AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

I?oa?aa Ienaia Einoyioei?aia

OAeE 940.5: 343

E?EI?IAEUeIA CEI*EII?NOUe ? AI?IOUeAA C IATH

A AeIIAAN? (1921-1928)

07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i.Aeiiaoeuee).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

I?eieuenueeee Aieiaeeie?
Ieeieaeiae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eeoieiaiaa Ciy
A?eai??aia,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e
?noi??? neia’yi

Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe

Ai?oueei Na?oeaia
Iao??aia,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi???
? iie?oieia??

Aeaaeai?? neoaeae
aaciaee Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie

20-o-30-o ??. OO no.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 11.051.02 o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 340055,
i.Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24, II ei?i., aoae.38.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (340055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, 55,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 21 na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.A. E?ai?a?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaei??th c iciae noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo e?ioey OO no. noaei oa, ui e?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue
ia?aoai?th?oueny c eieaeueiiai yaeua a aeiaaeueia. Iania? iia?aaoaaiiy
ianaeaiiy, aaeanoaa ia caiiaeaiiy, oa?i?enoe/i? aeoe, caoiieaiiy
ca?o/iee?a, aeoii/ai? “a?eieii??oeaa?” cei/eie – ana oea noaei cae/ieie
ao?eaooaie no/aniiai aeeooy. Oaeee noai ni?aa ia iiaea ia oo?aoaaoe
aea?aeaai? no?oeoo?e, ye? iieeeeai? ioi?iiyoe i?aaiii?yaeie a aea?aeaa?,
a oaeiae ? ?? ianaeaiiy, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue yeiai i?aaia aei
noaa?eueiino? oa ii?yaeeo. Iaeiae aeey oiai, uia ai?ioenue c
e?ei?iaeueiith cei/eii?noth, ia?aaeon?i o?aaa aeeaiei aea/eoe oea yaeua,
iaea?eueo iiaii c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie, ui eiai ii?iaeaeothoue. Naia oea ?
coiiaeth? i?aeaeuaiiy iaoeiaiai ?ioa?ano aei i?iaeaie e?ei?iaeueii?
cei/eiiino? oa caoiae?a uiaei ?? iiaeieaiiy ia o?eueee c aieo th?eno?a,
e?ei?iieia?a, iie?oieia?a, ineoieia?a, a e ?noi?ee?a. Nueiaiaei?
i?iaeaia cei/eiiino? ye noni?eueiiai yaeua, ui aeanoeaa i?aeoe/ii an?i
ia??iaeai ethaenueei? ?noi???, iio?aao? ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai ?icaeyaeo.

Iiia?aaei?e aeina?ae aea/aiiy i?ioei?aaieo ae?e aeia?a aaaii?noue aieeao
noaio aeiiii?ee ia ??aaiue e?ei?iae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa. I?e oeueiio
?iciianthaeaeaia a noni?euenoa? aeoiea i?i oa, ui cei/eii?noue
ia?aaeon?i ii?iaeaeo?oueny coaiae?iiyi ia?iaeo, ? iaaeoi ni?iuaiith.
Ci?ia aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? (ia?ao?aeiee noai) ye a e?auee, oae ? a
a??oee a?e, i?aeaeuo? ??aaiue cei/eiiino?. ? o?eueee aeiiii?/ia
noaa?euei?noue iii’yeoo? e?ei?iiaaiio neooaoe?th. Eiaeia aeiiii?/ia
nenoaia ii?iaeaeo? aeani?, i?eoaiaii? o?eueee ?e aeaee cei/ei?a. Aea i?e
a?eueo aeaoaeueiiio ?icaeyae? ie iiaeaii ciaeoe ? aaaaoi ni?eueieo ?en a
e?ei?iaeuei?e cei/eiiino? ia?ao?aeieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a, ui ?iaeoue
iiaeeeaei aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo ?icaeiooeo aea?aeaa (ye? naiai /ano
i?ieoee /a?ac e?ecia? aoaie) aai iiia?aaeiueiai aeina?aeo nai?? e?a?ie.
Naia oea ?iaeoue aeooaeueiei caa?iaiiy aei neeaaeiiai oa noia?a/eeaiai
ia??iaeo a ?noi??? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae – iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
(1921-1928 ??.). Aeyaeaiiy caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo e?ei?iaeueii?
cei/eiiino? a oiiaao aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue aeiiiiiaea iai e?aua
c?icoi?oe aeeaeii? i?e/eie iia??oaiiy e?ei?iiaaiii? ianoaiiaee ia
no/aniiio aoai? oa a ye?enue i??? ni?iaiicoaaoe caaaeuei? iai?yiee
oeueiai iia??oaiiy, a oea ia? iaaaeyea cia/aiiy aeey i?eeiyooy
i?aaaioeaieo caoiae?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? oaie ? aeooaeueiei nueiaiaei? ua e oiio, ui
e?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue inoaii?i /anii noa? ana a?eueo aieeaiaei
oaeoi?ii noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, ?ic?a?o?oueny ye iie?oe/ia ea?oa o
ia?aaeaeai?/?e a??. Eiee e?ei?iaeuei? ae??, ?o e?euee?noue oa
ianooaai?noue aeoiaeyoue ca aeiionoei? iaae? noni?eueiiai oa?i?iiy,
noai?ththoueny oiiae, i?e yeeo noni?euenoai iiaiaeaeo?oueny c iaaiei
iaiaaeaiiyi aeanieo naiaiae. Ae?enii, aaoi?eoa?i? aai oioae?oa?i?
?aaeeie caaaeyee ?ai?an?yi oa ianeeuenoao iiaeooue aaaioaaoe
e?ei?iaeueio cei/eii?noue, aea i?e oeueiio cia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny
e?euee?noue oae caaieo iie?oe/ieo i?aaiii?ooiee?a, iiea?aiiy yeeo ?
i?/ei ?ioei, ye cei/eiii aeaaee i?ioe aeaniiai ia?iaeo.C oe??? oi/ee
ci?o aaaeeeaei ? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie
ea?aeueieoi?aai?a ia ii/aoeo 1920-o ??. a Oe?a?i?, iieeeeaieo
caaacia/oaaoe ii?iaeueia ?nioaaiiy ooo ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Iinooiiaa
ci?oeiaiiy oeeo i?aai?a, iaaeaiiy aeayeei c ieo iicanoaeiaeo
iiaiiaaaeaiue, a oaeiae ni?iuai? ?aaeyinueei-ia?enenonuee? ianoaiiae i?i
i?e?iaeio iaaeanoea?noue cei/eiiino? nioe?ae?noe/iiio ono?ith, i?ecaaee
aei ci?ooaaiiy iie?oe/ii? oa e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino?, iiiiaieee
e?ei?iaeueiee na?o oeie, ooi ia aaaeaa i?eeiyoe iiao aeaaeo, ?
a?aoo?-?aoo c?iaeee iiaeeeaeie ?ai?an?? 1930-o ??.

Oaeiae, ia nueiaiaei?, eiee iaaaeueiith i?iaeaiith ia oeyoo ?icaoaeiae
noaa?aiii? ? iacaeaaeii?, aeaiie?aoe/ii?, nioe?aeueii? oa i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae Oe?a?ie ? oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa (iaei??th c
iciae yeiai ? aenieee ??aaiue a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? eiai /eai?a oa
caeiiiiiaaaa), oaia ai?ioueae c aioenioe?aeueieie yaeuaie noa?
aeooaeueiith ? c oe??? oi/ee ci?o.

Aaoi? aaaaea? iiaeeeaei aeine?aeeoe ieoaiiy cei/eiiino? oa ai?ioueae c
iath ia oa?eoi??? Aeiiaano, oiio ui, aeciath/e aaaeeea?noue
Aeiiaoeueeiai e?ath ye eai’yiiaoa?eueii? oa iaoaeo?a?eii? aace
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, o?yae a?eueoiaee?a i?eae?eya iniaeeao oaaao
iaaaaeaiith “?aaiethoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo” naia a oeueiio ?aa?ii?, ui
?iaeoue i?noeaaee iaoa??ae iieaciaei.Oaeiae ne?ae aeacaoe ? ua iaeio
i?e/eio aeine?aeaeaiiy cacia/aieo i?iaeai ia iaai?e oa?eoi???. I?ioyaii
1920-o ?ie?a iae?e cei/eiieo ae?e aoa iaiiaiei oa iaoi/iei. Iaoa??aee,
ui cae?aeeny a Oeaio?aeueiiio noaoenoe/iiio oi?aae?ii?, /anoi ao?a/aeeny
i?ae /an ia?aneeee, aeaye? i?noeaaino? acaaae? ia ia?aaeaaaee aeaieo, ?
oiio a?aeoai?eoe oi/io ea?oeio ia oa?eoi??? on??? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae
aai Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei? iaeaea iaiiaeeeai. Naia oiio iaea?eueo ?aaeueiee
oeyo aei anoaiiaeaiiy iaeneiaeueii oi/ii? aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo
e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? i?ioyaii ?ie?a iaio – oea iiooe ?? iieaciee?a
ia i?noeaaiio ??ai? o ?aieao /?oei ie?aneaii?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueii? iaeeieoe?, yeith a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ?
Aeiiaan.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?th
aeeiiaii a ?aieao aea?aeathaeaeaoieo oai Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “?noi??y Aeiiaano: nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i? oa
eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? — 0196U007094) oa
“Aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? i?ioeane ia Aeiia//ei? OO no.” (iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? — 0197U000938).

Ca i?aaeiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ia?ii e?ei?iaeueio
cei/eii?noue ia?ao?aeieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a oa iiaeeea? caoiaee uiaei
?? iiaeieaiiy, a ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? e?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue
ia??iaeo iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee (1921 — 1928 ??.), a oaeiae o?nii
iia’ycaia c iath iniaeeaa noa?a nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei – noa?a ai?ioueae
c aioenioe?aeueieie yaeuaie oeueiai /ano.

i?ecaaee aei ca?eueoaiiy e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a ii oeeo aeaeao
i?ioei?aaieo ae?e;

· aeaoe nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iee aiae?c e?ei?iaeueiiai na?oo;

· ioe?ieoe aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia oeyoo iiaeieaiiy e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino?;

· i?inoaaeeoe ci?ie o i?aeoiaeao uiaei ae??oaiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai oa
eaae?iaiai ieoaiue a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aaiao ia aoai? iiai? aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee;

· aecia/eoe i??i?eoaoi? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a o
ai?iouea? c e?ei?iaeueiith cei/eii?noth;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe oi?ie oa iaoiaee ai?ioueae c i?aaiii?ooaiiyie;

· aeaoe ioe?ieo ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo oa
iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia aac? aiae?co iiaeo
ia?oiaeaea?ae oa iaoa??ae?a e?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue ? ai?ioueaa c iath
a Aeiiaan? a ia??iae iaio aia?oa ?icaeyaeathoueny ye ia’?eo
niaoe?aeueiiai oa eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaoi?ii iiaeaii anaa?/io
oa?aeoa?enoeeo e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? oa ie?aieo ?? aeae?a a Aeiiaan?
c o?aooaaiiyi ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae oa niaoeeo?ee ia?ao?aeiiai
?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo. Oaeiae, caaaeyee aeinyaiaiiyi no/anii?
?noi??ia?ao?? oa a?aee?eoei inoaii?i /anii a?o?aiei iaoa??aeai aaoi?
io?eiaa iiaeeea?noue iaoia?aaeaeaii ?icaeyiooe niaoeeo?eo ?iaioe
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a a ia??iae iaio, oi?ie oa iaoiaee ae?yeueiino?
iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia oeyoo iiaeieaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino?. Iiaei ? oaeiae ? c’ynoaaiiy oa?aeoa?o
a?aeiinei i?ae i?aaiioi?iiieie ? iaaecae/aeieie i?aaiaie ia ii/aoeo ?
ai?iaeiaae ?ie?a iaio. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaiao?aeiei ? ? ii?aeiaiiy a
iaeiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ye cei/eiiino?, oae ? caoiae?a
uiaei ?? iiaeieaiiy, caaaeyee /iio noa? iiaeeeaei c’ynoaaiiy
aca?iica’yceo oeeo aeaio neeaaeiaeo.

