IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

EAE?ITHE IEAIA IEAEN??AIA

OAeE 802.0–73

EIIIICEOe?EII-IIAEAII?AA OI?IA “IIEN” A IAOEIAI-OAIOANOE*IIIO OAENO?

(ia iaoa??ae? iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ieo oai??a aiae?enueeeo oa aia?eeainueeeo
aaoi??a XX noie?ooy)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe

Iaeanna 1999

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A aeaiee /an iii?oii iineeeeany oaaaa e?iaa?no?a onueiai na?oo aei
eiioi?eaoeaiiai aniaeoo iiaii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie. C oeei iia’ycaia
aeoea?caoe?y ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo, ui aeoeaioo? aea/aiiy iiaii?
nenoaie a ae??, oiaoi aea/aiiy naiiai i?ioeano eiioi?eaoe??. A ine?eueee
coaoon iiaiioe?iiiai eiioi?eaoeaiiai aeoo iaea?aeo? ianaiia?aae oe?eee
caaa?oaiee oaeno, oi ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae cina?aaeaeo?oueny
ia?aaeon?i ia aea/aii? naia oaenoo. Oaeno, o naith /a?ao ?icaeyaea?oueny
ye ?acoeueoao ?ica’ycaiiy iaaii? eiioi?eaoeaii? caaea/?, ui aoea
iinoaaeaia aaoi?ii ? aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy an?o
iiaeaii?aeo aeaiaio?a aecia/ai?e oe?eani?yiiaaiino?. C /iai aeieeaa?
iaiao?aei?noue ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oeeo aeaiaio?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?oiuei?
o/ano? a ?ica’ycaii? aeaii? eiioi?eaoeaii? caaea/?. Aoaio ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
ia?aaeo? aoai eiiieaeniiai aecia/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo iniia eiioi?eaoeaii?
e?iaa?noeee oaenoo.

Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia o?aaeeoe?eiiio o?aeooaaii? oaenoo ye
oe?e?niiai eiioi?eaoeaiiai ooai?aiiy, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/iith ? ooieoe?iiaeueiith ?aei?noth ?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aecia/aiei iaai?ii oaenoiaeo eaoaai??e, oaeeo ye
?ioi?iaoeai?noue, caaa?oai?noue, e?i?ei?noue, ?ioaa?aoeai?noue,
aeene?aoi?noue, ?aeo?aioi?noue ? o. ?i.

?aae?caoe?y an?o oeeo oaenoiaeo eaoaai??e, ?oi? ao?eaiiy a
eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?ao oeaieio eiie?aoiiai e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? oe?eiio ?yaeo /eiiee?a. Ia iao iiaeyae, iaeiei ?c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo na?aae ieo ? aeai?iaa i?eiaeaaei?noue oai?o, aai, a
oa?i?iao ?. I. Eieaaa?ai?, oie anoaoe/iee eaiii, a?aeiia?aeii aei yeiai
aaoi? eiino?oth? ye naiee cia?aaeoaaiee na?o eaac??aaeueiino?, oae ?
caniae eiai aa?aae?caoe??. O oeaio?? oaaae iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
ciaoiaeyoueny aiaeiiiai? oaenoe, noai?ai? a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia
aeai?iaiai eaiiio iaoeiai? oaioanoeee.

Aea?? iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiai oaenoo ye ia’?eoa aea/aiiy i?aaenoaaey?oueny
aeioe?eueiei, oiio ui aieea aeaiiai aeai?o yne?aai aeyaey?oueny,
ii-ia?oa, a eiioi?eaoeai?e ni?yiiaaiino? oaeiai e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o,
ii-ae?oaa, a iniaeeainoyo cia?aaeoaaiiai oi?aa?noia ?, ii-o?ao?, o
eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?a?e oeaiei? oai?o.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaeei c aeaiaio?a eiiiiceoe?eii-iia-eaii?ai?
no?oeoo?e aaoi?nueeiai aeeeaaeo, a naia eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?aa oi?ia
(EIO) “iien”, oi/i?oa ?? o?aaeeoe?ei? neeaaeia?: ii?o?ao, iaecaae,
?ioa?’??, ye? ca?aeii ?c niaoeeo?eith aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaeno?a
?iciiae?ey?ii ia iien ia?niiaaea ? iien i?inoi?o. I?aaii??i?noue aeai?o
aeaiiai i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieeaa? c oiai, ui a EIO “iien”, ye o
e?aie? aiaee, a?aeaeca?eaeththoueny oae? oaenoia? eaoaai??? ye
?ioi?iaoeai?noue, aeene?aoi?noue, ?ioaa?aoeai?noue, ?aeo?aioi?noue,
aio?iiioeaio?eci.

Iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai iiaeeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiioi?eaoeaiiai
aea/aiiy oe?eiai oaenoo ? eiai neeaaeiaeo ia iaoa??ae? ??cieo
iaoe?iiaeueii, aeai?iai ? oaiaoe/ii aeae?i?oiaaieo oai??a iaoiiaeth?
aeooaeuei?noue oaie i?iiiiiaaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, o
yeiio e?iaa?noe/ii aiae?co?oueny oaeno iaoeiai? oaioanoeee ye oe?eee
caaa?oaiee oa??, a ia ie?ai? eiai noi?iie aai iciaee. Aeioaia?
e?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c EIO “iien“ o iaaeao oaeno?a naia oeueiai aeai?o ia
i?iaiaeeany; iaaiaee, ia iniia? ciai?oiueiai ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo EIO o ??cieo aeai?ao aoee aeyaeai? ?o caaaeuei?
iciaee. Caiiaiaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? eaeoie a oai??? oe?eiai oaenoo c
iiceoe?e aeai?iaeaoa?i?ioth/i? iciaee oaeiae caaacia/o? na?ae?noue ?
i?ea?iaeuei?noue aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeeiiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiii
aeyaey? e iieno? iaoai?cie aieeao eiie?aoiiai (o iaoiio aeiaaeeo
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiai) aeai?o e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o ia no?oeoo?o oe?eiai
oaenoo, ye ia ia?aiao?e iiaii? oi?ie, oae ? ia iniaeeaino? eiai
?aoa?aioiiai i?inoi?o, cia?aaeaiiai oi?aa?noia. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ua
?ac ia?aeiieeai iieacothoue anainyaeiee aieea aeai?o ia e?oa?aoo?iee
oa?? ye ia?ic?eaio ?aei?noue oi?ie e ci?noo.

E?ioeaaith iaoith i?iiiiiaaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? eiiieaenia ?
anaa?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea e?euee?nieo, no?oeoo?ieo, ci?noiaieo ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?ai? no?oeoo?e
aaoi?nueeiai iiaeaiiy, ia i?eeeaae? iaeiiai ?? ??ciia?aea, a naia EI
oi?ie “iien”.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? oe?e? ae??ooaaeeny ianooii? eiie?aoi?
caaea/?:

1) aeyaeaiiy, aiae?c ? oa?aeoa?enoeea EIO “iien“ ? ?? aieiaieo
??ciiaeae?a “iien ia?niiaaea”, “iien i?inoi?o”, inoaii?e
i?ae?ic-ae?eyany ia iien a?aee?eoiai ? cae?eoiai i?inoi?o;

2) anoaiiaeaiiy ei?aeyoe?? eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?aiai e a?o?oaeoii?/iiai
/eaioaaiiy oaenoo;

3) aeyaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii-noeeueiai? ? aeai?iai? aeaoa?i?iiaaiino?
?aoa?aioe?eii? ? iii?iaoeaii? niaoeeo?ee EIO “iien“;

4) aecia/aiiy e?euee?nieo ? aeeno?eaooeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee iieniaeo
o?aaiaio?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith anueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeiaa aeaaeoeoe?y,
yea i?eionea?, ui oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy aeieea? ia iniia?
iaeiie/aiiai e inieneaiiai eiie?aoiiai iaoa??aeo. O ca’yceo c oeei
i?aaii??iei aoei aeei?enoaiiy ianooiieo iaoeiaeo iaoiae?a: ia ia?oiio
aoai? aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiae eiie?aoiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy. Aeae? iaoiae
aaciina?aaeiueiai niinoa?aaeaiiy aeiiiaith?oueny e?euee?niei, iieniaei ?
ii??aiyeueiei iaoiaeaie iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aea/aeeny iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i? oai?e aiaeiiiaieo aaoi??a XX noie?ooy.
Caaaeueiee ia’?i aeine?aeaeaiiai iaoa??aeo aei??aith? 1 572 noi??ieai ?
aeeth/a? 4 ?iiaie ? 50 iiia?aeaiue 33-o a?aeiieo aiae?enueeeo ?
aia?eeainueeeo ienueiaiiee?a-oaioano?a.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? e
iien? naiaioe/ieo, no?oeoo?ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee o?ueio
??ciiaeae?a EIO “iien“ ? iaoai?ci?a ?oiuei? aeai?iai? aeaoa?i?iiaaiino?,
ui ? iiaeaeueoei ?icaeoeii oai??? EIO o ?? ca’yceao ?c
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaii, eiioi?eaoeaiith e?iaa?noeeith oaenoo e ?ioeie
aaeocyie o?eieia?/ii? iaoee.

Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ooi/ith? oai??th oe?eiai oaenoo, cie?aia
oai??th aca?iica’yceo noeeth, aeai?o ? ci?noiaii-oi?iaeueii? no?oeoo?e
iia?aeiieaiiy.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aioia? aei canoinoaaiiy a eo?n? eaeoe?e ?
nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue c? noee?noeee ? e?iaa?noeee oaenoo, aiae?oe/iiai
/eoaiiy, aeey ?ic?iaee niaoeeo?n?a ? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c oeeo
aeenoeeie?i, a oaeiae iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e iaienaii? eo?niaeo
? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o, i?e oii?yaeeoaaii? i?ae?o/iee?a ? iin?aiee?a c
aiae?co oe?eiai oaenoo. Oaea ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeeiiaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aea/aiiy eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?ai? oi?ie “iien“ a aiaeiiiaiiio
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno? i?iaiaeeeiny a iaaeao i?aeeaoaae?aeueii?
iaoeiai? oaie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiioi?eaoeaii? no?oeoo?e oaenoo“, ui
?ic?iaeth?oueny ia oaeoeueoao? ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? o?eieia?? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaiaoe/ii iaea i?noea ia
ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
IAeO (1994 – 1999 ?.?.), ia ?icoe?aieo can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e eaeneeieia??
oa noee?noeee aiae?enueei? iiae IAeO (1995 – 1999 ?.?.), ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe? c iiiianoeee a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo (1997 ?.).

O ?iaio? aenoaathoueny, iaa?oioiaothoueny oa ianoiththoueny oae?
oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Oaeno ye eiioi?eaoeaia yaeua aacia?a/ii ? aacoiiaii ? ao?eaiiyi
aaoi?nueei? ?ioaioe??, yea a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ieo oaenoao caiaeeoueny
aei ae?aaeaiiy iaaieo i?iaeai ethaeeie /a?ac iiiceoe?th ethaenueeiai ?
iaethaenueeiai na?o?a.

2. Iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iee oaeno caaaeaee cia?aaeo? ??aaeueiee na?o,
oaiii?aeueii c?ooaiee ii in? ?noi?e/iiai /ano ?/aai i?inoi?iai c?ooaiee
aaeaeeio a?ae Caie?. I?e/eie oaeeo c?ooaiue iaia’yceiai iiyniththoueny.
Aenie?eaoe?y oeeo i?e/ei ? aeai?iaeeoa?aioe?thth/a iciaea.

3. Iien ia?niiaae?a ? i?inoi?o a IO oaeno? iaiaei?iii iana ia nia?
a?aeaeoie /oaeeiiino? cia?aaeaiiai na?oo, ui i?iyaey?oueny, ii-ia?oa,
/a?ac iaai? iniaeeaino? ?aoa?aio?a, a ii-ae?oaa, /a?ac iniaeeaino? ?o
iiaeaii?aiai icia/oaaiiy.

4. Ia?oa iniaeea?noue iieyaa? o aee?eaeaii? ethaenueeeo noaiaea?o?a
aoooy, ca yeeie iiaoaeiaaiee cia?aaeaiee na?o. Ae?oaa iniaeea?noue
iieyaa? a aeoea?caoe?? iiaeaii?aeo cania?a ae?aaeaiiy oaceoaoe??,
iieniaeo cai?noue oaeniiii?/ieo iii?iaoe?e, caaaeueii iaaaoeaiee oii
aiioe?eii-ioe?ithaaeueii? eaeneee.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. I?iiiiiaaia ?iaioa (169 noi??iie oaenoo)
neeaaea?oueny c? ci?noo, ia?ae?eo oiiaieo iicia/aiue, anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a c aeniiaeaie aei eiaeiiai, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, ui aeeth/a? 304 iiceoe??, a oiio /ene? 43
aiae?enueeith iiaith, nieneo aiae?ciaaieo oaeno?a ? ?oi?o oiiaieo
iicia/aiue, aeiaeaoe?a A ? A, ui caeiathoue 12 noi??iie ? i?noyoue
oaaeeoe? oa ?ethno?aoeai? iaoa??aee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? aeeeaaeathoueny oe?e? ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/a?oueny
eiai aeooaeuei?noue ? iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaoiaee ? iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e, “Oaeno ? eiai eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?aa /eaioaaiiy“,
yaey? niaith oai?aoe/iee iaeyae aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, o
iueiio aena?oeai? ieoaiiy aeai?o iaoeiai? oaioanoeee, a oaeiae
eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?aeo oi?i ? EIO “iien“ cie?aia.

IO – oea aeai? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aca?iica’yceii aeaio oi?iaeueii-ci?noiaieo ieai?a: iaoeiaiai ?
ooaeiaeiueiai, iaoith oaeeo oai??a ? ooaeiaei? cia?aaeaiiy oaioanoe/iiai
na?oo ye ?aaeueii ?nioth/iai ia iniia? /ioe?ueio aca?iicaeaaeieo iciae:
oaioanoe/iino?, iaoeiaino?, i???ioaoe?? ia no/ani?noue i?e iaeaea
iaia’yceiaiio c?ooaii? ii in? ?noi?e/iiai /ano a iaeaooi? (c??aeea a
ieioea) ? c aeio?eiaiiyi aieiaiiai ooaeiaeiueiai i?eeiio a?ae/oaeaiiy.

O iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae caeii?a ia’?eoeaii?
?aaeueiino? iaiaei?iii iaoeiai iaa?oioiao?oueny, aenie?eaoe?y i?e/ei ?
iaoai?ci?a oeueiai a?aeoeeaiiy aenooia? ooieoe?iiaeueii cia/ouei ?
?ai?acaioaoeaiei eiiiiiaioii IO oaenoo. Naia iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia
oaioanoe/i?noue aecia/a? aeai?iao niaoeeo?eo aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaeno?a ?
a?ae??ciy? ?o a?ae oaeno?a nii??aeiaieo aeai??a – oaioac?, e?oa?aoo?ii?
eacee.

A?aeiia?aeii aei no/anii? oaiaeaioe??, aiae?c oaenoo a oe?eiio
i?iaiaeeoueny a aeai?e ?iaio? c iiceoe?e ooieoe?iiaeueiiai,
eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a
iiaii? nenoaie, ye? ooai?ththoue oaenoiao ?aei?noue, o ?o i?aaiaoe/ii
ni?yiiaai?e ae??.

