16

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OIIEIAEAN

Ieaenaiae? A?eaae?eiae/

OAeE
616.441-091.8-071.3-089

EE?I?EI-II?OIEIA?*I? C?NOAAEAIIss A

Ae?AAIINOEOe? ? O??O?A?*IIIO E?EOAAII?

CAOAI?THAAIUe UEOIAEAeII? CAEICE

14.01.03-O??o?a?y

AAOI?AOA?A

aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo IIC Oe?a?ie.

IAOEIAEE EA??AIEE: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaa/aiei Noai?neaa
?aaiiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a??.

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE:

1. Caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith o??o?a?? oa i?ieoieia?? Oa?e?anueei?
iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie, caneoaeaiee
ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aeaoeaiei Ai?en Iaea?iae/.

2. Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e o??o?a?? noiiaoieiae/iiai oaeoeueoaoo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey *a?aiueei Iaea? Iao?iae/.

I?IA?AeIA ONOAIIAA: Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a oieoaeueii? o??o?a??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_11__”_eenoiiaaea__1999?. i “ 13-30 “ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.600.01 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?. (Aae?ana: 310022, i. Oa?e?a, i?.
Eai?ia, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa?neoaoo.
(Aae?ana: 310022, i. Oa?e?a, i?. Eai?ia, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “_4_” _aeiaoiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

eaiae. iaae. iaoe, aeioeaio
Oaiueei I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Caoai?thaaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice (UC) caeiathoue
iaeia c oeaio?aeueieo i?noeue a iaoieia?? aiaeie?eiii? nenoaie. Inoaii?i
/anii a?aecia/a?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei c?inoaiiy oeeo caoai?thaaiue,
/enei yeeo aei 2000 ?ieo nyaia 2,0-2,3 oeny/ ia 10000 ianaeaiiy.
I?ia?anoth/a iia??oaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio aeiae?eey aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe
oeae iieaciee caieaeaiei [Eeoia/aiei TH.N., *a?iia?ia A.Ae., Oo?/ei
A.?., 1994]. O?aaa /aeaoe, ui iio?e oai?eo c ??ciiiai?oiith iaoieia??th
UC a iie?ee?i?eao ? noaoe?iia?ao aoaea c?inoaoe ? aei 2005 ?ieo
ca?eueoeoueny a 1.5-2 ?ace [Aiaaeaiiaa O.E., O?iiueei I.Ae., Niaieaa
A.A., 1997]. C?inoaiiy e?eueeino? oai?eo ?c caoai?thaaiiyie UC iio?aao?
ci?i oaeoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie oaeaeei?, ye?nii? ?
aeiiii?/ii aea?aeii? ae?aaiinoeee. C iaoith io?eiaiiy iaea?eueo iiaii? ?
oi/ii? ae?aaiinoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oa?aeoa? iaoieia?/ieo ci?i
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe??io?a ?c caoai?thaaiiyie UC iiaeii? aooe
eiiieaenieie i?e i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeaeo i?iiaiaaeo iaaaioaaeaiiyo ?
o?eaaeino? ianoaaeaiiy. Nai?/ania ae??oaiiy ae?aaiinoe/ieo ? oaeoe/ieo
ieoaiue ia ?aiiueiio aoai? ( oiaoi aaciina?aaeiuei i?e ia?aeiiiio
caa?iaii? oai?iai a iie?ee?i?eo /e noaoe?iia?) ni?e/eiy? ia o?eueee
iie?auaiith ?ocoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy, aea ? aea? nooo?aee aeiiii?/iee
aoaeo.

A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y aeinyaioo? cia/i? oni?oe a iaeano? ae?aaiinoe/ii?
?aae?ieia?? [Barzel U.S., 1995; Bednar J., 1994; Wolters U., Krug B. Et
al., 1997]. Iaoiaee iaaee/ieo ia?iaaceaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/eee
i?ia?an ?aiiuei? ? ooi/ithth/i? ae?aaiinoeee iiaiooai?aiue ??cieo
eieae?caoe?e. Na?aae oeeo iaoiae?a iaea?eueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a
ee?i?/i?e i?aeoeoe? iaea?aeaea oeueo?icaoeiaa oiiia?ao?y [Cox M.R.,
Marshall S.G., Spence R.A., 1991; Messina G., Viceconti N., Trinti B.,
1997; Becker D., Bair H., Becker W., et al., 1997; Hatada T., Jkada K.
Et al., 1998]. Oeae iaoiae aeineoue i?inoee, aeinooiiee, iniaeeai
c?o/iee aeey ianoaaeaiiy iaeeo ae?oae oa aaa?oieo ae?iie, ine?eueee i?e
eiai aeei?enoaii? a?aenooi? i?iiaiaaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?aai?ci
iaoe??ioa. A?i aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ?ici??e, oi?io, eieae?caoe?th
iaoieia?/ieo ina?aaee?a a i?e, caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue a?eueo
aeaoaeueii? ioe?iee no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae o?aaeaii? caeice. Iaeiae,
aeai? o?eueee oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iiaeooue noaoe
iniiaith aeey onoaiiae inoaoi/iiai ae?aaiico ? aeai?o aaeaeaaoii?
oaeoeee o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy o oai?eo c ina?aaeeiaeie ci?iaie a
ueoiaeaei?e caeic?.

Canoinoaaiiy a no/ani?e ee?i?oe? oeueo?acaoeiai? e eiii’thoa?ii?
ae?aaiinoe/ii? oaoi?ee aeniao? ia?aae niaoe?ae?noaie iaiao?aei?noue
ae??oaiiy iiaeo i?iaeai — aecia/aiiy ?icoaooaaiiy i?aai?a a i?inoi?? ?
ii a?aeiioaiith aei iiaa?oi? o?ea [Takai S., Kakuda K., Kakuma K., et
al., 1997; Sabel M., Haque D., 1998].