Aea/aiiy oeeo ieoaiue ia? ia o?eueee iaoeiaa, oai?aoe/ia, a e i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeoue aaanoe a iaoeiaee ia?a
?yae iaa?aeiieo aai iaeia?aeiieo aeieoiaio?a. Oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee, ye?
aeeeaaeaii a aeena?oaoe??, aeiaaaeaii aei ??aiy i?aeoe/ieo i?iiiceoe?e,
? oiio ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe acyo? aei oaaae i?e
?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee ai?ioueae c e?ei?iaeueiith cei/eii?noth ia
no/aniiio aoai? c o?aooaaiiyi iiieeie iiia?aaei?o ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a.
Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe??, oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iaienaii? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa Aeiiaano, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a,
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a oa i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue aeey aoc?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a i?aoe?. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, yeee cae?aany a i?ioean? iaienaiiy
aeena?oaoe??, oa oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? ? /eoaii? eaeoe?e aeey nooaeaio?a ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Caaaeueia eiioeaioe?y
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai ie?ai? aniaeoe ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
noaooyo, iaoa??aeao, oacao aeiiia?aeae oa aenooiao ia eiioa?aioe?yo.
Oaeiae, oaio aoei ai?iaiaaii ia can?aeaii? iaoeiaiai ?noi?e/iiai
oiaa?enoaa eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa oe?a?iiciaanoaa Aeiiaoeueeiai ?inoeoooo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii
12 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o caaaeueiei ianyaii 5,4 ae.a., c yeeo aaoi?o
iaeaaeeoue 4,5 ae.a.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a (ainueie i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e (508 iaca.), aeiaeaoe?a (51 noi?.).
Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue 260 noi??iie.

NO?OEOO?A ? CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/ai? i?aaeiao oa ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?iaioe oa caaaeaiiy, ie?aneai?
iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie, oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaea?ae oa
iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy” ioe?ith?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee
oaie, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? aeaea?aea, a oaeiae aecia/ai? iaoiaee/i? oa
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iayaio e?oa?aoo?o c cacia/aii? oaie aaoi? ?icae?eea ia /ioe?e a?oie.

Ia?oo a?oio neeaaeathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? oe?eeii aai /anoeiai
i?enay/ai? ia??iaeo iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. Oea ocaaaeueithth/?
i?aoe?, a yeeo ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy iiae?? ye ia oa?eoi??? N?N?,
oae ? a Oe?a?i? (oea “?noi??y Oe?a?inueei? ?N?”, “?noi??y i?no ? n?e
Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. Aeiiaoeueea iaeanoue”, “Enoi?ey niaaoneiai ?aai/aai
eeanna”, “?noi??y ?ia?oie/iai eeano Oe?a?inueei? ?N?”, “Enoi?ey ?aai/eo
Aeiiaanna”, oiui). Iaeiae a cacia/aieo aeua i?aoeyo aena?oethaaeany
ia?aaeon?i i?iaeaia “iie?oe/iiai aaiaeeoecio”, yeee iiynithaaany
caaino?aiiyi eeaniai? ai?ioueae a ia??iae iaio. Niaeoeyoe??,
eiio?aaaiae?, oeiea?noao oa ?ioei iaaaoeaiei yaeuai o noni?euenoa?
iaaeaaaee eeaniaiai ci?noo, noaa?aeaeoth/e, ui oeaio? eeaniai? ai?ioueae
a oiiaao iaio ia?ai?noeany a aeiiii?eo. Oaeiae oa?aeoa?iith ?enith oeeo
aeaeaiue ? iiaia ?aii?oaaiiy ieoaiue noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaaecae/aeieo oa i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.
Aeeeth/aiiyi ? aeaioiiia “?noi??y naeyinoaa Oe?a?inueei? ?N?”, a ye?e
aeine?aeaeaii o/anoue niaoeeo?/ii naeyinueei? i?aai?caoe?? – eii?oao?a
iacaiiaeieo naeyi (EIN) o anoaiiaeaii? ?aaiethoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo, a
oaeiae “Enoi?ey Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee Niaaoneiai Nithca”, a ye?e iaeei
c ia?aa?ao?a i?enay/aii ci?oeiaiith caeiiiino? a ?aaeyinuee?e aea?aeaa?
i?ioyaii ?ie?a iaio oa aeine?aeaeai? ieoaiiy caeiiioai?/i? ae?yeueiino?
ii/aoeo 1920-o ??., ?icoe?aiiy iaae ae?yeueiino? ia?iaeieo noae?a,
noai?aiiy i?ieo?aoo?e oa ?io. Oiaoi, a iacaaieo aeua aeaeaiiyo ea?ia
cei/eii?noue oa ae?yeuei?noue iaaecae/aeieo ? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a
uiaei ?? iiaeieaiiy aena?oeaia o?aaiaioa?ii.

Oea ae naia iiaeia neacaoe ? c i?eaiaeo no/anieo ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a yeeo oi/a ? iaaaaeai? iia? ioe?iee iiae?e
ia??iaeo iaio, iaeiae o?aaeeoe?eiith caeeoa?oueny oaaaa o?eueee aei
“iie?oe/iiai aaiaeeoecio” ? aei iia’ycaii? c iei ae?yeueiino?
iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a aeaaee. Iaaaoeai? yaeua, ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaee iai,
? iaaeae? caeeoathoueny ca iaaeaie caaaeueii?noi?e/ieo i?aoeue. I?ioyaii
1990-o ??. caiiaieoe “a?e? ieyie” a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie iaiaaaeeny oeyoii
aeaeaiiy ?ia?o ?yaeo ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a, cie?aia A.O.Ea??a,
Aeae.Aiooa, ?.Iaeina oa ?ioeo. Caeaa?eueoiai oeeo aaoi??a oe?eaaeee oae?
aeaee i?ioei?aaieo ae?e, ye? aoee o?nii iia’ycai? ?c ci?iith
aeiiii?/iiai eo?no. Oea, ia?aaeon?i, ath?ie?aoeci, niaeoeyoe?y,
i?inoeoooe?y oa “iie?oe/iee aaiaeeoeci”. A iacaaieo aeua eieaao
i?inoaaeo?oueny i??i?eoaoi?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee oa ?o ae?yeueiino?, oiae? ye i?aaiioi?iiiei i?aaiai
?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae iaeaea ia i?eae?eaii oaaae. Ioe?ithth/e aei?iaie
ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a, iai ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe oaeiae ? oa, ui aiie aoee ?
caeeoathoueny a?ae??aaieie (ia nueiaiaei? — oa?eoi??aeueii) a?ae
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, aeinooi aei yeeo noaa iiaeeeaei ia oae aeaaii aeey
aeine?aeiee?a iaoi? e?a?ie. Naia oea ? coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
oeeo ieoaiue ia?aaeon?i oe?a?inueeeie ?noi?eeaie.

A Oe?a?i? inoaii?i /anii, aacoth/enue ia iiaeo a?o?aieo iaoa??aeao,
ia?oa ?aaeyinueea aeanyoe??//y ie?aeii aeine?aeaeo? N.A.Eoeue/eoeueeee,
iaoeia? ioae?eaoe?? yeiai ii ie?aieo eiioeaiooaeueieo i?iaeaiao ia??iaeo
iaio ciaeoee nai? eia?/ia i?iaeiaaeaiiy a ocaaaeueithth/?e i?aoe?
“Eiioi?ci a Oe?a?i?: ia?oa aeanyoe??//y (1919-1928)” Eoeue/eoeueeee N.
Eiioi?ci a Oe?a?i?: ia?oa aeanyoe??//y (1919-1928). – E.: Iniiae, 1996.
– 396 n. , a ye?e ia?aaeyaeathoueny o?aaeeoe?ei? iieiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei?
?noi??ia?ao??. Ooo iinoaaeai? oa aena?oeai? oae? eiioeaiooaeuei? ia
nueiaiaei? ieoaiiy, ye aeaoooaaiiy iieaciaeo noaeiaeo i?ioean?a;
aeei?enoaiiy i?aai?a IE aeey noai?aiiy nenoaie iaaeyaeo ca noni?eueieie
iano?iyie, yea ?nioaaea ia?aeaeueii ia?o?ei?e; iicanoaeia? ooieoe?? IE
oiui.

Aeey ?icoi?iiy ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? ocaaaeueithth/a i?aoey aeiiaoeueeeo ?noi?ee?a
A.I.I?eieuenueeiai oa A.?.?cthiiaa “IAI a Aeiiaan?. ?noi?e/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy” Ieeieueneee A.I., Ecthiia A.E. IYI a Aeiiaanna.
Enoi?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea. – Aeiiaoee, 1992. – 128 n. . Aaoi?e ia
ia?eoee ? ieoaiiy e?ei?iaeueii?

cei/eiiino? a ?iee iaio, ae?eoiaoe aeniiaeo, ui a 1920-o? ??. ia?oa
i?noea a caaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? cei/eiiino? caeiaee e?aae?aeee oa
ooe?aainoai, iio?i eoee iia?aaoaaiiy oa iaiaaee, aeae? aoee aaeanoaa ?
cae?eaaee oeae nienie ??ciiiai?oi? aoa?e. Iaeiae ca iaaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy caeeoeeeny ieoaiiy ai?ioueae c ea?ieie i?iyaaie a
Aeiiaan?, ia iieacaii aeeiai?eo ?o ?icaeoeo.

Cacia/aia e?oa?aoo?a a?ae?a?a? cia/io ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? caaaeueieo
oyaeaiue i?i iiae?? ia??iaeo iaio a ?aaeyinuee?e aea?aeaa? acaaae? oa
Oe?a?i? cie?aia, aeiiiiaaa? c?icoi?oe aieiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ? oei
naiei aeeoe ia ??aaiue ona?aeiieaiiy i?e/ei oeo iaaaoeaieo yaeu, ui
o?nii aoee iia’ycai? c? ci?iaie a iie?oeoe? oa aeiiii?oe?. Aea
aena?oeaiiy ieoaiue e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? oa caoiae?a ai?ioueae c
oeei iaaaoeaiei yaeuai a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ia?oi? a?oie ia?
o?aaiaioa?iee oa?aeoa?.

Ae?oao a?oio neeaaeathoue ?iaioe aai ?o i?ae?icae?ee, ui i?enay/ai?
aeine?aeaeaiith ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo oa iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Cia/ia i?noea i?eae?eaii aena?oeaiith ae?yeueiino?
i?e?oe?? a ?iee iaio a eieaeoeai?e i?aoe? “Niaaoneay

ieeeoeey: enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue” Niaaoneay ieeeoeey: enoi?ey e
nia?aiaiiinoue (1917-1987). – I.: TH?eae.eeo., 1987. – 336 n.. A ?iaio?
?icaeyaeathoueny i?aai?caoe?ei? iiooee a i?aaiioi?iii?e noa?? a 1920-o?
??., aieiai? iai?yiee ae??oaiiy eaae?iaiai ieoaiiy, a oaeiae caaaeuei?
i?eioeeie ae?yeueiino? i?e?oe?? oa ea?iiai ?icooeo ia aoai? iaio.
Iaeiae, ine?eueee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeeeinue a caaaeueiinithciiio
ianooaa?, aeai? ii Oe?a?i? ooo iaei/enaeuei? ? ia aeathoue oyaeaiiy i?i
aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo ea?ii? cei/eiiino? oa i?noeaao niaoeeo?eo ae??oaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eieo ieoaiue a i?aaiioi?iii?e noa??.