Iaeeieoe? iiaii? nenoaie ooai?ththoue iiaeaii?ao oeaieio e?oa?aoo?iiai
oaenoo, yea, o naith /a?ao, ia ? oi?iaeueiei aai
ooieoe?iiaeueii-ci?noiaiei iiiie?oii. Oaeno oaeiae /eaio?oueny ia iaai?
oaenoia? iaeeieoe?, ui eiinoeooththoue eiai. I?i?iaeueiith iaeeieoeath
a?o?oaeoii?/iiai, oi?iaeueiiai, ia’?iii-i?aaiaoe/iiai /eaioaaiiy
aaaaea?ii aacaoe. Aea e??i /eaioaaiiy oi?ie e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o ?nio? ?
/eaioaaiiy eiai ci?noo. Eia?ea ?icaeoeo aeoiee i?eaiaeeoue aaoi?a oaenoo
aei iaiao?aeiino? /eaioaaoe oaeno ia ooieoe?iiaeueii-ci?noiai?
iaeeieoe?, ?c yeeo i?i?iaeueiith aaaaea?ii iaaeo?aciao ?aei?noue IO? aai
?? iiaeeeaee ??ciiaeae – aeeeoaio. Ii??aithth/e aeeeoaio ? IO?,
ooi/ith?ii oaea: aeeeoaia – oea oaiaoe/ia ?aei?noue, ui neeaaea?oueny c
iaeiiai ?a/aiiy ? noi?oue ie?aii a?ae oaenoiaiai ianeao (oiaoi,
aeae?eaia a?ao?/ii), a IO? – oea oaiaoe/ii ca’ycaia ?aei?noue aeaio ?
a?eueoa ?a/aiue, ui ia caaaeaee aeae?ey?oueny a?ao?/ii.

Naiaioe/ia ?aei?noue oaenoo iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ia o?eueee c iiceoe?e
?ooo aeoiee ye oaei?, aea ? c iiceoe?? ia’?eoa i?ciaiiy ? a?aeia?aaeaiiy
eiai neiaanieie caniaaie. Ia’?eoii i?ciaiiy ? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
ooaeiaeiueiio oaeno? ? ?aoa?aioiee i?ino??, oiaoi eaac??aaeueiee
oi?aa?noi, noai?aiee oyaith aaoi?a. Iaoa??y oeueiai eaac??aaeueiiai
na?oo, ye ae aeaeaei ia ianeany oaioac?y aaoi?a, ana ae oaee i?iaeiaaeo?
?nioaaoe a iniiaieo oi?iao: /ano, i?inoi?o ? i?e/eie, a?aeiia?aeii
anooiath/e a ae?ao?iii?, neio?iiii-i?inoi?ia? ? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia?
aca?iia?aeiineie. ??ci? ae?eyiee oaenoo, iiaieie caniaaie, a?aeiia?aeii,
oieonothoueny ia oeo aai ?ioeo aniaeoao cia?aaeaiiai na?oo.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, oaenoiaee ianea /eaio?oueny ca?aeii c
eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?aith iciaeith ia oaenoia? o?aaiaioe, iacaai? a
iao?e ?iaio? o?aaeeoe?eiei oa?i?iii eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?aa oi?ia
(EIO), i?ae yeei ?icoi??ii oaenoiao ?aei?noue, iaoe?eaio ia ia?aaea/o
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i:

1) ?aoa?aioiee i?ino?? ? ia’?eoe, ui eiai neeaaeathoue, ye ?noioe, oae ?
ia?noioe (iien);

2) iiae??, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a oeueiio ?aoa?aioiiio i?inoi??
(?iciia?aeue);

3) caeiie, ca yeeie oeae ?aoa?aioiee i?ino?? iiaoaeiaaiee ? ooieoe?iio?
(i??eoaaiiy).

EIO “iien“ ? aeainoi?iii? iiaeaii?ai-?icoiiaa ooai?aiiy a iaaeao oe?eiai
caaa?oaiiai oaenoo, ui i?aaenoaaey? niaith o?aaiaio iiiieia?/iiai
aaoi?nueeiai iia?aeiieaiiy, eiai ooieoe?? iieyaathoue o noai?aii?
iiaieie caniaaie i?aaeiaoii-ia?aciiai ?yaeo ooaeiaeiuei? ?iciia?ae?,
?ioi?ioaaii? /eoa/a i?i iiiaieeaoo?o ? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaiaio?a
cia?aaeaiiai na?oo. Ioaea, nooi?noue EIO “iien” iiaeia caanoe aei
a?aeoai?aiiy o/aniee?a nthaeaoieo iiae?e ? i?inoi?o, o yeiio oe? iiae??
a?aeaoaathoueny.

Caeaaeii a?ae ia’?eoa iieno o?aaeeoe?eii aeae?eythoue o?e aeaee EIO
“iien“: ii?o?ao, iaecaae, ?ioa?’??.

Niaoeeo?ea aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo aeeeoo? iaiao?aei?noue
?icaeyaeaoe o?eueee aeaa iniiaieo aeaee oe??? EIO – iien ia?niiaae?a,
aai ii?o?ao, ? iien i?inoi?o, ui o naith /a?ao i?ae?icae?ey?oueny ia
iien a?aee?eoiai ? cae?eoiai i?inoi?o. Aeaa inoaii?o i?aeaeaee aeayeith
i??ith ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c o?aaeeoe?eieie oa?i?iaie iaecaae ? ?ioa?’??,
iaeiae oaiaoe/ia nai???aei?noue IO e?oa?aoo?e ia?aeiio? a aeioe?eueiino?
? ia?aaac? aeei?enoaiiy oa?i?i?a “iien a?aee?eoiai” ? “iien cae?eoiai
i?inoi?o”.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e – “Ii?o?aoiee iien o iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno?” –
yaey? niaith aiae?c e?euee?nieo, aeeno?eaooeaieo ?
naiaioeei-ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ii?o?aoiiai iieno, ye iaeiiai c
aeae?a EIO “iien”.

Oa?i?i “ii?o?ao“ aecia/a?oueny ye iaeei ?c o?ueio aeae?a EIO “iien“,
i?aaeiaoii cia?aaeaiiy a yeiio aenooia? ia?niiaae, eiai ciai?oi?e
aeaeyae, iaia?a iiaaae?iee, iiaii? a oiio /ene?, ineoi-aiioe?ei?
?aaeoe?? ia iaaeieeoi?e na?o.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii-iiceoe?eieo oei?a EIO “ii?o?aoiee iien”
cina?aaeaeaii ia ?icaeyae? oaenoiaeo noee?a i?ae ii?o?aoii ? ?ioei
aeaeii EIO aai ?ioei oeiii aeeeaaeo (ae?aeiaii, iaaeanii-i?yiith
iiaith). Oaea aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e i?ic?
aeanoeai aaiaeeoe ii?o?aoiee iien ? aeoiaeeoe c iueiai ia aenie?eoth/e
oeueiai iiiaioo aacaoeiei /eaioaaiiyi, a ?iiae? iaa?oue cae?enithth/e
oeae ia?ao?ae o iaaeao iaeiiai eeaoca neeaaeiiai ?a/aiiy, aai o iaaeao
iaeiiai i?inoiai ?a/aiiy. Iaeaea iieiaeia an?o eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?aeo
o?aaiaio?a “ii?o?aoiee iien“ o i?iaiae?ciaaiiio iaoa??ae? a?aeiineoueny
aei oeueiai oeio.

Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeei a?iioaoe/ia i?eiouaiiy i?i
aeai?iai aeaoa?i?iiaaiee oa?aeoa? ii?o?aoieo iien?a, ui aeyaey?oueny
e?euee?nieie ? ye?nieie iniaeeainoyie. Oae, c?noaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy EIO
“iien“ a aiaeiiiai?e oaioanoe/i?e, ineoieia?/i?e ? ana?noe/i?e i?ic?
(aeei?enoai? aeai? I. A. ?icaiiai?) iieacaei, ui ia?oa c ieo
iaea?eueoith i??ith, inoaiiy – iaeiaioith cina?aaeaeaia ia cia?aaeaii?
ciai?oiino? ae?th/eo in?a. A?eueo 75 % an?o iieniaeo o?aaiaio?a o
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ieo oaenoao neeaaeathoue ii?o?aoi? iiene; o
ineoieia?/i?e i?ic? oey oeeo?a aeineoue aeecueea – a?ey 73 %, a ana aiia
neeaaea? iaioa 51%.

Oaaeeoey 1

Ieoiia aaaa ii?o?aoieo iien?a o ??ciiaeai?ia?e aiaeiiiai?e i?ic?

EIOII?O?AOCanoinoaaiiy e?euee?nieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei
oaeiae aeyaeoe ?yae ia’?eoeaieo iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue o
oe?eiio EIO “iien“ o iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e i?ic?.