Ioaea, ia aeeaey/enue ia cia/io e?euee?noue iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee
caoai?thaaiue UC, i?iaeaio iinoaiiaee oi/iiai ae?aaiico a iaeneiaeueii
ei?ioe? oa?i?ie i?e iaeiaioeo aeiiii?/ieo cao?aoao ia nueiaiaei? ia
iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia ae??oaiith.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiiia
ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01950023465), oa
? /anoeiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e oaeoeueoaonueei?
o??o?a?? “Iioei?caoe?y o??o?a?/ieo iaoiae?a o eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii?
oai?eo ia caoai?thaaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ianoaaeaiiy ? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ?c
caoai?thaaiiyie UC.

Iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

1. Noai?eoe ? aeei?enoaoe niaoe?aeueio nenoaio oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao
ia i?aenoaa? o??o?a?/ii? aiaoii?? UC, yea aeicaiey? a?coae?coaaoe UC a
?? i?iaeoe?? ia ia?aaeith iiaa?oith oe?.

2. Aeiaanoe oeyoii aenia?eiaioo iiaeeea?noue iiiaaeaiiy ioieoe?eii?
aieee a cacaeaeaa?aeue aecia/aio oi/eo UC i?e aeei?enoaii?
cai?iiiiiaaii? oiiia?ao?/ii? nenoaie eii?aeeiao.

3. Ii??aiyoe a??ia?aei?noue ae?aaiico, yeee onoaiiaeaii ia i?aenoaa?
cai?iiiiiaaii? noaie cae/aeiei ae?aaiinoe/iei oeyoii.

4. I?iaanoe oeeoia?noieia?/iee aiae?c ioieoaoa ? i?aia?aoo ye e?eoa??y
ioe?iee i?aaeeueiino? ae?aaiico ? aaeaeaaoiino? ia’?io o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy.

5. Noai?eoe aeai?eoi ae?aaiinoe/iiai eiiieaeno caoiae?a ia i?aenoaa?
cai?iiiiiaaii? noaie.

6. ?ic?iaeoe noaiaea?oio ea?oo niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oai?eie
(ia?aaaaeii iia?iaaieie) a aeeiai?oe?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. 1. Aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaia noaia i?iaeoe?? UC ia ia?aaeith iiaa?oith oe? ?
a?coae?caoe?y ?? ia ieiuei? a nenoai? eii?aeeiao.

2. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia oi?o?eiaaia nenoaia ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a OCAe, yea
caaacia/o? oi/i?noue ioieoe?eieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

3. I?e aeei?enoaii? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee aeinyaiooi cia/ii a?eueo
aeniea a??ia?aei?noue aeiiia?aoe?eiiai ae?aaiico, a a?coae?caoe?y UC a
nenoai? oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao aeicaiey? iai/ii ieaioaaoe iia?aoeaia
ao?o/aiiy.

4. Aeiaaaeaia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? ae?aaiinoe/ii? noaie.

5. ?ic?iaeaia noaiaea?oia ea?oa aeey aeeiai?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
oai?eie ?c caoai?thaaiiyie UC aia?oa aeicaiey? caaacia/oaaoe iiaio
ia?aaeaoi?noue a aeeiai?/iiio niinoa?aaeaii? e?ea?yie ??cieo
e?eoaaeueieo caeeaae?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?aaioe iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? aeai?eoio ae?aaiinoe/ieo caoiae?a o
iaoe??io?a ?c caoai?thaaiiyie UC. Aeiaaaeaii aei?a/i?noue canoinoaaiiy
nenoaie oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao, yea aeicaiey? ia’?iii a?coae?coaaoe UC
ca aeaieie oeueo?acaoeiaiai neaioaaiiy, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue iai/ii
ieaioaaoe iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy, aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe /an ia iiooe
aoceiooai?aiue oa ?ioeo iaoieia?/ieo aiaieu i?ae /an iia?aoe??,
caaacia/eoe iaeneiaeueii c?o/iee aeinooi, a oea icia/a? iioeiaeueiee
ia’?i iia?aoe??. I?iaaaeaia ia i?aenoaa? iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue
noaiaea?oecaoe?y ae?aaiinoeee aeicaiey? ciaioeoe e?euee?noue
ae?aaiinoe/ieo caoiae?a ? coiiaeth? aenieo aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue.
Aeei?enoaiiy ?aeeii? noaiaea?oii? ea?oe aeey aeeiai?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy
ca oai?eie iieaaoo? ae??oaiiy caaea/? ia?aaeaoiino? a niinoa?aaeaii? ?
e?eoaaii? oai?iai i?ney aeienee eiai c o??o?a?/iiai noaoe?iia?o a
iie?ee?i?eo ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe o??o?a?/ieo
a?aeae?eaiue Oa?uee?anueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i?, I?nueei?
ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? oaeaeei? ? iaa?aeeeaaeii? aeiiiiiae

i. Oa?eiaa , i?nueei? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? N 2.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. An? aeai?, iaea?aeai? i?ae /an aeine?aeii?
?iaioe ? aeaniei aianeii aaoi?a a ii?aoeueiaaio i?iaeaio. Aianie aaoi?a
a iaea?aeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a ? iniiaiei ? iieyaa? o aecia/aii?
iai?yieo, ianyao oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, iinoaiiaee iaoe oa
oi?ioaaiiy caaea/, i?iaaaeaii? an?o ee?i?/ieo, eaai?aoi?ieo oa
niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy; aiae?c? oa ocaaaeueiaii?
?acoeueoao?a, noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo, o i?aeaioiaoe?
iaoeiai? ?iaioe aei ae?oeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeai? ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? Oa?e?anueeiai iaoeiaiai iaaee/iiai
oiaa?enoaa “No?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua aaeeieoeu i?aaiia:
oai?aoe/aneea e i?eeeaaeiua aniaeou” (1998 ?.), ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i?enay/ai?e
15-??/ieoe? eaoaae?e o??o?a?/ieo oai?ia “Aeooaeueiua aii?inu iaioeiaeiie
oe?o?aee i?aaiia a?thoiie iieinoe” (i. Oa?e?a, 1998?.).

