EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

?INOEOOO AEO?IAE?NOEEE

A?EssEIA Ieaenaiae? Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 002+32:577.4

EIIOI?EAOe?ss ssE ?INO?OIAIO

AEIEIA?*II? IIE?OEEE

(IA I?EEEAAe? II??AIssEUeIIAI AeINA?AeO

OE?A?IE OA I?IA**EIE)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.01.08 — aeo?iae?noeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? ia??iaee/ii? i?ane ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ss?ieo TH??e
Oaiaein?eiae/, ?inoeooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ia??iaee/ii? i?ane

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Nieaeaoaiei
Aaea??e Oaaei?iae/, ?inoeooo iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei ? iie?oieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii oai??? ? ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueieo
a?aeiinei eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe Aeaieeaiei Na?a?e ?aaiiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ naeoi?o i?an-neoaeae Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao (i.
Eoaainuee)

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 19 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 14. 00 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.34 i?e Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 04119, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1, ?inoeooo aeo?iae?noeee.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 01033, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 15 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ?aaiia A.O.

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/aniee na?o iacaaii na?oii eiioi?eaoe?e. Oe?a?ia
noa? aeeiai?/iei noni?euenoaii, a yeiio, ia aeoieo oe?a?inueeiai
aeine?aeieea, i?ioani?a A. A. Ii/aioeiaa, eiioi?eaoe?y iin?aea? iiaa
i?noea, ia?aoai?thth/enue ia aaaeeeaee /eiiee ye noni?eueiiai, oae ?
a?cianiaiai aeeooy nueiaiaeaiiy. Ie aa?eoee a iiaee na?o, ? a oeueiio
ia?aoiae? /e ia iaeaieiai?oo ?ieue a?ae?a?aea eiioi?eaoe?y, aaeaea naia
iie?oe/ia eiioi?eaoe?y oiiaeeeaeth? ci?ie noni?eueieo nenoai. Iniaeeai
aaaeeeaa i?noea eiioi?eaoe?y iin?aea? a i?ioeanao aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oa
oi?ioaaii? iie?oeee ?, ianaiia?aae, oaeiai ?? iieiaeiai iai?yio ye
aeieia?/ia iie?oeea.

Ca?ac aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ie?aieo e?a?i ? ?aa?ii?a ia?a?inee a
aeiaaeueio i?iaeaio an??? ieaiaoe. Aeieia?/iee aei?? caaacia/aiiy ie?o
oa iiaeaeueoiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?aeianaii ia ??aaiue eeth/iaeo
i?iaeai ethaenoaa. Naia oiio ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a oeueiai noie?ooy
?icii/aeiny oi?ioaaiiy aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee.

I?aeoe/ii an? eiinoeoooe?? e?a?i na?oo, ui aoee noaaeai? aai ia?aaeyioo?
ca inoaii? 35 ?ie?a, i?noyoue iieiaeaiiy, ye? noinothoueny aeiae?eey ?
i?iaieioothoue i?aai a?iiaaeyi aeeoe o caei?iaiio ? aacia/iiio
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?.

?aeay caa?aaeaiiy i?e?iaee ni?eyea iie?oe/iiio oni?oo Ia?o?? Caeaieo
Oe?a?ie. ?? ae?yeuei?noue ii/aea aoaeoaaoeny ia canaaeao iie?oe/ii?
aeieia?? a 1990 ?ioe?. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a 1998
?ieo «caeai?» io?eiaee 1,44 i?eueeiie aai 5,44 % aiein?a aeai?oe?a.
Aieiao Ia?o?? Caeaieo A. I. Eiiiiiaa aoei ca?a?no?iaaii eaiaeeaeaoii o
I?aceaeaioe Oe?a?ie. Aaaeeea?noue i?iaeai aeiae?eey aeciaii e ?ioeie
i?ia?aeieie ia?o?yie, ui a?aecia/aii o a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?eao ia?o?eieo
i?ia?ai. O ca’yceo c oeei aeieia?/ia eiioi?eaoe?y iaaoaa? oaeiae
iie?oe/iiai cia/aiiy.

I?iaeaio caoenoo iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? iiaeia ii??aiyoe
ca nai?th cia/ou?noth o?aa ui c ai?ioueaith ca aeaeeaaiiy acaaae?.
Aieiaa Eii?oaoo c ieoaiue aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee, i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy oa
e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie TH. ?. Naiieeaiei i?aee?aneea: «ianooiia noie?ooy — oea a?e
aeieia??, ? nai? aeiiii?/ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoa aea?aeaaa ii/ia c
ae??oaiiy ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaieo c iei i?iaeai aeieia??. Oaeaee?noue
aeaa?aaeaoe?? aeiae?eey oaea, ui eiee ia aaeeoe ea?aeeiaeueieo caoiae?a,
oi iiaea noaoeny oae, ui ?yooaaoe aaea ia aoaea ui».

Aeieia?/ia neeaaeiaa iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ia?aoai?th?oueny ia iaeei c
aeii?ioth/eo /eiiee?a aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie.
Caaacia/aiiy aeieia?/ii? aaciaee ? i?aeo?eiaiiy aeieia?/ii? ??aiiaaae ia
oa?eoi??? e?a?ie ? iaeiei c i??i?eoao?a aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, aecia/aieo
Eiinoeoooe??th.

A no/aniiio na?o? ianaiia?aae aeieia?/i? iie?oeea oa aaciaea
aenooiathoue ia iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue ? aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeaoue
a?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? oa i?ioean?a iaaeiei ia?. ?ioi?iaoe?th ?icaeyaeathoue
ye no?aoaa?/io «ne?iaeio» aeaiie?ao??. Caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
caeaoi? c?iaeoe cia/iee aianie o oi?ioaaiiy aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee. I?ioa
iiee ui ?iaeoueny oea ia caaaeaee aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaii, ui, ao?i, ia
aeeeth/a? oe?ieeo ?aca?a?a ia iaeaooi?. Cie?aia, aaea ca?ac i?ana
ia?aoai?eeany ia o?eaoio oao?aoe?a oa oe?ieeo e?e a?iiaaenueeino?, eio??
aeeneooothoue c i?iaeai aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee. Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia oa
aeieia?/ia i?ana iiaea ? iiaeiia aieeaaoe ia i?eeiyooy ??oaiue
aea?aeaaieie, i?iieneiaeie, eiia?oe?eieie ? a?iiaaenueeeie no?oeoo?aie.
O eiiieaen? c ?ioeie caoiaeaie aena?oeaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai aaea
neeaaea? iaoai?ci, iineoaiaoth/enue yeei i?ana aieeaa? ia aeieia?/io
iie?oeeo o?yae?a.

sse cacia/athoue i?ia?aei? oe?a?inuee? oa caei?aeiii? a/ai?, iie?oe/ia
nenoaia noa? ana a?eueo ianiai-?ioi?iaoeaiith, a nenoaia cania?a ianiai?
eiioi?eaoe?? – ana a?eueo iie?oe/iith. I?iaoeueeee aeine?aeiee Oeue?eo
Caena? caoaaaeo?, ui «nueiaiaei? iie?oe/iee i?ioean noa? ana a?eueo ?
a?eueo eiioi?eaoeaiei, ? aeo?iae?noe aa?ooue a iueiio o/anoue ii?o/ c
iie?oeeaie, i?ioa a i/ao a?iiaaenueeino? aiie ? aioaaii?noaie».