Ianaiia?aae caneoaiao? ia oaaao oie oaeo, ui aeaia EIO cina?aaeaeaia ia
cia?aaeaii? ciai?oiino? ia?niiaae?a. Na?aae i?inoi?iai iieniaeo
o?aaiaio?a IO cia/ii a?eueoa /anoea i?enay/aia iieno a?aee?eoiai
i?inoi?o (71,5 %), i?ae cae?eoiai (28,5 %). Aaaaea?ii, ui aeaia
iniaeea?noue iiynith?oueny aeai?iai-oaiaoe/iith niaoeeo?eith
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiai oai?o, /e? aa?i? ia??aeei aeine?aeaeothoue
iaaeieeoi?e na?o, ia?anoaath/enue o ciai?oiueiio, a?aee?eoiio i?inoi??
ia cia/i? a?aenoai?.

Oaaeeoey 2

Ca iaoeie aeaieie na?aaeiy aeiaaeeia iieniaeo o?aaiaio?a o
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e i?ic? neeaaea? 26,3 neiaiaaeeaaiue. Oeae iieaciee
cia/ii ieae/a, i?ae o ineoieia?/i?e ? ioae?oeenoe/i?e i?ic? (38 ? 60
neiaiaaeeaaiue a?aeiia?aeii). I?e oeueiio na?aaeiy aeiaaeeia naia
ii?o?aoiiai iieniaiai o?aaiaioa a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno? neeaaea?
a na?aaeiueiio o?eueee 14,1 neiaiaaeeaaiiy.

Oae? iieacieee iacaia?a/ii na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ieo
oai?ao ciai?oi?noue ia?niiaae?a ? iaia?a ?oiuei? iiaaae?iee /ano?oa,
i?ae a ?ioeo oeiao i?ice, iieiy?oueny o oieon? aaoi?nueei? ?iciia?ae?.
Iaeiae i?enay/ai? ?i iienia? o?aaiaioe, ye i?aaeei, iaaaeee?. Na?aaeiy
aeiaaeeia iae/eneai?oi? a?oie ii?o?aoieo iien?a (55 % onueiai ei?iona)
eieeaa?oueny a?ae 2 aei 9 neiaiaaeeaaiue. I?i?iaeueia e?euee?noue
neiaiaaeeaaiue o o?aaiaio? ei?aeth? c oneeaaeiaiiyi naiaioe/ii?
no?oeoo?e i?aaeeeaoa a i?inoeo iaiioe?aieo ?a/aiiyo.

“Hello, Forster, “ he snapped. [SF/JF, p. 59]

“Go on,“ interrupted Burke roughly. “Get it over with. …“

[MPSF/TMW, p.21]

Iaaeaeiaa? iienia? o?aaiaioe, na?aaeiy aeiaaeeia yeeo eieeaa?oueny a?ae
90 aei 200 neiaiaaeeaaiue, ? iaeiaio /anoioieie. sse i?aaeei, oe?
o?aaiaioe yaeythoue niaith ?io?iaeoeoeaiee aeaoaeueiee iien ia?niiaae?a.

Caeaaeii a?ae aeaoae?caoe?? ii?o?aoieo iien?a aoei aeae?eaii o?e oi?iaoe
ii?o?aoiiai iieno: oi?iao ii?o?aoiiai oe?aieaiiy, ui ia?aaea? iaeeie/io
iciaeo ia?niiaaea aai ocaaaeueiaio caaaeeo i?i eiai ciai?oi?e aeaeyae;
oi?iao ii?o?aoiiai iaethiea, ui aeeth/a? a naaa caaaeoaaiiy ia a?eueoa
o?ueio ciai?oi?o iciae, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia?niiaae; ? oi?iao
ia’?iiiai (?icai?iooiai) iieno, ui aeeth/a? a naaa aace?/ oa?aeoa?ieo
aeey ia?niiaaea iciae. I?i?iaeueiee oaenoiaee oi?iao oe?aieaiiy ?
iaea?eueo /anoi oaeeaaiei (49,5%). Iiia?aea/o aeineoue, ye i?aaeei,
neiainiieo/aiiy, eeaoca aai iaeiiai-aeaoo eeaoc?a /e ?a/aiue, uia
ia?aaeaoe ie?aio iciaeo, aai caaaeueiee aeaeyae, aai a?aaeaiiy a?ae
ia?niiaaea.

Caeaaeii a?ae iayaiino? aai a?aenooiino? ei?aoa?aioiiai eaioethaeea
ii?o?aoieo iien?a ia?niiaaea iiae?ey?ii ?o ia ii?o?aoe ia?a?ea/anoi? ?
nooe?eueii? no?oeoo?e. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ia? ia?a?ea/anoo no?oeoo?o
– 92,8%.

Aiane?aeie oiai, ui iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?ai? iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?
oai?e, niinoa??aa?ii aaeueieoe?eaao ianoaaeio: e?oa?aoo?iei ia?niiaaeai
o aeine?aeaeoaaieo oai?ao ia caaaeaee ? aeania ethaeeia, ia??aeei oea
a?eueo-iaio aio?iiiii?oia, iaae?eaia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei oa?aeoa?ii
?noioa, yea aeeiio? o oaaoeueii-nthaeaoiiio na?o? e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o
ooieoe?? ia?niiaae?a.

Iaea?eueo caaaeueia iiiceoe?y, ui iaeyne?aa?oa a?aeaeaa? aeai?iao
niaoeeo?eo iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, a?aeaoaa?oueny ca iciaeith
“?aae?noe/i?noue VS oaioanoe/i?noue” ia?niiaae?a. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo
aanue ei?ion ia?niiaae?a ?iciaaea?oueny, oiiaii eaaeo/e, ia ethaeae ?
ia-ethaeae, aai, o iao?e oa?i?iieia??, ia aio?iiieia?/ieo ?
ia-aio?iiieia?/ieo ia?niiaae?a. Ia?o? c ieo – oea ethaee, caieyie,
i?aaenoaaieee caiii? oeea?e?caoe??, yea aiia ? a aeaiee /an, aai yeith
aiia aaa/a?oueny aaoi?o a ieioeiio aai ia aeoaea a?aeaeaeaiiio
iaeaooiueiio. Oaeeo ia?niiaae?a ia?aoiao?oueny a?ey 58%. Ae?oao a?oio
ia?niiaae?a (42%) neeaaeathoue ia?niiaae? ia-aio?iiieia?/i?,
oaioanoe/i? – oea a) aeeoae? ?ioeo ieaiao, oiaoi i?aaenoaaieee
iicacaiii? oeea?e?caoe??, /oaeeioe?, ?iiieaiaoyie (aio?iiiii?oi?
ia?niiaae?); a) ooo/i? ?noioe, noai?ai? ye iaaeea? ia’?eoe, ye? i?ioa
ooieoe?iiothoue o yeino? ia?niiaae?a (a?oaoaeoe); a) ia-aio?iiieia?/i?
?noioe, ui ianaeyee Caieth a aeaeaeiio ieioeiio (iaoo?oaeoe).

Nooi?iue aio?iiiii?o?cio, aai ethaeeiiiiae?aiino?, ia-aio?iiieia?/ieo
ia?niiaae?a iiaea aooe a?ae i?i?iaeueiiai (aea ia ioeueiaiai) aei aeoaea
aaeeeiai.

Iaaiee ?aoa?aio, ui cia?aaeo?oueny a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno?
eaac??aaeueiino?, o?aeoo?oueny ye ia?niiaae, yeui a?aeiia?aeii aei
caeii?a oe??? eaac??aaeueiino? a?i aeyaey?oueny iniaith, noa’?eoii
ineo?/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, i?ciaaaeueii? ? eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?.
?oi? i?noea o oaaoe? oai?o, niaeo? ?o o?ce/ieo ? ineo?/ieo
ni?iiiaeiinoae, i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue ia’?eoeaiei caeiiai aoooy (a
oi/i?oa oaioanoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia naiaiaea a?ae oaeeo), ciai?oi?e
aeaeyae, a?aei?iiee a?ae ethaenueeiai, – ona oea ?iaeoue ?o ia?niiaaeaie
oaioanoe/ieie. I?e aeoaea iaeiio nooiai? aio?iiiii?o?cio naia oaaoeueia
ae?y ia?aoai?th? iaaiee a?oaoaeo aai iaoo?oaeo o ia?niiaae.

sse caaaeoaaeiny aeua, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aio?iiieia?/ieo ?
ia-aio?iiieia?/ieo ia?niiaae?a neeaaea? 58 % ? 42 %. Aiaeii/an
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo iieniaeo o?aaiaio?a o
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno? ua neeuei?oa ca?eueoo? ?ic?ea i?ae ia?oith
oa ae?oaith a?oiaie ia?niiaae?a.

