aeeea i?aeoeea ii/aoeo ieioeiai ?ieo, eiee
aoei aaaaeaii ieaoi? iaaee/i? iineoae.

Aaaeeeai iiaee?aneeoe iio?aao ia?aoiaeo i?e ioeiioei ?icaeoeo ioi?iie
caei?ia’y aiae eieueeinieo iieacieeia (eieueeinoi eiea?iyieo eiaeie,
/enaeueiinoi eiea?ia oa na?aaeiueiai iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo, eieueeinoi
aiaeaiaeoaaiue oiui.) aei yeinieo iieacieeia, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
?iaaiue caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, ineieueee eieueeinii iieacieee ia
aiaeaeaathoue aoaeoeaiinoi ?iaioe aaeoci.

A. Iiaeaeuaiiy iaoa?iaeueiiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?iaiy ianaeaiiy. sse
i?aeoaa?aeeei aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiaeoai?aiiy oa noai caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy
caeaaeaoue aiae eiiieaeno oiia i?aoei oa aeeooy
ethaeeie. E?ii aeieiai/iiai noaiiaeua, oiia i?aoei, iaaee/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia iueiai aieeaathoue aeeoeiai oiiae,
yeinoue oa?/oaaiiy, ?iaaiue eiioiaeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy, ?icaeoie
oice/ii? eoeueoo?e, noa?e i?aaiiciaaiiai aiaeii/eieo oa ii.
C o?aooaaiiyi aieeao anueiai aaaaoiiaiiooy oiia aeeooy
ia aiaeoai?aiiy oa caei?ia’y ethaeae aaaaea?ii, ui a
ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyaei iiaeaeuaiiy iaoa?iaeueiiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?iaiy
ianaeaiiy iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iai?yiie iieiioaiiy eiai caei?ia’y,
ineieueee oei /eiieee aecia/athoue ?icii?e oa no?oeoo?o niiaeeaaiiy
iaoa?iaeueieo aeaa i iineoa.

Eiiieaeniee aiaeic caoai?thaaiinoi oa athaeaeaoia ie?aieo a?oi ianaeaiiy
iieacaa iayaiinoue i?yiiai ca’yceo iiae iaoa?iaeueiei aeia?iaooii i
caei?ia’yi. Aeuee ?iaaiue i?eaooeia aea? ciiao caaacia/eoe oaeiae aeuo
yeinoue onio aeeoo?aeo oiia: e?aua oa?/oaaiiy, aeeoei, aiaeii/eiie,
eieoaaiiy, aieueoee iiaooiaee eiioi?o, aieueoa aieueiiai /ano oa ii.

Iiaeaeuaiiy eoeueoo?iiai ?iaiy oaeiae iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iaeei c
iai?yieia cieaeaiiy caoai?thaaiinoi. ineieueee aii ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith
naiaeiiiai noaaeaiiy aei naiai caei?ia’y. Oaea noaaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/a?
aeio?eiaiiy ?aoeiiiaeueiiai ?aaeeio i?aoei oa aiaeii/eieo, caaacia/aiiy
caaeainiaaiinoi oa?/oaaiiy, i?aaeeueio i?aaiicaoeith aeicaieey, caiyooy
oiceoeueoo?ith i nii?oii, iicaaaeaiiy oeiaeeeaeo cae/ie oa ii.

Iiaeaeuaiiy iaoa?iaeueiiai aeia?iaooo oa eoeueoo?iiai ?iaiy ethaeae, ?o
aeieiai/ii? aaciaee ? iaeii?th c iaeaaaeeeaioeo oeieae
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, aeinyaiaiiy yei? ciaiaio?
ia?aoiae aei iiaiai yeiniiai noaio noniieuenoaa. ?ica’ycaiiy oei??
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ii? oa aeieiai/ii? i?iaeaie ii?yae c iioeie
ni?eyoeia iiaeaeuaiith yeinoi aeeooy i noaia aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith
iieiioaiiy caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio aaaeeeai iiaee?aneeoe, ui ia
aiaeiiio aiae aeayeeo eiie?aoieo caaaiue (iai?eeeaae, c aaoiiaoecaoei?
aeieyiie ae?iaieoeoaa ci oeiaeeeaeie oiiaaie i?aoei) aeaia i?iaeaia
caaaeaee caeeoaoeiaoueny ia ii?yaeeo aeaiiiio.

I?aeoeea oa?eoi?iaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aaeico?oueny a ?aaiiiaeueiie
aeaiia?ao?/i?e, nioeiaeueiie, aeiiiii/iie oa aeieiai/iie iieioeoei
aea?aeaae. Iniiaiei caniaii ?? caeieniaiiy ? iaoaiici ea?oaaiiy ia
iiaeaea?aeaaiiio, ?aaiiiaeueiiio oa iinoeaaiio ?iaiyo. Ieaioaaiiy
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo nioeiaeueieo i?ii?eoaoia iio?aao? aeey eiaeiiai
i??a?oi/iiai oa?eoi?iaeueiiai ?iaiy nai??iaeii? aeaiia?ao?/ii?,
aeiiiii/ii?, aeieiai/ii? oa nioeiaeueii? iieioeee.

Caiaeii c eiioeaioei?th ?aaiiiaeicaoei? aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a,
caeieniaiiy ?aaiiiaeueiiai iiaeoiaeo a aeaiia?ao?/iie iieioeoei noa?
iaeiei ic caaaeueieo i?eioeeiia ea?oaaiiy noniieueiei aiaeoai?thaaeueiei
i?ioeanii. I?e oeueiio neiae o?aoiaoaaoe ?iciiiaiioiinoue aeaeia
?aaiiiaeueii? ae?aaeaiinoi — aiae iie?ieieaeueii? aei
iae?i?aaiiiaeueii?, yea ia’?aeio? noeoiiinoue ieae/eo ca ?aiaaie
?aaiiiaeueieo nenoai.

I?aeoe/ia ?aaeicaoeiy i?ia?ai ?aaiiiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ua ia ia?
aeinoaoiuei? oai?aoe/ii? aace, ii/eiath/e c iiiyoieiiai aia?aoo oa eiai
nooiinoi e caaa?ooth/e eiie?aoieie iaoeiaeie ?aeiiaiaeaoeiyie. A/aieie i
i?aeoeeaie i?e aecia/aiii ?aaiiiia oa ?aeiiia aa?aoueny aei oaaae
ia?aaaaeii eeoa iaeei aniaeo — aeiiiii/iee, ae?iaie/ee, nioeiaeueiee,
aoii/iee oa ii. Oaeee iiaeoiae aea? iiaeeeainoue oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eeoa
iaeei aniaeo i?iaeaie i?icaeoeo ?aaiiio.