I?ioean iiaoaeiae oa ?iaioo ?aao?eaoiae?a ? noae?a ia oa?eoi??? on???
?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae aeine?aeaeoaaee I.A.Eiaeaai?eia, A.?.Iaoooia,
I.A.Ni??iia Eiaeaaieeia I.A. Enoi?ey niaaoneiai noaea.-I.: Ainth?ecaeao,
1957.-384 n.; Iaoooia A.A. Niaaoneee noae e noaiiaeaiea ?aaiethoeeiiiie
caeiiiinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee.-Eeaa-Iaeanna: Aeua oeiea,
1982.-154 n.; Nie?iia I.A. Aunoea noaeu ?aaiethoeee (Oeaio?aeueiua
?aaiethoeeiiiua o?eaoiaeu. 1918-1922 aa.).-I.: Ciaiea, 1990.-64 n.. I?e
oeueiio ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui a ?o ?iaioao ia?aaaao a?aeaeaii aea/aiith
i?aai?caoe?eieo iiiaio?a. Ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aaiethoe?eieo eii?oao?a, ?o /enaeueiino?, oa?eoi??aeueiiai
?icoaooaaiiy, e?euee?niiai oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo iinoaaea I.O.Aoaae
Aoaae I.O. *?acau/aeiua i?aaiu niaaoneie aeanoe: ?aaeiiu.1918-1921
aa.-I.: Iaoea, 1990.-320 n.

. Iniaeeao oaaao aaoi? i?eae?eea i?aaiioi?iii?e ?iaio? ?aaeii?a, a
oaeiae ?o o/ano? a ?icaoaeia? aia?ao?a i?e?oe?? oa noae?a. A iiiia?ao??
iaaaaeai? aeai?, ui ioiieththoue anth ?aaeyinueeo aea?aeaao, a oaeiae
aeeeaaeai? ie?ai? ieoaiiy ?iaioe ?aaeii?a a Oe?a?i? oa Aeiiaan?.

A ?icaeyiooeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo ae?oai? a?oie iiaeai? aeai? i?i
i?aai?caoe?th iaaecae/aeieo oa i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ia oa?eoi??? on???
?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae, ioe?ith?oueny ??aaiue oa caaaeuei? iai?yiee
?icaeoeo e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? a ?iee iaio, ?icaeyaea?oueny
ai?ioueaa c oeei iaaaoeaiei yaeuai. Iayai? a oe?e e?oa?aoo?? iaoa??aee
ii Oe?a?i? o?aaiaioa?i? ? ia aeathoue iai caaaeueiiai oyaeaiiy i?i
e?euee?niee oa ye?niee neeaae i?aaiioi?iiieo oa iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a,
i?i ??aaiue ?o ae??caeaoiino?. Aiae?c ae?yeueiino? oeeo i?aai?a oi/a ?
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny e?euee?nieie iieacieeaie, iaeiae caaaeueii? ea?oeie
cei/eiiino? ia??iaeo iaio aiie ia noai?ththoue, ine?eueee iiaeai?
aea??eiai. Oeei ? coiiaeth?oueny iaiiaeeea?noue ioe?iee aeeiai?ee
?icaeoeo ea?ii? cei/eiiino? a ?iee iaio ye ia oa?eoi??? on???
?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae, oae ? a Oe?a?i?.

A o?aoth a?oio aeine?aeaeaiue iaiao?aeii aeae?eeoe i?aoe?, i?enay/ai?
ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo oa iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a Oe?a?ie. ?noi?e/iee
oeyo ?aaeyinueei? i?e?oe?? c iiiaioo ?? noai?aiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny a
eiec? “C ?noi??? i?e?oe?? ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie” Ec enoi?ee ieeeoeee
Niaaoneie Oe?aeiu.-E.: Ec-ai IIII ONN?, 1965.-400 n., yea iiaa/eea na?o
o 1965 ?. oa aoea ia?oith ni?iaith aena?oeeoe ia iaoeiaiio ??ai? i?ioean
noai?aiiy oa ?iaioo i?e?oe?? a Oe?a?inuee?e ?anioae?oe?, oi?ioaaiiy ??
no?oeoo?e oa eaae?iaiai neeaaeo. Iaeiae iaaaaeai? i?eeeaaee ae?yeueiino?
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ia aeathoue caaaeueii? ea?oeie oa i?aenoaa aeey
aeniiae?a i?i oni?oi?noue oe??? ai?ioueae.

?noi??th noaeo ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeoaaa Ae.N.Nonei Nonei
Ae.N. ?noi??y noaeo ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie (1917-1967 ??.).-E.:Aeae-ai
Ee?anueeiai oi-oo, 1968.-234 n., cia/ia i?noea a ?iaio? yeiai
a?aeaaaeaii noaeia?e ?aoi?i? 1922 ?., aea/aiith i?aai?caoe?eieo
iiiaio?a, no?oeoo?ii? iiaoaeiae noaeiaeo onoaiia Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
ae??oaiiyi ieoaiue o noa?? i?aaa. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia? eieaeoeaia i?aoey
“Anaoe?aeineay /?acau/aeiay eiienney (1918-1922)” E.I.Iaeianeoeiaa,
A.E.?iaiaeeia oa A.A.Noaoena Iaeianeoeia E.I, ?iaiaeei A.E., Noaoen A.A.
Anaoe?aeineay /?acau/aeiay eiienney (1918-1922) / Iiae
?aae.I.I.Aieooei.-O.: Iniiaa, 1990.-345 n.. Oea aeaeaiiy ? ia nueiaiaei?
caeeoa?oueny iaea?eueo iiaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?ioeano noai?aiiy,
i?aai?caoe?eii? iiaoaeiae, ooieoe?e oa i?eioeei?a ae?yeueiino?
Iaaecae/aeii? Eii?n?? Oe?a?ie, ia aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui aeaye?
iieiaeaiiy oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nueiaiaei? ia?aaeyaeathoueny,
ei?aaothoueny oa aeiiiaiththoueny ?ioeie aaoi?aie. Aeine?aeaeoth/e
?ai?aneai? ae?? ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?i?, ?.A.A?ean i?enayoea
/anoeio i?aoe? i?aai?caoe??, no?oeoo?? oa ae?yeueiino?
“?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueiiai aia?aoo”. Aaaaeaiiy iei a iaoeiaee ia?a cia/ii?
e?eueeino? iaa?aeiieo aei oeueiai /ano a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a aeicaieeei
ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoe aei ae??oaiiy ieoaiue ?noi??ia?ao?? iaaecae/aeieo
i?aai?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Ia oe?ieiio eie? a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a
iiaoaeiaaii ? aeine?aeaeaiiy TH.?.Oaiiaaea, A.A.Cieioa?ueiaa oa
A.I?enoaeei “*E-AIO-IEAAe a Oe?a?i?”, ye? eaae?o?eiaaii ? iaoia?aaeaeaii
iiaeaee caaaeueio ea?oeio noai?aiiy oa ae?yeueiino? Iaaecae/aeii?
Eii?n??, ?ai?aai?caoe?th ?? a AeIO, aeine?aeeee iaoiaee ?iaioe oa
caaaeuei? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? oeeo no?oeoo? A?ean ?.A.
?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueia nenoaia a Oe?a?i?. 1917-1953: Noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee
oa ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee aiae?c: O 2 ei. Ei.1.-E.: Eea?aeue-A?enueei
Oe?a?ie, 1994.-432 n.; Oaiiaae TH., I?enoaeei A., Cieioa?ueia A.
*E-AIO-IEAAe a Oe?a?i?: iniae, oaeoe, aeieoiaioe- E.: Aa?en, 1997.-608
n..

Oaeei /eiii, e?oa?aoo?a o?aouei? a?oie aena?oeth? i?ioean noai?aiiy oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aaiioi?iiieo ? iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee a Oe?a?i?

ia aoai? iaio, i?noeoue a nia? aeai? i?i iaoiaee ?iaioe oeeo i?aai?a.
Aea oa?eoi??aeueia aena?oeaiiy oeeo ieoaiue aeineoue ia??aiii??ia ? oiio
a?aeoai?eoe caaaeueio ea?oeio ae?yeueiino? iaaecae/aeieo oa
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a a oaeiio cia/iiio ?aa?ii?, ye

Aeiiaan, iaeaea iaiiaeeeai.

*aoaa?oo a?oio neeaaeathoue ?iaioe e?ei?iieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, a yeeo
?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? a ?aaeyinuee?e
aea?aeaa? i?ioyaii ?ie?a iaio. Aeei?enoaiiy e?ei?iieia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e
coiiaeaii noi?aeiei oa?aeoa?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a iathoue ?iaioe I.I.Aa?iaoa  Aa?iao I.I. Eca?aiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey.-I.: TH?eae.eeo, 1974.-640 n.; Aa?iao I.I. Ii?aeueiay
noaoenoeea / Oaieiaiay noaoenoeea e noaoenoeea naiioaeenoa.-I.: Ecae-ai
Oeaio?.noao oi?aae, 1922.-269 n.

, a yeeo iiaeaii aeeaieee aiae?c noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo
i?ioyaii 1920-o ??. Eiai i?aoe? aeathoue iai ?icoi?iiy caaaeueieo
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo e?ei?iaeueiiai na?oo 1920-o ??., aeaiiino?othoue
aieea aea?aeaaieo eaiiai?e ia noaoenoe/i? iieacieee oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
?o c ?aaeueiei noaiii ?a/ae. Aea, ia aeaeue, iaaaaeai? a eiai i?aoeyo
noaoenoe/i? aeai? ioiieththoue oa?eoi??th on??? ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae,
? oiio nueiaiaei? iaiiaeeeai a?aeie?aieoe aeai? ii Oe?a?i?, ia eaaeo/e
aaea i?i ?aa?iiaeueio niaoeeo?eo.

Cae?eo?noue “ii?aeueii? noaoenoeee” coiiaeea a?aenooi?noue i?ioyaii
1930-1980-o ??.aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? a oi?eaeeny ieoaiue e?ei?iaeueii?
cei/eiiino?. ? o?eueee ia?inoaiiy e?eciaeo yaeu a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc?,
a Oe?a?i?, ca?eueoaiiy e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a cei/eiiino? c?iaeee
cacia/aio oaio iaeaeooaeuei?oith. Ieoaiiy i?i i?ioei?aai? ae??
ia??iaeo iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee oa iiooee caoiae?a uiaei ?o
iiaeieaiiy aoee iinoaaeai? oa ?icaeyioo? I.I.Cie?iei ia noi??ieao
aeo?iaeo “Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai” Cieei I.I. I?anooiiinoue a no?aia a
1909-1928 aa. N?aaieoaeueiay noaoenoeea // Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai e
i?aai.-1991.-? 5.-N.112-119.. Oe?eeii neooiei aoei ? caeeoa?oueny eiai
canoa?aaeaiiy i?i oa, ui noaoenoeeo cei/eiiino? iaia’yceiai o?aaa
ioe?ithaaoe c o?aooaaiiyi aeiaaio?eaaeeo eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo
oaiaeaioe?e, o ii??aiyii? ?c caaaeueiina?oiaeie oaiaeaioe?yie, ?iaeoa
aiia noa? cia?yaeaeyi aee?eaeaiiy ?aaeueii? ea?oeie, iniiaith aeey
eii’thieoo?ieo aeniiae?a.

O 1997 ?. iiaa/eei na?o ia?oa iiiia?ao?/ia aeaeaiiy “Cei/eii?noue OO
noi??//y” Eoiaaa A.A. I?anooiiinoue OO aaea. Ie?iaua, ?aaeiiaeueiua e
?inneeneea oaiaeaioeee.-I.: Ecae-ai II?IA, 1997.-525 n.

, a yeiio ?icaeyaeathoueny noai ? aeeiai?ea cei/eiiino? oa ?? ie?aieo
aeae?a a N?N?, ?in?? oa a onueiio na?o? i?ioyaii OO no. ?? aaoi?,
aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A.A.Eoi??a, i?iaiae?coaaaoe
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oeueiai yaeua, ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui i?ioyaii OO no.
niinoa??aa?oueny iaaieiia c?inoaiiy cei/eiiino? oa ?icoe?aiiy iaae ??
caa?ice aeey noni?euenoaa. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oey oaiaeaioe?y caeeoeoueny
iaci?iiith ? ia ii/aoeo OO? no.