C on?o iieniaeo o?aaiaio?a 65 % i?eiaaea? ia iien aio?iiieia?/ieo
ia?niiaae?a, ? a 35 % aeiaaee?a ia’?eoii iieno aenooiathoue oaioanoe/i?
ia?niiaae?. sse aa/eii, iacaaaeath/e ia oaiaoe/io niaoeeo?eo
oaioanoe/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, aaoi?e iaeiae /ano?oa i?eae?eythoue oaaao
ia?niiaaeai-caieyiai, ethaeyi, i?ae ?ioiieaiaoiei aa?iyi. Oey ianoaaeia
ua ?ac iai/ii i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?eioeeiiaee aio?iiioeaio?eci ooaeiaeiuei?
e?oa?aoo?e. O aeine?aeaeoaaiiio aeai?? cina?aaeaeai?noue ia i?iaeai?
ethaeeie ae?aaeaia a nooe/oe? ethaeeie c? na?oii iaethaenueeei,
ianaeaiei a?aeiia?aeieie ?noioaie.

Oaioanoe/i?noue on?o ia-aio?iiieia?/ieo ia?niiaae?a, ye aio?iiiii?oieo,
oae ? ia-aio?iiiii?oieo, iiaea caaacia/oaaoeny ca ?aooiie i?eienoaaiiy
?i aeanoeainoae, iniaeeainoae, oi?iue ? oa?aeoa?enoee, ia i?eoaiaiieo
ethaeyi. Aei oaeeo a?aeiinyoueny: niin?a iiyae/cieeiaiiy o oaaoeueiiio
i?inoi??, iaci?ii?noue o /an?, iniaeea? ?ioaeaeooaeuei? yeino?.
Oaioanoe/i?noue ia-aio?iiiii?oieo (a cia/eoue ? ia-aio?iiieia?/ieo)
ia?niiaae?a e??i oiai, caaacia/o?oueny ?oiueith ciai?oi?noth, aea ia
no?eueee ca ?aooiie iiiaieeaoo?e aeaoaeae, ne?eueee ca ?aooiie
iacae/iiai eiiiiioaaiiy oeeo aeaoaeae o ?aeeia oe?ea, i?eienoaaiiy
ia?niiaaeo iciaeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee, ui noia?a/aoue noaiaea?oai
/eoaoeueeiai aeina?aeo, aeac?aee ia a?aenooi?noue oeo aai ?ioeo
ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiino?oeoeaieo aeaoaeae ethaenueeiai o?ea.

Aiaeii/an oaioanoe/i? ia?niiaae? iaae?eythoueny a a?eueo?e aai iaio?e
i??? ethaenueeeie aeanoeainoyie iiaaae?iee ? ineo?/ieie ?aaeoe?yie.

Iniaeeaino? aa?aae?caoe?? ?aoa?aioiiai i?inoi?o a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio
oaeno? aeyaeythoueny oe?eei iaai?ii aeai?iai aeaoa?i?iiaaieo iiaeaeae
iii?iaoe??, eiiiiceoe?eieo eiino?oeoe?e, aiioe?eii-ioe?iieo
aeoeaio?a.*oaeeii?noue, iacae/i?noue iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ieo ia?niiaae?a,
oae naii ye ? aiioe?eia noaaeaiiy aaoi?a aei ieo, ciaoiaeyoue nai? iiai?
caniae ae?aaeaiiy.

Ia?oa caaaeoaaiiy oaeeo ia?niiaae?a o oaeno? i?aeoe/ii ia iaoiaeeoueny
aac c?noaaeaiiy c ethaeeiith ? i?aee?aneaiiy ?oi?o a?aei?iiinoae a?ae
ethaeae. ?oiy /oaei??aei?noue, iacae/i?noue aeey ethaenueeiai ni?eeiyooy
aenie?eo?oueny /eneaiieie no?oeoo?aie oaceoaoe??, ii??aiyeueieie
eiino?oeoe?yie, iieniaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie cai?noue oaeniiii?/ieo
iii?iaoe?e, aeei?enoaiiyi eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ui i?aee?aneththoue
/oaeeii?noue, iacae/aei?noue ? /ano?oa onueiai aiioe?eia iai?eeiyooy
aaoi?ii (iiia?aea/ai) caaaeoaaieo ?aoa?aio?a. Eiioeaio?aoe?y an?o oeeo
i?eeii?a oa?aeoa?ia a ia?oo /a?ao aeey ?io?iaeoeoeaieo ii?o?aoieo iien?a
oaioanoe/ieo ia?niiaae?a.

Naia ci?oaiiy ciaeiiiai, ?aaeueiiai, ethaenueeiai ? iacae/iiai,
??aaeueiiai, “iaethaenueeiai” ia? aeeeeeaoe o /eoa/a aeia??o aei
?iciia?ae?. I?aeoe/ii eiaeiee iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iee oa?? – oea
?iaeea?aeoaeueia aaoi?nueea oaioac?y ia oaio a?eueo-iaio a?aeaeaeaiiai
iaeaooiueiai. *ei i?aaaeiiiae?ai?oa oey oaioac?y aeeeaaeaia o oai??, oei
a?eueoa i?eoeeueiee?a nai?? a?iioace caeo/a? aaoi?. Cia/io ?ieueo
oeueiio a?ae?a?a? ii?o?aoiee iien ia?niiaae?a iaoeiai? oaioanoeee, ye
?aae?noe/ieo, oae ? a ia?oo /a?ao oaioanoe/ieo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Iien i?inoi?o a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno?” –
?icaeyaeathoueny no?oeoo?i?, naiaioe/i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
i?inoi?iaiai iieno a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno?.

Caaea/ath aeaiiai ?icae?eo aoei a?aeie?aieaiiy c aiaeiiiaii?
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ii? i?ice iieniaeo o?aaiaio?a, ui cia?aaeothoue i?noea
?icai?oaiiy oaaoeueieo iiae?e, oiaoi ooaeiaei?e i?ino??, o yeiio
?niothoue ? ae?thoue ia?niiaae?. Eeaneo?eaoe?y, aiae?c ? iien oeeo
o?aaiaio?a aacoaaeeny ia ?yae? aeo?aeieo iinooeao?a.

Ii-ia?oa, ooaeiaei?e i?ino?? iaieio/a ? iaa?ae?eaii c’?aeiaiee ?c
ooaeiaei?i /anii; ?aei?noue ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai ooai?ththoue oaeo
iaeaaaeeea?oo eaoaai??th oaenoo ye o?iiioii. Aacoth/enue ia
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/?e eiioeaioe?? I.I.Aaoo?ia, ooaeiaei?e o?iiioii o?aeoo?ii
ye oai?/i ia?aoai?aio na?aeii?noth aaoi?a aa?aae?ciaaio i?iaeoe?th a
e?oa?aoo?iee oaeno i?inoi?iai-/aniaeo a?aeiioaiue, ye? ia/aaoi
a?aeaoaaeeny a cia?aaeoaaiiio na?o?.

Ii-ae?oaa, ne?aeii ca A.A.Eooa?aiei ? ?.I.Eieaaa?aith ooaeiaei?e i?ino??
?icoi??ii ye /anoeio ?aoa?aioiiai i?inoi?o oaenoa (iaaiiai
eaac??aaeueiiai oi?aa?noia) ? i?ae?icae?ey?ii eiai ia a?aee?eoa
(ni?eeiyooy ? ia?aoe?y aaaeaoueny iica iiiaoeaiiyie ? nii?oaeaeaiiyie) ?
cae?eoa, aai caieiooa (ni?eeiyooy ? ia?aoe?y aaaeaoueny ona?aaeei?
oaeeo). Iien a?aee?eoiai i?inoi?o ?iiae? o?aaeeoe?eii iaceaa?ii
iaecaaeai (eaiaeoaooiei aai o?aai?noe/iei), iien cae?eoiai i?inoi?o –
?ioa?’??ii.

