6

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

A?IIEOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?I.I.?.IE?IAIAA

OAeE 618.3 — 002.6

E?ssOEI AAIAAe?E IAO?IAE*

EE?I?EI-AI?AeAI?IEIA?*I? INIAEEAINO? AEOOA?NUeEI? OA IA?EIAOAEUeII?
IAOIEIA?? I?E ??CIEO OI?IAO NEO?E?NO

14.01.01 — Aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

A?iieoey -1998

Aeenn?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1 Ee?anueei?
iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea.

IAOEIAEE EA??AIEE:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaeiae/aiei TH??e Iao?iae/,caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1 Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie.

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaci?/oe Ai?en Oaaei?iae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1 A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.?.Ie?iaiaa;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ia?e?i Eaii?ae Ai?eniae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?IA?AeIA ONOAIIAA:

?inoeooo iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e
iaoieia?? aaa?oiino? oa iieia?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “_29_”_a?oaeiy_ 1998 ?ieo i _12_
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee (E 05.600.01) i?e
A?iieoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.I.?.Ie?iaiaa ca
aae?anith: 286018, i.A?iieoey, aoe.Ie?iaiaa, 56.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.?.Ie?iaiaa.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_17_”eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiae.iaae.iaoe, aeioeaio Iieeaeueei M.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ca inoaii? ?iee a?aei?/a?oueny cia/iee ??no
neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe??, a ia?oo /a?ao, na?aae ianaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai
a?eo, i?e/iio ye o ian a e?a?i?, oae ? a e?a?iao aeeaeiueiai ca?oa?aeaey
N.O.Aeueiooaiaoia, 1992; E.Ae.Eaethaeia oa ni?aaao.,1996). Oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie iia??oaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai noaio ethaeae, iiyae
nioe?aeueia iani?eyoeeaeo oa??a ianaeaiiy, iecueeiai ??aiy naenoaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy, e?aa?ae?caoe?? noaoaaeo noinoie?a oiui (?.?.Iaa?ia? ?
ni?aaao., 1989; A.?.Coaeei, 1990; J.Oheme, 1990). E??i oiai,
ca?eueoo?oueny a?aenioie iae?eiaaiiai neo?e?no, yeee aeyaey?oueny aia?oa
i?e caa?oaii? ethaeae ca iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith. AE?iee ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai
a?eo, a no?oeoo?? oai?eo ia neo?e?n, neeaaeathoue a?eueo 60%, i?e/iio
/anoeia c ieo i?iaiico? a?aeoai?aiiy iioiinoaa. Ia aeoieo iacaeaaeieo
aenia?o?a AIIC, a Oe?a?i? ia? i?noea i?ia?anoth/a ai?aeai?y neo?e?no
(J.H.How et al., 1994; A.Wisdom, 1994).

A iao /an ?niothoue iaai? o?oaeiiu? a o?aeoiaoe? aeayeeo na?ieia?/ieo oa
ee?i?/ieo aeaieo o aaa?oieo, ye? no?aaeaeathoue ??cieie oi?iaie
neo?e?no, ui ia’?eoeaii ni?ey? iiya? ae?oae c iciaeaie a?iaeaeaiiai
neo?e?no. I?e oeueiio, o ae?iie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo ??ci? oi?ie
neo?e?no aeyaeythoueny i?e aaa?oiino? o?eueee a 45-62% aeiaaee?a
(I.I.A?oothiiaa, 1992).

Aeai? a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e ii i?iaeai? aeooa?nueei? oa
ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? o aaa?oieo c neo?e?nii ?
i***********************************************************************
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*********ine?aeaeaiue a oeueiio iai?yieo aeicaieeoue, ia iao iiaeyae,
anoaiiaeoe ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aeooa?nueei? oa
ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? o aaa?oieo c ??cieie oi?iaie neo?e?no.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeeiiaia iaoeiai-aeine?aeia ?iaioa ? o?aaiaioii iaoeiai? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1 Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, ? ae.?. 0196 40
10590.

Iaoa ?iaioe ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa ?iaioe: cieceoe /anoioo aeooa?nueei? oa ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? o
aaa?oieo c ??cieie oi?iaie neo?e?no ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy ?o
ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oa ?ic?iaee eiiieaeno
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. I?iaanoe ee?i?ei-noaoenoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy caoai?thaaiino? neo?e?nii
ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a (1993-1997) a ??cieo ?aa?iiao e?a?ie: Ee?anueea ?
*a?i?aaoeueea iaeanoue, a oaeiae aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei.

2. C’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao aaa?oiino?, iieia?a oa
i?neyiieiaiaiai ia??iaeo i?e ??cieo oi?iao neo?e?no.

3. Anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? noaio oaoiieaoeaioa?iiai eiiieaeno a ??ci?
oa?i?ie aaa?oiino? i?e ??cieo oi?iao neo?e?no.

4. Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ia?eiaoaeueii? oa iinoiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? i?e
??cieo oi?iao neo?e?no.

5. ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii cieaeaiith /anoioe aeooa?nueei?
oa ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? o aaa?oieo c ??cieie oi?iaie neo?e?no.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii
eiiieaen e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a uiaei cieaeaiiy /anoioe
aeooa?nueei? ? ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? o ae?iie c ??cieie oi?iaie
neo?e?no ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiy ee?i?/ieo, ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?
aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oaoiieaoeaioa?iiai eiiieaeno o aaa?oieo c
neo?e?oe/iith ?ioaeoe??th.