?ioi aniaeoe ?aaiiiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo /anoi caeeoathoueny iica oaaaith
iaoeiaoeia i i?aeoeeia. ? iniaeeai ieoaiiy oeieiniiai noniieueiiai
?icaeoeo ?aaiiiia, aea noooth ?aaiiiaeueii? iieioeee aea?aeaae ia? aooe
eieueeinia, iioaeaeooaeueia oa ii?aeueia aaeineiiaeaiiy oa?eoi?iaeueieo
niieueiio ethaeae, ?o oice/ia oa yeinia aiaeoai?aiiy, aa?iiiicaoeiy
aiaeiinei iiae ethaeeiith oa i?e?iaeiei na?aaeiaeuai i?iaeeaaiiy. ?c
oeeo iiceoeie noa? i/aaeaeiei, ui i?iaeaia ?aaiiiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue
iaaoaa? ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai cia/aiiy. Aei oiai ae cacia/eii, ui
?ica’ycaiiy eeoa ie?aieo, iaaioue aeoaea aaaeeeaeo ?aaiiiaeueieo i?iaeai
— aeiiiii/ieo, ae?iaie/eo, /e iioeo c /anii i?ecaaaea aei iio?aae
caa?iooe oaaao i ia ?ica’ycaiiy aeoaea neeaaeieo i?iaeai a iioeo noa?ao
ethaenueei? aeiyeueiinoi — nioeiaeueiie, ii?aeueiie, i?e?iaeiioi?iiiie
oa ii.

I/aaeaeii, ia aeaiee ia?aeiiiee ia?iiae noniieueiiai ?icaeoeo, eiee
?eieiai iaoaiicie ua aeinoaoiueith ii?ith ia aeyaeeeny: iio?iaii
i?eeiyoe iiao eiioeaioeith ?aaiiiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Aiia ia? aeeth/aoe
ia ie?aii acyoi eiioeaioei? aeiiiii/iiai, aeieiai/iiai /e nioeiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo aai ?icnaeaiiy ianaeaiiy, ?aaeicaoeiy eiaeii? c yeeo ia
aeanoue aaaeaieo ?acoeueoaoia, ineieueee i?inoi?iai-/aniai iniaeeainoi
i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeieeiaiiy iiaeo i?iaeai. Eiioeaioeiy iioaa?aeueiiai
(?aeeiiai) ?icaeoeo noniieueieo i?ioeania aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi ethaeae o
eiaeiiio nioeioii iiaea noaoe oi?th ieaooi?iith, ia yeie
ae?iaeyoeiaoueny ?aaiiiaeueia iieioeea aea?aeaae. A ?? iniiai ia? aooe
iiaeaeue iioaineaiiai aeiiiii/iiai c?inoaiiy ia aaci aeinyaiaiue IOI i
iiaeneeaiiy na?aicaoei? aeiiiii/iiai, oaoii/iiai oa nioeiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo eiaeiiai nioeioio, a oaeiae aeai? oeo i?ii?eoaoia aeey
eiie?aoii? oa?eoi?i?, yei aoaeooue iieeaaeaii a iniiao aecia/aiiy
iai?yieia ?? ?icaeoeo i neeaaeaoeiooue ooiaeaiaioaeueii oeiiiinoi
ethaenueeiai aoooy a aeaiiio ?aaiiii.

Ia iiaeia i/?eoaaoe oaeaeeiai iiaeieaiiy aeeni?iii?oe?e a
aeaiia?ao?/iiio, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio oa aeieia?/iiio ?icaeoeo
?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie. ? oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui ??aaiue aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie ? oiiae aeeooy ianaeaiiy aoaeooue aaaaoi a /iio
caeaaeaoe a?ae aaia?ao?/ieo iniaeeainoae oa?eoi???, aei yeeo ia?o ca ana
a?aeiinyoueny aaeee? ?ici??e a?eueoino? ?aa?ii?a, ia??aiii??i?noue
?ici?uaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a ? ianaeaiiy, a?aenoai? i?ae iinaeaiiyie
oa ??cia aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y.

?ici?uaiiy ? oa?eoi??aeueia i?aai?caoe?y i?iaeoeoeaieo nee iiaeii?
caaacia/oaaoe noai?aiiy ??aieo oiia aeeooy a on?o i?noao ? ?aa?iiao
iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o aaee/eie oa i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia. ??ai?noue
oiia aeeooy a on?o /anoeiao e?a?ie icia/a? iaaeaiiy a eiaei?e c ieo
iiaeeeainoae aeai?o i?noeue i?eeeaaeaiiy i?aoe? ? io?eiaiiy ina?oe,
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, aeinyaiaiiy iaaiiai ??aiy caaacia/aiino? aeeoeii ?
ia’?eoaie nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai oa iiaooiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?
i?iaaaeaiiy aeica?eey o anoaiiaeaieo iaaeao /aniai? aeinooiiino?, a
oaeiae caei?iaiai iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. A?aenoaaaiiy a ?icaeoeo
yei?-iaaoaeue c oeeo noa? ia iiaea eiiiainoaaoeny iaaeeeoeaie a ?ioeo.
??ai?noue i?e oeueiio ia icia/a?, ui a eiaeiiio iinaeaii?
caaacia/othoueny ia i?noe? an? aeaee aeaa aac aeiyoeo. Iaae? /aniai?
aeinooiiino? ia’?eo?a i?eeeaaeaiiy i?aoe?, io?eiaiiy ina?oe ?
ianeoaiaoaaiiy anoaiiaeththoueny ii?iaie i?noiaoaeoaaiiy ? ?aeiiiiai
ieaioaaiiy.

Iiaeeeaino? aeai?o a iaaeao iaaaeeeeo ?aa?ii?a i?noeue i?eeeaaeaiiy
i?aoe? ? io?eiaiiy ina?oe aac ci?ie i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy caaacia/othoueny
?ici?uaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo ia’?eo?a ? iayoieeiaith i?a?aoe??th. Iniiaa
aeey a?aeiiniiai ae??aithaaiiy oiia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai oa
iiaooiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy noai?th?oueny ianeoaiaoth/eie ia’?eoaie
caaaeueii?aa?iiaeueiiai cia/aiiy, eio??, ?ici?uoth/enue a iaeiiio /e
e?eueeio iinaeaiiyo ?aa?iio, iiaeooue ianeoaiaoaaoe ? aeeoae?a on?o
?ioeo /anoei ?aa?iio, aeey /iai ii?yae c eoeueoo?ii-iiaooiaeie
ii?caeeaie ianaeaiiy iiaeeeaa i?aai?caoe?y ae?ciiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

??ciiiai?oi?noue i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia a ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie
iaoiiaeththoue a?aei?iiino? i?ae ieie ca ??aiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?
oiiaaie aeeooy ianaeaiiy, iaeiae ia ?iaeyoue ?o iaieio/eie. Iaa?oue
a?aeeaaiaeaeaia aei aeineiiaeino? ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea ia caeaoia
caaacia/eoe iiaia ae??aithaaiiy oiia aeeooy ianaeaiiy ??cieo ?aa?ii?a.
Iaaiaee, ?? iaoai?cie iiaeooue i?aeneethaaoe a?aei?iiino? ?aa?ii?a ca
ye?noth aeeooy.