Niaoeeo?ea oaie iaoiiaeth? aeei?enoaiiy ? th?eaee/ii? iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e. Oea, cie?aia, i?aoe? A.A.Aa?oeaiciia, N.N.Ino?ioiiaa,
I.?.Caai?iaei?eiaa, I.I.Ieoaeeaiea, ye? aaaaoi c?iaeee a ?ic?iaoe?
oai??? noaoenoeee oa e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa. E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeuei?
ieoaiiy ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth iaiiaiie?oi?o aeine?aeaeoaaea
?.A.?ai?ciaa. Ia iaoa??aeao Oe?a?ie iiaoaeiaaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
I.O.Caieyinueeiai “E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai a ia?o?
?iee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee”, a yeiio cia/ia i?noea a?aeaaaeaii i?ioeano
iiaoaeiae noaeiai? nenoaie a Oe?a?i?, i?iaaaeaiith noaeiai? ?aoi?ie o
1922-1923 ??., ?ai?aai?caoe?? ?aaiethoe?eieo o?eaoiae?a, eaae?iaiio
neeaaeo i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a oiui. Iiaiai ci?noo iaaeaee ieoaiith
noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa A.I.Ie?iiaiei oa
A.I.Aaiueei. C?icoi?oe caaaeuei? i?e/eie cei/eiiino? ? aieiai? iai?yiee
oa caoiaee ai?ioueae c iath aeiiiiaaathoue i?aoe? A.I.O?eiiiaa. ?noi??y
noai?aiiy oa no?oeoo?ia iiaoaeiaa i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ?aaeyinueei?
aea?aeaae ciaeoea nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a no/aniiio ?in?enueeiio
i?ae?o/ieeo E.O.Aooeaiea oa I.A.Eiaaeueiaa “I?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie”.
Cia/ia i?noea a?aeaaaeaii aiae?co ?aaeyinueei? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i? ia
aoai? iaio, ae?yeueiino? iaaecae/aeieo ? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a
i?eae?eaii a iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo “?noi??y aea?aeaae oa i?aaa
Oe?a?ie”.

Oaeiae aaoi? aaaaea? aeioe?eueiei aeacaoe ua aeae?eueea iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?e, aac yeeo ?icoi?iiy caaaeueieo i?e/ei e?ei?iaeueii?
cei/eiiino? ia??iaeo iaio aoaea iaiiaiei.Oae, ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy oa
aeniiaee, c?iaeai? aeine?aeieoeath ?.?.Aeeioai a noaoo? “Ae?oe oa aieiae
ia Oe?a?i? a 1921-1922 ??.”, aaaaoi ui i?iyniththoue a i?e/eiao aeeoy/i?
cei/eiiino? /an?a iaio a Oe?a?i? ?, cie?aia, a Aeiiaan?. Ci?ie a
aea?aeaai?e iie?oeoe? uiaei “a?eueii? oi?a?ae?” aeine?aeeea E.A.Eiaa/,
?icaeyioaoe i?e oeueiio i?e/eie i?oa/ieoeoaa oa niaeoeyoe??. A
aeine?aeaeaii? C.A. Eeoieiaiai?, ia aac? aeaieo i?i ?icaeoie
i?eaaoiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Aeiiaan?, i?iaiae?ciaai? caaaeuei?
oaiaeaioe?? aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a ?aa?ii? a oiiaao iaio. I?iaaaeaia
A.I.I?eieuenueeei aeine?aeaeaiiy aac?ia?ooy a Aeiiaan? a ?iee iaio
aeicaiey? iai c?icoi?oe i?e/eie ia?aaaaeaiiy iaeaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a
na?aae caa?aooiaaieo i?aaiioi?iiieie i?aaiaie. I?ioean iinooiiaiai
iiaeeiaiiy Oe?a?ie ?in?enueeith Oaaea?aoe??th a ia?o?e iieiaei? 1920-o
??., yeee a?ae/ooii iicia/eany ia ae?yeueiino? oa no?oeoo?i?e iiaoaeia?
iaaecae/aeieo ? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a Oe?a?ie, aoa ?icaeyiooee a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo N.A.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, E.I.Naeeae, E.I.Iaai?ii? Aeeioai
E.E. Aeaoe e aieiae ia Oe?aeia // Oeeinioneay e nioeeieiae/aneay
iuneue.- 1991.-?1.-N.101-111; Eiaa/ E.A. Iaiiaie ia niiaeea/iio ?eieo
Oe?a?ie (20-o? ??.).-E.: ?i-o ?no. Oe?. AI Oe?a?ie, 1994; Eeoieiai-

aa C.A. *anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaea a
oneiaeyo iaia // Iiaua no?aieoeu a enoi?ee Aeiiaanna.-Aeiiaoee,
1992.-Ei.2.-N.3-22; I?eieuenueeee A.I. Aac?ia?ooy a Aeiiaan? /an?a IAIo
// Oe?.?no.aeo?i.-1992.-?3.-N.50-57; Eoeue/eoeueeee N.A. I?ae aeaiia
a?eiaie (1921-1941 ??.) // Oe?.?no.aeo?i.-1991.-?8.-N.3-20;
Eoeue/eoeueeee N.A., Iia/ai I.I. Aieiae 1921-1923 ??. ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie
( ca oiiaeaie OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie) //A?o?ae Oe?a?ie.-1993.-?1-3, 4-6; Naeeaa
E.I. Ai?ioueaa O.?aeianueeiai ca ?icoe?aiiy i?aa Oe?a?ie i?ae /an
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy N?N? (o?aaaiue-eeiaiue 1923 ?.)// Oe?.
?no.aeo?i.-1992.-?1.-N.115-125; Iaai?iay E.I. Iiceoe?y Oe?a?ie o
iiainoai?ai?e nithci?e aea?aeaa?: 20-o? ?iee ne??cue i?ecio 90-o
//Oe?.?no.aeo?i.-1993.-?1.-N.3-15. .

Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
aeine?aeieeaie i?iaaaeaii aaee/acio ?iaioo ii aea/aiith eiioeaiooaeueieo
i?iaeai ?noi??? ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, Oe?a?ie oa Aeiiaano ia??iaeo
iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. Iaeiae i?e oeueiio cia/ia eiei ieoaiue oi/a
? iinoaaeaia a ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo??, aea iio?aao? a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai
aea/aiiy oa ia?ainieneaiiy. Oae, c i?e/ei o?eaaei? canae?a/aiino?
ii?aeueii? noaoenoeee a ?aaeyinuee?e aea?aeaa? oa iaioaaiiy eeaniaiai
i?aeoiaeo a iaooe?, e?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue aoea ? caeeoa?oueny iaeaea
iaaeine?aeaeaiith, a oie /an, eiee ?icoi?iiy caaaeueieo i?e/ei
cei/eiiino? ia??iaeo iaio ia? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey no/anieo
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a Oe?a?ie, yeei aeiaei ia aeieth i?ioenoiyoe
e?ei?iaeueiei aeaiaioai a oiiaao aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue.Oaeiae ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a eiei iaoeiaeo ?ioa?an?a
no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a iio?aieythoue ia?aaeon?i iaaecae/aei? i?aaie
aeaaee, oiae? ye ?iaio? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a i?eae?ey?oueny cia/ii
iaioa oaaae, oi/a aieiaiee oyaa? ai?ioueae c e?ei?iaeueiith cei/eii?noth
i?eiaaeaa naia ia ieo. Aeae?, a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? iaeaea
iaaeine?aeaeaieie caeeoathoueny ieoaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee
e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? ia??iaeo iaio a oaeiio aaaiiiio o aeiiii?/iiio
a?aeiioaii? ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie oa, ia oie /an, ? onueiai ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco, ye Aeiiaan. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ie iiaeaii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
i?iaeaia e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? oa ai?ioueae c iath a Aeiiaan? ia
aoai? iaio iaeaaeeoue aei iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaieo ? iio?aao?
iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oe??? ?iaioe aaoi?ii aoei aeei?enoaia oe?iea eiei
aeieoiaioaeueieo aeaea?ae, ye? oaeiae aeioe?eueii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ii
a?oiao.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie aeieoiaio?a iaeaaeaoue o?yaeia? aeae?aoe oa iinoaiiae,
ui i?noyoueny o ca??ieeao caeii?a, oaeeo ye: “C?a?aiiy ocaeiiaiue oa
?icii?yaeaeaiue ?ia?oie/i-Naeyinueeiai O?yaeo Oe?a?ie”, “Ca??iee
iinoaiia oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue Anaoe?a?inueeiai Oeaio?aeueiiai Aeeiiaa/iai
Eii?oaoo ?aae ?ia?oie/eo, Naeyinueeeo oa *a?aiiia?i?enueeeo aeaiooao?a
VI neeeeaiiy”, “Ca??iee aeieoiaio?a ii ?noi??? E?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa N?N? oa ?NO?? (1917-1952)”, aeieoiaioe oa iinoaiiae
ia?o??, iaae?oeiaai? a aeieoiaioaeueiiio ca??ieeo “Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y
Oe?a?ie a ?aciethoe?yo oa ??oaiiyo c’?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e ?
ieaioi?a OeE” C?a?aiiy ocaeiiaiue oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue
?ia?oie/i-Naeyinueeiai O?yaeo Oe?a?ie.-1921-1927; Nai?iee iinoaiiaeaiee
e ?anii?yaeaiee Anaoe?aeineiai Oeaio?aeueiiai Eniieieoaeueiiai eiieoaoa
Niaaoia ?aai/eo, E?anoueyineeo e E?aniia?iaeneeo aeaiooaoia VI –ai
nicuaa (18 aeae.1921 a.-10 aeae.1922 a.).-Oa?ueeia: Ecae-ai AOOeEE,
1922; Nai?iee aeieoiaioia ii enoi?ee oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa NNN?
e ?NON? (1917-1952) /Iiae ?aae. E.O.Aieyeiaa.-I.:
Ain.ecaeao.th?eae.eeo., 1953.-N.7-310; Eiio?noe/ia ia?o?y Oe?a?ie a
?aciethoe?yo oa ??oaiiyo c’?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e oa ieaioi?a OeE.
O.1(1918-1941).-E.: Aeae-ai iie?o.e?o.Oe?., ?i-o ?no.ia?o?? i?e OeE EIO,
o?e?ae ?i-oo ia?enecio-eai?i?cio i?e OeE EI?N, 1976.-1007n.

. I?aoethth/e c oe??th a?oiith aeieoiaio?a, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui
aiia i?noeoue a nia? ia?aaeon?i io?oe?eio oi/eo ci?o ia iiae??. Iaeiae
i?e oeueiio ne?ae iaeaaeii ioe?ithaaoe cia/aiiy oeeo aeieoiaio?a aeey
aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy, ine?eueee aiie iineee iaia’yceiaee oa?aeoa? ?
?aae?ciaoaaeeny ia i?noeyo.

Ae?oao a?oio aeieoiaio?a neeaaeathoue noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee 1920-o ??.:
“Noaoenoe/iee atheaoaiue ON??”, “Noaoenoeea Aeiiaano”, “Noaoenoeea
i?aoe? a Aeiiaan?”, “Noaoenoe/iee atheaoaiue Ia??oiieueueie”,
“Noaoenoe/iee aeia?aeiee Noae?inueeiai ie?oao” Noaoenoe/aneee
atheeaoaiue ONN?.-1922.-?13-18; Noaoenoeea Aeiiaanna. –1923-1925;
Noaoenoeea o?oaea a Aeiiaanna.-1924.-?1; Noaoenoe/iee atheaoaiue
Ia??oiieueueie.-1926-1928; Noaoenoe/aneee ni?aai/iee Noaeeineiai
ie?oaa.-Noaeei, 1928.. Caaaeyee oeei ca??ieeai ie iiaeaii a?aeoai?eoe o
oeeo?iaiio a?aeiioaii? caaaeueio ea?oeio oiai/aniiai aeeooy. Oe?ii?noue
oe??? a?oie aeaea?ae iieyaa? ua ? a oiio, ui aiie aoee iicaaaeai?
?aeaieia?/ieo ooaii?a, a ieo ia i?eoiaoaaany ?aaeueiee noai ni?aa.