Ioae?eaoe?? Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, c ieo
5- a iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, iaeia — o iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe??,
io?eiaii iaeei iaoaio ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a,
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e.
?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 176 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno, ?ethno?iaaii 34
iaethieaie, aiia i?noeoue 19 oaaeeoeue oa 2 oi?ioee. Ianya ?ethno?aoe?e
noaiiaeoue 17 noi??iie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
aeeeaaeaii ia 25 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 223 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/
oe??? ?iaioe i?iaaaeaii ee?i?ei-?ino?oiaioaeueia ? ii?oieia?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy 188 oai?ei, ye? i?aeeyaaee iia?aoeaiiio ao?o/aiith c
i?eaiaeo ??cieo caoai?thaaiue UC a o??o?a?/iiio a?aeae?eaii? iaeanii?
ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? i. Oa?eiaa c n?/iy 1995 ii a?oaeaiue 1997??.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? ae?aaiinoe/ii? noaie o iaoe??io?a ?c
caoai?thaaiiyie UC canoiniaoaaeenue ?ino?oiaioaeuei? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio oeueo?acaoeiaa neaioaaiiy, ii?oieia?/i? ?
?aae?i?ioiieia?/i? iaoiaee aoee canoiniaai? o an?o oai?eo, a
eiii’thoa?ia oiiia?ao?y ? ?aae?iioee?aei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy —
o?eueee o eiio?ieuei?e a?oi?.

Ia’?eoii aeey iiaeeaeaiiai ee?i?ei-?ino?oiaioaeueiiai ?
ii?oieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee 100 oai?eo, ye? i?aeeyaaee
iia?aoeaiiio ao?o/aiith c i?eaiaeo ??cieo caoai?thaaiue UC. sse a?oio
ii??aiyiiy ?icaeyiooi 118 oai?eo. *ieia?e?a a iniiai?e a?oi? aoei 11%,
ae?iie — 89%, a eiio?ieuei?e — a?aeiia?aeii 16,1% ? 83,9%. A?e eieeaaany
a?ae 16 aei 73 ?ie?a, na?aaei?e a?e a iniiai?e a?oi? neeaa 45 3,4 ?iee,
a eiio?ieuei?e — 44 6,5 ?ie?a.

O?aaa caa?iooe oaaao, ui an? a?oie c?noaaeai? ii noao? ? a?eo,
iniiaio /anoeio (72-73,74%) neeaee oai?? a?eii 31-60 ?ie?a, i?e oeueiio
iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue oai?eo aoea a?eii 41-50 ?ie?a — 30-33% a?ae
caaaeueiiai /enea. A?aecia/a?oueny cia/ia ia?aaaaa ae?iie, ye? neeaee
92,2%.

Oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy UC i?iaiaeeeinue ia oeueo?acaoeiaiio
ae?aaiinoe/iiio oiiia?ao? “Sal 77 A” o??ie “Toshiba” (ssiii?y), yeee
i?aoeth? a ?aaeuei?i ianooaa? /ano c ?iai/ith /anoioith 3,75 IAoe c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiiaaenieo aeao/ee?a. Iio?i aeaoaeueii aea/aee ia?aio?io
i?aaia ?c canoinoaaiiyi e?i?eiiai aenieiye?niiai aeao/eea 7,5 IAoe.

Eiii’thoa?ia oiiia?ao?y UC i?iaiaeeeanue ia eiii’thoa?iiio
oiiia?ao? NO IAO o??ie GENERAL ELECTRIC. Iai?oaa ia o?oaoe? oiiia?aoa
neeaaeaea 120 kV, a neea no?oio 63 iA, /an neaioaaiiy — 5,76 nae.

O aeiaaeeo aeyaeaiiy ae??aieo ae?eyiie /e ae?eyiie ?c cieaeaiith
u?euei?noth i?iaiaeeeeny c??ce oe?eiith 2 ii.

?aae?iiao??y ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Oano i?iaiaeeany i?ney
ia?i?aeueiiai i?eeiio iaoe??ioii ?ic/eio eiaeeaeo iao??th aeoeai?noth
0,075 IAe, ?icaaaeaiiai a 50-70 ie aiaee.

?aae?iiao??y UC i?iaiaeeeanue /a?ac 2, 4 ? 24 aiaeeie i?ney i?eeiio
?OI. Iaeiie/aiiy ?aae?ieiaeo a UC aecia/aeinue ii a?aeiioaiith aei
aaaaeaii? e?eueeino? ?OI (aei??yiiai a oaioii? oe? ca oioiaeieo
aaiiao?e/ieo oiia) o a?aenioeao.

Aaiia-oiiia?ao?y UC c oe?aio?iiiei ?OI. Aeey aaiia-oiiia?ao?? UC
aeei?enoiaoaaee ?OI 131I (aeoeai?noue 0,925 IAe), 99mTc — ia?oaoiaoao
(aeoeai?noue 37 IAe). Neaioaaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue ia neaia?? IA-9200
(Aaia??y).

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ooieoe?? UC ? ?? oeaio?aeueiiai ?aaoeyoi?a —
a?iio?co i?iaiaeeee ?aae?i?ioiieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aeanue
eiioeaio?aoe?y a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? o?eeiaeoe?ii?io (O3), oe?ieneio (O4) ?
oe?io?ii?io (OOA) c aeei?enoaiiyi noaiaea?oieo ne?iaaoie ca?oa?aeieo
o??i ? ?inoeoooo a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i?? AI A?ei?on??. Eioeaio?aoe?y OOA
ae?aaeaeanue a i?e?-iaeeieoeyo ia e?o?, O3 ? O4 — a iaiiiieue ia e?o?.

Ii?oieia?/iiio ? oeeoieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith i?aeeyaaea oeaieia
UC an?o 188 oai?eo. Aoaeiiii aeey eiio?ieth ae?aaiico caoai?thaaiiy UC
noaee noaiaea?oi? a?noieia?/i? aeniiaee, iaea?aeai? i?ney aeine?aeaeaiiy
iia?aoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo.