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
caoai?thaaiino? ia neo?e?n ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a a iniiaieo ?aa?iiao
e?a?ie. Oea aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? iaaeeei-nioe?aeueieo
oaeoi??a aeaii? iaoieia?? ? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe iniiai? i?eioeeie cieaeaiiy
caoai?thaaiino? ia neo?e?n.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaia no?oeoo?a
ee?i?/ieo oi?i neo?e?no o aaa?oieo ae?iie. Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee
eiio?ieth ca ia?aa?aii aaa?oiino?, iieia?a, i?neyiieiaiaiai ?
iaiiaoaeueiiai ia??iae?a i?e neo?e?oe/i?e ?ioaeoe??.

?ic?iaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeno
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a o aaa?oieo c ??cieie oi?iaie
neo?e?no ? iaoith cieaeaiiy /anoioe aeooa?nueei? ? ia?eiaoaeueii?
iaoieia??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Ieaioaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy an?o
aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiiaii aeena?oaioii ca ia??iae c 1996 ii 1998 p.p.
Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeai? ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy caoai?thaaiino?
neo?e?nii ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a a iniiaieo ?aa?iiao e?a?ie. I?iaaaeai?
ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?i? ianoaaeaiiy 172 ae?iie c ??cieie oi?iaie
neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe??. Naiino?eii i?iaaaeaii caa?? oa i?aeaioiaeo
a?ieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo. Cia/ia /anoeia eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeeiiaia aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii oa ca eiai o/anoth.

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii cieaeaiith /anoioe
aeooa?nueei? oa ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? o aaa?oieo ae?iie c ??cieie
oi?iaie neo?e?no. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea io?eiaieo aeaieo i?iaaaeaia
aeeeth/ii aaoi?ii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaii? anioe?aoe??
aeooa??a-a?iaeieia?a Ee?anueei? iaeano? (/a?aaiue, 1998); ia can?aeaii?
anioe?aoe?? aeooa??a-a?iaeieia?a i.Ee?aa (/a?aaiue ,1998); ia can?aeaii?
i?iaeaiii? eii?n?? “Aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y” Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe (aa?anaiue, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith eaiaeeaeaonueei? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii /ioe?e
ae?oeiaai? i?aoe?, o?e c yeeo a oeaio?aeueiiio aeo?iae? «Iaae?ao??y,
aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y», i?e/iio iaeia naiino?eia.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 120 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno, neaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, ?icae?eo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeaio ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?o iaaiai?aiiy,
aeniiae?a oa iieaae/eea e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 100 a?o/eciyieo oa 76
ca?oa?aeieo aeaea?ae. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 22 oaaeeoeyie oa 17
iaethieaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia’?eo, iaoiaee oa iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiue. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c
iaoith ? caaea/aie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ie i?iaaee iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy
a aeaa aoaie. Ia ia?oiio i?iaaaeaiee ee?i?ei-noaoenoe/iee oa
ai?aeai?ieia?/iee aiae?c caoai?thaaiino? neo?e?nii ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a
(1993-1997) a o?ueio iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie: Ee?anuee?e, *a?i?aaoeuee?e oa
?ani.E?ei.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? aea/eee iniaeeaino? aeooa?nueei? oa ia?eiaoaeueii?
iaoieia?? o 172 ae?iie c iniiaieie oi?iaie neo?e?no, yeee aoa
ae?aaiinoiaaiee i?ae /an aaa?oiino? ? aiia cae?i/eeanue iieiaaie.
Ia?aeiiee neo?e?n (na?iiiceoeaiee, na?iiaaaoeaiee ? i?eoiaaiee) iaa
i?noea o 96 oai?eo, a aoi?eiiee (na?aeee ? ?aoeeaeeaiee) o 76
ianoaaeaieo. An? aiie aoee ?iciiae?eai? ia /ioe?e a?oie a caeaaeiino?
a?ae oi?ie neo?e?no: ? — 39 ae?iie c ia?aeiiei neo?e?nii (na?iiiceoeaiee
? na?iiaaaoeaiee); II — 48 ae?iie c aoi?eiiei na?aeei neo?e?nii; ??? —
28 ae?iie c aoi?eiiei ?aoeeaeeaiei ? IV — 57 ae?iie c i?eoiaaiei ?aii?i
(ia?aeiiei) neo?e?nii.

Aacoiiaii, i?e iaai?? ee?i?/iiai iaoa??aeo ie cono??/aee ? ?io? oi?ie
neo?e?no, aea oea iaei i?noea a iiiaeeiieeo aeiaaeeao, ui ia aeicaieeei
iai aeae?eeoe ?o a ie?aio a?oio.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aea/aii
caaaeueia /enei ca?a?no?iaaieo oai?eo ia neo?e?n a eiaei?e a?oi?
ai?iaeiaae inoaii?o 5 ?ie?a. E??i oiai, iaie a?aei?/aiee iieaciee
caoai?thaaiino? ia 100 000 ianaeaiiy a oaeiio ae aniaeo?. Oi?eath/enue
no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co aeaii? iaoieia??, ie?aii aeae?eyee a?aeiinio
caoai?thaai?noue ae?iie oa /ieia?e?a ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo, ae?oae (0-14
?ie?a), n?euenueeiai oa i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae nioe?aeueiee
neeaae oai?eo ia neo?e?n.

Aeuaiienaiee eiiieaen ee?i?ei-noaoenoe/ieo oa ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieea i?aaenoaaeoe iaea?eueo iiaii an? iniaeeaino?
caoai?thaaiino? ia neo?e?n ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a ii iniiaiei ?aa?iiai
Oe?a?ie. I?e i?iaaaeaii? ee?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ie a?aoiaoaaee a?e
oai?eo, nioe?aeueiee noai, iniaeeaino? iaino?oaeueii? oa ?ai?iaeoeoeaii?
ooieoe??, ia?aianaio aai?oaeueio oa niiaoe/io iaoieia?th.