Ana oea ?iaeoue iaiao?aeiith ?ic?iaeo iniia ?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a ? iaoiae?a noaeiai eiiieaeniiai
?icaeoeo e?a?ie aeey noai?aiiy iianthaeii oiia, ui caaacia/othoue
i?enoieia aeeooy ? a?eueiee ?icaeoie ethaeeie, ae??aithaaiiy oeeo oiia a
??cieo ?aa?iiao ? e?ea?aeaoe?th aeieeath/eo aeeni?iii?oe?e.

I?e oeueiio i?ae ae??aithaaiiyi ?icoi??oueny ia noai?aiiy aaniethoii
??aieo oiia aeeooy a on?o ?aa?iiao, a e?ea?aeaoe?y ??ceeo a?aei?iiinoae
i?ae ieie ca ye?noth aeeooy. Oa e naia ye?noue aeeooy a ?aa?iiao — ia
iaeiii??iee iieaciee. Aiia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noaiii iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, aonoioith ianaeaiiy, eiai caaacia/ai?noth aeeoeii ?
??ciiiai?oieie ia’?eoaie nioe?aeueii-iiaooiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e,
iiaeeeainoyie caeiyoino? ? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, a?aeii/eieo oa ?i.

Ioe?iea, aiae?c ? i?iaiicoaaiiy yeino? aeeooy a ?aa?iiao iiaeii?
nie?aoeny ia nenoaio iieaciee?a, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaa??
iaaca?iicai?iieo e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee oiia aeeooy oa ?o
ii?iaoeaieo cia/aiue, i?e yeeo caaacia/othoueny ??ci? iio?aae ethaeeie.
I/aaeaeii, ui oaea nenoaia iieaciee?a ? ii?iaoea?a iiaeiia a?aoiaoaaoe
??ciiiai?oi?noue aeae?a ?aa?ii?a ? a?aei?iiino? o ia’?iao iiaiiaaaeaiue
i?aai?a aeaaee ??cieo ??ai?a.

Iaea?eueo ?noioiith iciaeith aeae?eaiiy ?aa?ii?a iiaeia aaaaeaoe
iayai?noue ia ?o oa?eoi??? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?
ioi?oeeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Oaeeie ?aa?iiaie a Oe?a?i? ? aaoiiiiia
?anioae?ea, iaeano?, i?noa iaeaniiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy oa ?o neeaaeia?
/anoeie — ?aeiie, i?nuee? ? n?euenuee? iinaeaiiy.

Iioe?aiiy oa?i?io «?aa?ii» ia i?noa, naeeua ? ?io? ianaeai? ioieoe
aei?aaaeiao?oueny oei, ui aiie iathoue oae? ae aeanoeaino? , ui e aaeee?
aaei?i?no?aoeai? iaeeieoe?. Ia?aaaae ?aa?ii?a oaeiai oeio iieyaathoue o
/?oeino? ei?aeii?a i?ae aeae?eaieie i?inoi?iaeie /anoeiaie ? a iayaiino?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?o ?icaeoie. Oe?
ia?aaaae aeiiiaiththoueny ca’yceaie, ui ?noi?e/ii neeaeeny a iaaeao
ie?aieo /anoei oa?eoi???, ie?aneaieo aaei?i?no?aoeaieie ei?aeiiaie, ?
ae?yeuei?noth ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy, eio?? ?aae?cothoue iaaio
no?aoaa?th nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa aeieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo nai?o
?aa?ii?a. Ia??iaee/i? ia?aaeyaee ei?aeii?a i?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaieie
iaeeieoeyie aeicaieythoue a?aooaaoe ci?ie a ?ioaineaiino? ca’yce?a
ana?aaeei? ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a ? i?ae ieie.

Eiiieaenia ?aa?iiaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeaoaeoeai?oa a aeaiia?ao?/ieo
iaoeao, ia’?eoe yeeo ca i?e?iaeith neeaaei? e aaaaoii??i?, aeiaaathoue
aaaaoiieaiiaiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeai, caaaeaiiai ioiieaiiy an?o noi??i
aeaiia?ao?/iiai yaeua: aeiiii?/iiai, aeieia?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai,
iie?oe/iiai, i?aai?caoe?eieo oiui. I???ioaoe?y ia i?eioeei nenoaiiino? ?
ia iaia’yceiaith, ine?eueee ia’?eoe eiiieaeniiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue ? ia aooe nenoaiaie. A iniiao eiiieaeniiai
?aa?iiaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeai? ae?aeaeoe/i? i?eioeeie
caaaeueiino? ca’yceo, ?aeiino? i?ioeeaaeiino?, anaa?/iino?, eiie?aoiino?
oiui. Eiiieaenia ?aa?iiaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeiii iaaooe cia/iiai
iioe?aiiy a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ine?eueee
ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei nai ii nia? ia? eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa?.

Iioei?caoe?th ci?ie aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? ne?ae cae?enithaaoe o
aa?oeeaeueiiio iai?yieo, aeei?enoiaoth/e ???a?o?/iee i?aeo?ae ?
iinooiiai ci?ithth/e aeaiia?ao?/io neooaoe?th a?ae ieae/iai ??aiy aei
aa?oiueiai, ? a ai?eciioaeueiiio, aeei?enoiaoth/e oeiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae,
a?aoiaoth/e iniaeeaino? aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo eiaeiiai ?aa?iio. A
ia?oo /a?ao iaiao?aeii aae?anoaaoe aeiiiiiao ?aa?iiai c
iaeiani?eyoeea?oith aeaiia?ao?/iith neooaoe??th. Aaaaea?ii aeioe?eueiei
cae?enieoe ca iaaaaeaiith iaoiaeeeith oeiieia?/ia a?oioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a oa i?no Oe?a?ie c aeei?enoaiiyi
ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee oa ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? a?aoiaoaaieo
oaeoi??a, ui oi?iothoue aeaiia?ao?/io neooaoe?th.