Caa?? a?iin?eiiai iaoa??aeo aeey a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
cae?enithaaany aaciina?aaeiuei a ia?aaeiia?aoe?ei?e. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
?c aeaeaeaii? oeaieie UC ae??caeenue 8-10 eoni/e?a ?c cii, ye?
i?e?ineii?/ii iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aeaee aoceiooai?aiith (aocie, ae?eyiee,
i?aeic??e? ia iooeeiiee ??no, ciia eainoee /e ciia iaae? iooeeie ?
oeaieie caeice, yea ioi/o? aocie). Iacee — a?aeaeoee iaea?aeoaaee
ia?aaaaeii c ae??caieo aeey a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eoni/e?a UC.

Oiieiaieueia ioieoe?y UC a ia?aaeiia?aoe?ei?i ia??iae?
i?iaiaeeeanue c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaie iaoiaeo e?euee?niiai
? ye?niiai aiae?co aiaoii?/ii? no?oeoo?e UC.

Aeey a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aiooaaeenue ia?ao?iia? c??ce
oeaieie UC, yeo o?enoaaee a 10% ?ic/ei? iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io, eio??
caaa?aethaaeeny aaiaoienee?iii ? aiceiii, i?e?iooeneiii ii Aai-A?ciio,
aeueoe?aiiaei nei?i, eiiai-?io ia ai?ei?ae; i?iaiaeeee O?E-?aaeoe?th.
Iaoa??ae aeey oeeoieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (ani??ao ? iacee a?aeaeoee
caaa?aethaaeenue ca iaoiaeii Iaiiaiaaeia).

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. I?e aiae?c?
iaoieia?? UC iaoa??ae eeaneo?eoaaee a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aeia?iaeii?
eeaneo?eaoe?? (AIC, 1986): aoceiaaoee cia, oe?ai?aeeoe, aaeaiiia ? ?ae
UC. sse aoaeii i?aaeeueiino? ae?aaiico i?eeiaeeny ?acoeueoaoe
a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeaeaiiai i?aia?aoo (oi? /e ?ioi?
ae?eyiee UC). ?iciiae?eaiiy oai?eo ca ae?aaiicii ia i?aenoaa?
?acoeueoao?a i?neyiia?aoe?eii? a?noieia?? iiaeaii a oaae.1.

Oaae.1 ?iciiae?eaiiy oai?eo aiae?ciaaieo a?oi ca oa?aeoa?ii iaoieia??

Oa?aeoa? iaoieia??

Iniiaia

a?oiaA?oia ii??aithaaiiy??ci? oi?ie ciao 54 52Oe?ai?aeeoe 20
15Aaeaiiie 15 12Ceiye?ni? iiaiooai?aiiy 11 9

Ae?aaiinoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia iniia? a?coae?c?oe?? UC
a nenoai? oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao.

Iniiaith aeaiiai iaoiaeo ? aecia/aiiy i?iaeoe?? UC, a?coae?caoe?y
yei? ia ieiueio a nenoai? eii?aeeiao (oiiia?ao?/io n?oeo)
cae?enith?oueny c aeiiiiiaith oeueo?acaoeiaiai neaioaaiiy.

Oeae niin?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia eii?aeeiaoi?e n?ooe? o?eno?oueny
oeaio? ae??caiiy a?oaeeie ye ia ci?uaia ii a?aeiioaiith aei ueoiaeaeii?
caeice ooai?aiiy ( ca oiiae o?eniaaiiai iieiaeaiiy oai?iai). A?i
i?eeia?oueny ca oi/eo a?aee?eo /e ioeueiao e?aieo ? eaaei aecia/a?oueny
ia ae?ai? i?e oeueo?acaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii?. I?e aeeiiaii?
aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny iiaoaeiaa ?aaeueii? i?iaeoe?? UC
eiie?aoiiai oai?iai ia eii?aeeiaoi?e n?ooe? ii a?aeiioaiith aei
ae??caiiy a?oaeeie. Oea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ?, aieiaia, iai/ii
i?iaeaiiino?oaaoe ?ici??e ? eiio?ao?aoe?th naii? caeice, eieae?caoe?th,
aeeaeio ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ? aca?ii?icoaooaaiiy aeyaeaieo iaoieia?/ieo
ia’?eo?a a oiau? UC a ?aaeueieo ianooaaao. I?iaeoe?y UC a nenoai?
eii?aeeiao ? ia ia?aaeith iiaa?oith oe? a ?aaeueieo ianooaaao aea?
iiaeeea?noue ieaioaaiiy ia’?io iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ? o??o?a?/iiai
aeinooio.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea iaianaiiy eiioo?o UC ia noaio ne?aeoth/a: c
aeiiiiiaith iaeeaaeaiiai ia oeth aeao/eea OCAe o?eno?oueny ioeueiaa
e?aiea. Oiaoi oeaio? ae??caiiy a?oaeeie ye iniiaa a?aee?eo an?o
aeenoaioe?e. Iio?i aecia/athoue a?aenoaiue aei e?aeiuei? oi/ee
ieaeiueiai iiethno i?aai? aeie? UC a?ae ai?eciioaeueii? ? aa?oeeaeueii?
a?nueiai? e?i??, yea i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac ioeueiao e?aieo. Iaea?aeaio
e?aieo o?enothoue ia eii?aeeiaoi?e n?ooe?. Aiaeia?/ii a?aei?/athoue an?
e?aei? e?aiee aeieae ? ia?aoeeea.

Aeae? an? iaianai? ia eii?aeeiaoio n?oeo oi/ee c’?aeiothoue ieaaiith
e?i??th. Oea aeicaiey? aeaiiino?aoeaii a?aeia?aceoe eiioo? aeaii? UC ia
ieiuei? a nenoai? eii?aeeiao. Oeae aoai ? aaciaei i?e oeueo?acaoeiaiio
aeine?aeaeaii? oai?eo c iaoieia??th UC. I?ney ae?aaiinooaaiiy
iaoieia?/ieo ooai?aiue a oiau? UC aiaeia?/ii a?aei?/athoue ia
eii?aeeiaoi?e n?ooe? e?aei? ai?eciioaeuei? ? aa?oeeaeuei? e?aiee e?no,
aoce?a ? o.i., iaea?aeothoue ?o eiioo? (i?aeoe/ii a?aeia?aaeaiiy).
Aeeaeio ?icoaooaaiiy oeeo ooai?aiue a?ae iiaa?oi? oe? aei ia?aaeiuei? ?
caaeiuei? no?iee (oiaoi ii noo? ? oiauei? ooai?aiiy) oeacothoue aeaiia
oeeo?aie a ii (a /ene?aieeo aei ia?aaeiuei? no?iee, a ciaiaiieeo aei
caaeiuei?) (?en. 1).

wmetafile8? ??l*???J*?????????? ??????? _°????J*?C
?I???_°????_°????(???°??_????????PP????????????????????
??????? ?? ?
???????????????? ??