Oeueo?acaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia aia?aoao «Toshiba»,
«Aloka» oa «Phillips» (ssiii?y, I?ia//eia). Nei?ioeeao ae?yeuei?noue
iaoee aea/aee ca aeiiiiiaith ea?ae?ioieia?aoa «A?iiaaeeea» (?oae?y)
iaoiaeii ciai?oiuei? a?noa?ia?ao??. Aeey ?icoeo?oaaiiy ea?ae?ioieia?ai
ieiaea aeei?enoiaoaaee aaeueio ioe?ieo ca oeaeith A.N.Aioue? (1988).

A?aoiaoth/e aenieo /anoioo ai?eii-caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue a
i?neyiieiaiaiio ? iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?, aaaaeaee ca aeioe?eueia
i?iaanoe a?eueo ci?noiai? aaeoa??ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
(A.I.Iaiueoeeia, 1993).

Iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e A.?.Aaeueaa/ueiaa oa A.N.E?enaae/a (1989).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy.

Ca?aeii iaoiaeieia?/iiio i?aeoiaeo aei aeeiiaiiy aeaii? iaoeiai? ?iaioe
ia ia?oiio aoai? ie aeei?enoiaoaaee ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a o?ueio iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie, eiaeia c yeeo i?aaenoaaey?
iaaiee ?aa?ii.

Aiae?coth/e caaaeueio caoai?thaai?noue ii an?i o?ueii ?aa?iiai
(ii??aiyii c 1993 ?ieii) a?aei?/aii ??no ia 117%, oiaoi a?eueo i?ae a 2
?ace. I?e oeueiio, iaea?eueo ae?aaeaia ca?eueoaiiy a?aeaoeiny a
?ani.E?ei — a 2,4 ?ace; a oie /an ye a Ee?anuee?e iaeano? a 2,2 ?ace ? a
*a?i?aaoeuee?e — a 1,8 ?ace. ?icaeyaeath/e io?eiai? aeai? o /aniaiio
aniaeo? iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe, ui iniiaiee ??no neo?e?no a?aeaoany aei
1997 ?ieo, a a iiaeaeueoiio neooaoe?y noaa?e?coaaeanue.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiio ? oie oaeo, ui caoai?thaai?noue neo?e?nii ia
100 000 ianaeaiiy ca 5-??/iee ia??iae nii/aoeo c?inea a 1995 ?ioe? aei
264,6; a iio?i a 1997 ?ioe? ciaioeeanue aei 222,4 ia 100 oeny/.

A?aeiinii aenieee ??aaiue ae?iie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo a no?oeoo??
caaaeueii? caoai?thaaiino? neo?e?nii ca aeaieie a?o/eciyii? oa
ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e (N.E.Aeaieeia,1986; N.O.Aeueiooaiaoia,1992;
A.Mindel et al., 1993) a?aei?/aany caaaeaee. Ca?aeii io?eiaieo iaie
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, yeui 5 ?ie?a oiio oeae iieaciee neeaa, a
na?aaeiueiio, 50%, oi iei? a?i c??n aei 60%, ui iiaeia ?icoe?ithaaoe ye
iani?eyoeeaee oaeo a ieai? caei?ia’y ae?ii/iai ianaeaiiy
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo. I?e i?iaaaeaii? ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ie ioe?ithaaee a?aeiinio caoai?thaai?noue n?euenueeiai oa
i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aea/a?ia
no?oeoo?a ci?ieeanue a a?e ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aaae iaoeaioe?a i?noa, o
a?aeiioaii? 65% aei 35%, i?e oiio, ui 5 ?ie?a oiio iaee i?noea ??ai?
i?iii?oe??. Ia iao iiaeyae, anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? na?ae/aoue i?i
aeaa iiiaioe. A ia?oo /a?ao, oea a?eueo e?aa?ae?ciaai? noaoaa? noinoiee
na?aae i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue iaaeaiiy
ae?aaiinoe/ieo oa e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino?.

A e?oa?aoo?? inoaii?o ?ie?a i?iaiaeeoueny aeaaaa aeeneon?y i?i ci?ie
n??oeoo?e ??cieo ee?i?/ieo oi?i neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe?? (I.I.A?oothiiaa,
1992; R.Zimmermann, 1993). I?iaaaeai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ca ia??iae
1993-1997 p.p. na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui a 1993 ?ioe? a no?oeoo?? aeaiiai
caoai?thaaiiy ia?aaaaeaee ia?aeiiee (42,3%) oa aoi?eiiee na?aeee neo?e?n
(31,4%). Oi?eath/enue ieoiii? aaae aoi?eiiiai ?aoeeaeeaiiai neo?e?no
ne?ae a?aei?oeoe oie oaeo, ui i?ioyaii anueiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo oey aaee/eia, i?aeoe/ii, ia ci?ithaaeanue (c 16,8% aei 16,2%).
Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeueiai, a?aeiiniee ??aaiue i?eoiaaiiai ?aiiueiai
neo?e?no iino?eii ca?eueooaaany: c 9,5% a 1993 ?ioe? aei 32,9% a
1997?ioe?. Ii/eiath/e aaea c 1996 ?ieo a no?oeoo?? iniiaieo oi?i
neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe?? ia?aaaaeaa i?eoiaaiee ?aii?e — 34,4% i?ioe
ia?aeiiiai — 23,2% ? aoi?eiiiai na?aeiai neo?e?no — 27,3%. Io?eiai? iaie
aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i nooo?a? ci?ie eeane/ii? ee?i?/ii? neiioiiaoeee, a
oaeiae ? i?i aaaeeeao ?ieue noiooi?o i?aii?a?aeieo oaeoi??a, ye?
iaaeathoue aeinoaoiueiai aieeao ia ee?i?/i? i?iyae neo?e?oe/ii?
?ioaeoe??.