Iei? iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i c?inoath/a cia/aiiy aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? a
oe?eiio oa a?aeiia?aeii? oaiaoeee a aeo?iae?noeoe? cie?aia. Iniiaiei
oaeoi?ii, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei oeueiai, ? ia?ao?ae aeieia?? c aeania
iaoeiai? a nioe?aeueio noa?o. O ca’yceo c oeei nueiaiaei? iaoeiaoe? oa
i?aeoeee aiai?youe i?i oi?ioaaiiy aeieia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee. E?oa?aoo?a
c oe??? aeenoeeie?ie c’yaeeany eeoa a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y. Cie?aia, ca
/an?a eieeoiueiai Nithco i?i noaiiaeaiiy oa iaiao?aei?noue ie?aiiai
aeae?eaiiy aeieia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee ienaea ?in?enueea aeine?aeieoey O.
Aaiaaieainueea. Ca?ac a Iineianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
aeeeaaea?oueny oaeee eo?n ca i?ae?o/ieeii eieaeoeao aaoi??a.
Aia?eeainueeee aeina?ae ocaaaeueiaii o /eneaiieo iin?aieeao, iai?eeeaae,
I?aeia?iaeiiai oeaio?o aeo?iae?no?a oa aeaeaii? TACIS. A Cao?aei?e
?a?ii? ?nio? oe?ea iecea ?ia?o. Cie?aia, a O?I aeieia?/io aeo?iae?noeeo
?icaeyaeathoue ye /anoeio iaoeiai?. A oeueiio i?iaoeuee? oao?aoe?
nie?aea?i? c oe?a?inueeeie, eio?? aeine?aeaeothoue iaoeiao
ioae?oeenoeeo. Aiia ia? aeaai? o?aaeeoe?? a ?ic?iaeao a?o/eciyieo
a/aieo, iai?eeeaae, I. O. Eiiiaoey. I?ioa a Aano???, ye ? a NOA,
aeieia?/io aeo?iae?noeeo aeae?eythoue ie?aii. Aei eeane/ieo i?aoeue c
aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? iaeaaeaoue, ianaiia?aae, ?iaioe i?iaoeueeeo
a/aieo I. Eoiaia oa E. A?aiaea. O a?o/eciyiiio aeo?iae?noeeiciaanoa? oey
aeenoeeie?ia i?ioiaeeoue iiee ui aoai noaiiaeaiiy.

C ieoaiue aieeao i?ane ia iie?oeeo oa iaaiaee, aieeao iie?oeee ia i?ano,
?nio? /eiaei oe?eaaeo ?ia?o. Oe? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeothoue A.C.
Iineaeaiei, A.O. ?aaiia oiui. Oai??th eiioi?eaoe?? oa iaae?e ??eaeoic
?ic?iaea A.A. Ii/aioeia. Oaeiae iaae?e ??eaeoic a Oe?a?i?
aeine?aeaeothoue A.A. Ei?ieueei, I. Iiieaanueeee, I. Oeoiie?ia oiui. A
iai?yio aeieia?/ii? nioe?ieia?? oa ?? aca?iiae?? c eiioi?eaoe??th
i?aoeth? a?o/eciyiee nioe?ieia I. A. Noaai?e.

Ine?eueee aeieia?/ia eiioi?eaoe?y a Oe?a?i? ii/aea ?icaeaaoeny eeoa a
inoaii? aeanyoe??//y, aa?oi caeo/eoe i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ??
noaiiaeaiiy. Iniaeeai oe?eaa? aeey ian iai?aoethaaiiy a oe?e aaeoc?
Oaaea?aoeaii? ?anioae?ee I?ia//eie, ine?eueee naia oey e?a?ia ?
i?ia?aeiith o ae??oaii? aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai a ?a?ii?. Ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c
ioi?iie aeiae?eey i?ae iaoeie e?a?iaie a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeiae aeineoue
aoaeoeaii. Aeei?enoaiiy ia oe?a?inueeiio a?oio? aeina?aeo i?iaoeueei?
i?ane oa iaae?e ??eaeoic, ye? iathoue aaeeeee aeina?ae c i?iaeai
aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe??, eiai oai?/a ii?aoethaaiiy, a oaeiae
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c c a?o/eciyiei iaoeiaei aei?iaeii, ? aeooaeueiei ?
iaaaeueiei ieoaiiyi.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Nueiaiaei? ia
/an? oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? oeiee aeo?iae?noeee, iiaiai iieie?iiy
aeo?iae?no?a, eio?? i?ioan?eii aena?oeththoue, cie?aia, ? neeaaei?
aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie, i?aaaeeaa aena?oeaiiy yeeo aoei iaiiaeeeaa ca
oioae?oa?ieo /an?a. Aeena?oaoe?eiee i?iaeo iia’ycaiee c aeeiiaiiyi
?ic?iaeaii? a ?inoeooo? aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea iaoeiai? i?ia?aie «A?eueia i?ana a aeaiie?aoe/i?e
aea?aeaa?». C 1992 ?ieo nooaeaioai i?iiiio?oueny eo?n eaeoe?e c iniia
aeieia??, a ii/eiath/e c 1995 ?ieo cai?iaaaeaeaii aeo?iae?nonueeo
iaenoa?ith c aena?oeaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai a caniaao ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? aeey nooaeaio?a, eio?? aioothoue aeeieiii? ?iaioe c
aeieia?/ii? oaiaoeee. Aiia ui??/ii i?eaa?oa? oaaao aeeieiiiee?a. Eo?n
ia? ni?eyoe oi?ioaaiith iaae/ie oa ai?iue: i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??ae?a aeey
i?ane, iciaeiieaiith c ae?yeuei?noth aeieia?/iiai aeaeaiiy oa eiai
canioaaiiyi, c iiooeii aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy, i?iaaaeaiith iiooeo
aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a ?ioa?iao?, aoaeoaaiith eiioeaioe?? iaae?e
??eaeoic aeey iaeiia?oe?eii? aeieia?/ii? i?aai?caoe?? oiui. Iieiaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? a i?ia?ai? oeueiai eo?no ? iiaeooue aooe
?ioaa?iaai? a ?io?. Ianaiia?aae, a eo?ne c aeieia?? ?, iniaeeai, c
aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee ?ioeo aoc?a. Iaeei c oaeeo eo?n?a aeeeaaea?oueny,
iai?eeeaae, nooaeaioai Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? aeaaeai??. I?iaeaie
aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee oa aaciaee – a oeaio?? oaaae Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?inoeoooo no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?inoeooo?a Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie oiui.

sse cacia/athoue oe?a?inuee? a/ai?, «ii?yae c i?ioeanaie iaoeiaiai
aca?iii?iieeiaiiy aeieiai? a iioi aaeoci ciaiue, oiniioathoue ?? aca?iii
eiioaeoe c iieioeeith, ui aaea aeeeeeaei aei aeeooy iiaa
i?iaeaiii-iiciaaaeueia iiea, aiaeia?aaeaia o iiiyooyo «aeieiai/ia
iieioeea», «iieioe/ia nioeiiaeieiaiy» oiui… Ieii Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa
caoeieaaeaia a yeiiiaa eiiieaeniie iiaeaioiaoei niaoeiaeinoia, iiyai
cacia/aieo iiaeaeenoeeieiia?ieo aeineiaeaeaiue — iini?a aeieia?/ii?
i?i?ioaoei? iieioeee, ?? no/aniiai e iaeaooiueiai ?icaeoeo». C iaeyaeo
ia oea, ia?aia aeena?oaioii oaia i?iaeiaaeo? ?icaeoie
iiaeaeenoeeieiia?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe — aecia/aiiy ?ie?
eiioi?eaoe?? ye ?ino?oiaioa aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee oa iaoai?cio aieeao
oe?a?inueeeo ? i?iaoeueeeo cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia aeieia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae ? oi?ioaaiiy aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee oa aaciaee.