A o?aoth a?oio aeaea?ae ie iiaeaii aeae?eeoe iaae?oeiaai? a 1920-o? ??.
ca?oe. Oae, o “Ca?o? Aeiiaoeueei? aoaa?inueei? aeiiii?/ii? ia?aaee
Oe?a?inuee?e Aeiiii?/i?e Ia?aae? oa ?aae? I?aoe? oa Iai?iie” i?noeoueny
?ioi?iaoe?y i?i i?e?oe?th oa ea?iee ?icooe Aeiiaoeueei? aoaa?i??, ?o
e?euee?niee ? ye?niee neeaae, ??aaiue ae??caeaoiino? oa caaaeuei?
i?iaeaie. Aaaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th iaaea? iai ? aeiaeaoie aei i?a??/iiai
ca?oo i?i ?iaioo eai’yiiaoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Aeiiaano “Aaiaeeoeci a
Aeiiaoeuee?e aoaa?i?? ca ia?oo iieiaeio 1921 ?.” Io/ao Aeiiaoeeiai
aoaa?ineiai yeiiiie/aneiai niaauaiey OYN’O e NOI.-Neaayine, 1922;
Aaiaeeoeci a Aeiiaoeeie aoaa?iee ca ia?aoth iieiaeio 1921 a. I?eeiaeaiea
e iieoaiaeiaiio io/aoo i ?aaioa eaiaiiioaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
Aeiiaanna (A.Nae?aoii).-Ecaeaiea Aeiiaoeeiai aoa. ioaeaea A.N.A. OeIEI
Aeiiaanna.-1921., a yeiio ae?yeuei?noue iie?oe/ieo oa e?ei?iaeueieo
aaiae a?aeie?aieth?oueny iaeia a?ae ?ioi?, aiae?cothoueny an? aeaee oa
iai?yiee iie?oe/iiai aaiaeeoecio, ui ?nioaaa ia oa?eoi??? Aeiiaoeueei?
aoaa?i??, a oaeiae iieacaii, ye? a?enueeia? oi?ioaaiiy ? i?aaie i?eeiyee
o/anoue o iiaeieaii? aaiaeeoecio oa c yeeie ?acoeueoaoaie.

*aoaa?oo a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue ioae?eaoe?? o oeaio?aeueieo oa
i?noeaaeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo — aacaoao “Eiioi?no”, “Ana?in?enueea
ei/aaa?ea”, “Aeeeoaoo?a o?oaea” ? aeo?iae? “Ia iinoo” Io/ao Aeiiaoeeiai
aoaa?ineiai yeiiiie/aneiai niaauaiey OYN’O e NOI.-Neaayine, 1922;
Aaiaeeoeci a Aeiiaoeeie aoaa?iee ca ia?aoth iieiaeio 1921 a. I?eeiaeaiea
e iieoaiaeiaiio io/aoo i ?aaioa eaiaiiioaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
Aeiiaanna (A.Nae?aoii).-Ecaeaiea Aeiiaoeeiai aoa. ioaeaea A.N.A. OeIEI
Aeiiaanna.-1921.

. Iaeiae i?e ?iaio? c aacaoieie ioae?eaoe?yie iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ?o
niaoeeo?eo – ie??i ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aiie aeeiioaaee ua e aeoiaio oa
i?iiaaaiaeenonueeo ooieoe?? ? oiio ne?ae e?eoe/ii i?aeoiaeeoe aei ieo a
i?ioean? ioe?iee iaae?oeiaaieo ooo iaoa??ae?a.

I’yoo, iaea?eueoo a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue iaoa??aee /ioe?ueio
a?o?a?a oa i’yoeaeanyoe a?o?aieo oiiae?a. Cia/ia /anoeia oeeo
aeieoiaio?a aia?oa aaiaeeoueny a iaoeiaee ia?a. Ia?aaeon?i aaoi?ii aoee
ii?aoeueiaai? oiiaee i?aaiioi?iiieo ? iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a, aeeiiaa/eo
oa ia?o?eieo eii?oao?a Aeiiaoeueei? aoaa?i?? oa ie?oa?a, noai?aieo ia ??
oa?eoi???, ye? caa??aathoueny a Aea?aeaaieo a?o?aao Aeiiaoeueei? oa
Eoaainueei? iaeanoae. Aaaeeea? aeieoiaioe, ye? caeaa?eueoiai iiynithaaee
oa ocaaaeueithaaee io?eiai? ia i?noeyo aeai?, aoee ciaeaeai? aaoi?ii a
oeaio?aeueieo a?o?aao Oe?a?ie – Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo
i?aai?a aeaaee Oe?a?ie oa Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie – o oiiaeao ?aaee I?i?no??a O?N? (NIE
ON??), Oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?/ii? ia?aaee i?e ?IE ON??, I?i?noa?noaa
thnoeoe?? (Ia?eiithnoa ON??), Aa?oiaiiai noaeo ON??, IEAN ON??,
Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueei? i?e?oe?? i?e IEAN ON??, a
oaeiae oiiae? OeE EI(a)O. Aaoi?ii ia aoee aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee a?o?a?a
Oi?aae?iue IAN Oe?a?ie, ine?eueee aeieoiaioe ca 1920-o? ??. a ieo ia
caa?aaeeny.

Oaeei /eiii, ioa?aeoa?ecoaaaoe aeaea?aeueio aaco, ie iiaeaii
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aiia ? ia o?eueee aeinoaoiueith, a e iaaecae/aeii
oe?ieith oa ??ciia?/iith. Aeyaeaiiy noiaeeo aeieoiaio?a a ??cieo oeiao
aeaea?ae aeicaieeei aaoi?o, caaaeyee ii??aiyiith iaaaaeaieo a ieo
aeaieo, aeinyaoe aenieiai nooiaiy aeinoia??iino? noaoenoe/iiai ?
a?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo. Oea ? aea? iiaeeea?noue eiiieaenii aeine?aeeoe
i?iaeaio e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? oa ai?ioueae c iath a Aeiiaan? ia
aoai? iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
ii?aeiaiiy no/anieo nenoaiiiai oa i?iaeaiiiai i?aeoiae?a, oaeineiiaeaieo
aiane?aeie ia’?eoeaieo ?ioaa?aoeaieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o
nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?iiio iaoeiaiio ciaii? inoaiiuei? /aa?o? OO no.
E??i oiai, aaoi? aeio?eioaaany caaaeueiiaeciaieo i?eioeei?a iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a naia iaoeiai? ia’?eoeaiino? oa iaoia?aaeaeaiino?,
caaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo (ae?aeaeoeee), ?noi?ecio.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “E?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue a Aeiiaan? a ?iee iaio
(1921-1928)” (aeeth/a? aeaa i?ae?icae?ee) i?enay/aiee caaaeuei?e
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? ?ie?a iaio c o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee ia?ao?aeieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a, a oaeiae
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iiio aiae?co cei/eiieoeueeiai na?oo.

Iiaa aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea ye eiiieaen caoiae?a ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo
aeeth/aea a naaa oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo, aeei?enoaiiy oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo
a?aeiinei, eiiia?aoe?th, aeiione eai?oae?noe/ieo aeaiaio?a a aeiiii?eo.
Iaeiae aeiiii?/ia iiaeaaaeaiiy noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ?yaeii iaaaoeaieo
yaeu. Ia?icaeiooee noeo?eiee ?eiie noaa i?aea?oioyi aeey ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? niaeoeyoe?e, oao?aenoa, aeiaaee?a iacaeiiiiai caaaa/aiiy.
?eieia? a?aeiineie oa ?o i?ioe??//y ii?iaeaeoaaee e?ei?iaeueio
cei/eii?noue, ine?eueee o nai?e iniia? aiie aacoaaeeny ia eiieo?aioe??,
ai?iouea? ca i?eaooie, ia caieaiiaaiiio iaaeeeoeo ?iai/i? neee (oiaoi
aac?ia?oo?), ia iaeiiaiio oa nioe?aeueiiio ?icoa?oaaii? ethaeae. Ia
inoaiith ?ieue a cacia/aiee ia??iae a?ae?a?aaaa ? nioe?aeueii-ii?aeueiee
noai noni?euenoaa. Noni?euei? eaoaee?cie iiia?aaei?o ?ie?a – ia?oa
na?oiaa a?eia, ?aaiethoe??, iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo, i?ecaaee aei
ia?aioe?iee oe?iiinoae, aei e?ece ii?ae?, yea iiaeeaethaaeany
a?eueoiaeoeueeith aioe?ae?a?eiith eaiiai??th oa ai?iii-eiioi?noe/ieie
caoiaeaie iiaoaeiae “na?oeiai iaeaooiueiai”. Ana oea noaei i?aea?oioyi
aeey a?aaeath/iai ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ca?a?no?iaaieo i?ioei?aaieo
ae?e. Aaoi?ii aoei i?ae?aoiaaii, ui i?ioyaii 1921-1925 ??. iieacieee
cei/eiiino? iaaieiii ca?eueooaaeeny ? c?inee o o?noue ?ac?a (c
o?aooaaiiyi ci?i o e?euee?niiio neeaae? ianaeaiiy). ? o?eueee i?ney 1926
?. a?aeaoeinue iacia/ia iie?auaiiy e?ei?iiaaiii? neooaoe??, aea ia ii
an?o ie?oaao, ? oiio aiai?eoe i?i caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy
/enea i?ioei?aaieo ae?e ia oeueiio aoai? ie ia ia?ii i?aenoaa. Iaaeaaoe
caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? 1921-1928 ??., aaoi?
aaea?oueny aei aiae?co ?icaeoeo ie?aieo aeae?a i?aaiii?ooaiue i?ioyaii
cacia/aiiai /ano, caaaeyee /iio aaea?oueny ?iciiae?eeoe ca?a?no?iaai?
cei/eie ia aeae?eueea a?oi, caeaaeii a?ae nooiaith ?o ?aaeoe?? ia
iie?oeei-aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy. Aaoi? oaeiae coieiy?oueny ia ?ie?
niaoe?aeueieo eaiiai?e o oi?ioaaii? noaoenoeee cei/eiiino?, iieacoth/e
ia oeeo?iaiio oa a?ao?/iiio iaoa??ae?, ui oe? aeai? aeaiiino?oaaee
ia?aaeon?i ia ?aaeueiee ??aaiue ie?aieo aeae?a cei/ei?a, a noai
ai?ioueae c ieie.

Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea e?ei?iaeueiiai na?oo aea? iai
?icoi?iiy no?oeoo?e cei/eiiino?. Oa?aeoa?enoeeo iiaeaii ii oaeeo
ia?aiao?ao, ye noaoaaa i?eiaeaaei?noue, a?e, nioe?aeueia iioiaeaeaiiy oa
??ae caiyoue i?aaiii?ooiee?a, ?o ina?oi?e ??aaiue, nioe?aeueia ?ieue o
noni?euenoa? oa iaoe?iiaeuei?noue.