Ie aaaaeaee ca aeioe?eueia i?aaenoaaeoe ie?aiei o?aaiaioii iniaeeaino?
a?aeiinii? caoai?thaaiino? i?eoiaaiei ?aii?i neo?e?nii ii o?ueii
?aa?iiai ? ia??iaeai. Oi?eath/enue oeeo iiiaio?a acaaae?, ne?ae aeacaoe
ia nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeaii? iaoieia?? o an?o aeiaaeeao. I?e
aiae?c? aeaieo aaciina?aaeiuei Ee?anueei? iaeano? ne?ae a?aei?oeoe
ia?aaiii??iee ??no aea/a?ii? aaee/eie aaea c 1994 ?ieo, ui i?ecaaei aei
oiai, ui a 1997 ?ioe? aeaiee iieaciee aoa ia ii?yaeie aeua na?aae
i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy (14,6% i?ioe 8,4%). Aiaeia?/io caeiiii??i?noue ie
niinoa??aaee ye a *a?i?aaoeuee?e iaeano? (15,0% ii??aiyii c 5,1%), oae ?
a ?ani.E?ei (15,4% i?ioe 4,5%). I?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe iai/ii
na?ae/aoue i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii? aaae i?eoiaaiiai ?aiiueiai neo?e?no,
a iniiaiiio, na?aae i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Nioe?aeueiee oaeoi? ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy a ieoaiiyo caoai?thaaiino?
neo?e?nii (N.E.Aeaieeia,1986; E.I.Aaneeaaneay,1991) ? i?eionoeoe oaeee
oe?eaaee iiiaio ie ia iiaee. Oae, a 1993 ?ioe? a no?oeoo?? aeaii?
iaoieia?? ia?aaaaeaee neoaeaiaoe? (21,4%); ?ia?oieee oi?a?ae? (20,8%) ?
nooaeaioe (18,7%). Aeae?eueea ??aeoa oea iaei i?noea o
n?eueaini?ia?oiee?a (10,1%) oa ?ia?oiee?a ina?oe (9,7%). Iiae?aia
no?oeoo?a caa??aaeanue aei 1995 ?ieo. C 1996 ?ieo c?inea a?aeiiniee
??aaiue o/i?a na?aaei?o oe?e (c 5,3% aei 15,3%) oa aac?ia?oieo (c 4,9%
aei 12,4%) ia oii? cieaeaiiy /anoioe neo?e?no o neoaeaiaoe?a (c 21,4%
aei 9,2%). Aei caeeth/iiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai oa?i?io iniiaio /anoeio
nioe?aeueiiai neeaaeo oai?eo caeiaee nooaeaioe (19,1%); o/i? na?aaei?o
oe?e (18,3%); ?ia?oieee oi?a?ae? (16,8%) ? aac?ia?oi? (14,8%).
Aiae?coth/e cia/io ci?io nioe?aeueiiai neeaaeo oai?eo iiaeia aeae?eeoe
na?aae iniiaieo i?e/ei e?aa?ae?caoe?th noaoaaeo noinoie?a na?aae
i?aee?oe?a c iecueeei ??aiai nai?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy
/enea aac?ia?oieo ii an?e e?a?i?, a iniaeeai na?aae ianaeaiiy
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo.

Ioaea, ye iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a a iniiaieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie a?aeaoany cia/iee ??no
caoai?thaaiino? neo?e?nii. I?e oeueiio, ci?ieeanue no?oeoo?a iniiaieo
ee?i?/ieo oi?i aeaii? iaoieia?? a a?e cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy i?eoiaaiiai
?aiiueiai neo?e?no. E??i oiai, ci?ieany ? nioe?aeueiee neeaae oai?eo,
iniaeeai o a?eiaiio aniaeo?: o/i? na?aaei?o oe?e ? nooaeaioe
neeaaeathoue cia/io /anoeio oai?eo ia neo?e?n. A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui
iniiaio /anoeio caeiathoue ae?iee ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo, io?eiai? aeai?
i?aaenoaaeythoue aacnoii?aiee ?ioa?an ia o?eueee c iiceoe?e e?ea??a
aea?iaoi-aaia?ieia?a, aea ? aeooa??a-a?iaeieia?a.

sse ie aaea a?aei?/aee ?ai?oa, ee?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai? o
172 aaa?oieo ae?iie, oai?eo ia neo?e?n, ye? aoee ?icae?eai? ia /ioe?e
a?oie a caeaaeiino? a?ae ee?i?/ii? oi?ie aeaii? iaoieia??. Iae/ano?oa
niinoa??aaee i?eoiaaiee ?aii?e (33,1%) ? aoi?eiiee na?aeee neo?e?n
(27,9%). E??i oiai, a 22,7% aeiaaee?a iaa i?noea ia?aeiiee ? a 16,3% —
aoi?eiiee ?aoeeaeeaiee neo?e?n. A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui aeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeeiiai? a 1996-1997 pp., oaea no?oeoo?a, a
iniiaiiio, a?aeia?aaeo? iniaeeaino? iniiaieo oi?i neo?e?no a iao /an.

Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i
iniiai? a?oie ?eceeo neo?e?no, a oiio /ene? ? na?aae aaa?oieo: o/i?
oe?e, nooaeaioee ? aac?ia?oi?. Oea aeicaiey? iai ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe
i?aeneeaiiy ??aiy nai?oa?ii? i?iiaaaiaee na?aae iaaieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi
uiaei i?io?eaeoeee ? nai?/anii? ae?aaiinoeee neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe??,
iniaeeai a aeiaaeeo ieaioaaiiy o ieo aaa?oiino?.

Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? ae?iie aei aeaii?
aaa?oiino? ia? i?iaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy a ieai? ?? ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao
(A.A.Aa?aoiaa,1988; E.Ae.Eaethaeia oa ni?aaao., 1996). Aiae?coth/e
aiaiianoe/i? aeai? ianoaaeaieo oai?eo, a ia?oo /a?ao, iaiao?aeii
a?aecia/eoe iecueeo ieoiio aaao aia?oaaaa?oieo (11,0%) ?
aia?oaia?iaeaeoth/eo (47,1 %). *anoioa a?oeo?oe?eieo, ieiia?eueieo oa
i?ci?o aai?o?a aoea a?aeiinii aenieith (52,4%; 13,1% ? 9,2%). Iaiiaeia
ia a?aei?oeoe i?e ioe?ioe? iniaeeainoae ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? ? oaeee
iieaciee, ye iaie?aei?noue a aiaiiac? (aeecueei 17,0%), ui na?ae/eoue
i?i iayai?noue aaaeaii? aaa?oiino? ?yaeo oai?eo.

I?e ioe?ioe? ??aiy ia?aianaii? aai?oaeueii? iaoieia?? caa?oa? ia naaa
oaaao aenieee ??aaiue o?ii?/ieo caiaeueieo caoai?thaaiue o an?o a?oiao
(44,6%), a oaeiae iaoieia?/i? ci?ie oeeee iaoee (35,3%). Iacaaaeath/e ia
cia/io /anoioo ia?aianaieo a?iaeieia?/ieo caoai?thaaiue o ae?iie ana ae
oaee ianooieea aaa?oi?noue, ui aacoiiaii, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e
ee?i?/i?e ioe?ioe? iniaeeainoae ?? ia?aa?ao, ye? i?aeoe/ii, ia iienai? a
e?oa?aoo??. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeueiai, ??aaiue aeno?aaai?oaeueii?
iaoieia?? aoa ia ii?yaeie ieae/a c ia?aaaaeaiiyi aiaeie?eiieo (16,2%) oa
na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiue (14,6%).

Ocaaaeueithth/e ?acoeueoaoe aeaiiai aoaio iaoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
caneoaiaothoue iaaii? oaaae aeai?, io?eiai? i?e aea/aii? nioe?aeueiiai
neeaaeo oai?eo, a oaeiae aenieee ??aaiue aioo??oiueiiaoeiaeo ao?o/aiue c
i?eaiaeo a?oeo?oe?eieo, ieiia?eueieo oa i?ci?o aai?o?a ? aai?oaeueii?
iaoieia?? ca ?aooiie caiaeueieo i?ioean?a oa iaoieia?/ieo ci?i oeeee
iaoee. A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui an? aeiaaeee ii?aeiaiiy neo?e?no ?
aaa?oiino?, ?icaeyioo? iaie, iaee i?noea a iieiainiii?aeieo caeeaaeao,
ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ie aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia ?icaeeaeoenue oa?i?ie
ae?aaiinoeee neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe??. Oae, o an?o iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiiyo
oey iaoieia?y, a iniiaiiio, aoea ae?aaiinoiaaia i?ney 20 oeaei?a
aaa?oiino? (85-90%). O aeiaaeeo ae?aaiinoeee neo?e?no o aaa?oieo a
a?eueo ?aii? oa?i?ie, ?? ?aeiiaiaeoaaeinue ia?a?eaaoe o ca’yceo c
aenieei ?eceeii ia?eiaoaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue ? iiaeeeaino? ??cieo
aiiiae?e ?icaeoeo o ieiaea. Nai aea i?ioean ae?aaiinooaaiiy aeeth/aa a
naaa ee?i?/i? ? aeiaeaoeia? iieacieee, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeai? ?acoeueoaoaie
eaai?aoi?ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ?aei o ae?iie c ia?aeiiei neo?e?nii, iae/ano?oa a?i
aoa ae?aaiinoiaaiee a ?aiiueiio i?neyiieiaiaiio ia??iae? (20,0%). Oea
noino?oueny, a iniiaiiio, oeo aeiaaee?a, eiee a aeooa?nueeee noaoe?iia?
iinooiathoue iaianoaaeai? ae?iee a iieiaao. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiio
neoaeeoue oaeiae oie oaeo, ui a 12,8% aeiaaee?a aeaia iaoieia?y aoea
ae?aaiinoiaaia a iieiaao, a a 10,3% — a 37-40 oeaei?a aaa?oiino?.
Aeae?eueea ?ioo ea?oeio ie niinoa??aaee o ae?iie c aoi?eiiei na?aeei
neo?e?nii. Oae, iaea?eueo /anoi oey iaoieia?y a aeai?e a?oi?
ae?aaiinooaaeanue a 29-32 oeaei?a (16,7%), a oaeiae a 25-28 oeaei?a ? a
iieiaao (ii 14,6%). Aoi?eiiee ?aoeeaeeaiee neo?e?n aoa aeyaeaiee a 29-32
oeaei?a ? a 33-36 oeaei?a (ii 17,9%) ? e??i oiai, a 37-40 oeaei?a ? a
?aiiueiio i?neyiieiaiaiio ia??iae? (ii 14,2%). Iaea?eueo oe?ieee
ae?aiacii oa?i?io aaa?oiino? aeyaeaiee iaie o oai?eo c i?eoiaaiei ?aii?i
neo?e?nii (a?ae 13 aei 40 oeaei?a). Ii?yae c oeei iiaeia aeae?eeoe, ye
iaea?eueo /ano?, oa?i?ie 28-32 oeaei?a ? 33-36 oeaei?a (ii 15,8%).
Aacoiiaii, oa?i?ie aeyaeaiiy neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe?? caeaaeaoue a?ae
iiiaioo caa?oaiiy a iaaee/i? caeeaaee i?e iiya? ia?oi? ee?i?/ii?
neiioiiaoeee. A oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee iiaa eaea i?i aaaeaio aaa?oi?noue ?
iiaeeea?noue ?? aeiiaooaaiiy, iae/ano?oa ae?aaiinoeea a?aeaoaa?oueny c
28 aei 36 oeaei?a, iniaeeai i?e aoi?eiiiio ? i?eoiaaiiio ?aiiueiio
neo?e?n?. Iniiaieie ee?i?/ieie i?iyaaie neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe?? o
aaa?oieo ae?iie aoee iacia/i? iioeiaeaeaiiy neeciaeo, iiiaeeiie?
«ea?eeeia?» oaiea?e ? iaoiaee e?ioaaeai?o (i?e ia?aeiiiio neo?e?n?),
?icaieueiciee aenei a iaeano? neeaaeie, ae?eyiee aeai?aiaioaoe?? ?
eaie?noue aieinny (i?e aoi?eiiiio).