Caaaeaiiy ?iaioe:

1. aecia/eoe ?ieue eiioi?eaoe?? ye iniiae ooieoe?thaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
?ino?oiaio?a aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee;

2. ?icaeyiooe ?noi??th oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ii? i?ane a
Oe?a?i?;

3. i?iaiae?coaaoe aena?oeaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai a oe?a?inueeeo ?
i?iaoeueeeo caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia i?eeeaae? uiaeaiieo oa
uioeaeiaaeo aacao ?c canoinoaaiiyi eiioaio-aiae?co;

4. aecia/eoe i?e/eie iaaeinoaoiueiai aena?oeaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai oa
?io? iiaeeea? iaaeie?ee;

5. aeine?aeeoe aeaea?aea aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, aecia/eoe, ooi ?
aaoi?aie iaoa??ae?a ia aeieia?/io oaiaoeeo;

6. i?iaiae?coaaoe iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeieia?/ii?
eiioi?eaoe?? ia i?eeeaae? iaae?e ??eaeoic;

7. ?icaeyiooe iniaeeaino? i?aeaioiaee iaoa??ae?a ia aeieia?/io oaiaoeeo;

8. aecia/eoe ?ieue aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? o ooieoe?iioaaii?
a?iiaaenueeiai ia?eaoeiao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a oe?a?inueeiio
aeo?iae?noeeiciaanoa? c?iaeaii ni?iao ?icaeyiooe eiioi?eaoe?th ye
?ino?oiaio aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee, aecia/eoe neeaaeia? iaoai?cio aieeao
cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia aeieia?/io iie?oeeo aea?aeaae, a oaeiae
i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c c aeina?aeii O?I. Oea ?iaeoueny na?aeiii
ye ia i?eeeaae? a?o/eciyieo, oae ? i?ia?aeieo cao?aeieo aeaeaiue c
iaoith i?enoinoaaiiy e?aueo noi??i oeueiai iaoai?cio aei oiia
oe?a?inueei? i?ane. Oaeiae a?oioiaii aeine?aeaeaii a?o/eciyio aeieia?/io
i?ano. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie io?eiaei aea/aiiy iaae?e ??eaeoic. ? oi/a a
inoaii? ?iee c’yaeeeny i?aoe? c oe??? aeenoeeie?ie, ?iaioe c iaae?e
??eaeoic aeey aeiae?eey a Oe?a?i? aoee a?aenooi?. Cai?iiiiiaaii
aecia/aiiy oeueiai iai?yio, aeacaii ia eiai ia?niaeoeae. ?iaioa,
c?iaeaia ia iniia? aea/aiiy aeina?aeo cao?aeieo oao?aoe?a o aaeoc?
cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa iaae?e ??eaeoic, aeine?aeaeo? oaeiae
oaiaeaioe??, ca yeeie oi?iothoueny eaiaee aca?iiaieeao cania?a ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? oa oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aaea eyaee a iniiao aeo?iae?nonueei? iaenoa?i? oa iaa/aeueiiai
niaoeeo?no «Aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie a caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??», ui
/eoa?oueny aeena?oaioii a ?inoeooo? aeo?iae?noeee c 1995 ?ieo.
Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? caniaaie ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, a oaeiae o ?iaio? Eii?oaoo c ieoaiue aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee,
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy oa e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa yaea?ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie (I?iaeiaaciaee
Oe?a?ie), ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo oa a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ae?yeuei?noue
yeeo iia’ycaia c aeieia?/iith eiioi?eaoe??th oa iie?oeeith. Ia iniia?
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeieeiaa
aeaeaiiy c aeieia?/ii? i?ane Oe?a?ie. Oey ?iaioa aeoeaii
aeei?enoiao?oueny oa oeeoo?oueny ?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie Oe?a?ie oa ?in??.
Aeena?oaioii aioo?oueny iin?aiee c iaae?e ??eaeoic aeey aeiae?eey.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe a?oioiaii aeeeaaeaii o a?ioo?? oa ioae?eaoe?yo, ai?uaieo o
iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe i?aaenoaaeaii ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e, ye? i?iaiaeeeeny a Oe?a?i? oa I?ia//ei?, cie?aia, i?ae /an
anana?oiuei? eiioa?aioe?? c iaoeiai? eiioi?eaoe?? a Aa?e?i?, O?I (5th
International Conference on Public Communication of Science and
Technology, Berlin, 1998).

Aeena?oaio aoa aaaeo/ei nai?ia??a:

«Aeiae?eey oa iaae?a» i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? «Ia oeyoo aei
Aeieia?/ii? Ni?eueiioe? Aeieia?/ia iie?oeea a ?a?ii?» o A?nnai?, O?I
(«Approaching an Environmental Union? Environmental Policy in Europe»,
Association des Etats Generaux des Etudiants de l`Europe, Giessen,
1998);

c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e i?ae /an c’?caeo
Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa ioi?iie ioao?a o 1996 ?ioe?;

e?oiuei? oeiee aeieia?/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeieia?/iiai
oeaio?o Oe?a?ie (ss?ai/a, 1996).

Ie?ai? oaie ?iaioe iaaiai?thaaeeny i?ae /an o/ano? aeena?oaioa a
nai?ia?? aeieia?/ieo aeo?iae?no?a, eio?ee i?ioiaeea o Aeai?? a 1998
?ioe? i?ae /an ?a?iiaenueei? eiioa?aioe?? i?i?no??a iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, a oaeiae o 1999 ?ioe? a Oo?a//ei? ia nai?ia?? aeieia?/ieo
aeo?iae?no?a e?a?i *i?iiii?nueeiai ?aa?iio.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae aeei?enoaii
aeena?oaioii i?ae /an eiai ?iaioe o a?aeae?e? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai
«?ia?oie/i? aacaoe» (1993-1997), o aeeeaaeaoeuee?e ?iaio? a ?inoeooo?
aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (c 1995
?ieo ii oaia??oi?e /an) oa aeeieiiieo ?iaioao nooaeaio?a, ia i?aeoeoe? a
caaaeueiii?iaoeuee?e aeieia?/i?e i?aai?caoe?? «Iieiaeue o Ni?eoe?
caoenoo aeiae?eey oa i?e?iaee I?ia//eie» (BUNDjugend) a Aiii? (1996), o
iaa/aii? aeo?iae?noeoe? a Eaoieeoeueeiio oi?aa?neoao? Aeoooaoo oa
aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee a oi?aa?neoao? Oaaai, O?I (1997-1999). Iaeiie/aiee
aeina?ae ?c i?iaaaeaiiy eiioaio-aiae?co aoei oaeiae aaeineiiaeaii a
i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue c aeo?iae?noeeiciaanoaa a
Eaoieeoeueeiio oi?aa?neoao? Aeoooaoo. O/anoue aaoi?a a oeueiio i?iaeo?
ciaeoea iiceoeaiee a?aeaoe o iaoeia?e i?an? O?I. Iniiaiee ci?no
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a a?ioo?? c aeieia?/ii? i?ane Oe?a?ie
(?in?enueeith oa aiae?enueeith iiaaie) oa a 6 iaoeiaeo noaooyo aac
ni?aaaoi??a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 183 noi??iee, o oiio /ene? — 24, eio??
caeiathoue nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (298 iaeiaioaaiue, c yeeo
i?iaoeueeith iiaith – 82, aiae?enueeith iiaith – 6) oa 3 aeiaeaoee.

Ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? aena?oeth?oueny aeooaeuei?noue, cia/ou?noue, nooi?iue
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiaoeee aeena?oaoe??, oi?ioeththoueny ?? iaoa oa
caaaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeena?oaoe??, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, cacia/athoueny aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? – «Aeieia?/ia neeaaeiaa iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie» aeine?aeaeaii aeieia?/io iie?oeeo oa aaciaeo, a oaeiae e?eco
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ye anana?oith i?iaeaio no/aniino?. Iaoiiaeaii
aaaeeea?noue ?icaeyaeo oeeo ieoaiue aeey noaiiaeaiiy aeieia?/ii?
aeo?iae?noeee.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aeieiai/ia aeoiea: caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea»
?icaeyiooi ?icaeoie aeieia?/ii? aeoiee. ?noi?e/iee aeneo?n o i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy aeieia?/ii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a na?ae/eoue, ui ethaia aei
i?e?iaee ? iaei??th c iaoe?iiaeueieo ?en. A?ae/oooy aa?iii?? aeiae?eey
? iaa?ae’?iia /anoeia oe?a?inueeiai oa?aeoa?o. I?aai?/ia ii?aeiaiiy
caa?aaeaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua oa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ?
iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo neeaaeiaeo noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee,
ia?aaeoiiaith a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?iiinoae. I?aoe?aieee
cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? iieeeeai?, ia aeoieo a?o/eciyiiai a/aiiai A.
A. Eecai/oea, iaeaeoeai?oa aeiiiiaaaoe oe?a?inueeiio ia?iaeia? aoaeoaaoe
na?e aea?aeaaiee ae?i ia canaaeao iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae,
cae/a?a. Oaeiae aecia/aii no?oeoo?o a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee i?i noai
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, nioe?aeuei? iniiae aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aeieia?y — neeaaeiaa iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee
oa aaciaee» ?icaeyiooi «Iniiai? iai?yie aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie o
aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey, aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a oa
caaacia/aiiy aeieia?/ii? aaciaee» ? i?ioean «Iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua aeey
?a?iie», aecia/aii ?ieue aeieia?/iiai /eiieea a iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe?
Oe?a?ie. Oeoia/aiiy aaciaee a onueiio na?o? aeeth/a? aei naaa aeieia?/io
neeaaeiao. Aeieia?/ia aaciaea – eiiiiiaio nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee, yea caaacia/o? ii?iaeuei? oiiae aeey ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a, aeeooy ethaeae oiui. Aa?aioo?oueny caeiiiaeaa/eie
aeoaie e?a?i. Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee caaacia/aiiy aeieia?/ii? aaciaee,
cie?aia, a?enueeiaeie.