Ioeiiea aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?icaeoeo yei?-iaaoaeue oa?eoi?iaeueii?
niieueiioe ethaeae oeyoii aecia/aiiy i?ioeania aeeo?aeiyeueiinoi aae?a?
a naaa ani iioi (aeiiiii/ii, aeieiai/ii oa nioeiaeueii) /anoeiai
ioeiiee. Niieueiioa ethaeae — nioeioi o nai?io noniieueiiio ?icaeoeo ye
eiiiiiaio oni?? nenoaie oa?eoi?iaeueii? i?aaiicaoei? noniieuenoaa — noa?
iiaeeeaoi?ii iiaeeoieaoei? ethaenueeiai noiieuenoaa acaaaei a eiaeio
eiie?aoio aeaio inoi?e/io aiioo. Aeeiaiiea ?icaeoeo nioeioiia ?icieo
oeiia, aoiinia, iaoeie i ia?iaeo aea?aeaae a oeieiio coiiaeth?oueny
ciiiaie eiie?aoieo i?ioeania aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi ethaeae ieiioiio i
iaeaooiio iieieiiue.

Aeineiaeeoe aiaeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy oa eiai caei?ia’y ?icieo aeaeia
nioeioiia iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeai, ineieueee noniieuenoai aiaeoai?th?
naaa /a?ac naiioeieueio aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoue nai?o noa’?eoia, yeeie ?
oei nioeioie oa ?o no?oeoo?ii eiiiiiaioe — ?iciiiaiioii niieueiioe
ethaeae aai eiie?aoii? iniae.

Iioaioeiae caei?ia’y ie?aieo iiaeeaiaeia, nioeiaeueieo a?oi oa oeieeo
oa?eoi?iaeueieo niieueiio ethaeae inoioii aieeaa? ia aaaaoi noi?ii
aeeooy noniieuenoaa,i a ia?oo /a?ao ia aeaiia?aoi/ii i?ioeane, o?oaeiao
aeiyeueiinoue oa oi?ioaaiiy caei?iaiai aaiioiiaeo.

Inaioiuei-eaaeioieaoeieiee iioaioeiae caaacia/o? aiaeiiaiaeiinoue
i?ioanieii-aeieiaeo yeinoae aeiiiii/ii aeoeaii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy
iio?aaai onio noa? caeiyoinoi, iinoieiee ?icaeoie ?iai/i? neee a ii?o
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoa?iaeueii-?a/iaeiieo aeaiaioia i?iaeoeoeaieo nee.

Iiney oice/iiai aiaeiiaeaiiy niieueiioe ethaeae iaaii? yeinoi ianooiiei
aoaiii ae?iaieoeoaa aeieniiai aeeooy ? aiaeoai?aiiy eiai i?ioeania.
sseui ia?oee aoai aiaeoai?thaaeueiiai oeeeeo noai?th? oice/ieo iini?a
aeeooy, naieo noa’?eoia, oi ae?oaee — ?o aeiyeueiinoue.

Aeiaaee /an ia i?eaeieyeiny iaeaaeii? oaaae yaeuai caoaeaiiai
aiaeoai?aiiy iieieiiue oa aiae’?iiiio inoeiiiio eiaoioei?ioo i?e?iaeiiai
i?e?inoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, nei?i/aiith na?aaeiuei? o?eaaeinoi
iaeaooiueiai aeeooy, caieueoaiith ?ic?eao ?? iiae /ieiaieaie oa
aeiieaie, i?eieiaiith caieueoaiiy nia?oiinoi iaiiaeyo, aee?eaeaiiyi o
noaoaai-aieiaie no?oeoo?i nieuenueeiai oa iinueeiai ianaeaiiy,
ia?aaaaeaiii aeiiie o /enaeueiinoi anueiai ianaeaiiy /a?ac
iaaenia?oiinoue /ieiaieia.

sseui aiaeeeaaeaiiy ia?iaeaeaiue iiaeia ia?aai?ioe aiaeiinii oaeaeei, oi
aeiaaiinioth/i ?ene aeaiia?aoi/ii? e?ece ? iaaaaaoi iaaacia/iioeie e ?o
iiaeieaiiy iio?aao? iiaeneeeoe iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aaiiiaeueii?
aeaiia?aoi/ii? iieioeee.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

Iiiia?ao?? oa ?icae?ee o eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?yo

1. Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iaoiaeieia?y ? i?aeoeea aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie (?aa?iiaeueiee aniaeo): Iiiia?ao?y. — E.: OOA?. 1997,
— 270 n.

Oauaaneee I.E., Noa?inoaiei A.A. ?annaeaiea ianaeaiey e
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea. Eiino?oeoeaii-aaia?aoe/aneea iniiau
?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey a Oe?aeineie NN?: Eeaaneia
I?eaeiai?iauea. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1988, N. 148-155.

Oauaaneee I.E., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I. Aaia?aoey ianaeaiey e
i?iaeaiu i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey. Eiino?oeoeaii-aaia?aoe/aneea iniiau
?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1990. — N.
98-108.

Oauaaneee I.E., Iaeee O.I., Iai/aiei I.I., Noa?inoaiei A.A.
Oa??eoi?eaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ianaeaiey. E.: Iaoe.
aeoiea, 1992. — 136 n.

Oauaaneee I.E., Iaeaia?/oe A.I., Iaeee O.I., Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iai/aiei
I.I., Aoeu/aaa O.A. Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue (enoiaeiua
oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey e iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu enneaaeiaaiey)
//Oai?aoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee enneaaeiaaiey oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ianaeaiey. E.: EA AI Oe?aeiu. — 99n. Aeai. a
Oe?EIOYE 07.05.92, N 650-Oe.92.

Iaoeiaee eiioi?ci: Neiaiee. E.: Iie?oaeaeaa Oe?a?ie, 1985, — 262 n.
(eieaeoea aaoi??a).

Aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu ia?anaeaiey ianaeaiey //?annaeaiea
ianaeaiey, iaania/aiea ?aoeeiiaeueiie caiyoinoe o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia e
yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea ciiu
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai ca?aaeaiey *a?iiaueueneie AYN Oe?aeineie NN? Iao/.
aeiee./Ioa. ?aae. N.E. Aei?iaoioeia. — E.: NIIN ONN? AI ONN?, 1991. —
N.23-105 (eieeaeoea aaoi?ia).

Oauaaneee I.E., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I., Aoeu/aaa O.A.
Nioeeaeueii-aaia?aoe/aneea aniaeou ?acaeoey ciiu ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai
caa?yciaiey //Aaia?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey a ciia aaa?ee ia
*a?iiaueueneie AYN /Aaeaaaiia A.A., A?eieaaoeeee A.O., Aeaauae/oe A.N.
Ei-o aaia?aoee IAIO. — Eeaa, 1994. — 269 n. Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu
20.07.09 N 1328 Oe 94.