Iaaaoeaiee aieea neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe?? ia ia?aa?a aaa?oiino? ia
aeeeeea? i? o eiai noii?a?a (I.I.A?oothiiaa,1988; B.Azeze et al., 1995).
Ii?yae c oeei, aaoi?e aeacothoue ia oe?ieee ae?aiacii ??cieo
oneeaaeiaiue ? nooi?iue ?o ae?aaeaiino? c a?aooaaiiyi oiai oaeoo, ui
na?aae ianoaaeaieo iaie ae?iie aei 20 oeaei?a aaa?oiino? neo?e?n aoa
ae?aaiinoiaaiee a iiiaeeiieeo aeiaaeeao, ie ia iiaeaii a?aei?oeoe
aoaeue-yeeo iniaeeainoae a ? iieiaei? aaa?oiino?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
oeueiai, a II iieiaei? ie anoaiiaeee ?yae niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae.
Iniaeeai iai/ii oea i?inoaaeo?oueny a /anoio? ??cieo i?iya?a
oaoiieaoeaioa?ii? iaaeinoaoiino? (iaei- oa aaaaoiaiaeaey, cao?eiea
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo ieiaea, iaoieia?/i? ci?ie a ieaoeaio?
oiui). Oae, a ? a?oi? oeae ??aaiue neeaa 30,8%; a II — 48,0%; a III
-60,7% ? a IV — 68,4% aeiaaee?a. Oea aeicaieeoue iai c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?ioa, ui ii i??? cieaeaiiy ae?aaeaiino? ee?i?/ii? neiioiiaoeee
neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe??, c?inoa? /anoioa ii?ooaiue a
iaoeiai-ieaoeaioa?iiio eiiieaen?. E??i oiai, aiaeia?/io caeiiii??i?noue
ie niinoa??aaee ? i?e ioe?ioe? ??aiy aiai?? aaa?oieo (25,6%; 29,6%;
42,9% ? 50,9%), a oaeiae i?ci?o oieneeic?a (10,3%; 16,7%; 20,7% ?
21,1%). Ioaea, o?eaae?noue ciaoiaeaeaiiy i?e?iaiiai aaaioa a i?aai?ci?
iaoa?? ia? aeoaea aaeeea cia/aiiy a ieai? ?icaeoeo ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue,
iniaeeai, II iieiaeie aaa?oiino?. Aacoiiaii, anoaiiaeai? ooo niaoeeo?/i?
caeiiii??iino? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e ?ic?iaoe? ieaio
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a o aaa?oieo c neo?e?oe/iith
?ioaeoe??th, iniaeeai o aeiaaeeo i?ciuei? ae?aaiinoeee (i?ney 28
oeaei?a) aai aeoaea aaaeaii? aaa?oiino? ca ??cieie i?e/eiaie.

I?e?iaeiuei, ui i?e oaeiio aenieiio ??ai? oneaaeiaiue II iieiaeie
aaa?oiino?, iaaiee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaeythoue aeai? i?i iniaeeaino?
oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ieaoeaioe. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? oie oaeo, ui ie ia anoaiiaeee nooo?aeo
??cieoeue iaoieia?? ieaoeaioe, eio?o iiaeia ae?aaiinooaaoe i?e
oeueo?acaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae oi?ie neo?e?oe/ii?
?ioaeoe??. Na?aae ??cieo c’ynoaaiue oeueiai oaeoo iiaeia aeae?eeoe, ia
iao iiaeyae, iani?eyoeeaee i?aii?a?aeiee oii, a oaeiae nai?/anii
?icii/aoa e?eoaaiiy i?e ia?oeo ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo i?iyaao neo?e?no.

?acthioth/e ?acoeueoaoe aeeiai?/ieo oioiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaiao?aeii c?iaeoe caeeth/aiiy i?i oa, ui iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaee, c
ia?eiaoaeueii? iiceoe??, ? i?eoiaaiee ?aii?e neo?e?n. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?icaeoeii cao?eiee aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?inoo
ieiaea, a iniiaiiio, ca neiao?e/iei aa??aioii.