Iaoith o?aoueiai ?icae?eo “?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a
Aeiiaano a oiiaao iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee” (aeeth/a? o?e
i?ae?icae?ee) aoei aeyaeaiiy ci?i a i?aai?caoe?eiiio ono?i? oa ae??oaii?
eaae?iaiai ieoaiiy o ca’yceo c? ci?iaie a aea?aeaa?. Aaoi?ii aoea
c’yniaaia iniaeea?noue ii/aoeiaiai aoaio noaiiaeaiiy i?aaiioi?iiii?
nenoaie: a Oe?a?i? a oiiaao iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, aeoeaiiai
i?ioenoiyiiy naeyinueei? iane iie?oeoe? ai?iiiai eiioi?cio, noai?aiith
aea?aeaaieo i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ia?aaeoaaea (a caiaeii ? i?ioiaeeea
ia?aeaeueii) ae?yeuei?noue iaaecae/aeieo no?oeoo?. Oaeiae
nai???aei?noth ii/aoeiaiai aoaio noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?aai?a
i?aaiioi?iie aoei oa, ui ia?aaaaeath/a a?eueo?noue ?? aeaiaio?a, aei
eiiiaoaioe?? yeeo aoiaeeea ai?ioueaa c? cei/eii?noth, ii?aeioaaea
ooieoe?? ne?ae/?, noaeia?, a oaeiae iaea i?aai aeeiiaiiy ae?ieo.

Noai?aiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iaaecae/aeieo oa aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, ui iaee
i?aaiioi?iii? ooieoe??, i?ecaiaeeei aei ia?ao?auaiiy ?o ae?e, aei
iaaecia/aiino? a?aeiinei oa a?aenooiino? /?oei anoaiiaeaii? noa?e
ae?yeueiino? eiaeiiai c ieo. *anoeie aoee neooaoe??, eiee oe? onoaiiae
caaaaeaee iaeia ?io?e i?ae /an ?icne?aeoaaiiy aoaeue-yei? ni?aae,
nia?a/aeeny c i?eaiaeo ?a/iaeo aeieac?a, ye? iiaee aooe ?icii?ioai? i?ae
onoaiiaaie ? caaaaeaee ii?iaeueiiio ?ooo ni?aae. Iac’yniaai?noue oeeo
iiiaio?a coiiaethaaea ia?iaiaioi? i?aai?caoe?ei? ci?ie a i?aaiao,
iieeeeaieo ioi?iiyoe ?aaiethoe?eiee ii?yaeie. Oae, i?ioyaii ?ie?a iaio,
aeaye? c iaaecae/aeieo no?oeoo? ao?aoeee nai? i?aaiioi?iii? ooieoe??,
aeaye? e?ea?aeoaaeeny, ine?eueee noi?iiaai? i?e?oe?y oa ea?iee ?icooe
noaee caeaoieie acyoe ia naaa ?o caaaeaiiy, /anoeia o?ainoi?ioaaeany oa
iaaoea a?eueo iie?oe/iiai ci?noo. I?aai?caoe?ei? iiooee 1917-1922 ??. a
noaeia?e noa?? caaa?oeeeny noaeiaith ?aoi?iith, ?acoeueoaoii yei? aoee
e?ea?aeaoe?y Ia?iaeiiai Noaeo oa ?aaiethoe?eiiai o?eaoiaeo Aeiiaoeueei?
aoaa?i?? a aa?aci? 1923 ?. oa noai?aiiy Aeiiaoeueeiai aoaa?inueeiai
noaeo. A?eueo o?eaaeei aoa oeae i?ioean a i?e?oe?? oa ea?iiio ?icooeo.
A?aenooi?noue aei 1926 ?. /?oeiai iieiaeaiiy, yea a ie?anethaaei i?aaa,
iaia’ycee oa iaae? ae?yeueiino? i?e?oe??, a oaeiae ? i?iaeaie c
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiyi ea?iiai ?icooeo, ni?e/eithaaee ao?o/aiiy o ni?aae
iniiaieo i?aai?a ii ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth c aieo ia?o?eieo
eii?oao?a, ea??aieoeoaa aeeiiaa/eo eii?oao?a, IE-AeIO oa ?ioeo onoaiia,
a oea a naith /a?ao i?ae?eaaei ? aac oiai aeineoue iano?eeo nenoaio.

I?aai?caoe?ei? iiooee noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny ?ica’ycaiiyi eaae?iaiai
ieoaiiy, yea ae??ooaaeiny o a?e oi?ioaaiiy i?ieaoa?nueeiai neeaaeo
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a. Aeey oeueiai canoiniaoaaeeny ??ci? i??e: oea
eiiaiaee?oaaiiy a Aeiiaan aeina?ae/aieo i?aoe?aiee?a c ?in??,
iia?e?caoe?y /a?aiiia?i?eoe?a, caeo/aiiy aei i?e?oeaenueei? ?iaioe
/eai?a EIN, canoinoaaiiy i?aeoeee “aenoaainoaa”, a oaeiae “/enoee”.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Ai?ioueaa c e?ei?iaeueiith cei/eii?noth” (o?e
i?ae?icae?ee) aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy oa noaiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaa/eo onoaiia, oi?ie oa iaoiaee ai?ioueae c e?ei?iaeueiith
cei/eii?noth a ?iee iaio, a oaeiae iaaeaii ioe?ieo ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
oe??? ai?ioueae. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aaaaeaiiy iaio a?ae?a?aei ?ieue
eaoae?caoi?a a i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy i?aaiai? nenoaie ?aaeyinueei?
aea?aeaae. A oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?aaeyinueeee o?yae aoa ciooaiee
anoaiiaeoe /?oe? iaae? aeicaieaiiai. Aeaeaiiy a 1922-1923 ??.
E?ei?iaeueiiai oa E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaen?a aia?oa c 1917
?. aeaei i?aaiioi?iiiei i?aaiai eiie?aoio i???ioaoe?th ye o noa??
aeyaeaiiy oa eaae?o?eaoe?? cei/ei?a, oae ? o aaeoc? i?ioeanoaeueieo
i?aaee. Aea i?ioyaii oeueiai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo i?aai aeaui
a?aenoaaaei a?ae aeeiai?/ieo ci?i o aeeoo?, aeiiiaithaaeiny oa
ooi/ithaaeiny ??cieie o?yaeiaeie iinoaiiaaie, ye? ?iiae? noia?a/eee
?nioth/ei i?aaiaei ii?iai. Oeth i?iaeaio a?aenoaaaiiy i?aaa a?ae
iie?oeee iaiaaaeeny ae??oeoe caaaeyee i?eioeeio aiaeia??, yeee i?enooi?e
a E?ei?iaeueieo eiaeaenao ye 1922, oae ? 1927 ?. Ia ii/aoeo 1920-o ??.
oeae i?eioeei ae?enii aeiiiiaaaa aeiiiaieoe e?ei?iaeueia i?aai
iaia?aaeaa/aieie noaooyie, aea a oiiaao cai?oaiiy iaio ? a ianooii? ?iee
noaooy i?i aiaeia?th cei/eio aeei?enoiaoaaeany ye can?a ii?ooaiiy
caeiio.

Ioe?ithth/e oi?ie oa iaoiaee ai?ioueae c e?ei?iaeueiith cei/eii?noth,
aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui ia ii/aoeo 1920-o ??. i?aaiioi?iii? caoiaee
i?aaae?thaaee iaae i?io?eaeoe/ieie, a oaeiae ae??oaeueiith a i?ioean?
?ice?eooy cei/ei?a aoea iia?aoeaia ?iaioa. ? eeoa iinooiiai, a
?acoeueoao? iaeiie/aiiy noaoenoe/ieo, oai?aoe/ieo oa aii??e/ieo aeaieo
i?i noai cei/eiiino? oa ?? aeeiai?eo, c?inoaiiy i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy
i?aoe?aiee?a, iia?aoeaia ?iaioa iiaie? iinooiaeany ni?ai?aoe? c
?ioi?iaoi?aie oa aaaioo?iei ?ic?iaeai. Aaoi? oaeiae i?inoaaeo?
iaoiaee/i? iiooee i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, ye?
?ica’ycoaaeeny, c iaeiiai aieo, ca ?aooiie iiaa?iaiiy aei iaaeaaiue
oea?nueei? iie?oe??, oa, c ae?oaiai, o aeaeyae? iiaaoe?e ( ye,
iai?eeeaae, ?iciianthaeaeaiee ae?ie ?aao?eaoiae?a – “?icno??e oiiaii”,
ia?anaeaiiy a ?io? ?aa?iie, iia?e?caoe?? anueiai /ieia?/iai ianaeaiiy c
oae caaieo “aaiaeeonueeeo nae” a *a?aiio A?i?th oiui).

I?iaiae?coaaaoe caaaeuei? iieacieee ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ?iaioe
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a Aeiiaano i?ioyaii ?ie?a iaio, aaoi? eiinoaoo?, ui
i?aoe?aieee i?e?oe?? oa ea?iiai ?icooeo iinooiiai, a i?ioean? ?iaioe,
iaaoaaee aeina?aeo, i?aeaeuoaaee aeanio eaae?o?eaoe?th. Oea
iiynithaaeiny ia?aaeon?i caaa?oaiiyi i?aai?caoe?eiiai aoaio ae?yeueiino?
i?e?oe?? oa ea?iiai ?icooeo, iaeaaiaeaeaiiyi ni?aae i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a, noaiiaeaiiyi nenoaie ?a?no?aoe?? cei/eioe?a, oiui.

Neeaaei?noue oa ?icoe?aiiy iaae ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeee
iayai?noue aeniiae?a uiiaeiaioa o o?ueio iai?yieao: noiniaii aeeiai?ee
oa niaoeeo?ee e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? a oiiaao iie?oeei-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue; a?aeiinii no?oeoo?ii? iiaoaeiae oa ia?aaoaeiae
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a a oiiaao iaio; oa o iai?yieo ai?ioueae c?
cei/eii?noth ? ?? ?acoeueoaoeaiino?. Aei oiai ae, ine?eueee ?ic?iaea
cacia/aieo i?iaeai ? aeaeaeith a?ae caaa?oaiiy, aaoi? iaiaaaany oieeiooe
aacaiaeyoe?eiino? oaa?aeaeaiue, caeeoath/e i?noea aeey aeeneon??. A
?acoeueoao? ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, ia caoeno aeianai?
ianooii? iieiaeaiiy:

— ia?ao?aei? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee noi?iaiaeaeothoueny iia??oaiiyi
e?ei?iiaaiii? neooaoe??;

— a e?eciaeo oiiaao niinoa??aa?oueny ciaoe?iaiiy aeeooy ethaeeie
(na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai iiaea aooe oa, ui a i?e?oeaenueeeo caaaeaiiyo
1920-o ??.noaoenoeeo aaeanoa iiaeaaaee ia 6-io i?noe?);

— /?oei anoaiiaeth?oueny caeaaei?noue ??aiy ie?aieo aeae?a
i?aaiii?ooaiue a?ae iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo ci?i a aea?aeaa?. Caaaeyee
oeueiio iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe i?aaiii?ooaiiy ia a?aeiia?aei? a?oie,
aeae?eeoe “ciie ?eceeo” ? a?aoiaoaaoe oea i?e i?iaaaeaii? i?io?eaeoe/ieo
caoiae?a;

— aeey e?eciaeo ia??iae?a oa?aeoa?ia caaaeueia “iiieiaeaeoaaiiy”
e?ei?iaeueiiai na?oo. Cei/eioeyie o nai?e a?eueoino? noaaaee iniae o
a?oe? a?ae 20 aei 30-oe ?ie?a – iieiae? oa iiai? neee /eaie
noni?euenoaa, ye? canai?ee aeeoo?ao o?einio?th e?eciaiai /ano. Oea
ia?aaaaeii iaeaae?o?eiaai? cei/eioe?. Iae/ano?oa aiie caeioaa/oaaeeny o
iiaooiaeo e?aae?aeeao. Naia oeei ? iiaeia iiynieoe ia?aaaaeaiiy iaeiiaeo
cei/ei?a a caaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? cei/eiiino?;

— e?eciaee noai a aea?aeaa? coiiaeth? cieaeaiiy noni?eueii? oaaae aei
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy. Cei/eii?noue na?aae i?aee?oe?a ? iniaeeai
iaaacia/iith aeey noni?euenoaa, ine?eueee aiia caa?iaeo? eiai
iaeaooiueiio. Aioenioe?aeuei? cae/ee, iiaeyaee, iaaeaai? o aeeoeinoa?,
i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeaii?ae?caoe?? iniae ?, ye iane?aeie, — aei c?inoaiiy
/anoee ?aoeeaeeaii? cei/eiiino? (yea a ?iee iaio nyaaea iicia/ee 25 —
30% a?ae on?o caa?aooiaaieo i?aee?oe?a);