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?!!!?»»»?###?$$$?%%%?&&&?»’?(((?)))?***?+++?,,,?—?…?///?000?111?222
?333?444?555?666?777?888?999?:::?;;;?<<>>?????@@@?AAA?BBB?CCC?DDD
?EEE?FFF?GGG?HHH?III?JJJ?KKK?LLL?MMM?NNN?OOO?PPP?QQQ?RRR?SSS?TTT?UUU?VVV
?WWW?XXX?YYY?ZZZ?[[[?]]]?^^^?___?«`?aaa?bbb?ccc?ddd?eee?fff?ggg?hhh?iii
?jjj?kkk?lll?mmm?nnn?ooo?ppp?qqq?rrr?sss?ttt?uuu?vvv?www?xxx?yyy?zzz??||
|??~~~???????en. 1. A?coae?caoe?y UC c iaoieia?/iei ina?aaeeii a
nenoai? eii?aeeiao

Aecia/aiiy eieae?caoe?? iaoieia?/iiai ia’?eoo ii a?aeiioaiith aei

a) oeaio?aeueii? oi/ee ae??cee a?oaeeie ye a?aei?aaii? ioeueiai? oi/ee
nenoaie eii?aeeiao;

a) iiethnai ca?ioa?aniaaii? aeie? ? ia?aoeeeo UC;

a) ia?aaeiuei? ? caaeiuei? no?iee eainoee UC, ui ?iaeoue iiaeeeaei
i?iaaaeaiiy i?eoe?eueii? a?iin??.

I?aeoe/ia iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeo aoea aeiaaaeaia a
aenia?eiaio?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai? ia 20 o?oiao. A naeoe?ei?e aeeiioaaeinue OCAe UC
o?oia, ui aeicaieeei aecia/eoe ?aci?uaiiy UC. Iio?i ia eii?aeeiaoio
n?oeo iaiineeinue ye i???ioe? ae??cea a?oaeeie ? /a?ac e?aieo,
?icoaoiaaio a ?? oeaio??, i?iaiaeeeany naa?oaeueia e?i?y. Ca aeaieie
OCAe ia noaio iaiineeinue a?aeia?aaeaiiy UC, aecia/aeinue ?icoaooaaiiy
aeieae.

I?ney oeueiai, iath/e ia ?oeao o?eueee noaiaoe/ia cia?aaeaiiy UC c
oiiaiei “iaoieia?/iei ina?aaeeii” (aa?oi?e /e ieaei?e iiethn UC,
ia?aoeeie ? oaea ?ioa), cao?eniaaiei aeia?eueii ia eii?aeeiaoi?e n?ooe?,
ia ia?aaei?e iiaa?oi? oe? o?oia a?aecia/eee c aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueii?
i’yaei? e?i?eee eii?aeeiaoe UC ? e?aiie, a?aeiia?aeieo cacaeaeaa?aeue
caieaiiaaiei ii noai? “iaoieia?/iei ina?aaeeii”. A e?aieo (oi/i?oa,
ae?eyiea ia a?eueoa 3 ii a aeeaiao??) aaiaeeee eiio?anoio ?a/iaeio
(o??iia?ano 0,3). I?ney oeueiai aeeiioaaee aeno??iaoe?th UC ?
?aioaaiia?ao?th (oaoi?/iee ?aaeei ?aioaaiia?ao??: 40Eao, 40Iai, 0,20
nae) a i?yi?e i?iaeoe??. Ni?aiiaeaiiy “oia?ee” eiio?anoii? ?a/iaeie ia
?aioaaiia?ai? c aeieath, yea a?aei?/aia ia noai?, ye caieaiiaaia aeey
ioieoe??, na?ae/eei i?i oi/i?noue iiiaaeaiiy.

A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe, a naia a??ia?aei?noue io?eiaiiai
ae?aaiico, aeaio aa??aio?a ae?aaiinoe/ieo aeai?eoi?a a iniiai?e a?oi?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaaeoaaeiny iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie iaoiaeeeaie,
a??ia?aei?noue yeeo i?aeaeuoaaeanue ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy
oiiia?ao?/ii? nenoaie eii?aeeiao aeey ia’?iii? a?coae?caoe?? UC.

A a?oi? ii??aiyiiy aeei?enoiaoaaany i?aeoe/ii iiaiee ae?aaiinoe/iee
“iaa??”, yeee iiaea aooe aeeiiaiee o?eueee o aeinoaoiuei no/ani?e,
aeia?a iaeaaeiai?e ee?i?oe?. Iaeiae, i?e c?noaaeaii? a??ia?aeiino?
??cieo ae?aaiinoe/ieo iaoiaeee, ?o aa?oino?, aeyaeaii ?yae
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?e aeoaea aenie?e aa?oino? aeathoue aeinoaoiuei
iecueeee a?aenioie aeinoia??ieo ?acoeueoao?a (?aae?iioee?aeia
ae?aaiinoeea, EO), a oie aea /an, ye OCAe OAA, IA, iathoue aenieo
a??ia?aei?noue i?e iecueeeo aeiiii?/ieo cao?aoao. Aeniea aeinoia??i?noue
iaea?aeaieo a iniiai?e a?oi? ?acoeueoao?a ioieoe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee
aecia/eeanue aeei?enoaiiyi nenoaie eii?aeeiao, ui caaacia/eei
i?eoe?euei?noue ioieoe?? ?, ioaea, aeaei iiaeeea?noue i?aaeeueii
ioe?ieoe iayai? a?noieia?/i? ci?ie.