Caaaeueiia?aeiii, ui ?ioaeoe?y aoaeue-yei? eieae?caoe?? a iaoa?einueeiio
i?aai?ci? nooo?ai i?aeaeuo? ?ecee ?icaeoeo ia?aae/aniiai ia?a?eaaiiy
aaa?oiino? (A.A.Aieoaoeia, 1987; A.E.Coaeei,1990; E.Ae.Eaethaeia oa
ni?aaao., 1996). Ca?aeii io?eiaieo aeaieo, /anoioa ia?aae/anieo iieia?a
neeaea 10,3% a ? a?oi?; 12,5% — a II; 14,3% — a III ? 17,5% — a IV a?oi?
ianoaaeaieo. Na?aae iniaeeainoae ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao iieia?a iaiao?aeii
a?aei?oeoe oie oaeo, ui /anoioa ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue caeaaeaea a?ae oi?ie
neo?e?no ? aoea iaea?eueo aenieith i?e i?eoiaaiiio neo?e?n?.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiio neoaeeoue a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue ia?aae/aniiai
?ic?eao ieiaeiaeo iaieiiie (21,0% i?ioe 15,4%; 16,7% ? 17,9%); aiiiae?e
iieiaiai? ae?yeueiino? (26,3% ii??aiyii c 20,5%; 20,8% ? 21,4%) ?
iaoeiaeo e?iaioa/ (28,0% i?ioe 20,5%; 25,0% ? 25,1%). Oea aeicaiey? iai
a?aeianoe aaa?oieo ae?iie c i?eoiaaiei ?aii?i neo?e?nii aei a?oie
aenieiai aeooa?nueeiai ?eceeo.

Ia?eiaoaeueia iaoieia?y ? i?aaeiaoii ??cieo aeeneon?e o a?o/eciyi?e oa
ca?oa?aei?e e?oa?aoo?? (N.?.Aeiaaeainueeee, 1984; ?.A.Eaiea?a oa
ni?aaao., 1989; G.Duarte et al., 1994). I?e oeueiio, ?aeeii? aeoiee i?i
aieea ee?i?/ii? oi?ie neo?e?no ia nooi?iue ia?eiaoaeueieo ao?ao aei
oeueiai /ano iaia?. I?e ioe?ioe? iaoieia?/ieo noai?a ieiaea, iia’ycaieo
c oaoiieaoeaioa?iith iaaeinoaoi?noth, yeeie ? iac??e?noue oa a?iio?io?y
ie eiinoaooaaee oie oaeo, ui iaeiaioee ??aaiue aeaii? iaoieia?? iaa
i?noea i?e ia?aeiiiio neo?e?n? — 30,7%. I?e iaio aa??aioao aoi?eiiiai
neo?e?no oey aaee/eia iacia/ii i?aeaeueeanue — aei 33,3% ? 32,0%
a?aeiia?aeii. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeueiai, a IV a?oi? aeaiee iieaciee
aeinyaaa 40,3%. Ia iao iiaeyae, oe? a?aei?iiino? aeaiiino?othoue
??cieoeth a noai? oaoiieaoeaioa?iiai eiiieaeno, yea ?. Iacaaaeath/e ia
oae? iniaeeaino?, ??aaiue ??ciiai nooiaith ano?en?? caeeoaany,
i?aeoe/ii, iaci?iiei o an?o a?oiao — a?ae 41,0% aei 52,0%. E??i oiai,
ooo iaie anoaiiaeaiee ? cia/iee iieaciee ia?eiaoaeueii? nia?oiino?. I?e
aeaoaeueiiio eiai aiae?c? a?eueo aenie? cia/aiiy iathoue i?noea a III ?
IV a?oiao — 107,1%i ? 105,3%i ii??aiyii c 76,8%i ? 83,3%i a ? ? ??
a?oiao a?aeiia?aeii. sseui a ? ? III a?oiao no?oeoo?a ia?eiaoaeueii?
nia?oiino? a?eueo iaeii??aeia, oi a II ? IV a?oiao — ia?aaaaeaea
iinoiaoaeueia caaeaaeue iiaiia?iaeaeaiiai, i?eaeecii, a eiaeiiio
ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo (50%). Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i
aenieee nooi?iue ia?eiaoaeueiiai ?eceeo, eio?ee ia? i?noea o aaa?oieo c
??cieie oi?iaie neo?e?no. Iaei??th c i?e/ei ?icaeoeo oaeiai ??aiy
oneeaaeiaiue, aacoiiaii, iiaea aooe oaoiieaoeaioa?ia iaaeinoaoi?noue,
yea ?icaeaa?oueny o a?aeiia?aeue ia iayai?noue neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe??.
I?e oeueiio, naiei iani?eyoeeaei aa??aioii ? i?eoiaaiee ?aii?e neo?e?n,
i?e yeiio i?e?iaiee aaaio o?eaaei ciaoiaeeoueny a i?aai?ci? aaa?oii? ? o
a?aeiia?aeue ia oea ?icaeaathoueny ??ci? iaoieia?/i? noaie, a oiio /ene?
? c aieo oaoiieaoeaioa?iiai eiiieaeno.