Oauaaneee I.E., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I. Yaiethoeey acaeiinaycae
o?aaiecaoeee e iea?aoeee ianaeaiey. Iea?aoeey e o?aaiecaoeey ianaeaiey
//AI Oe?aeiu, Ei-o yeiiiieee; Ioa. ?aae. A.O. Oii?a, I.
Yaa?oa?aeo, — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1991, — N. 67-74.

Iaoeia? noaoo? o aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao, iaoeia? aeiiia?ae?.

A. Starostenko, I.Gorlenko,G. Friedlein. Die Tscernobul-katastrophe in
der Ukraine-Soziale und wirtshaftliche Folgen// Europa Regional fur
Zanderkunde Leipzig, 03,97, — st. 5-11.

Leonid Rudenko, Inga Gorlenko, Olexandr Khomra, Anna Starostenko.
Social-geographical peculiarities of borderlands (based on date from the
Ukraine)// Borderlands or transborder regions — geographical, social and
political problems // Region and Regionalism ? 3, Opole — Lodz, 1998. —
P. 250-256.

Olexandr Khomra, Anna Starostenko. New Etnic Processes in
theTranscarpathians Under Conditions of the Transformation Crisis//
Multicultural Regions and Cities// Region and Regionalism ? 4, Lodz-
Opole -Gdansk, 1998.

Hanna Starostenko. Economic and Ecological Factors of Transformations in
Demographic Process in Ukraine// Welcome to Ukraine, 2’98, P.56-57.

Ieoth?aiei A.E., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Aoeu/aaa O.A. Aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiua
iea?aoeeiiiua nayce ianaeaiey a Eeaaneii I?eaeiai?iauea.
//Yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey: ?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/. na. E.: 1986, Aui. 36.
— N. 50-55.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. I aeeyiee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia
iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a NNN?.//Yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey: ?ani.
iaaeaaae. iao/. na. Aui. 40. — E.: Aeua. oe. ecae-ai i?e E.: ain.
oi-oa, 1988. — N. 47-651.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iea?aoeey ianaeaiey a nenoaia nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia
?acaeoey iauanoaa.//Aaia?aoe/aneea aniaeou ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey: na. iao/. o?. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1987. — N.
103-106.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou ?aaoeyoeee
iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a nioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa. //Aii?inu
iao/iiai eiiioiecia: ?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/. na. — E., 1988 a. aui. 72. —
N. 75-82.

Oauaaneee I.E., Iai/aiei I.I., Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iniaaiiinoe
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a noiee/iie ?aaeiiaeueiie nenoaia
?annaeaiey. //Aeaiia?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey: ?ani. iaaeaaae. na.
iao/. o?. Ei-o yeiiiieee, — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1989. — N. 86-93.

Oauaaneee I.E., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I. Iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneea
iniiau enneaaeiaaiey nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneeo oneiaee
oi?ie?iaaiey iauanoaaiiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo eiiieaenia.
//Iaoiaee/aneea iniiau aaia?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee i?e?iaeiuo e
iauanoaaiiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo eiiieaenia: Na. ia o/. o?. — E.: Iaoe.
aeoiea, 1989. — N. 54-58.

Ieoth?aiei A.E., Oauaaneee I.E., Noa?inoaiei A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea
aaia?aoee ianaeaiey Oe?aeineie NN?.//?acaeoea aaia?aoe/aneie iaoee a
ONN?, E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1989. — N.101-105

Noa?inoaiei A.A. I?i oi?aae?iiy i?a?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie. Ieoaiiy
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo iaoe.: ?ani. i?aea?ae. iaoe.ca. 35, E.:
Eea?aeue. 1991, aei. 82. — N. 54-57.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Aini?iecaiaenoai ianaeaiey: i?iaeaiu, iiene.
//Yeiiiieea Niaaoneie Oe?aeiu. — Ecae-ai «Niaaoneay Oe?aeia» N 2,
1991. N. 95-96.

Oauaaneee I.E., Iaeee O.I., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I.
N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec oneiaee aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ianaeaiey iaeanoae
Oe?aeiu. //Yeiiiieea Niaaoneie Oe?aeiu N 10, 1991 Ecae-ai
«Niaaoneay Oe?aeia» N.71-76.

Iaeee O.I., Noa?inoaiei A.A. Aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?ioeannu a eieaeueiuo
nenoaiao ?annaeaiey /ia i?eia?a Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe. //Aeaiia?aoe/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey: ?ani. iaaeaaae. na. iao/. o?. Aui. 25. Ei-o
yeiiiieee. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1991. — N. 126-134.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Oa??eoi?eaeueiua ?acee/ey aeaiia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia
a aunieio?aaieciaaiiuo ?aaeiiao. //Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu, Ecae-ai «I?anna
Oe?aeiu» N2, 1992. — N. 68-71.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? o a?aeoai?aii? ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie /ca i?aeia?aieniee ia??iae — 1979-1989 ??.). // Aeiiii?/ia oa
nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y: ?ani. i?aea?ae. iaoe. ca. 44. E.: aeae.
«Eea?aeue», 1992. — N.40-45.

Oauaanueeee I.?., Iae?e O.I., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I.
AEeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ianaeaiiy a eieaeueieo noni?eueieo nenoaiao.
//A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo O?i?ei-a?ieia?/i? iaoee oa iaoee i?i
caieth. ca. iaoe. ?ia?o, aei. 3 E.: «Eea?aeue», 1991. N. 67-74.

Oauaaneee I.E., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I. ?annaeai/aneee oaeoi? a
?ac?aaioea ?aaeiiaeueiuo eiiieaeniuo i?ia?aii io?aiu i?e?iaeu.
//Aaia?aoey e i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, ? 3, 1992, N.70-76.

Oauaaneee I.E., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I. Aaiaeaiia?aoe/aneee
oaeoi? a ?ac?aaioea Oa?eNII. //O?ce/ia aaia?ao?y ? aaiii?oieia?y,
I?aea?ae. iaoe. ca., 1992, aei. 39, n.80-88.

Oauaaneee I.E., Iaeee O.I., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I.
Iaoiaeieiae/aneea aniaeou ?aaeiiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ianaeaiey. //Iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu
nia?aiaiiie aaia?aoee. — Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1993. — N. 166-168.

Oauaaneee I.?., Iae?e O.I., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I. Aieea
caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.
//Aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y. Aei, 45. Aeaeaa-ai
iie?a?aooeaio? «Ee?anueeee oi-o», 1993. — N. 141-147.

Oauaaneee I.?., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I. ?oo ianaeaiiy ia
oa?eoi??yo ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy. //Oe?a?inueeee aaia?ao?/iee
aeo?iae, E.,1993, N 4. — N. 36-41.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Acaeiinaycue o?oaeiaie iayoieeiaie iea?aoeee naeueneiai
ianaeaiey e nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia. //Yeiiiieea
Oe?aeiu, 1994, N 2. — N. 71-75.