Aeieia?caoe?y iie?oeee – oea aacoiiaia aeio?eiaiiy i?eioeeio i?eiaoa
aaciaee, ?? ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?y, aaeaea caoeno aeiae?eey ? i?e?iaeiei
iieai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, a?eueiei a?ae eiio?iioaoe??, noia?ieoeoaa oa
aca?iieo i?aeic?. ?icaeoie aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny
aaaeei. sse cacia/a? ?aaeiee i?i?no?a I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie c
aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee A.?. Iioaiia, «o iao?e aea?aeaa? ua ia noai?aii
?aaeueiiai iaoai?cio ?ioaa?aoe?? aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee o no?aoaa?th
aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i».

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? – «Eiioi?eaoe?y ? aeieia?/ia iie?oeea»
?icaeyiooi eiioi?eaoe?ei? i?ioeane a aaeoc? ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua c caeo/aiiyi oe?a?inueeiai oa i?iaoeueeiai aeina?aeo.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? – «Eiioi?eaoe?y ye ?ino?oiaio aeieia?/ii?
iie?oeee» aeai? aecia/aiiy iiiyooyi «eiioi?eaoe?y», «aeieia?/ia
iie?oeea» oiui. Ia aeoieo /eaia ?einueeiai eeoao, i?iaoeueeiai i?ioani?a
Aaeoecaea?a, aeieia?/io iie?oeeo o?aaa ?icoi?oe ye iie?oeeo Caie?.
?icaeyiooi ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ?ino?oiaioe aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee. Cacia/aii, ui
c?inoath/a aena?oeaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai o i?an? iiceoeaii ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith aeieia?/ii? na?aeiiino?. I?iaiae?ciaaii i?e/eie
iaaeinoaoiueiai cia/aiiy aeieiai/ii? iieioeee oa iaaeineiiaeino?
aeieiai/ii? eiioiieaoei?. Aeine?aeaeaii, ooi iae/ano?oa ? aaoi?aie
aeieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a. O ca’yceo c oeei ?icaeyiooi ?inoeooo aieueieo
aeo?iaeinoia, iiee ui iiaa yaeua aeo?iaeinonueei? i?aeoeee a Oe?a?ii.
Aecia/aii aeaea?aea aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aeieia?/ia eiioi?eaoe?y a Oe?a?i?» (ia
i?eeeaae? i?ane ye ?iaeiia/aeueieea aeo?iaeinoeee) aiae?co?oueny
c?inoath/a cia/aiiy aeieia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee a Oe?a?i?. ?icaeyiooi
caeiiiaeaa/? iieiaeaiiy c oeueiai ieoaiiy, cie?aia, i?aai ia a?eueiee
aeinooi aei aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ia ?? iioe?aiiy. A 1999 ?ioe?
Oe?a?ia ?aoeo?eoaaea Eiiaaioe?th «I?i aeinooi aei ?ioi?iaoe??, o/anoue
a?iiaaenueeino? o i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue ? aeinooi aei i?aainoaeaey c
ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua».
Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia oa aeieia?/ia i?ana iiaeiia a?aoe iaeaeoeai?oo
o/anoue o canoinoaaii? oe??? Eiiaaioe??. ?icaeyiooi ?noi??th oa
iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ii? i?ane Oe?a?ie. Aeieia?/ia eiioi?eaoe?y
aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? aiae?co?oueny ia i?eeeaae? ae?yeueiino?
I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aiae?c aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? a I?ia//ei?»
aeine?aeaeaii aeina?ae O?I. Canaaee aena?oeaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai a
I?ia//ei? noai?th? iecea caeii?a c i?ane oa ioi?iie aeiae?eey, cie?aia,
«Caeii i?i aeieia?/io ?ioi?iaoe?th» a?ae 8 eeiiy 1994 ?ieo. ?icaeyiooi
?icaeoie oaie aeiaeieey o i?iaoeuee?e i?ani, i?e/eie iaaeineiiaeiai
aenaioeaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, aca?iiae?th iie?oeee oa i?ane.
Cacia/aii, ui aeieia?/i? aeo?iae?noe oa iie?oeee iathoue aaaaoi
ni?eueiiai, ine?eueee caeiathoueny i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iei ?icaeoeii
aeieia?/ii? oaiaoeee. Aeacaii ia oeeee?/i?noue aeieia?/ii?
aeo?iae?noeee. Iaaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeieia?/ieo aeo?iae?no?a ca
oeiii ia?iaee oa iiooeo ?ioi?iaoe??, a oaeiae i?aai?caoe?ei? iiaeae?
aena?oeaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, ye? cai?iiiioaaa i?iaoeueeee i?ioani?
A. Oueiiaa?a.

Ia i?eeeaae? I?ia//eie iiaeia iiaa/eoe, ui iaeiei c aieiaieo caaaeaiue
aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee ? aeia?a iaeaaiaeaeaia eiioi?eaoe?y i?ae iie?oeeaie
oa a?iiaaenuee?noth. Iio??ai? iino?eiee iiooe iiceoeaieo iia?aeiieaiue
oa i?aai?caoe?y aeoe?e. Oaeiae aaaeeeaei ? aeinoaoiy ia?iaea iaoeiaeo
aeaieo oa iciaeiieaiiy c ieie a?iiaaenueeino? /a?ac caniae ianiai?
eiioi?eaoe??.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Eiioaio-aiae?c aena?oeaiiy aeieia?/ieo
i?iaeai o i?an? Oe?a?ie oa I?ia//eie» ?icaeyiooi aeieia?/io
eiioi?eaoe?th ye ?ino?oiaio aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie oa I?ia//eie ia
i?eeeaae? aacao Oe?a?ie «O?yaeiaee eo?’??», «Aiein Oe?a?ie», «Ca?eaei
iaaeaee», «Eeaaneea aaaeiiinoe» ? O?I «Sueddeutsche Zeitung»,
«tageszeitung», «Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung» oa ?ioeo i?ia?aeieo
i?iaoeueeeo ? oe?a?inueeeo aeaeaiue c 1996 ?ieo ii 1999 ??e. Ia?iaea
aeaieo eiioaio-aiae?co aeeiiaia c canoinoaaiiyi noaoenoe/ii? i?ia?aie
SPSS for Windows oa aeaeo?iiieo a?o?a?a (CD-ROM) aacao «Sueddeutsche
Zeitung», «tageszeitung», «Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung».