— aeai? i?i ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?iee ??aaiue i?aaiii?ooiee?a i?eiooothoue
ian caa?iooe oaaao ia caeaaei?noue aioenioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee a?ae
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Oae, i?ioyaii 1921-1928 ??. cei/eioe? o
nai?e a?eueoino? aoee iaienueiaiieie aai c ieae/ith ina?oith. Naia oea ?
coiiaethaaei no?oeoo?o cei/eiiino? ?ie?a iaio – ia?aaaaeaiiy ei?eneeaeo
oa ei?eneeai-ianeeueieoeueeeo i?aaiii?ooaiue;

— iniaeeao oaaao i?eaa?oathoue cei/eie, a/eiai? ethaeueie c aenieei
nioe?aeueiei noaoonii, ine?eueee iaa?oue i?e iacia/iiio e?euee?niiio
??ai? oe? cei/eie iathoue ?aciiainiee oa?aeoa? oa aeaii?ae?cothoue
noni?euenoai. I?e oeueiio o?aaa caaaeaoe ia oa, ui caaaeueia e?euee?noue
oeeo i?aaiii?ooaiue iani?aaae? aoea cia/ii aeuith, ine?eueee, ye
na?ae/aoue aeieoiaioe 1920-o ??, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oeeo cei/ei?a
caeeoaeany ca iaaeaie io?oe?eii? e?ei?iaeueii? noaoenoeee;

— i?ioean ?ica’ycaiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai ieoaiiy a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aaiao
cana?ae/o?, ui a oiiaao ia?iaiaioieo i?aai?caoe?eieo ci?i cieaeo?oueny
??aaiue ?iaioe i?aoe?aiee?a oeeo i?aai?a. Eaae?o?eiaaii i?ioenoiyoe
cei/eiiino? iiaea o?eueee onoaeaia oa i?oeia nenoaia, noaoon oa i?aaa
yei? /?oei aecia/aii ia i?aaiaiio ??ai?;

— ia?aaeie o ae??oaii? eaae?iaiai ieoaiiy (iniaeeai i?ae /an /enoie)
i?ae?eaaee aaoi?eoao i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, noai?thaaee o
cei/eioe?a aiaaiai?noue o a?aenooiino? ea?e;

— iiaaia iaoa??aeueia caaacia/ai?noue i?aoe?aiee?a nenoaie aioo??oi?o
ni?aa oa noaeiaeo onoaiia ni?e/eithaaea ieeii?noue eaae??a, a oaeiae
ia?aoai?thaaea cia/io e?euee?noue i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiii? nenoaie ia
cei/eioe?a;

— i?aaae?thaaiiy eeaniai-ia?o?eiiai i?aeoiaeo a i?ioean? eiiieaeooaaiiy
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a (aac o?aooaaiiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, aai
iaa?oue caaaeueiiina?oiueiai ??aiy) i?ecaiaeeei aei cieaeaiiy ?o
ae??caeaoiino?;

— ia?ao?aeiei ia??iaeai aeanoeaa a?aenoaaaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa a?ae
aeeiai?/ieo ci?i o aeeoo?. Na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai ? oa, ui i?ioyaii ?ie?a
iaio noaa?eueii ca?eueooaaeany /anoea cei/ei?a, ye? ia i?aeaeaaaeeny
ocaaaeueiaiith oa caiineeeny o caaaeaiiyo a eieiieo “?io?”;

— a?aenooi?noue a aea?aeaa? /?oeeo caeii?a aei i?eeiyooy o 1922 ?.
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, ? iio?i aaaaeaiiy a e?ei?iaeueia i?aai
i?eioeeio aiaeia??, a?aeiiaa a?ae o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae? oa cai?ia ??
i?ieaoa?nueeith, i?ecaaee aei ?icieaaiiy iaae? i?ae aeia?ii ? ceii o
ethaenuee?e na?aeiiino?. Noa?eeny a?ai? i?ae cei/eiii oa iaaeii?noth,
iaeiae i?e oeueiio noi?ioaaeiny noaaeaiiy aei ethaeeie, ye aei ?noioe,
yeo iiaeia iiea?aoe, iacaeaaeii a?ae oaeeo oaeoi??a, ye “aeii?noue” aai
“iaaeii?noue”. Oiaoi, o 1920-o? ??. aoee caeeaaeai? iniiae anueiai oiai,
ui i?ae /an noae?inueeeo ?ai?an?e iaaoei iaaa/aieo aein? ianooaa?a. Oeei
/anoeiai iiynith?oueny ? oa, /iio naia noni?euenoai 1930-o ??. aeyaeeiny
iani?iiiaeiei i?ioenoiyoe eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeai?e nenoai?, aoei
iacaeaoiei aei iii?o;

— naia a 1920-o? ??. aoei caii/aoeiaaii i?aeoeeo caaaeaiiy iie?oe/ieo
cei/eioe?a aei e?ei?iaeueieo. A ia?oo /a?ao a Oe?a?i? oea a?aeaoeiny a
i?ioean? iiaeieaiiy naeyinueei? iaiiei?e, oae caaiiai “iie?oe/iiai
aaiaeeoecio”, eiee naeyie, ui ia ni?eeiyee iie?oeeo ai?iiiai eiioi?cio
oa noaee ia oeyo aeoeaiiai i?ioenoiyiiy a?eueoiaeoeueeiio o?yaeo, aoee
i?iaieioai? cei/eiieoeueeeie aeaiaioaie. ? cian?i iaaeiaaeeiaei ?
aeei?enoaiiy aecia/aiiy “cei/eiaoeue” – oa?i?io, ui iaeiicia/ii
iaaaoeaii ni?eeiaany oa ni?eeia?oueny ethaenueeith na?aeii?noth.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iiiio?oueny ?yae ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. Ie?ai? iaoa??aee ? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee ai?ioueae c e?ei?iaeueiith
cei/eii?noth ia no/aniiio aoai?, ine?eueee aiie aeathoue a?eueo aeeaiea
?icoi?iiy no/anieo iaaaoeaieo noni?eueieo i?ioean?a oa ?o i?e/ei. Aaoi?
aaaaea?, ui aeaiie?aoe/iee oeyo ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae, ia?ao?ae aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia iiaeii? noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny ineaaeaiiyi nioe?aeueii
— i?aaiaiai eiio?ieth. ?aeaaeii ia nueiaiaei? ? anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae
i?ae naiaiaeith ? iaiao?aei?noth. 2. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii
ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth ia? aooe ?? i?io?eaeoeea, oiaoi iiia?aaeaeaiiy
cei/eiiino? oeyoii aea/aiiy oa aeieoaaiiy e?ei?iiaaiieo oaeoi??a (ui
?iaeoue iaiao?aeiei i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o oe?e aaeoc?).
Aeina?ae 1920-o ??. ynii aeiaiaeeoue, ui iineeaiiy ?ai?an?e ia i?ecaaei
aei ciaioaiiy iieaciee?a cei/eiiino?.

3. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo ocaaaeueithth/iai oa?aeoa?o, o iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao ?
??ciiiai?oieo aeia?aeeiaeo oa i?ina?oieoeueeeo aeaeaiiyo, o i?aeaioiaoe?
eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a oa niaoeeo?n?a.

4. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeicaieythoue aeyaeoe iiaeeea? iai?yiee
iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? Oe?a?ie /an?a iiai? aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee, ?noi??? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, iaaecae/aeieo i?aai?a
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee oiui.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E AAOI?A

1.I?oa?aa I.E., I?eieuenueeee A.I. E?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue oa
ai?ioueaa c iath a Aeiiaan? (ii/aoie 1920-o ??.) // Iiaua no?aieoeu a
enoi?ee Aeiiaanna / Aie.?aae. C.A.Eeoieiaiaa.-Aeiiaoeuee,
1995.-Ei.4.-N.87-96 (0,8 ae?oe.a?e.).

2. I?oa?aa I.E. E?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue ia?ao?aeieo ?noi?e/ieo
ia??iae?a. Aeina?ae aeey nueiaiaeaiiy // No?ae.-1998.-? 5.-N.35-40 (0,9
ae?oe. a?e.).

3. I?oa?aa I.E. Aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo e?ei?iaeueii? cei/eiiino? ca aeaieie
?aaiethoe?eieo o?eaoiae?a (1920-1923 ??.) // A?niee Aeiiaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y “A”. Aoiai?oa?i? iaoee. ?2.-Aeiiaoeuee,
1998.-N.36-42 (0,8 ae?oe. a?e.).

4. I?oa?aa I.E. Iniiai? iai?yiee oa caniae ae??oaiiy eaae?iaiai ieoaiiy
a i?aaiioi?iiieo onoaiiaao Aeiiaano a ?iee IAIo // Iiaua no?aieoeu a
enoi?ee Aeiiaanna / Aie.?aae. C.A.Eeoieiaiaa.-Aeiiaoeuee,
1998.-Ei.6.-N.87-96 (0,8 ae?oe.a?e.).

5.I?oa?aa I.E. “*enoea” ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueei? i?e?oe?? Oe?a?ie a ia?o?e
iieiaei? 1920-o ?ie?a //Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae aoc?anueei? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ii ?acoeueoaoao
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe. ?noi?e/i? iaoee, iie?oieia?y / ?aae.eie.:
A.O.Ao?iinia (?aae.), A.I.I?eieuenueeee (a?aei.nae?.), ?.Ae.Eyo,
A.I.?iceioiee oa ?i. – Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeO, 1997.-A 2 ei.-
Ei.1.-N.111-114 (0,4 ae?oe.a?e.).

6.I?oa?aa I.E. E?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue oa ai?ioueaa c iath ia
Aeiia//ei? (ii/aoie 1920-o ?ie?a) // Iaoa??aee VII Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “?noi?e/ia e?a?ciaanoai a Oe?a?i?: o?aaeeoe?? ?
no/ani?noue”.-E.: ??aeiee e?ae, 1995.- O 2 /anoeiao.-*ano.?.-N.236-238
(0,2 ae?oe.a?e.).

7. I?oa?aa I.E. ?noi?e/i? ci?ie iiaeyae?a ia e?ei?iaeueio cei/eii?noue a
Oe?a?i? // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee:
aeeooy, ae?yeuei?noue, ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue”.-Aeiiaoeuee, 1995.-
N.59-61 (0,3 ae?oe.a?e.).

8.I?oa?aa I.E. O/anoue ae?iie Aeiiaano o iianoainueeiio ?on? a ia?o?e
iieiaei? 1920-o ?ie?a // AE?ii/ee ?oo a Oe?a?i?: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue.
I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia eiioa?aioe?y. Iaeana, aeiaoaiue 1994 ?.
Oace aeiiia?aeae / ?aae. eie.: A.?.Oa?auaiei (aieiaa), E.I.Eaae?anueeee
(cano.aieiae), A.?.Aeiaaeaiei oa ?i.-E.: ?NAeI, 1994.-N.122-124 (0,2
ae?oe.a?e.).

9. I?oa?aa I.E. E?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue 1920-o ??. O?iee aeey
noni?euenoaa // I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae oi?ioaaiiy oeea?e?ciaaiiai
noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?. Oace aeiiia?aeae ?aa?iiaeueii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (16-18 aa?aciy 1995 ?.). – Aeiiaoeuee,
1995.-N.115-116 (0,2 ae?oe. a?e.).

10.I?oa?aa I.E., I?eieuenueeee A.I. E?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue oa
ai?ioueaa c iath ia Aeiia//ei? (ii/aoie 1920-o ?ie?a) // Oace aeieeaae?a
aoc?anueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
ii ?acoeueoaoao iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe. ?noi?e/i? iaoee / ?aae.eie.:
A.O.Ao?iinia (a?aei.?aae), A.A.E?ai?a?i (nae?.), I.?.Oai??iaa.-
Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeO, 1995.-N.34 (0,1 ae?oe.a?e.).