Oauaaneee I.?., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I. ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
iayoieeiai? i?a?aoe?? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. //Caeiyo?noue ? ?eiie
i?aoe?.I?aea?ae. iaoe. ca. — E.: IOe C?I IAIO, 1993. — N. 191-203.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Aieea iayoieeiai? i?a?aoe?? ia aeaiia?ao?/i? aniaeoe
caeiyoino?. //Aea?aeaai?noue, 1994, ? 1-2. — N. 31.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. A?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo oa
aeaiia?aeoai?aiiy a noiee/iiio ?aa?ii?. //Caeiyo?noue ? ?eiie i?aoe?
I?aea?ae. iaoe. ca. E.: IOe C?I IAIO, 1994. Aei. 2. — N. 111-119.

Noa?inoaiei A.A., ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a o
Ee?anuee?e iaeano?. //Oe?. aaia?. aeo?iae, 1994, N 4. — N. 32-39.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy o oa?eoi??aeueieo noni?eueieo nenoaiao. //Aeiiii?/ia oa
nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y; I?aea?ae. iaoe. ca. /?aae.eie.: I.Ae.I?nooi
/a?aei. ?aae./ oa ?i. — E., 1995. — Aei. 46. — N. 22-26.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Acaeiinaycue n?aaeu iaeoaiey e iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia
aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey. //Aaia?aoey e i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu N 3, 1996.
— N. 116-123.

?oaeaiei E.A., Oii?a I.O., Noa?inoaiei A.A. A?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy
i?eei?aeiiieo ?aeii?a Oe?a?ie: oa?eoi??aeueiee aniaeo.// Oe?. aaia?.
aeo?iae N4, 1995, N. 12-20.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Aaia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?aae?aoe?eii
caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??e. //Oe?. aaia?. aeo?iae N1, 1996, N. 32-39.
(eieaeoea aaoi??a).

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Oaiaeaioe?y a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy oa o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a. //Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?. — Iaoe., aeiiii. oa noni.-iie?o.
AEo?iae N5, 1996. — N. 3-8.

?oaeaiei E.A., Oii?a I.O., Noa?inoaiei A.A. O?oaeiaa iayoieeiaa
i?a?aoe?y n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?eei?aeiiieo ?aeii?a Oe?a?ie. //Oe?.
aaia?. aeo?iae N4, 1996, N. 42-48.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? iane?aeee aaa??? ia *AAN.
//Iiia?aaeaeaiy iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e. — E.: Ooaa OeI Oe?a?ie, 1996. —
N. 140-142.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Ea?oia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy
//Ea?oia?ao?y oa aeua oeiea: ca. iaoe. i?aoeue/A?aei.?aae. A.I.
Iiei/ei. — E., 1996. — n. 29-32.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Aeaiia?ao?/ia eaoano?ioa //Oe?a?inueeee na?o
/oe?.,aiae.,i?iaoe. iia., N 4-6, 1996, n. 24-25.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iaoiaee/i? caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e
a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy oa o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a //Caeiyo?noue oa ?eiie
i?aoe?. I?aea?ae. iaoe. ca. — IOe C?I IAIO ? I?ii?aoe? o 1996, aei.4
N.74-85.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Nioe?aeueii-o?oaeia? aniaeoe ?caeoeo i?eei?aeiiieo
oa?eoi??e //Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
aaei?i. ?aeii?a. Iaoe. aeii. i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio./i.Oa?iii?eue,
17-18 ea?oiy 1997 /??Ae IAIO — Euea?a: 1997. — N.274-279.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Noai na?aaeiaeua, aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a ? caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy noiee/ii? iaeano?. //?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae N 5, 1997, — N.
58-64; N 6, 1997, N. 55-57.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. ?ao?iniaeoeaiee ?aa?iiaeueiee aiae?c a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. //?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea, N 1, 1997, — N. 20-28.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iniaeeaino? aaiaeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a o Ee?anuee?e
iaeano?.//?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie ? 3,
1997, — N.20-22.

Noa?inoaiei A.A.Caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae — iaeei ?c
iai?yi?a aa?iii?caoe?? noni?euenoaa.//Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?.
Iaoe.-aeiiii. oa noni.- iie?o. AEo?i. ? 3-4, 1997, N. 40-43.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? iane?aeee *i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe.//?ioi?iaoe?eiee athaeaoaiue I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie
?4, 1997, — N. 102-104.

Noa?inoaiei A.A., Oa?aiaoe E.E. Aea/aiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? i?noeino?
noaa?eueiiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi???//O?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie ? eiai
?aae?caoe?y a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoe. eiio. Euea?a, 1997, N. 94-98.

Noa?inoaiei A.A., I??ei I.A. Oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaiai
ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?iiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie//O?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie
? eiai ?aae?caoe?y a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.
Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoe. eiio. Euea?a, 1997, N.98-102.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. A?aeoai?aiiy ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?iiai oa o?oaeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo ianaeaiiy ? eiai ?aae?caoe?y a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie.//Iaoeiaee a?niee. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue OOA?, ?1, 1997, N. 52-57.

Iaeueiee I.A., Noa?inoaiei A.A. No/ani? noni?eueii-aeiiii?/i?
nenoaie.//I?iaeaie aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee a no/anieo oiiaao. Iao.
i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. Eiio. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1998, N. 73-76.

Noa?inoaiei A.A., Iaeae A.?., I?yaeei A.I. Aeaye? ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee// ?aa?iiaeueia iie?oeea Oe?a?ie:
iaoeia? iniiae, iaoiaee, iaoai?cie. Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue IAIO??Ae — /.?,
Euea?a, 1998, N.138-143.

I.O. Oii?a, A.A. Noa?inoaiei Aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo
aniaeo?a aeaiia?ao??.//Oe?.aaia?.aeo?i, — 1998, ?1, N.59-60.

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iia?oi? aeaiia?ao?/i? oaiaeaioe?? a Oe?a?i?.//Aeiiii?ea
Oe?a?ie, 1998, ?5, N.22-30.

I??ei I.A., Noa?inoaiei A.A., Oa?aiaoe E.E. O?ainoi?iaoe?y
aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a // Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?, ?7, 1998, N. 31-33

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iniiai? iai?yiee aaeineiiaeaiiy aaiaeaiia?ao?/ii?
iie?oeee.// Iaoeiaee a?niee. Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue OOA?, 2’98, N. 81-91.

Aiioaoe?y

Noa?inoaiei A.A. Iaoiaeieia?y ? i?aeoeea aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie (?aa?iiaeueiee aniaeo).