?iaioa iaae aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaoeueei? i?ane i?iaiaeeeany aaoi?ii
naiino?eii a Eaoieeoeueeiio oi?aa?neoao? Aeoooaoo, O?I, i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani?a A. Oueiiaa?aa. Oe?a?inueeo /anoeio
eiioaio-aiae?co aeeiiaii o ni?ai?aoe? c a?o/eciyiei nioe?ieiaii I. A.
Noaai??i.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii, cie?aia, oae? aeniiaee: i?ana
oi/a ? aena?oeth? aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie, ?iaeoue oea ianenoaiaoe/ii, /anoi
aeia?eueii iae?ath/e oaie ? ia ioiiethth/e ?o iiaiiai niaeo?o.
Aeieia?/ia iie?oeea i?enooiy a i?an?, aea aena?oeth?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei.
*anoeia iaoa??ae?a i?i aeieia?/io iie?oeeo o ni?aa?aeiioaii? aei an?o
iaoa??ae?a ?c i?iaeai aeiae?eey noaiiaeea o 1996 ?ioe? a aacaoao: „Aiein
Oe?a?ie» — 7 iaoa??ae?a (0,6%), „O?yaeiaee Eo?’??» – 13 (5%), «Eeaaneea
aaaeiiinoe» – 0, «Ca?eaei iaaeaee» – 8 (2%), a na?aaeiueiio – 2,5%.
Aeine?aeaeaii aena?oeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee ? a i?iaoeueeeo aacaoao.
*anoeia iaoa??ae?a i?i aeieia?/io iie?oeeo o ni?aa?aeiioaii? aei an?o
iaoa??ae?a c i?iaeai aeiae?eey noaiiaeea o 1996 ?ioe? a «Sueddeutsche
Zeitung» 139 iaoa??ae?a (12%), «tageszeitung» 79 (7%), «Frankfurter
Allgemeine Zeitung» 110 (12%), a na?aaeiueiio – 10%.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c e?eueeino? nooi aeieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a ?c
caaaeueiith e?euee?noth iaoa??ae?a aeaeaiue aeaco? ia iecueeo
?ai?acaioaoe?th i?iaeai aeiae?eey a i?an?. I?ioa oae? iieacieee ia
caaaaeathoue oaiai aeiae?eey a i?an? O?I iaoe cia/io iie?oe/io aaao.
Aeooaeuei?noue oa aiae?oe/i?noue aena?oeaiiy, ?aiiiiaai? aeiienoaa/?,
iino?eia oaaaa /eoa/?a ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo ye?nii? aeieia?/ii?
aeo?iae?noeee. Oea i?ecaaei iaa?oue aei ia?aoai?aiiy aeayeeo iaoeiaeo
aeieia?/ieo aeaeaiue ia iiioey?i?. I?eioeeie caa?aaeaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ai?iaaaeaeaii ye a iie?oeeo, oae ? aeiiii?eo aea?aeaae. A
Oe?a?i? oeae i?ioean ua o?eaa?.

C?inoaiiy oaaae aei i?iaeai aeiae?eey ia? a?aeaoaaoeny ia o?eueee ca
?aooiie e?eueeino? aeieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, a ianaiia?aae, caaaeyee
iie?auaiith yeino? ?o ci?noo, i?ioan?iiae?cio aeo?iae?no?a, caeo/aiith
iie?oee?a aei aaoi?nueeiai neeaaeo aeaeaiue oiui. A neeaae? aaoi??a
aeieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a o?aaa caa?iooe oaaao ia aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a
oa i?aoe?aiee?a a?aeii/eo i?an-neoaea, ye? noai?ththoue a?oio
aeiienoaa/?a io?oe?eii? i?ane. ?iaioa c ieie caeaoia oe?eani?yiiaaii
i?aeaeueoe ye?noue aena?oeaiiy aeieiaiiie?oe/ieo ieoaiue a i?an?.
Iao?yaeia? a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe?? ianeaii noaaeyoueny aei eiioaeo?a c
aeaeaiiyie, eio?? aeine?aeaeaii. Iaae?a-o?ai?iae aeey ieo iathoue
ci?ieoe neooaoe?th ia e?aua.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Iaoiaeieia?y i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeieia?/ii?
eiioi?eaoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith iaae?e ??eaeoic» aecia/aii: oi/a a?eueiee
aeinooi aei aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, c?inoaiiy i?ioan?iiae?cio aaoi??a
iaoa??ae?a ia oaie aeiae?eey oa ?io? iaoiaee iaeaaeaoue aei oeyo?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe??, i?ioa iaeiei c
iaeaoaeoeai?oeo iaoiae?a aeciaii iaae?e ??eaeoic. ?icaeyiooi i?eeeaaee
oaei? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?, O?I oa NOA.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? – «Oai?aoe/i? canaaee iaae?e ??eaeoic»
cacia/a?oueny, ui iaae?e ??eaeoic ua ia noaei caaaeueiiaeciaiei iieai
aeine?aeaeaiue aeo?iae?noeeiciaanoaa oa ?ioeo eiioi?eaoe?eieo iaoe. O
ca’yceo c oeei ?icaeyiooi oai?aoe/i? canaaee, aeoeaioiaaii oaaao ia
aecia/aiiyo oiui. Cie?aia, iaae?e ??eaeoic ? a?iiaaenueea ?iaioa ?
iiiyooyie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny iaeaea neiii?i?/ii. Aea ie?ai?
iaoeiaoe? caoaaaeothoue: iaae?e ??eaeoic ianaiia?aae ?noi?e/ii
ci???ioiaaia ia eiia?oe?ei? ?inoeoooe?? e ae?? ye ?ino?oiaio aieeao ia
?eiee. A oie /an a?iiaaenueea ?iaioa iiaeiia iaaieiooaaoe, ui eaeaoueny
ia no?eueee i?i niaoe?aeueiee aeae eiioi?eaoe?? i?aei?e?ioe?a, a
ianaiia?aae i?i iaeiia?oe?eiee naeoi?. sse aaaaeathoue i?iaoeuee? a/ai?,
«a?iiaaenueeo ?iaioo o?aaa ?icoi?oe, aieiaiei /eiii, iie?oe/ii ? aiia
ci???ioiaaia ia a?iiaaeyi, a ia ia niiaeeaa/?a».

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «I?noea oa ?ino?oiaioe iaae?e ??eaeoic c
aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai» ?icaeyiooi i?eeeaaei? ieoaiiy.

A?aooaaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo aniaeo?a ? aaaeeeaith /anoeiith no?aoaa??
cao?aeieo ae?eiaeo e?e. Iinooiiaee ?icaeoie aeieia?/iiai a?ciano a
Oe?a?i? ?iaeoue oeth i?iaeaiaoeeo aeooaeueiith ? aeey a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?ioe?a. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaae?e ??eaeoic aeey aeiae?eey –
oea ni?ai?aoey c a?iiaaenuee?noth oeyoii aea/aiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee
oa ocaiaeaeaiiy ae?e i?aai?caoe?? c noni?eueieie ?ioa?anaie a aaeoc?
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. A iniia? oeeo a?aeiinei ciaoiaeeoueny
aeainoi?iiiy neiao?e/ia eiioi?eaoe?y.

Iaae?e ??eaeoic aeey aeiae?eey a no?oeoo?? i?aei?e?inoa oii?yaeeiaaii ia
aeaio ??aiyo. Oea iiaea aooe ye ie?aia, naiino?eia eaiea ii?o/ c ?ioeie
(aia?eeainueeee a/aiee A?oi?a aecia/a? ?? ye «environmental relations»,
aai «aeieia?/i? ca’ycee») /e ?ioaa?iaaia ae?eyiea ?iaioe aei aaea
?nioth/eo. ?icaeyiooi oai??th /anoei a?iiaaenueeino?. Cina?aaeaeaii
oaaao ia oaeeo ?ino?oiaioao ye aeaeaiiy aeieia?/iiai ca?oo, aeieia?/ia
niiini?noai, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iinaaee ?aoa?aioa /e eiinoeueoaioa c
i?iaeai aeiae?eey, ?ioi?iaoe?y aeey ni?a?ia?oiee?a, iaoeaioe?a-non?ae?a
i?aei?e?inoaa oiui.