Ii-o?ao?, aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeoiaeeoue ?c ea?aeeiaeueiiai iinooeaoo
i?i oa, ui i?ae aeai?iaith i?eiaeaaei?noth ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o ? eiai
i?inoi?iai-/aniaith ia?niaeoeaith ?nio? o?niee aca?iica’ycie. Ia?oa
aeaoa?i?io? ae?oao, a ae?oaa aeyaey?oueny eiie?aoiei oaenoiaei
iai?oanoaioii ia?oiai. AEai?ia? iniaeeaino? o?iiioiia i?iaeoothoueny ?
ia EIO “iien”.

*an ? i?ino??, ui iiaeaeththoueny o oai?ao oeueiai aeai?o, ca
aecia/aiiyi ? “/oaeei /anii” ? “/oaeei i?inoi?ii” (o oa?i?iao I.I.
Iia?eiai?).

Aoaeo /oaeeiiino?, ??aaeueiino? cia?aaeoaaiiai na?oo a
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aeinyaa?oueny aeaiia iniiaieie caniaaie:
ii-ia?oa, ca ?aooiie a?aeiia?aeiiai eiino?othaaiiy ?aoa?aioiiai i?inoi?o
(ui cia?aaeaii) ? ii-ae?oaa, ca ?aooiie cania?a eiai aa?aa e?caoe?? (ye
cia?aaeaii). ?aoa?aioiee i?ino?? iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiai oaenoo
aoaeo?oueny ca i?eioeeiii a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?ie, caeiio ? noaiaea?o?a
?aaeueiiai aoooy. sse i?e?iaei?, oae ? ?oeioai?i? i?aaeiaoe, ui
caiiaiththoue a?aee?eoee ? cae?eoee i?ino??, iae/ano?oa iathoue
iao?aaeeoe?eio oi?io, ?ici??, ?niothoue aai aeaioiaeai? c
iao?aaeeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a.

Ui noino?oueny aa?aaeueieo cania?a noai?aiiy oaioanoe/iiai i?inoi?o, oi
ooo aeae?ey?ii oae? caniae a?ae/oaeaiiy: eiino?oeoe?? oaceoaoe??, neiaa
oe?iei? naiaioeee, iienia? iii?iaoe??, aaoi?nuee? iaieia?cie. ?oiy
ooieoe?y iieyaa? a iaaeeaeaii? oi/ee ci?o iiia?aea/a aei oi/ee ci?o
/eoa/a, ui niieiia?/ii ? iaoeaioeai ieaiaoe Caiey ? aieiae?? iaaiei
caaaeueiei caianii ciaiue i?i iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaeueiiai na?oo.
?i?ooth/e neooaoe??, eiee oe? ciaiiy aeyaeythoueny iaaeinoaoi?ie aeey
?icoi?iiy eaac??aaeueiiai na?oo iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiai oai?o, aaoi?
i?aeooiaoo? /eoa/a aei ineoieia?/iiai ioioiaeiaiiy naaa c iiia?aea/ai.
Aaiaey/e iia?, iaciaeii? iiiyooy o oiiae ciaiue /eoa/a, aaoi? oe?iei
aeei?enoiao? i?eeii ii??aiyiiy.

Aea/aiiy no?oeoo?ii-iiceoe?eieo oei?a iieniaeo o?aaiaio?a, ui aeyaey?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy EIO ? aacaoea, iieacaei, ui aenie?oeeoia (aacaoeia)
ia?eiaai?noue iaae EI o?aaiaio?a i?inoi?iaiai iieno ia i?eoaiaiia
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e i?ic?. sse i?aaeei, iaae? aacaoeii? ?
eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?ai? ?icaeaee oe?eiai oaenoo ia ca?aathoueny,
ine?eueee eiaeia oaea ?icaeaea ia?ane?aeo? naith niaoeeo?/io
eiioi?eaoeaio oe?eue.

Caeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? ?en, ui caaaeothoueny a iieniaiio o?aaiaio?,
a?i iiaea a?aeiineoeny aei iaeiiai c o?ueio oi?iao?a: aei oe?aieaiiy
(iaeia oa?aeoa?ia ?ena; caaaeueia a?aaeaiiy), iaethieo (aea?-o?e
oa?aeoa?i? ?ene), ia’?iiiai iieno (??ciia?/ia ? aeaoaeueia cia?aaeaiiy).
Iaecaae ? ?ioa?’?? o iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno? iae/ano?oa
o?aieythoueny o oi?iao? iaethiea (58% ? 53% a?aeiia?aeii).

Ia’?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iieniaeo o?aaiaio?a o iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e i?ic?
?ic??ciythoueny ca oeiaie iieno: iien i?inoi?o a na?aaeiueiio aaea?/?
aeiaoee, i?ae iien ia?niiaae?a (31,4 neiaiaaeeaaiue – iaecaae, ? 33,5
neiaiaaeeaaiue – ?ioa?’?? VS, 14,1 neiaiaaeeaaiue – ii?o?ao).

A?eueoa aeiaaeeia iieniaeo o?aaiaio?a o iaecaae? ? ?ioa?’??? a
ii??aiyii? c ii?o?aoii coiiaeaia niaoeeo?eith aeai?o.
Ienueiaiiee-oaioano i?aaia yeiiiaa oi/i?oa ? aeieeaaei?oa cia?aceoe
i?noea oaaoeueii? ae??, ui o cia/i?e i??? noai?th? aoiinoa?o
??aaeueiino?. Eai?aea?i?noue oi?ie ooo iiaeeeaa a iaioiio nooiai?, i?ae
o ii?o?ao?, yeee o 2-3 neiaieo oe?aieaiiyo iiaea ooieoe?iioaaoe a yeino?
?aia?ie, ui aaiaeyoue ia?niiaaeia iiaeaiiy. Iaecaaeo aai ?ioa?’??o
iiae?aia ooieoe?y iaaeanoeaa.

AEai?iaa niaoeeo?ea aeine?aeaeoaaiiai oaiiiaia aeoaea yne?aai i?iyaeeany
a oaiaoe/iii iaiiaiaii? EIO “iien”. O iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno?
aeae?ey?ii oae? oaiaoe/i? a?oie: a?aee?eoee i?ino?? ?iciaaea?oueny ia
i?aeieaiaoiee ? ieaiaoiee; o naith /a?ao iien ieaiaoiiai i?inoi?o
i?ae?icae?ey?oueny, ii-ia?oa, ia iien Caie? ? ia-Caie? ?, ii-ae?oaa, ia
eaiaeoaoo ? o?aai?noe/iee iaecaae. Aaea naia ia?a?aooaaiiy oaiaoe/ieo
a?oi yne?aai aeyaey? aeai?iao niaoeeo?eo. Iaei/aaeaei?oa aiia a
i?aea?oi? i?aeieaiaoiee i?ino?? (einiin, c??ee, ieaiaoe), ye? o?eueee a
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ooieoe?iiothoue ia ye ia’?eo
niiaeyaeaiiy, aea/aiiy, o?einionoaoaaiiy, a ye oaaoeueia i?noea ae??
ia?niiaae?a. Oa ae naia noino?oueny iien?a a?aee?eoiai ieaiaoiiai
i?inoi?o, ui cia?aaeo? ?io?, i?ae Caiey, ieaiaoe.

Oaaeeoey 3

??ciioaiaoe/i? iiene a?aee?eoiai i?inoi?o a aiaeiiiai?e IO

Oaaeeoey 4

Ieoiia aaaa ??ciioaiaoe/ieo iien?a a?aee?eoiai ieaiaoiiai i?inoi?o a
aiaeiiiai?e IO

Iien cae?eoiai i?inoi?o a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oaae ?
aeai?iai-niaoeeo?/iei. A?i i?ae?icae?ey?oueny ia iien aeeoea, neoaeaiaeo
i?ei?uaiue ? eini?/iiai ei?aaey ye ?ioa?’??a. Aacoiiaii, aieea aeai?o
iaea?eueo i/aaeaeiee o o?ao?e i?aea?oi?. Aiaeii/an caneoaiao? ia oaaao
oaea aeai?iai niaoeeo?/ia iniaeea?noue, ui aeyaey?oueny a iienao aeeoea:
eiaeiee o?ao?e iiae?aiee iien cia?aaeo? iieeiooa, caiaaeaaia, iaaeeea
iiiaoeaiiy. Iioea eaoano?io?/iino?, ?ioa?iaeueiino? ? ia??aeeei o
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ieo oai?ao, ui cie?aia aeyaey?oueny a ea?oeiao
iieeiooeo ionoaeueieo i?no ? aeeoae.