?oeiien, aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.09.01 — aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea
i?aoe?, nioe?aeueia aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea: — ?aaea ii aea/aiith
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a. 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith iniaeeainoae a?aeoai?thaaeueieo
i?ioean?a ? caei?ia’y ethaeae, ui i?iaeeaathoue o ??cieo oiiaao.
?ic?iaeaii ???a?o?/io oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io noaio aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
ii?aeio? aea/aiiy ia’?eo?a ??ciiai ??aiy — iaoe?iiaeueiiai,
?aa?iiaeueiiai, iaeanieo ? ?aeiiieo. ?ice?eoi aca?iica’ycie oa
aca?iicoiiaeai?noue eiiieaeno aeania naieo a?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a
?c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei oa aeieia?/iei na?aaeiaeuai. Aeyaeai? oeie
oa?eoi??aeueieo ooai?aiue ii nooiaith caaeia?eueiino? oiia aeeooy
ianaeaiiy oa nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i?e neooaoe?? aeaiiai
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ooai?aiiy. Iaa?oioiaai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
aeey iie?auaiiy oiia aeeooy, a?aeoai?aiiy oa caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?aeoai?aiiy oa caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, oiiae aeeooy
ianaeaiiy, oei?caoe?y ?aa?ii?a ca iieacieeaie a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy,
Oe?a?ia, i?eei?aeiii? ?aeiie, Ee?anueea, Eoaainueea, A?iieoeueea
iaeano?.

Aiiioaoeey

Noa?inoaiei A A. Iaoiaeieiaey e i?aeoeea enneaaeiaaiee aini?iecaiaenoaa
ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu (?aaeiiaeueiue aniaeo).

?oeiienue, aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a
yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.09.01 — aeaiia?aoey, yeiiiieea
o?oaea, nioeeaeueiay yeiiiieea e iieeoeea.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iniaaiiinoae i?ioeannia
aini?iecaiaenoaa e caei?iauey ethaeae, i?iaeeaathueo a ?acee/iuo
oneiaeyo. ?ac?aaioaia ea?a?oe/aneay oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneay noaia
enneaaeiaaiey, iauaaeeiythuay eco/aiea iauaeoia ?acee/iuo o?iaiae —
iaoeeiiaeueiiai, ?aaeiiaeueiiai, iaeanoiuo e ?aeiiiuo. ?ane?uoa
acaeiinaycue e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue eiiieaena nianoaaiii
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia n nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e
yeieiae/aneie n?aaeie. Auyaeaiu oeiu oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee ii
noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiinoe oneiaee aeecie ianaeaiey e
nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneee neooaoeee aeaiiiai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey. Iainiiaaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey oeo/oaiey
oneiaee aeecie, aini?iecaiaenoaa e caei?iauey ianaeaiey.

?ac?aaioaiu oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea e iaoiaee/aneea iniiau
enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeannia oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia a ea?a?oe/aneie iauanoaaiiie nenoaia;
aaaaeaia a iao/iue iai?io, ii?aaeaeaia e ?ane?uoa nooue eaoaai?ee
«aini?iecaiaenoaaiiay oa??eoi?eaeueiay nenoaia»; noi?ie?iaaia
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneay noaia ii?aaeaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae e
oaiaeaioeee aeaiiaaia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia; noi?ie?iaaiu nenoaiu
eiee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
iaoneiaeaiiinoue aeaiia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia oa??eoi?eaeueiuie
iniaaiiinoyie oneiaee aeecie; ?ane?uoa nooue e i?eioeeiu oi?ie?iaaiey
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiie oa??eoi?eaeueiie nenoaiu ianaeaiey, ii?aaeaeaia aa
oa??eoi?eaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey e acaeiinayce n nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei
e yeieiae/aneei ?acaeoeai; iainiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?aaeiiaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nenoai e iino?iaia ea?a?oe/aneay
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneay noaia enneaaeiaaiey; nicaeaii
niioaaonoaothuaa iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea, ai?iae?iaaiiia ia eca?aiiuo
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo nenoaiao; ii?aaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe e oa?aeoa?
aeaiiaini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia a ?aaeiia o Oe?aeiu, oaiaeaioeee eo
eciaiaiey ai acaeiinayce n iniiaiuie ia?aiao?aie
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e i?e?iaeiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu; ?ane?uoi
niaea?aeaiea, onoaiiaeaiu iiuiinoe o?oaeiaie iayoieeiaie iea?aoeee
naeueneiai ianaeaiey e aa ianoi a nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo e
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannao naea, ii?aaeaeaiu ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe
nia?aiaiiuo ianooaaia e aeeiaieee o?oaeiaie iayoieeiaie iea?aoeee a
?ac?aca aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aeiiia.

?ac?aaioaiu eiioeaiooaeueiua iieiaeaiey, eanathueany iaoiaeieiaee e
i?aeoeee ?aaeiiaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey
Oe?aeiu, nooue eioi?iai ninoieo a neaaeothuai.

*aeiaaea oi?ie?oao n?aaea i?iaeeaaiey (aiaoiyy n?aaea). Iia ninoieo ec
iiiaeo eiiiiiaioia, ii?aaeaeythueo iniaaiiinoe ia?aca aeecie,
aeaiia?aoe/aneiai iiaaaeaiey e o.ae.

Aini?iecaiaenoai ianaeaiey — yoi i?aaeaea anaai iniiaiay ninoaaeythuay
aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. A yoii ea/anoaa iii yaeyaony ia oieueei
?ano?nii, ii e aeeiaie/aneei oaeoi?ii. Aeaaiui e ii?aaeaeythuei a
i?ioeanna aeaiiaini?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony oece/aneia ainnoaiiaeaiea
ianaeaiey, oi anoue niaia iieieaiee, ainnoaiiaeaiea ea/anoaaiiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee ianaeaiey, a oaeaea ia?aaeaeaeaiea ii oa??eoi?ee. A
oe?ieii iiieiaiee aeaiiaini?iecaiaenoai ioaaouaaao ana i?ioeannu
aeaeaeaiey ianaeaiey — anoanoaaiiue, iea?aoeeiiiue e nioeeaeueiue.

Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiay oa??eoi?eaeueiay nenoaia — yoi i?ino?ainoaaiiia
ia?aciaaiea, ninoiyuaa ec oa??eoi?eaeueiuo iauiinoae ethaeae, a oaeaea
oao eiiiiiaioia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu (aeeeuey, ?aai/eo iano, iano
ioaeuoa, iieo/aiey oneoa), eioi?ua iaania/eaatho aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue
e aini?iecaiaenoai ianaeaiey e aai caei?iauey. I?e yoii
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?aaiecothuay oa??eoi?eth, a
ianaeaiiua ioieou — eae eioaa?aeueiua yeaiaiou aeaiiaainenoaiu.
Aeaiiaainenoaio iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a noaoeea (eae aeaiiaaineooaoeeth)
e a aeeiaieea (eae aeaiiaaii?ioeann).