A??ia?aei?noue aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo i?e iniiaieo iaoiaeao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
? ?o aa?o?noue c?noaaeai? ia ?en.2.

wmetafile8? ??c?? ?-???????? ???????yyy????????????
)&???

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yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

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????yyy???? ???????)&???????’yy???

????yyy???? ???????)&???????’yy???

????yyy???? ???????$!?????ue???????????-?
???u?????????»????-????
???????????????$?FI?—O?[?O?g?I?FI????ue??aaa????-?
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aaa??????????$?[?O?[??g??g?I?[?O????$?g?I?g??F?FI?g?I?
???§??en.2 A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ??cieo ae?aaiinoe/ieo
iaoiaeee ? ?o aa?o?noue.

Iaoiaeeea aei?iaoaaia a ee?i?oe?: oai?? iniiaii? a?oie, yeo
aiae?cothoue, iia?iaai? ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co noeoiiino? aeaieo,
iaea?aeaieo i?e aeei?enoaii? cai?iiiiiaaiiai ae?aaiinoe/iiai aeai?eoio c
o?aooaaiiyi a?ao?/iiai cia?aaeaiiy UC ia ieiuei? a nenoai? eii?aeeiao ?
i?iaeoe?? ia ia?aaeith iiaa?oith oe? a ?aaeueiiio ianooaa? ( 100
oai?eo), 88 oai?eo a?oie ii??aiyiiy iia?iaai? ca eeane/ieie i?eioeeiaie.
A iniiai?e a?oi? aeeiiai? ianooii? iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy (oaa.2).

Oaae.2 Oa?aeoa? aeeiiaieo o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue o oai?eo iniiaii? a?oie.

Aeaeaeaiiy iaei??? aeie? UC17Aeaeaeaiiy iaei??? ? ?acaeoe?y ae?oai?
aeie? UC37Noaoioaeueia ?acaeoe?y46

Iiaeeea?noue iiia?aaeiueiai aiae?co cia?aaeaiiy UC, yeee iaea?aeothoue
ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee, c o?aooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a
aeiiia?aoe?eii? a?iin??, oi/i?noue eio?i? oaeiae caaacia/o?oueny
aeei?enoaiiyi a?ao?/iiai cia?aaeaiiy UC a nenoai? eii?aeeiao, aeicaiey?
aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae ii/aoeii iia?aoe?? nieaioaaoe ?? ia’?i. Oaeei
/eiii, c iaeiiai aieo, iiaeia oieeiooe iaaei??ii? o?aaiaoecaoe?? ye
oeaiei, ui ioi/othoue, oae ? naii? caeice, c ?ioi? noi?iie, i?aeoe/ii
aeeeth/aii a??ia?aei?noue iaaeinoaoii? ?aaeeeaeueiino? i?iaaaeaiiai
o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy. Ia i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaiiai cia?aaeaiiy o??o?a
iiaea aeeiiaoe eiaeiee ?icoei iaeneiaeueii aaeaeaaoii ii a?aeiioaiith
aei iayaiiai iaoieia?/iiai ooai?aiiy, ye aocea, oae ? an??? UC.

Aeei?enoaiiy a?ao?/iiai cia?aaeaiiy caaacia/o? iaiaaeaio aeiiiiio
?acaeoe?th, aeicaiey? oaeei /eiii caa??aaoe a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae? o a?eueoino? oai?eo ooieoe?th UC ia aeinoaoiueiio ??ai?. An?
oe? /eiieee a eiiieaen? i?eaiaeyoue aei ciaioaiiy o?eaaeino? iia?aoe?? ?
cieaeothoue ?ecee i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue.

Ia i?aeoeoe? iaoiaeeea canoiniaoaaeanue oaeei /eiii. Aaciina?aaeiuei ia
iia?aoe?eiiio noie? o??o?a, ui ia? ia ?oeao noaiaoe/ia cia?aaeaiiy UC ia
ieiuei? a nenoai? eii?aeeiao a?aeiinii ae??cee a?oaeeie, a?aei?/aa c
aeiiiiiaith ?ic/eio a?eeueyioiaiai caeaiiai ia oe??? ia?aaeiuei?
iiaa?oi? oe? an? iayai? iaoieia?/i? ooai?aiiy (aocee). Cacaeaeaa?aeue
ciath/e a?noiei?/iee oa?aeoa? oeeo aoce?a, o??o?a ieaioaaa ia’?i
iia?aoe??.

I?e aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy iniiaii? a?oie oai?eo ie aeyaeee, ui
o?eaae?noue iia?aoe?? i?e aeei?enoaii? a?ao?/iiai cia?aaeaiiy UC, ca
iaoeie aeaieie, neeaea a na?aaeiueiio 249oa. i?e iiai?e a?aenooiino?
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue. ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co o?eaaeino? iia?aoe??
o oai?eo ??cieo iicieia?/ieo a?oi c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaii?
iaoiaeeee ? aac ia? iiaeaii a oaaeeoe? 3.

Oaae. 3 Aiae?c o?eaaeino? iia?aoe?? o oai?eo ??cieo iicieia?/ieo a?oi.

Ae?aaiic O?eaae?noue

iia?aoe?? o oai?eo

iniiaii? a?oie

( a oaeeeiao ) O?eaae?noue

iia?aoe?? o oai?eo

a?oie,yea ii??aith?oueny

( a oaeeeiao )??ci? oi?ie ciaa

Aaeaiiie

Oe?ai?aeeoe

?ae

31,5_+3

25,4_+4

34,1_+2

34,1_+2

35,2_+4

30,1_+6

34,4_+3

37,4_+3

Ia ?en. 3 iiaeaii aeeiai?eo ci?ie o?eaaeino? iia?aoe?? i?e aeei?enoaii?
cai?iiiiiaaii? noaie (ca aiaeia?/iee o?ueioe?oi?e i?ii?aeie).

wmetafile8? ?? ???@???????? ???????yyy????????????
??I???