Ioaea, ooaeiaei?e i?ino?? o iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oai?? oea caaaeaee
?ioina?o, canaeaiee ia?niiaaeaie, ui aeeaooue ? ae?thoue o c?ooaieo
/aniaeo ?/aai i?inoi?iaeo eii?aeeiaoao. *oaeeii?noue,a?ae/oaeaiiy
oeueiai na?oo, aacoiiaii, ciaoiaeeoueny o oieon? aaoi?nueei? oaaae.
Iaeiae iniiaiee i?eioeei ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e – ?? anainyaeiee
aio?iiioeaio?eci – caa??aa? nai? aeii?ioth/? iiceoe?? ? o aeai?? IO.

Ii-ia?oa, aea? o?aoeie iieniaeo eiioaeno?a oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia
a?aee?eoee einiin, a ieaiaoe, ? o naith /a?ao, na?aae ieaiao i?noeai
ae?? iae/ano?oa aeyaey?oueny Caiey.

A ii-ae?oaa, “/oaeeii?noue“ ?ioeo na?o?a iaieio/a ? oae /e ?iaeoa
aee?eaeaia iiaeaeue ethaenueeiai na?aaeiaeua i?iaeeaaiiy, iiaeaeue, o
ye?e ii?ooothoueny ii?ie ? noaiaea?oe caaaeueiiethaenueei?, ?, a ia?oo
/a?ao, cao?aeii?, oeea?e?caoe??.

Aeniiaee

Aoaeo aeeaiaeaeiino?, ??aaeueiino? cia?aaeoaaiiai na?oo a
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aeinyaa?oueny aeaiia iniiaieie caniaaie:
ii-ia?oa, ca ?aooiie a?aeiia?aeiiai eiino?othaaiiy ?aoa?aioiiai i?inoi?o
(ui naia cia?aaeaii) ?, ii-ae?oaa, ca ?aooiie cania?a eiai aa?aae?caoe??
(ye naia cia?aaeaii). Aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeth?,
aiae?co? ? iieno? caeiiii??iino? ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai, ye? i?eoaiaii?
aiaeiiiai?e IO.

EIO “iien” noai?th? iiaeaii?aeie caniaaie i?aaeiaoii-ia?aci-oai?/ee ?yae
ooaeiaeiueiai iia?aeiieaiiy, ?ioi?io? /eoa/a i?i iiiaieeaoo?o ?
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaiaio?a cia?aaeoaaiiai na?oo: a?aee?eoiai ? cae?eoiai
i?inoi?o ? ia?niiaae?a, ui ae?thoue o oeueiio na?o?.

Iniaeeaino? ?aoa?aioiiai i?inoi?o IO i?iyaeythoue naaa ia?aaeon?i
iaai?ii aeoaio?a, ye? aeeaooue o eaac??aaeueiiio oi?aa?noi?, a oaeiae
ia?ae?eii iciaeiaeo yeinoae, i?eoaiaiieo oeei aeoaioai.

I?iiiio?ii ?ic?iaeaio iaie eeaneo?eaoe?th e?oa?aoo?ieo ia?niiaae?a IO
oai??a. Aanue ei?ion ia?niiaae?a ?iciaaea?oueny ia aio?iiieia?/ieo ?
ia-aio?iiieia?/ieo, oe? inoaii? i?ae?icae?eythoueny ia iaoo?oaeoe ?
a?oaoaeoe c ??ciei nooiaiai aio?iiiii?o?cio.

AEai?ia? iniaeeaino? IO oaeno?a a?aeaeca?eaeththoueny o oaiaoe/iiio
iaiiaiaii? EIO “iien”. A?aee?eoee i?ino?? i?ae?icae?ey?oueny ia
i?aeieaiaoiee ? ieaiaoiee, cae?eoee – ia iien aeeoea, neoaeaiaeo
i?ei?uaiue ? eini?/iiai ei?aaey ye ?ioa?’??a. Iioea eaoano?io?/iino?
a?aeaeaa?oueny a /anoeo ea?oeiao caiaaeaaiiai, iieeiooiai aeeoea.

Aeeaiaeaei?noue, iacae/i?noue cia?aaeoaaieo ia?niiaae?a ? na?oa iathoue
nai? niaoeeo?/i? iiaeaii?a? caniae ae?aco. Oea eiino?oeoe?? oaceoaoe??,
neiaa oe?iei? naiaioeee, iienia? iii?iaoe?? cai?noue oaeniiii?/ieo,
ii??aiyeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aaoi?nuee? iaieia?cie. Aiie iaaeeaeothoue
oi/eo ci?o iiia?aea/a aei oi/ee ci?o /eoa/a, yeee ? iaoeaioeai ieaiaoe
Caiey ? aieiae?? iaaiei caianii ciaiue i?i iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
?aaeueiiai na?oo.

Ioaea, oi?aa?noi, yeee cia?aaeaii o iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oai?? – oea
caaaeaee ?ioina?o, canaeaiee ia?niiaaeaie, ui aeeaooue ? ae?thoue o
c?ooaieo i?inoi?iai-/aniaeo eii?aeeiaoao. *oaeeii?noue cia?aaeoaaiiai
na?oo oieono? aaoi?nueeo oaaao, ui iaeiae ia ae?i?io? anainyaeiee
i?eioeei aio?iiioeaio?ecio ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaeo? a 4 noaooyo,
ai?uaieo o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ca oaoii, ? a 1 ioae?eaoe??, ui ?
oacaie eiioa?aioe??:

1. E??aaeueiinoue ia?niiaaea iao/iie oaioanoeee, io?aaeaiiay a aai
ii?o?aoa // Caienee c ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? o?eieia??: Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue
o-oo ?AO. – Aei. 1. – Iaeana: I*I A-I?io?o, 1997. – N. 38–48.

2. Aeaeu ii?o?aoiiai iienaiey a iao/ii-oaioanoe/aneii oaenoa // Caienee
c ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? o?eieia??: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue o-oo ?AO. – Aei. 2.
 – Iaeana: Aeae-ai IAeO, 1997. – N. 111–127.

3. Ianoi iao/iie oaioanoeee a nenoaia ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u //
Caienee c ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? o?eieia??: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue o-oo ?AO. –
Aei. 3.  – Iaeana: Eaonoa?, 1998. – N. 167–175.

4. Eiiiiceoe?eia-iiaeaii?aa no?oeoo?a aiaeiiiaiiai oaenoo ? ae??neiai
// A?niee Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. O?eieia?y,
iiaiciaanoai, e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. – Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio. – 1999. – ? 4.
– N. 16–21. (o ni?aaaoi?noa?: ?.I.Eieaaa?aa, I.A.?icaiiaa).

5. AEai?iia?acothuay ?ieue iieiia a iao/iie oaioanoeea // Ieoaiiy
no/anii? iiiianoeee / Noaoo? oa oace ca iaoa??aeaie eiioa?aioe??.-
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Aeae-ai AeAeO, 1997. – N. 75.