Aiae?co?oueny iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy i?an-eiioa?aioe?e, i?aeaioiaee
iaoa??ae?a aeey i?ane c o?aooaaiiyi iioeaaoe?e a oaeno? oa iniaeeainoae
ineoieia?? ni?eeiyooy. Aecia/aii i?e/eie caiia/oaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??.
Aeoeaioiaaii oaaao ia ieoaiiyo i?aeaioiaee eaae??a, eio?? i?aoeththoue c
aeieia?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aca?iica’ycie iaae?e ??eaeoic oa
a?iiaaenueeiai ia?eaoeiao» ?icaeyiooi a?iiaaenueeee ia?eaoeia, eiai
?ieue a aeieia?/i?e eiioi?eaoe?? oa oae? aeaiaioe ye eia?thaaiiy,
eiinoeueooaaiiy, eii?aeeiaoe?y ?iaioe oiui.

A?iiaaenueeee ia?eaoeia, ca O. Eioea?ii, — oea ?ic?iaea, ao?eaiiy a
aeeooy oa eiio?ieue ca aeeiiaiiyi i?ia?ai, ye? iathoue ia iao? aeinyaoe
ni?eeiyooy oe?eueiaeie a?oiaie a?iiaaenueei? ?aea?, ?ooo /e i?aeoeee.
A?iiaaenueeei ia?eaoeiaii oni?oii ei?enoothoueny i?eeeaaei? oao?aoe? a
noa?ao caoenoo iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
aia?ai?ano?n?a, ieaioaaiiy n?i’?, aei?iaeiuei? aaciaee, a?iiaaenueeiai
o?ainii?oo oiui.

Aiae?cothoueny iniaeeaino? i?iiaaaiaee ? nioe?aeueii? ?aeeaie. Aeacaii
ia iaaeineiiae?noue noaoo? 11 Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aeeaio», yea
iaceaa?oueny «Nioe?aeueia ?aeeaiia ?ioi?iaoe?y». Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee
aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e Oe?a?ie ? O?I oa iniaeeaino?
noaiiaeaiiy ?i?aeaeo «caeaieo». sse iieacaa aeina?ae Ia?o?? Caeaieo
Oe?a?ie, aaeaea aeei?enoaiiy iaae?e ??eaeoic ni?ey? ? iie?oe/iiio
oni?oo, yeui aiii i?aai?/ii ii?aeio?oueny c ?aeeaiith.

*aoaa?oee i?ae?icae?e «?ic?iaea i?ia?aie oa iiaoaeiaa eiioeaioe?? iaae?e
??eaeoic» i?enay/aii i?eeeaaeiiio aeei?enoaiith oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie.
sse ? aoaeue-yea eiia?oe?eia onoaiiaa, a?iiaaenueea i?aai?caoe?y
iio?aao? i?ioan?eiiai ia?eaoeiao, ae?acii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??, iiooeo
iioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e. I?ae /an iaa/aiiy a O?I aeena?oaio ?ic?iaea
i?iaeo iaae?e ??eaeoic aeey caaaeueiii?iaoeueei? iieiae?aeii?
i?aai?caoe?? «Iieiaeue o Ni?eoe? aeiae?eey oa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua I?ia//eie» (BUNDjugend). ?iaioa i?iaaaeaia i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii i?ia?aeiiai aeine?aeieea iaae?e ??eaeoic aeieoi?a Oi?noa
Aaaia??ona.

O i’yoiio i?ae?icae?e? «Niioai?aiiy ?ie? iaae?e ??eaeoic aeey aeiae?eey»
iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee ceiaaeeaaiiy iiaeeeainoyie iaae?e ??eaeoic. Cie?aia,
/eiaei oaeeo aeiaaee?a a NOA oa ?in??, ? aiie ? a Oe?a?i?. Ii?aeiaiiy
ne?a «aeieia?y» oa «iaae?e ??eaeoic» a NOA anioe?th?oueny c aaeoccth,
eio?a caeia?oueny eia?thaaiiyi aioeaeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ca oea
aiia io?eiaea aeineoue ??ceo iacao Greenwash, aai «a?aeieooy ?i?aeaeo».
Iaae?e ??eaeoic ? a ?in?? ?iiae? ?icoi?thoue ye ?ici?uaiiy «iaiao?aeieo»
iaoa??ae?a o i?an?, /anoi ca oaaa??. I?ae /an iieooaaiiy, yea
i?iaiaeeeiny Nioe?n-Aaeai, iayai?noue a Oe?a?i? i?aeoeee «caiiaeaieo
noaoae» 100-a?aenioeiai aeciaee ? a?o/eciyi? aeo?iae?noe. Oaea neooaoe?y
iia’ycaia c iaaeineiiae?noth caeiiiaeaa/i? aace, iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie,
ii?ooaiiyie aeo?iae?nonueei? aoeee, ?iiae? coiiaeaieie ii?aeueieie
yeinoyie /e iecueeei ??aiai i?eaooe?a aeo?iae?no?a oiui.

Aeniiaee

1. Eiioi?eaoe?y iin?aea? aaaeeeaa i?noea a i?ioeanao aea?aeaaioai?aiiy
?, cie?aia, oi?ioaaii? aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee. Eiioi?eaoeai? i?ioeane a
aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey iaaoaathoue iniaeeai? aaae i?ae /an ?ioaa?aoe??
Oe?a?ie aei ?a?iiaenueeeo no?oeoo?. Aeieia?/ia iie?oeea iaeaaeeoue
oaeiae aei i??i?eoao?a ?a?iiaenueei? Ni?eueiioe.

2. Aeieia?/ia eiioi?eaoe?y ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii i?aeo?eiee iie?oe/ii?
noaa?eueiino? a e?a?i? ? iaae?eiei ?ino?oiaioii i?aaaioeaieo caoiae?a ??
caa?aaeaiiy.

3. Aeey ie?aeiiai ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee a Oe?a?i? aa?oi
caeo/aoe i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae. Oea aaaeeeaa ia?aaeoiiaa iineeaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ane o aena?oeaii? aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai,
i?iiaaaiaee Oe?a?ie ye ??aiii?aaiiai o/anieea i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy
aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee a ?a?ii?.

4. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie eiioaio-aiae?co, aeieia?/ia iie?oeea oi/a ? i?enooiy
a i?an?, aea aena?oeth?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei. C?inoaiiy oaaae aei i?iaeai
aeiae?eey ia? a?aeaoaaoeny ia o?eueee ca ?aooiie e?eueeino? aeieia?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a, a ianaiia?aae, caaaeyee iie?auaiith yeino? ?o ci?noo,
i?ioan?iiae?cio aeo?iae?no?a, caeo/aiith iie?oee?a aei aaoi?nueeiai
neeaaeo aeaeaiue oiui. Iaiao?aeia i?iaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo
iaae?a-o?ai?ia?a aeey ia?eaiaioa???a, aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a,
iao?yaeiaeo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e oiui.

5. Iio??aii aeoeaii cai?iaaaeaeoaaoe aeieia?/io oaiaoeeo a ?io?
i?ae?icae?ee ?aaeaeoe?e caaaeueiiiie?oe/ieo aeaeaiue, iai?eeeaae,
a?aeae?ee i?aeia?iaeii? ?ioi?iaoe??, aeiiii?ee, eoeueoo?e, i?aaa,
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oiui. Caeo/aoe aei oe??? ni?aae ?aiiiiaaieo
aeo?iae?no?a ?ioi? niaoe?ae?caoe??.

6. Iaae?e ??eaeoic ? iino?eii c?inoath/ei oaeoi?ii aeieia?/ii?
eiioi?eaoe??. Ia i?eeeaae? Ia?o?? Caeaieo Oe?a?ie aa/eii, ui aaeaea
aeei?enoaiiy iaae?e ??eaeoic ni?ey? ? iie?oe/iiio oni?oo, yeui i?aai?/ii
ii?aeio?oueny c ?aeeaiith.