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yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy????4?????5????’yy??? ???????

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???u?????????»????-????ue??yyy??????-????
yyy???????????????????°?I????
???u??????????»????-????-????’yy??? ???????

????-????-??????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???
???????

????-????-??????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???

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yyy??????I??????-????-????’yy???

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yyy??????I??????-????-????’yy???

????-????-???????????
yyy??????I??????ue??aaa????-?
???u?????????»????-?????????
aaa???????????$?%?5?5?…?%?…?%?5????m?AL?,
???u?????????»????-?????????5?%????yyy????5????…?
???…?%????5?%????-????-????’yy???

????-????-????yyy???? aaa?????I???
???u??????????»????-?????????5?%????????????…?%????
uoy???????en.3 O?eaae?noue iia?aoe?? ( a oaeeeiao )

Oaeei /eiii, ia iniia? ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/ieo c?noaaeaiue ??cieo
eiiieaen?a aeine?aeaeaiue aeae?eaiee noaiaea?oiee ae?aaiinoe/iee
eiiieaen ia iniia? a?coae?caoe?? UC a nenoai? eii?aeeiao. I?iaeoe?y UC
ia ia?aaeith iiaa?oith oe? a ?aaeueiiio ianooaa? aeicaieeea iai/ii
ieaioaaoe iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy ?, oaeei /eiii, cieceoe o?eaae?noue
iia?aoe?? ? ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo.

Aeniiaee:

1. Noai?aia noaia a?coae?caoe?? UC a nenoai? oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao,
yea aeicaiey? a ?aaeueiiio ianooaa? aeaaaoe i?iaeoe?th UC ? iaoieia?/ieo
ooai?aiue a i?e ia ia?aaeith iiaa?oith oe? a?aeiinii oeaio?o ae??cee
a?oaeeie.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a aeicaiey? iai/ii nieaioaaoe iia?aoeaia
ao?o/aiiy, ciaioeoe o?aaiaoe/i?noue iia?aoe??, cieceoe o?eaae?noue
?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. Oey noaia ia aeeeth/a? ?aaec?th i?ae /an
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy, aea na?eueoo? ?ioi?iaoe?th a aeiiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae?.

3. I?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo i?iaeoe?? cia?aaeaiiy UC ? ??
iaoieia?/ieo ina?aaee?a ia ia?aaeith iiaa?oith oe? a ?aaeueieo ianooaaao
aeicaieeei cieceoe o?eaae?noue oa c?iaeoe iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy a?eueo
iaae?eiei.

4. I?iaaaeaiiy ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/ieo c?noaaeaiue ??cieo eiiieaen?a
ae?aaiinoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe a i?aeoe/io
ioi?iio caei?ia’y noaiaea?oiee eiiieaen ae?aaiinoe/iiai ianoaaeaiiy.

5. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue noai?aia ea?oa aeeiai?/iiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy, yea aeicaiey? oi?o?eoaaoe i?aeo?ae aei ae??oaiiy
ae?aaiinoe/ieo ? oaeoe/ieo ieoaiue ? caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue
niaaeei?iiino? i?e aeeiai?/iiio niinoa?aaeaii? ca oai?eie.

I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??

1.Aeei?enoaiiy noaiaea?oiiai eiiieaeno ae?aaiinoe/iiai ianoaaeaiiy c
a?coae?caoe??th UC, a oiiaao c?inoaiiy iioieo oai?eo, aeicaieeoue
nei?ioeoe /an ianoaaeaiiy, caa?aaoe eiai ye?noue, ciaioeoe aeiiii?/i?
cao?aoe.

2.Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy o oai?eo c
o??o?a?/ieie caoai?thaaiiyie UC ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
a?coae?caoe?th UC a nenoai? oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao aeey iai/iiai
ieaioaaiiy aeinooio ? ia’?io iia?aoe?e.

3.A i?aeoe/io ioi?iio caei?ia’y ?aeiiaiaeiaaia noaiaea?oia ea?oa
aeeiai?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy, yea aeicaiey? iai/ii i?ine?aeeoaaoe ca
aeeiai?eith caoai?thaaiiy UC ye aei iia?aoe?? oae ? a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae?.

4.Canoinoaaiiy i?iaeoe?? UC ? ?? iaoieia?/ieo ooai?aiue ia ia?aaeith
iiaa?oith oe? a ?aaeuei?i ianooaa? aeicaieeoue c aaeeeith
aeinoia??i?noth i?iaiaeeoe ioieoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?ae?e iniiaieo ?ia?o, iaae?oeiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Oiieiaean I.A.//Ia?aaeiia?aoe?eia ae?aaiinoeea caoai?thaaiue

ueoiaeaeii? caeice/ Oe?. ?aae?ieia?/iee AEo?iae.-1998.- ?4.-

N. 472-476

2. Oaa/aiei N.E., Oiieiaean A.A., Oaa/aiei ?.N.//Niinia

aecoaeecaoeee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu a nenoaia eii?aeeiao

/Eeei. Oe?o?aey.-1999.-?6.-N. 44-45.

3. Oaa/aiei N.?., Oiieiaean I.A. Iaoaio 20355 A. Niin?a

e?euee?niiai ? ye?niiai aiae?co aiaoii?/ii? no?oeoo?e

/Cayaeaii 27.01.97; Iioae. 15.07.97 // Athe.?1.

4. Oiieiaean A.A., Oaa/aiei ?.N. //Niinia aeeiaie/aneiai

iaaethaeaiey iaoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia a ueoiaeaeiie aeaeaca /

Iaaeeoeeia nueiaiaei? ? caao?a.-1999.-?1.-N.19-21.

5. Oaa/aiei N.E., Oiieiaean A.A., Oaa/aiei ?.N.//Iiauoaiea

ea/anoaa aeeaaiinoeee caaieaaaiee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu ia

iniiaa aecoaeecaoeee e noaiaea?oecaoeee ianeaaeiaaiey/ Ee?i.

O??o?a?y.-1999.-?7.-N.19-21.