11.I?oa?aa I.E.Naeyinueeee iianoainueeee ?oo a Aeiiaan? (1919-1921 ??.)
// Aea/aiiy ?noi??? Oe?a?ie a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao. Oace aeiiia?aeae
?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (22-23 eenoiiaaea 1994
?.).-Aeiiaoeuee, 1994.-N.94-95 (0,2 ae?oe.a?e.).

12.Iinaaeia? cei/eie oa ai?ioueaa c ieie a Aeiiaan? (1921-1925 ??.) /
I?oaaaa I.E.; Aeiiaoe. oi-o -Aeiiaoee, 1996.-14 n.-Aeaeeia?.:30
iaca.-Oe?.-Aeai.a AIOA Oe?a?ie 22.04.96, ?1025 — Oe 96 (0,5 ae?oe.a?e.).

AIIOAOe?ss

I?oa?aa I.E. E?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue ? ai?ioueaa c iath a Aeiiaan?
(1921-1928??.). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie.- Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? eiiieaenii-?noi?e/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi e?ei?iaeueii?
cei/eiiino? ? ai?ioueae c iath a Aeiiaan? (1921-1928 ??.). O ?iaio?
aia?oa a?aeoai?aii ea?oeio e?ei?iaeueiiai na?oo ?aa?iio a ia??iae iaio,
aeyaeai? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene cei/eiiino? ia?ao?aeieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a.
Ia iniia? iaaeinooiieo ?ai?oa a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean
ae??oaiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai oa eaae?iaiai ieoaiiy a i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aaiao oeueiai /ano, ?icaeyioo? iniiai? iai?yiee ?iaioe oeeo i?aai?a oa
i?iaiae?ciaaii ??aaiue ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ?o ae?e. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaaaeaii a?aeiia?aeii c no/aniei ??aiai iaoiaeieia?? aoiai?oa?ieo
iaoe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?ei?iaeueia cei/eii?noue, i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie,
i?io?eaeoeea i?aaiii?ooaiue, eaae?iaa ieoaiiy, i?aaia? canaaee, ??aaiue
cei/eiiino?, iia?aoeai? ae??.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ieoaaaa I.E. Oaieiaiay i?anooiiinoue e ai?ueaa n iae a Aeiiaanna
(1921-1928). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu — Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony eiiieaenii-enoi?e/aneei enneaaeiaaieai oaieiaiie
i?anooiiinoe e ai?ueau n iae a Aeiiaanna (1921-1928 aa.). Aeaiiia
iai?aaeaiea enneaaeiaaiee i?eia?aoaao iniaaiiia cia/aiea ia nia?aiaiiii
yoaia ?acaeoey iacaaeneiie Oe?aeiu, eioi?ay noieeioeanue n oaeeie
i?iaeaiaie, eae iiene ?aaiiaaney iaaeaeo aeaiie?aoecaoeeae iauanoaa e
aeanoeei nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaui eiio?ieai; n ?inoii iaaaoeaiuo yaeaiee,
eioi?ua nii?iaiaeaeatho ia?aoiae e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi e ae?. A eiioea
OO no. aeaiiay oaia ana aieaa i?aa?auaaony ec iauaoai?aoe/aneie a /enoi
i?aeoe/aneoth, /oi, n iaeiie noi?iiu, naycaii n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iienea
iioeiaeueiiai aa?eaioa ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, n
oai, /oi enneaaeiaaoaee oieueei oaia?ue iieo/eee aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeueii
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue o?iaaiue e?eieiaeecaoeee niaaoneiai iauanoaa, ?aaioay
n ?annae?a/aiiuie noaoenoe/aneeie aeaiiuie.

?aaioa yaeyaony iaeiei ec ia?auo aeenna?oaoeeiiiuo enneaaeiaaiee, a
eioi?ii ananoi?iiia ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu oaieiaiay i?anooiiinoue a Aeiiaana
ia?eiaea iyia e aa ioaeaeueiua aeaeu n o/aoii ?aaeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae
e niaoeeoeee ia?aoiaeiiai enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea. Nouanoaaiiui
aeiiieiaieai e yoiio yaeyaony nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneay
oa?aeoa?enoeea oaieiaiiai ie?a, eioi?ay iicaieyao aeoaaea iiiyoue
no?oeoo?o i?anooiiinoe. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaeaaony ii oaeei ia?aiao?ai,
eae iie, aic?ano, nioeeaeueiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea e ?iae caiyoee
i?aaiia?ooeoaeae, o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiiinoe, nioeeaeueiay ?ieue a iauanoaa
e iaoeeiiaeueiinoue.

Ii-iiaiio ioeaieaaaony e oa?aeoa? acaeiiioiioaiee i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo e
/?acau/aeiuo i?aaiia. Oae, iniaaiiinoueth ia/aeueiiai yoaia noaiiaeaiey
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiie nenoaiu auei oi, /oi a Oe?aeia a oneiaeyo
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey, aeoeaiiai i?ioeainoiyiey
e?anoueyineie iannu iieeoeea aiaiiiai eiiioiecia, nicaeaieth
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia i?aaeoanoaiaaea (a iicaeiaa e i?ioiaeeea
ia?aeeaeueii) aeayoaeueiinoue /?acau/aeiuo no?oeoo? — ?aaeiiia,
/?acau/aeiuo eiiennee, iieeoo?iae, iinoiyiiuo niaauaiee ii ai?ueaa n
aaiaeeoeciii e ae?. Nicaeaiea ?aciiia?aciuo /?acau/aeiuo e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, eiaaoeo i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua ooieoeee,
i?eaiaeeei e ia?ae?aueaaieth eo aeaenoaee, e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a
ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ieie e ionoonoaeth /?oei onoaiiaeaiiie noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai ec ieo, /oi e iaoneaaeeaaei ia?iaiaioiua
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua iienee a yoeo i?aaiao. Oaeaea, iniaaiiinoueth
ia/aeueiiai yoaia noaiiaeaiey nenoaiu i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia auei
oi, /oi aieueoay /anoue aa yeaiaioia, a eiiiaoaioeeth eioi?uo aoiaeeea
ai?ueaa n oaieiaiie i?anooiiinoueth, iauaaeeiyea ooieoeee neaaenoaaiiua,
noaeaaiua e iaeaaeaea i?aaii i?eaaaeaiey i?eaiai?a a eniieiaiea.

Aeaeaa, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, ia?aoiae e iyio nua?ae ?ieue eaoaeecaoi?a a
i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey i?aaa niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa. A oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai auei auioaeaeaii onoaiiaeoue /aoeea
?aiee aeicaieaiiiai. Ecaeaiea a 1922-1923 aa. Oaieiaiiai e
Oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiiai eiaeaenia aia?aua n 1917 a. aeaei
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiui i?aaiai eiie?aoioth i?eaioaoeeth eae a noa?a
iaia?oaeaiey e eaaeeoeeaoeee i?anooieaiee, oae e a iaeanoe
i?ioeannoaeueiuo i?aaee. Ii i?e yoii, ia i?ioyaeaiee aeaiiiai
ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea iaaethaeaeinue nouanoaaiiia ionoaaaiea i?aaa io
aeeiaie/iuo ia?aiai a aeecie iauanoaa. Aeaiioth i?iaeaio iuoaeenue
?aoeoue ca n/ao i?eioeeia aiaeiaee, eioi?ue i?enoonoaoao a Oaieiaiuo
eiaeaenao 1922 e 1927 aa. A ia/aea 1920-o aa. yoio i?eioeei
aeaenoaeoaeueii iiiiaae aeiiieieoue oaieiaiia i?aaiiai?aaeaeaeaiiuie
noaoueyie, ii a oneiaeyo na??ouaaiey iyia e a iineaaeothuea aiaeu
noaouey i?i aiaeiaeth i?anooieaiey eniieueciaaeanue eae niinia ia?ooaiey
caeiia.

Ioeaieaay oi?iu e iaoiaeu ai?ueau n oaieiaiie i?nooiiinoueth, aaoi?
i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi a oeacaiiue ia?eiae i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua ia?u
i?aaaee?iaaee iaae i?ioeeaeoe/aneeie, a oaeaea ?aoathuae a i?ioeanna
?ane?uoey i?anooieaiee auea iia?aoeaiay ?aaioa (eioi?ay eeoue e
na?aaeeia 1920-o aa. iinoaiaiii ia/aea onooiaoue ianoi nio?oaeie/anoao n
eioi?iaoi?aie e aaaioo?iui ?ac?aaioeai). Aaoi? oaeaea i?ineaaeeaaao
iaoiaee/aneea iienee ?aaioieeia i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo e /?acau/aeiuo
i?aaiia, eioi?ua ?aoaeenue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ca n/ao aica?auaiey e
aeinoeaeaieyi oea?neie iieeoeee e, n ae?oaie, a aeaea iiaaoeee (eae,
iai?eia?, aeinoaoi/ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiue i?eaiai? ?aao?eaoiaeia “?anno?ae
oneiaii”, ia?anaeaiea a ioaeaeaiiua ?aaeiiu, iiaeeecaoeee anaai
ioaeneiai ianaeaiey ec oae iacuaaaiuo “aaiaeeoneeo nae” a E?anioth
A?ieth e ae?.).

I?iaiaeece?iaaa iauea iieacaoaee ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe ?aaiou
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia Aeiiaanna ia i?ioyaeaiee 1921-1928 aa.,
aaoi? eiinoaoe?oao, /oi ?aaioieee yoie noa?u iinoaiaiii, a i?ioeanna
?aaiou, noaiiaeeenue aieaa iiuoiuie, ?aaioaee aieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaii,
/oi iauyniyeinue caaa?oaieai i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo iieneia a yoie noa?a,
nicaeaieai nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia, iiaeiyoeai ia iiaue
o?iaaiue aeaea ?aaeno?aoeee i?anooiieeia e ae?. Ii a oi aea a?aiy
i?eaeeceoaeueii iieiaeia ?aaioieeia i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia ia eiaea
niaoeeaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey (e aeiaieueii ieceee iauaia?aciaaoaeueiue
o?iaaiue), iiiaea auee auioaeaeaiu iaae?aoueny iiuoa a i?ioeanna ?aaiou,
a oneiaeyo cia/eoaeueiiai ?inoa i?anooiiinoe a ia?eiae iyia.

Enneaaeiaaiea i?iaaaeaii a niioaaonoaee n niaa?aiaiiui o?iaiai
iaoiaeieiaee aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe.

E e th / a a u a n e i a a: oaieiaiay i?anooiiinoue,
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua i?aaiu, i?ioeeaeoeea i?aaiia?ooaiee, eaae?iaue
aii?in, i?aaiaua iniiau, o?iaaiue i?anooiiinoe, iia?aoeaiua aeaenoaey.

SUMMARY

Mihejeva O.K. Criminality and the struggl against it in Donbas
(1921-1928).- Manuscript.

The Dissertation presented for a degree of the Cendidate of historical
science for the spesiality 07.00.01 — History of Ukraine — Donetsk State
University, Donetsk, 1999.

The dissertation is a complecx-historical investigation of the
criminality and the struggl against it in Donbas. In the work for the
first time the picture of criminality in the region in the time of nep
(new economic policy) has been shown, and distinguishing features of
criminality in the intermediate historical periods determined. On the
base of earlier inaccessible archiwalmaterials the process of solwing
the organizing and staff selection problems in the law-enforcement
bodies of thet time has been investigated and the main orientations of
work of those bodies and their effectiveness examined. The investigation
has been made according to the morden level of the metodology of
historical science.

K e y — w o r d s: criminality, law-enforcement, prewentive measures
against offences, the question of staff selection, lawful ground, level
of criminality, operational actions.

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