7. Ine?eueee a?aeaoany ia?ao?ae aeieia?? c aeania iaoeiai? a nioe?aeueio
noa?o, iaiao?aeia iiaeaeueoa ?ic?iaea oaeeo oai ye «aeieia?/ia
na?aeii?noue», «aeieia?/ia eiioi?eaoe?y» oiui.

8. Aeey iiaeaeueoiai noaiiaeaiiy aeieia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee a Oe?a?i?
aa?oi cai?iaaaeeoe eo?n c aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? ia oaeoeueoaoao oa
a?aeae?eaiiyo aeo?iae?noeee aoc?a.

9. O?aaa aeeth/aoe iniiai? iieiaeaiiy c aeieia?/ii? aeo?iae?noeee aei
eo?n?a c aeieia??, a?ieia??, cai?iaaaeeoe nai?ia?e c iniia i?aeaioiaee
iaoa??ae?a c aeieia?/ii? oaiaoeee aeey nooaeaio?a-aeieia?a.

10. O/anoue a?enueeiaeo o ae??oaii? aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai noaaeoue iia?
caaaeaiiy aei i?aeaioiaee a?enueeiaeo aeo?iae?no?a, i?iaeaie aeiae?eey
aeey yeeo iathoue noaoe /anoeiith iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai.

11. Ae?oeoaaoe aeia?aeieee aeey aeo?iae?no?a c i?iaeai ioi?iie aeiae?eey
(c aae?anaie a?aeiia?aeieo onoaiia).

12. Ooeaoe iia? oeyoe o?iainoaaiiy ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ii? aace aeieia?/ii?
aeo?iae?noeee oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?ioi?ioaaiiy ianaeaiiy i?i
noai aeiae?eey. Aeey i?aeo?eiee aeieia?/ieo aeaeaiue ia noaae??
noai?aiiy, iniaeeai a ?aa?iiao, iaiao?aeii cai?iaaaeaeoaaoe o?iainoaaiiy
c i?noeaaeo aeieia?/ieo oiiae?a oa aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ca oe?eueiaei
i?ecia/aiiyi.

13. Ni?eyoe iiya? anaoe?a?inueei? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aeieia?/ii? aaaioe?? c
i?aaenoaaieoeoaaie a ?aa?iiao, cai?iaaaeaeaiith a?aeae?e?a aeieia?? a
on? ?nioth/? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? aaaionoaa.

14. Oi?ioaaoe aeieia?/io na?aeii?noue a ae?eiaeo eieao Oe?a?ie,
i?aeo?eioaaoe «caeaiee» a?cian, cai?iaaaeeoe a iaeaooiueiio aeieia?/iee
ca?o i?aei?e?ioe?a.

15. Iio??aii i?eeiyooy Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i aeieia?/io ?ioi?iaoe?th» aai
aeiiiaiaiiy aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ioi?iio iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua» uiaei aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ?? /?oea aecia/aiiy oiui.

16. ?aoeo?eaoe?y Oe?a?iith a 1999 ?ioe? Eiiaaioe?? III «I?i aeinooi aei
?ioi?iaoe??, o/anoue a?iiaaenueeino? o i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue ? aeinooi aei
i?aainoaeaey c ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua»
iio?aao? iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee iaoai?ci?a ?? canoinoaaiiy, cie?aia,
aeo?iae?noaie.

17. A?eueiee aeinooi aei aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, c?inoaiiy
i?ioan?iiae?cio aaoi??a iaoa??ae?a ia oaie aeiae?eey iaeaaeaoue aei
oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe??.

18. Ine?eueee iaae?e ??eaeoic a?ae?a?a? nooo?ao ?ieue o iioe?aii?
aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, aaaeeeaa iiaeaeueoa ?ic?iaea canaae iaae?e
??eaeoic aeey aeiae?eey oa iaoai?ci?a ?o ?aae?caoe?? caniaaie ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??. Aeey caiia?aaiiy ceiaaeeaaiue o noa?? iaae?e ??eaeoic
iaiao?aeia aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai iiey.

19. Noaooy 11 Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aeeaio» «Nioe?aeueia ?aeeaiia
?ioi?iaoe?y» iio?aao? aeiiiaiaiue. Aea?aeaai? i?aaie, nioe?aeueia
?aeeaiia ?ioi?iaoe?y yeeo iiaea ?ici?uoaaoeny aaceiooiaii a ianyc? ia
iaioa 5 a?aenioe?a ao??iiai /ano /e ae?oeiaaii? ieiu?, a?aeaaaeaii? aeey
?aeeaie, ia caaaeaee ei?enoothoueny oe??th iiaeeea?noth. O oie naiee /an
iao?yaeia? a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe?? i?aaiooue ?ioi?ioaaoe ianaeaiiy i?i
aeani? aeieia?/i? oa nioe?aeuei? i?iaeoe. Caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie ia?
iaaeaoe ?i iiaeeea?noue ?ici?uoaaoe nioe?aeueio ?aeeaiio ?ioi?iaoe?th a
caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia aaciieaoi?e iniia?, ye oea aaea ?iaeoueny
a I?ia//ei?.

20. Ieoaiiy i?i noaoon aieueiiai aeo?iaeinoa a Oe?a?ii caeeoa?oueny
aiaee?eoei. Caeiiiaeaa/i aniaeoe i?iiiio?oueny ?icaeyiooe a iiaeaeueoeo
aeiiiaiaiiyo aei Caeii?a Oe?a?ie «I?i ae?oeiaai? caniae ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? (i?ano) a Oe?a?i?», «I?i i?ioan?eieo oai?/eo i?aoe?aiee?a oa
oai?/? ni?eee».

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue aaoi?a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Yeieiae/aneay i?anna Oe?aeiu. – E.: THieei?i, 1995. — 48 n. – aiae.:
n. 15 – 23.

2. Iaeioi?ua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iiaeaioiaea iaoa?eaeia aeey i?annu //
I?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy ioi?iie ioao?a. – *a?i?aoe?, 1995. – N. 77-82.

3. A?eueiee aeo?iae?no: noaoon oa i?iaeaie ae?yeueiino? (ia i?eeeaae?
I?ia//eie oa Oe?a?ie) // Caeiiiaeaanoai oa i?aeoeea cania?a ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? / Ca caaae. ?aae. A.C. Iineaeaiea. – E., 1996. – N. 34 — 37.

4. Aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai aeiae?eey o niaoe?ae?ciaai?e i?an? // Oe?a?inueea
aeo?iae?noeea 97 / Ca caaae. ?aae. A. Iineaeaiea. — E.: OeAI, 1997. –
N. 35-39.

5. ?ioaa?aoe?y Oe?a?ie aei aeiaaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o a
eiioaeno? aeieia?/ii? aaciaee // ?ieue CI? a i?ioeanao aea?aeaaioai?aiiy
/ Ca caaae. ?aae. A.C. Iineaeaiea. – E.: OeAI, 1998. – N. 84-87.

6. I?iaeaie aeieia?/ii? aaciaee oa ?ioi?iaoe?? // ?ioi?iaoe?y a
aeiaaeueiiio aei??? / Ca caaae. ?aae. A.C. Iineaeaiea. E., 1998. N.
41-44.

7. Eco-Journalism as Study Option. The Example of Austria and Germany //
The Planet`s Voice. Newsletter of the «International Federation of
Environmental Journalists». Paris: 1999. ? 10.- P. 6 — 7.

Aiioaoe?y

A?eyeia I.I. Eiioi?eaoe?y ye ?ino?oiaio aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee (ia
i?eeeaae? ii??aiyeueiiai aeina?aeo Oe?a?ie oa I?ia//eie). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.08 — aeo?iae?noeea. ?inoeooo
aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeine?aeaeo? ?ieue eiioi?eaoe?? ye ?ino?oiaioo aeieia?/ii?
iie?oeee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny ia i?eeeaae? neeaaeiaeo
eiioi?eaoe?? i?ane ? iaae?e ??eaeoic. Caeo/aii aeina?ae Oe?a?ie oa
I?ia//eie. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee eiioaio-aiae?c i?ia?aeieo aacao oeeo
e?a?i. ?icaeyiooi aeieia?/io neeaaeiao iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee oa
aaciaee. Aia?oa a oe?a?inueeiio aeo?iae?noeeiciaanoa? ?ic?iaeaii iiaee
iai?yiie – aeieia?/io aeo?iae?noeeo oa i?inoaaeaii ?? aca?iica’ycie c
aeieia?/iith iie?oeeith. Aeine?aeaeaii a?o/eciyio aeieia?/io i?ano.

Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeoeo iaae?e ??eaeoic aeey aeiae?eey.
Aecia/aii iaoai?cie aieeao oe?a?inueeeo oa i?iaoeueeeo cania?a ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? ia aeieia?/io ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae. Aeeeaaeaii
i?iiiceoe?? noiniaii iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe??, a?eueiiai
aeinooio aei aeieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? aeieia?/ii?
iie?oeee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiioi?eaoe?y, oe?a?inueea i?ana, i?iaoeueea i?ana,
aeieia?/ia aeo?iae?noeea, iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua, aeieia?/ia iie?oeea,
aeieia?/ia aaciaea, iaae?e ??eaeoic, a?iiaaenueeee ia?eaoeia,
eiioaio-aiae?c.

Aiiioaoeey

Aaeyeia A.A. Eiiioieeaoeey eae eino?oiaio yeieiae/aneie iieeoeee (ia
i?eia?a n?aaieoaeueiiai iiuoa Oe?aeiu e Aa?iaiee). ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.08 aeo?iaeenoeea. Einoeooo aeo?iaeenoeee
Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey enneaaeoao ?ieue eiiioieeaoeee eae eino?oiaioa
yeieiae/aneie iieeoeee. Enneaaeiaaiea i?iaaaeaii ia i?eia?a
ninoaaeythueo eiiioieeaoeee — i?annu e iaaeee ?eeaeoic. I?eaea/ai iiuo
Oe?aeiu e Aa?iaiee. I?iaaaeai n?aaieoaeueiue eiioaio-aiaeec aaaeoueo
aacao iaaeo no?ai. ?anniio?aia yeieiae/aneay ninoaaeythuay
iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee e aaciianiinoe. Aia?aua a oe?aeineie
aeo?iaeenoeea ?ac?aaioaii iiaia iai?aaeaiea — yeieiae/aneay
aeo?iaeenoeea, i?ineaaeaia aa acaeiinaycue n yeieiae/aneie iieeoeeie.
Enneaaeiaaia ioa/anoaaiiay yeieiae/aneay i?anna.

Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acaeoey iaaeee ?eeaeoic aeey ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu. Ii?aaeaeaiu iaoaieciu aicaeaenoaey oe?aeineeo e iaiaoeeeo
n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee ia yeieiae/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaa. Noi?ioee?iaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ia oeo/oaiee yeieiae/aneie
eiiioieeaoeee, naiaiaeiiai aeinooia e yeieiae/aneie eioi?iaoeee e i
iiauoaiee ?iee yeieiae/aneie iieeoeee.

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yeieiae/aneay aeo?iaeenoeea, ie?oaeathuay n?aaea, yeieiae/aneay
iieeoeea, yeieiae/aneay aaciianiinoue, iaaeee ?eeaeoic, iauanoaaiiue
ia?eaoeia, eiioaio-aiaeec.

Summary

Byelyakov O.O. The Communication as the Tool of Environmental Policy (on
the example of comparative experience of Ukraine and Germany). —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate Degree of Philology by speciality 10.01.08 —
journalism. The Institute of Journalism of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko
University, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation investigates a role of the communication as the tool of
environmental policy. The research is made on the example of the
communication components — press and public relations. The experience of
Ukraine and Germany is involved. The comparative content-analysis of the
leading newspapers of both countries was made. For the first time the
new direction in the Ukrainian journalistic studies — environmental
journalism – has been worked out and its correlation to the
environmental policy has been retraced. The environmental component of
national policy and safety was considered. The domestic environmental
press was investigated.

The necessity of public relations development for the environment was
proved. The mechanisms of the Ukrainian and German mass media influence
on environmental activity of the state were determined. The suggestions
on improvement of the environmental communication, easy access to the
environmental information and increasing of the role of environmental
policy are stated.

One interesting peculiarity of environmental problems coverage by
Ukrainian press is the social accent of the theme. Daily newspapers in
Germany treat environmental materials as scientific or technical ones,
but in Ukraine they put it in the parts «Human», «Society» and others.
Usually correspondents from the social problems department of a
newspaper (for example «Robitnycha gaseta», «Zerkalo nedeli» and others)
are the ones who are responsible for environmental themes coverage.

The content-analysis of the articles on environmental policy in the
German newspapers «Sueddeutsche Zeitung», «tageszeitung», «Frankfurter
Allgemeine Zeitung» was made. As the result of content-analysis of
materials in four popular Ukrainian newspapers («Golos Ukrainy / A Voice
of Ukraine», «Uryadowij curier / Governmental courier»,»Kievskie
wedomosti / Kiev notes», «Zerkalo nedeli / Week Mirror») following
conclusions has been made: the press though covers environmental
problems, but does not make it systematically, choosing tendentious
subjects without covering their complete spectrum.

The main barriers for the successful coverage of environmental problems
in Ukrainian press are:

— priority for economic and political information;

— commercialisation of the press;

— limited and not sufficient level of environmental knowledge of
journalists;

— a weak contact among non-governmental, governmental environmental
organisations and the press, insufficiently organised public relations;

— lowering population’s interest to the environmental problems in
general.

The press can influence and has already done influence on decision
making by the state, commercial and social structures, but it is not
always done effectively enough, though it does not exclude the
possibility for increasing its influence.

For successful development of the environmental communication it is
necessary to make changes in the legislation. For example, the Law of
Ukraine «About the Environmental Information» or addition to the Law of
Ukraine «About Environment Protection» concerning the environmental
information, its precise definition and so forth should be accepted. The
Clause 11 «The Social Advertising Information» of the Law of Ukraine
„About Advertising» also requires specifications. It is necessary to
determine the status of the freelance journalist in Ukraine.

For environmental communication development it is necessary to increase
the level of environmental education in general. For example, the course
of basic knowledge on environment for the students of journalism and a
special course on environmental journalism were included into the
students curriculum in the Institute of Journalism of the Kyiv Taras
Shevchenko University. The participation of the militarians in solving
environmental problems puts the new tasks to the preparation of the
military journalists. The problems of environment should become a part
of their educational programs.

In the context of ratification by Ukraine the UN Convention (Aarhus,
Denmark, 1998) «On Access to Information, Public Participation in
Decision Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters» the
dissertation can be one of the first practical steps to the
implementation of the Convention’s principles into life. The
implementation of the Convention will require the strategy as well as
developing mechanisms for active public participation in environmental
decision-making, public access to environmental matters.

The list of literature comprises 308 sources including 84 ones in German
and 7 ones in English.

The work at the Ukrainian part of research was carried out by the author
in the Institute of Journalism of the Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University
under the direction of the professor Dr. Jurij Jarmish, and the work at
the German part of research was made at Catholic University Eichstaett,
Germany, under the direction of the professor Dr. Walter Hoemberg. The
author also thanks to the professors Dr. Ernst Ulrich von Weizsaecker,
Dr. Winfried Goepfert, Dr. Karl-Werner Brand and Dipl.- Journ. K. Meier,
Dr. R. Hohlfeld, Dipl.- Journ. U. Lederbogen, Dr. U. Stirnberg, Mr. V.
Thurn, Mr. K. Stark, Mr. K. Klenner, all Ukrainian and German scientists
and journalists which have helped with the preparation of this work.
Byelyakov O.O. has been awarded a scholarship for further academic study
and training in Germany by the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service).

Key words: the communication, the Ukrainian press, the German press,
environmental journalism, environment, environmental policy,
environmental safety, public relations, public marketing,
content-analysis.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 8. 09. 1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Aa?i?oo?a «Oaein». Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,38. Oiia. ae?oe.a?e. 1,05.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ? 29

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