Aiioaoe?y

Eae?ithe I. I. – Eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?aa oi?ia “iien“ a
iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio oaeno? (ia iaoa??ae? iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ieo oai??a
aiae?enueeeo oa aia?eeainueeeo aaoi??a XX noie?ooy). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy o/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae – Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia e?euee?niiio, ooieoe?iiaeueiiio ? ye?niiio
aiae?co ? eeaneo?eaoe?? o?ueio aeae?a eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?ai? oi?ie
“iien” – iien ia?niiaaea (ii?o?ao), iien a?aee?eoiai i?ino?i?o
(iaecaae), iien cae?eoiai i?inoi?o (?ioa?’??) – a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio
oaeno?. Iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ia e?oa?aoo?a aecia/a?oueny ye aeai?iaee
??ciiaeae ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e, iaoe?eaiee ia neiaanii-ooaeiaei?
cia?aaeaiiy oaioanoe/iiai na?oo ye ?aaeueii ?nioth/iai c aeio?eiaiiyi
aieiaiiai i?eeiio a?ae/oaeaiiy. Aoaeo /oaeeiiino?, ??aaeueiino?
cia?aaeaiiai na?oo a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aeinyaa?oueny
aeaiia iniiaieie caniaaie: ca ?aooiie a?aeiia?aeiiai eiino?othaaiiy
?aoa?aioiiai i?inoi?o (ui cia?aaeaii) ? ca ?aooiie cania?a eiai
aa?aae?caoe?? (ye cia?aaeaii).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeei aeai?iai aeaoa?i?iiaaiee oa?aeoa?
ii?o?aoieo ? i?inoi?iaeo iien?a, ui aeyaey?oueny e?euee?nieie ? ye?nieie
iniaeeainoyie. ?aoa?aioiee i?ino?? iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiai oaenoo,
i?aaeiaoe ? ?noioe, ye? eiai neeaaeathoue, aoaeothoueny ca i?eioeeiii
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?ie, caeiio ? noaiaea?o?a ethaenueeiai aoooy.
Iniaeeaino? aa?aae?caoe?? ?aoa?aioiiai i?inoi?o a iaoeiai-oaioanoe/iiio
oaeno? aeyaeythoueny a /eneaiieo no?oeoo?ao oaceoaoe??, ii??aiyeueieo
eiino?oeoe?yo, iieniaeo cai?noue oaeniiii?/ieo iii?iaoe?e, o
aeei?enoaii? eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ui i?aee?aneththoue /oaeeii?noue,
iacae/aei?noue ? /ano?oa onueiai iai?eeiyooy aaoi?ii (iiia?aea/ai)
?aoa?aio?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoeiaa oaioanoeea, eiiiiceoe?eii-iiaeaii?aa oi?ia
“iien“, o?iiioii, ii?o?ao, a?aee?eoee ? cae?eoee i?ino??, ?aoa?aioiee
i?ino??.

Eaeeithe A. A. – Eiiiiceoeeiiii-?a/aaay oi?ia ”iienaiea“ a iao/ii
oaioanoe/aneii oaenoa (ia iaoa?eaea iao/ii-oaioanoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee
aiaeeeneeo e aia?eeaineeo aaoi?ia XX aaea). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 – aa?iaineea ycuee – Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E.E. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanna, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiee/anoaaiiiio, ooieoeeiiaeueiiio e
ea/anoaaiiiio aiaeeco e eeanneoeeaoeee o?ao aeaeia
eiiiiceoeeiiii-?a/aaie oi?iu “iienaiea” – ii?o?ao, iaecaae, eioa?uea? –
a iao/ii-oaioanoe/aneii oaenoa.

A ?aieao i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey iao/ii-oaioanoe/aneay eeoa?aoo?a
ii?aaeaeyaony eae aeai?iaay ?aciiaeaeiinoue ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u,
iaoeaeaiiay ia neiaanii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiia ecia?aaeaiea oaioanoe/aneiai
ie?a eae ?aaeueii nouanoaothuaai n niaethaeaieai aaaeouaai i?eaia
ino?aiaiey.

Yooaeo no?aiiinoe, e??aaeueiinoe ecia?aaeaaiiai ie?a a
iao/ii-oaioanoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a aeinoeaaaony aeaoiy iniiaiuie
niiniaaie: ai-ia?auo, ca n/ao niioaaonoaothuaai eiino?oe?iaaiey
?aoa?aioiiai i?ino?ainoaa (/oo ecia?aaeaii) e, ai-aoi?uo, ca n/ao
n?aaenoa aai aa?aaeecaoeee (eae ecia?aaeaii). Aeaiiia aeenna?oaoeeiiiia
enneaaeiaaiea onoaiaaeeaaao, aiaeece?oao e iienuaaao caeiiiia?iinoe oiai
e ae?oaiai, naienoaaiiua aiaeiycu/iie iao/ii-oaioanoe/aneie i?ica.

Auiieiaiiia enneaaeiaaiea iiaeoaa?aeeei ecia/aeueii aeiioaoe/aneia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i aeai?iai aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiii oa?aeoa?a ii?o?aoiuo e
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo iienaiee, eioi?ue i?iyaeyaony eiee/anoaaiiuie e
ea/anoaaiiuie iniaaiiinoyie. ?aoa?aioiia i?ino?ainoai
iao/ii-oaioanoe/aneiai oaenoa no?ieony ii i?eioeeio ioeeiiaiey io ii?iu,
caeiia e noaiaea?oia /aeiaa/aneiai auoey. Eae anoanoaaiiua, oae e
?oeioai?iua i?aaeiaou, caiieiythuea ioe?uoia e cae?uoia i?ino?ainoai,
ca/anooth eiatho iao?aaeeoeeiiioth oi?io, ?acia?, ninoiyo eee
ecaioiaeaiu ec iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia.

Eeoa?aoo?iui ia?niiaaeai a oaeeo i?iecaaaeaieyo ia anaaaea yaeyaony
nianoaaiii /aeiaae, ia?aaeei yoi aieaa eee iaiaa aio?iiiii?oiua
nouanoaa, iaaeaeaiiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie oa?aeoa?aie e auiieiythuea a
oaaoeueii-nthaeaoiii ie?a eeoa?aoo?iiai i?iecaaaeaiey ooieoeee
ia?niiaaeae.

Iniaaiiinoe aa?aaeecaoeee ?aoa?aioiiai i?ino?ainoaa a
iao/ii-oaioanoe/aneii oaenoa i?iyaeythony oeaeui ?yaeii aeai?iai
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo iiaeaeae iiieiaoeee, eiiiiceoeeiiiuo eiino?oeoeee
yiioeeiiaeueii-ioeaii/iuo aeoeaioia. No?aiiinoue, iai?eau/iinoue
iao/ii-oaioanoe/aneeo ia?niiaaeae e ie?a, a eioi?ii iie nouanoaotho,
?aaii eae e yiioeeiiaeueiia ioiioaiea aaoi?a e iei, iaoiaeyo naie
ycueiaua n?aaenoaa au?aaeaiey a iiiai/eneaiiuo no?oeoo?ao oaceoaoeeee,
n?aaieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeeyo, iienaoaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoeeao acaiai
oaeniiiie/aneeo iiieiaoeee, a eniieueciaaiee eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe,
iiae/a?eeaathueo no?aiiinoue, iaiau/iinoue e /aua anaai iai?eyoea
aaoi?ii (iiaanoaiaaoaeai) iienuaaaiuo ?aoa?aioia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iao/iay oaioanoeea, eiiiiceoeeiiii-?a/aaay oi?ia
“iienaiea“, o?iiioii, ii?o?ao, ioe?uoia e cae?uoia i?ino?ainoai,
?aoa?aioiia i?ino?ainoai.

Kalinyuk O. O. – Narrative-compositional Form “description” in the text
of Science Fiction.

Thesis for Ph. D. degree in philology (speciality 10.02.04 – Germanic
languages), the Odessa State University, Odessa, 1999.

The dissertation deals with quantitative, functional, qualitative,
analysis and classification of three types of narrative-compositional
form “description” – description of a character (portrait), description
of open space (landscape), description of closed space (interior).
Science Fiction is defined as a genre of belles- lettres literature
aiming at presenting fantastic world as a really existing one with the
leading device of “estrangement”. The effect of strangeness is achieved
in two basic ways: first, at the expense of corresponding design of the
referential space (what is described); second, at the expense of modes
of its verbal representation (how it is described).

The present dissertation has confirmed the genre-determined character of
portrait and space descriptions shown in several quantitative and
qualitative features. The referential space of a Science Fiction text,
with its objects and beings, are molded in deviation fromthe rules and
standards of people’s life. The distinctive features of the referential
space verbal representation in Science Fiction become apparent through
various hesitation structures, comparisons, descriptive characteristics
used instead of tacsonomic names, through the employment of vocabulary
emphasizing strangeness, uncommonness, and mainly negative estimation of
the referents by the author (narrator).

Key words: Science Fiction, narrative-compositional form “description”,
chronotop, portrait, open space, closed space, referential space.

Похожие записи