6. Oaa/aiei N.E., Oiieiaean A.A., Oaa/aiei ?.N.// Nia?aiaiiua aniaeou
eino?oiaioaeueiie aeeaaiinoeee caaieaaaiee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu /
A?a/aaiay i?aeoeea.-1999.-?3.-N.60-65.

7. Oiieiaean A.A.//I?iaoee?iaaiea ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu a nenoaia

oiiia?aoe/aneeo eii?aeeiao / Nai?iee ?aaio iao/ii-

i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie 15-eaoeth eaoaae?u

oe?o?ae/aneeo aieaciae. Oa?ueeia, naioya?ue 1998.-N 206-207.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oiieiaean I.A. Ee?i?i?ei-ii?oieia?/i? c?noaaeaiiy a ae?aaiinoeoe? ?
o??o?a?/iii e?eoaaii? caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.03 — o??o?a?y.- Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Ia iniia? ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/ieo c?noaaeaiue iaa?oioiaaiee aea??
noaiaea?oiiai eiiieaeno ae?aaiinoe/iiai ianoaaeaiiy i?e o??o?a?/iiio
caoai?thaaii? UC.

Noaiaea?oiee eiiieaen ianoaaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia i?ea?iaeueiiio niinia?
a?coae?caoe?? UC.

I?iaeoe?thaaiiy UC a nenoai? oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao a oiio /ene? ? ia
ia?aaeith iiaa?oith oe? a ?aaeuei?i ianooaa? aeicaiey? iai/ii ieaioaaoe
iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy.

Oeacaii ia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy noaiaea?oii? ea?oe aeeiai?/iiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy i?e o??o?a?/ieo caoai?thaaiiyo UC. Eeth/ia? neiaa:
ae?aaiinoeea, ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/i? c?noaaeaiiy, a?coae?caoe?y UC,
nenoaia eii?aeeiao, noaiaea?oia ea?oa niinoa?aaeaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oiieiaean A.A. Eeeieei-ii?oieiae/aneea niiinoaaeaiey a aeeaaiinoeea e
oe?o?ae/aneii ea/aiee caaieaaaiee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.03 — oe?o?aey. — Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa aieueiuo n caaieaaaieyie UAE iio?aaoao eciaiaiee
oaeoe/aneeo iiaeoiaeia a ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu auno?ie, ea/anoaaiiie e
yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiie aeeaaiinoeee. N oeaeueth iieo/aiey iaeaieaa
iieiie e oi/iie aeeaaiinoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee i oa?aeoa?a iaoieiae/aneeo
eciaiaiee iaaethaeaaiuo o iaoeeaioia n caaieaaaieyie UAE aeieaeiu auoue
eiiieaeniuie i?e ieieiaeueii aiciiaeiuo eo/aauo iaa?oceao e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ianeaaeiaaiey.

Ia iniiaaiee eeeieei-ii?oieiae/aneeo niiinoaaeaiee iainiiaai auai?
noaiaea?oiiai eiiieaena aeeaaiinoe/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey i?e
oe?o?ae/aneeo caaieaaaieyo UAE.

Noaiaea?oiue eiiieaen ianeaaeiaaiey aace?oaony ia i?eaeiaeueiii niiniaa
aecoaeecaoeee UAE. I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea ?aaiou ninoieo a ?ac?aaioea
aeai?eoia aeeaaiinoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee o iaoeeaioia n caaieaaaieyie
UAE. Aeieacaia aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey nenoaiu oiiia?aoe/aneeo
eii?aeeiao, eioi?ay iicaieyao iauaiii aecoaeece?iaaoue UAE ii aeaiiui
oeueo?acaoeiaiai neaie?iaaiey. I?iaaaeaiiay ia iniiaa iaoeo
enneaaeiaaiee noaiaea?oecaoeey aeeaaiinoeee iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue
eiee/anoai aeeaaiinoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee e iaania/eaaao aunieoth
yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue. Eniieueciaaiea aaeeiie noaiaea?oiie ea?ou
aeey aeeiaie/iiai iaaethaeaiey ca aieueiuie iaeaa/aao ?aoaiea caaea/
i?eainoaaiiinoe a iaaethaeaiee e ea/aiee aieueiiai iinea auienee aai ec
oe?o?ae/aneiai noaoeeiia?a a iieeeeeieeo ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa.

I?iaoee?iaaiea UAE a nenoaia oiiia?aoe/aneeo eii?aeeiao a oii /enea e ia
ia?aaeithth iiaa?oiinoue oae a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa iicaieyao iaaeyaeii
ieaie?iaaoue iia?aoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai, a cia/eo iaania/eoue
iaeneiaeueii oaeiaiue aeinooi, ?aaeeeaeueiinoue e i?aaiinio?aiyaiinoue
iia?aoeee

Oeacaii ia oeaeaniia?aciinoue eniieueciaaiey, i?e oe?o?ae/aneeo
caaieaaaieyo UAE, noaiaea?oiie ea?ou aeeiaie/aneiai iaaethaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeaaiinoeea, eeeieei-ii?oieiae/aneea niiinoaaeaiey,
aecoaeecaoeey UAE, nenoaia eii?aeeiao, noaiaea?oiay ea?oa iaaethaeaiey.

The summary

A.A. Tonkoglas. Clinic and morphological comparisons in diagnostics and
surgical treatment diseases of thyroid gland.- Manuscript.

Thesis for scientific degree of Candidate of Medical Science in
speciality 14.01.03. — Surgery — Kharkov State Medical University,
Kharkov, 1999.

On the basis of clinic and morphological comparisons the choice of a
standard complex of diagnostic inspection is reasonable at surgical
diseases TG.

The standard complex of inspection is based on an original way of
visualization TG. Projection of the TG in system of topographical
coordinates including on a forward surface of a neck in real scale
allows evidently to plan operative intervention.

Is specified on expediency of use, at surgical diseases TG, standard
card of dynamic supervision.

Key words: diagnostics, clinic and morphological comparisons,
visualization TG, system of coordinates, standard card of supervision.

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