Iniaaiiinoueth anao aeaiia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia yaeyaony ia?iinoue,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiay iai?aaeaiiinoue, acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue e caaeneiinoue
(?iaeaeaiea — nia?oue, i?eauoea — oauoea, a?ae — ?acaiae e ae?.). Yoe
iniaaiiinoe yaeythony nenoaiiia?acothueie oaeoi?aie, oi?ie?othueie
ianaeaiea eae nenoaio ni anaie aai ea/anoaaie. Eaaeaeue ?anniio?aiiue
eiiiiiaio naycai n iiiai/eneaiiuie ae?oaeie eae no?oeoo?ii, oae e
ooieoeeiiaeueii.

Enneaaeiaaieyie aeieacaii, /oi eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee
aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey ii?aaeaeythony oaeoi?aie aiaoiae n?aaeu,
i?aaeaea anaai oneiaeyie aeecie. Iaoaio ainoaea?noao i?enou i/aiue
aieueoie aeeaiacii eieaaaiey yoeo oneiaee e niioaaonoaaiii nouanoaaiiua
oa??eoi?eaeueiua ?acee/ey a o?iaiyo e aeeiaieea iieacaoaeae
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

N oeaeueth ecaaaeaiey aeeyiey noauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia, yoa caaea/a auea
?aoaia ia aeey eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea, a aeey niaieoiiinoe
ethaeae, oi anoue ianaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia eee
oa??eoi?ee. *oiau iieo/eoue iauaeoeaioth ea?oeio, eiae/ii iauaaeeieoue
ianaeaiiua ioieou eee oa??eoi?ee n aeeceeie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie e
yeieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie i?iaeeaaiey a a?oiiu, a caoai aeey eaaeaeie
a?oiiu ii?aaeaeeoue naciiiua cia/aiey oaeoi?iuo i?eciaeia (oi anoue
ia?a/eneaiiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee) e
?acoeueoaoeaiuo (oi anoue iieacaoaeae ?iaeaeaaiinoe, nia?oiinoe,
i?eauoey, oauoey, caei?iauey e ae?.).

Iaeiei ec aeaaiaeoeo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?eaiia yaeyaony o/ao iinoiyiiiai
eciaiaiey e ?acaeoey yaeaiee e i?ioeannia, ii?aaeaeythueo oa?aeoa?
aini?iecaiaenoaa. A oiaea iinooiaoaeueiiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa eciaiyaony
yeiiiie/aneay aaca, iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey e ana oaeoi??, ninoaaeythuea
iauaeoeaiua oneiaey aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey, a oaeaea eciaiytho
oaiaeaioeee aai ?acaeoey.

Aeey aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey eae iaeiie ec oi?i aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe,
oaeeie iaiaoiaeeiuie iieiaeaieyie yaeythony ioianaiea niioaaonoaothueo
i?ioeannia e iauanoaaiiui yaeaieyi e iaoneiaeaiiinoue o?iaiai
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iniiaiiieiaeiia cia/aiea eiaao niaea?aeaiea
iiiyoey «aini?iecaiaenoai ianaeaiey». Iu i?eaea?aeeaaainy ?anoe?aiiie
aai o?aeoiaee — aeeth/aai a yoi iiiyoea ia oieueei /eneaiiia
aini?iecaiaenoai noauaeoia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, a e aini?iecaiaenoai
anae niaieoiiinoe eo nioeeaeueiuo ea/anoa, eioi?ua ioaa/aee au
iio?aaiinoyi iauanoaa. Ia iniiaaiee yoeo iieiaeaiee n niaethaeaieai
i?eioeeiia nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea noi?ioee?iaaiu iauaiao/iua i?eaiu
enneaaeiaaiey oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
ianaeaiey ioiineoaeueii aai aini?iecaiaenoaa.

?acoeueoaou oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey ?aaeiiaeueiuo
i?iaeai aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey yaeythony ooiaeaiaioii ?ac?aaioee
iauaainoaea?noaaiiie aeaiia?aoe/aneie iieeoeee e ?aoaiey eiie?aoiuo
aii?inia ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannia aeaiiaini?iecaiaenoaa a ioaeaeueiuo
?aaeiiao. I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea ?aaiou iaoneiaeaii i?aaeeiaeaiiie
oeiecaoeeae ?aaeiiia Oe?aeiu ii iniaaiiinoyi i?e?iaeiiai e iaoaie/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey ianaeaiey; i?aaeeiaeaieyie ioiineoaeueii iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee
oeo/oaiey oneiaee aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ianaeaiey eae iniiau nio?aiaiey
aeaiia?aoe/aneiai e o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu; noi?ie?iaaiiuie
eiioeaiooaeueiuie iniiaaie ?aaeiiaeueiie aeaiia?aoe/aneie iieeoeee a
Oe?aeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aini?iecaiaenoai e caei?iauea ianaeaiey, oneiaey aeecie
ianaeaiey, oeiecaoeey ?aaeiiia ii iieacaoaeyi aini?iecaiaenoaa
ianaeaiey, Oe?aeia, iia?aie/iua ?aeiiu, Eeaaneay, Eoaaineay, Aeiieoeeay
iaeanoe.

Abstract

Starostenko A.G. Methodology and Practice of the Study of Reproduction
of Population of Ukraine (regional aspect).

The manuscript, the dissertation for the scientific degree of doctor of
economical sciences on specialty 08.09.01 — Demography, Economy of
Labour, Social Economy and Policy.

Dissertation is devoted to the studying of peculiarities of the
reproduction processes and health of population living in different
conditions. The hierarchical theoretical and methodological scheme of
investigation is elaborated. It combines the study of objects of
different levels — national, regional, local. Mutual connection and
relations within the complex of proper reproduction processes and
social-economical and ecological conditions are shown. The types of
territorial structures, depending on a degree of living standards of
population and social-demographic situation of a certain territorial
structure, are revealed. The practical recommendations for an
improvement of living standards, reproduction and health of population
are substantiated.

Key words: reproduction and health of the population, typification of
regions on indices of reproduction, Ukraine, transboundary regions, the
Kyiv, Lugansk and Vinnitsa districts.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 09.03.1999 ?.

ae?oe.a?e. 2.0

Oe?aae 100.

?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/ee a?aeae?e

Oe?a?inueeiai o?i?iniai-aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo

i. ??i?iue, aoe. E. Ia?ena, 31, oae. 5-41-20

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