A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui, i?aeoe/ii, an? ianoaaeai? ae?iee e?eoaaeenue
i?ae /an aaa?oiino?, ie ia niinoa??aaee yaieo ?aii?o oi?i i?e?iaeaeaiiai
neo?e?no. Ii?yae c oeei, aiae?c caoai?thaaiino? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
iieacaa, ui ia aeeeth/aia iiaeeea?noue iiyae neiioii?a a?iaeaeaiiai
neo?e?no o a?aeaeaeaiiio iaiiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?. Na?aae ??cieo
iicieia?/ieo oi?i iiaeia aeae?eeoe a?iiene/ii-?oai?/io aioeaoaeiiao?th
(a?ae 45 aei 50%) oa aioo??oiueioo?iaia ?io?eoaaiiy (a?ae 25 aei 28%),
i?e oeueiio nooo?ai? ??cieoe? i?ae a?oiaie ooo ia niinoa??aaee.
Ii??aiyii c oeei, ??aaiue iinoiaoaeueieo ai?eii-caiaeueieo caoai?thaaiue
aoa ia ii?yaeie aeua i?e i?eoiaaiiio ?aiiueiio neo?e?n? — 64,9% i?ioe
46,2%; 54,2% ? 35,7% a ?aoo? a?oi. Iniaeeai oio?einy a coieieoenue ia
oae?e iaoieia??, ye inoaioiiae?eo e?noie oa noaeia?a, yea iiaea aooe
iciaeith a?iaeaeaiiai neo?e?no. Oae, ?? iaea?eueo aeniea /anoioa ia?
i?noea a IV a?oi? — 12,3% ii??aiyii c ?aooith (7,7% — ? a?oia; 10,4% —
II ? 10,7% — III). Cia/iee ??aaiue iinoiaoaeueii? caoai?thaaiino?
na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue niaoeeo?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aeaii? a?oie, i?e/iio c a?aooaaiiyi oi?i neo?e?no o
iaoa??.

Aiae?coth/e oneeaaeiaiiy i?neyiieiaiaiai ia??iaeo, caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao
aenieee ??aaiue ai?eii-naioe/ieo caoai?thaaiue, a oaeiae ii?ooaiue
eiio?aeoeeueii? ooieoe?? iaoee a i?neyiieiaiaiio ia??iae?. *anoioa
ia?oeo eieeaaeanue a?ae 18,0% a ? a?oi? aei 31,7% a IV a?oi?, a ae?oaeo
— a?ae 59,0% aei 68,4% o oeeo aea oai?eo. Iaeiei c iiyniaiue oeueiai ?
cia/ia i?e?iaia ian?iai?iiy iieiaiaeo oeyo?a a i?neyiieiaiaiio ia??iae?.
*enei ae?iie-aaeoa??iiin?eie aoei aeoaea aenieei — a?ae 85,7% aei 87,4%,
a /enei anioe?aoe?e a?ae 1,7 aei 1,8 ia iaeio ae?ieo. Na?aae ??cieo
aeae?a i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ia?aaaaeaee ooaie noao?eieiea — a?ae 46,1% aei
50,0% ? o?aaieacia — a?ae 33,3% aei 36,8%. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? oie oaeo, ui ie ia niinoa??aaee nooo?aeo
i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo ??cieoeue a caeaaeiino? a?ae oi?ie ia?aianaii?
neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, ye iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?aianaia
neo?e?oe/ia ?ioaeoe?y i?ae /an aaa?oiino? ? nooo?aei oaeoi?ii ?eceeo
?icaeoeo ??cii? aeooa?nueei? oa ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia??. I?e oeueiio,
ia? i?noea ae?aaeaia caeaaei?noue nooiaith aaaeeino? ??cieo oneeaaeiaiue
a?ae oi?ie neo?e?no.

AENIIAEE

1. Ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a a iniiaieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie a?aeaoany ??no
neo?e?oe/ii? ?ioaeoe?? ia 117%, i?e oeueiio, iaea?eueo ae?aaeaiee
aa??aio c?inoaiiy a?aeaoany a ?ani.E?ei — a 2,4 ?ace; a oie /an ye a
Ee?anuee?e iaeano? a 2,2 ?ace ? a *a?i?aaoeuee?e — a 1,8 ?ace.

2. AE?iee ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo a no?oeoo?? caaaeueii? caoai?thaaiino?
neo?e?nii neeaaeathoue 60%.

3. Nioe?aeueiee neeaae oai?eo ia neo?e?n a iao /an oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ia?aaaaeaiiyi nooaeaio?a (19,1%); o/i?a na?aaei?o oe?e (18,3%);
?ia?oiee?a oi?a?ae? (16,8%) oa aac?ia?oieo (14,8%).

4. O aaa?oieo ae?iie, oai?eo ia neo?e?n, iathoue i?noea /ioe?e iniiai?
oi?ie neo?e?no: i?eoiaaiee ?aii?e (33,1%); aoi?eiiee na?aeee (27,9%);
ia?aeiiee: na?iiiceoeaiee ? na?iiaaaoeaiee (22,7%) oa aoi?eiiee
?aoeeaeeaiee (16,3%).

5. *anoioa ??cieo i?iya?a oaoiieaoeaioa?ii? iaaeinoaoiino? caeaaeeoue
a?ae ee?i?/ii? oi?ie neo?e?no ? neeaaea? i?e ia?aeiiiio — 30,8%;
aoi?eiiiio na?aeiio — 48,0%; aoi?eiiiio ?aoeeaeeaiiio — 60,7% oa
i?eoiaaiiio ?aiiueiio — 68,4% aeiaaee?a.

6. ??ci? oneeaaeiaiiy a iieiaao ?icaeaathoueny /ano?oa o ae?iie c
i?eoiaaiei ?aii?i neo?e?nii, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?eueo aenieei
??aiai ia?aae/aniiai ?ic?eao ieiaeiaeo iaieiiie (21,0%); aiiiae?yie
iieiaiai? ae?yeueiino? (26,3%) oa iaoeiaeie e?iaioa/aie (28,0%).

7. A?aeiiniee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo a?iio?io?? oa iac??eino? ieiaea aeua o
ae?iie c i?eoiaaiei ?aii?i neo?e?nii (40,3%), oaeiae ye ? /anoioa
iinoiaoaeueieo ai?eii-caiaeueieo caoai?thaaiue (64,9%).

8. Inoaioiiae?eo e?noie oa noaeia?a, ye iaeei c iniiaieo ee?i?/ieo
i?iya?a a?iaeaeaiiai neo?e?no, cono??/a?oueny iae/ano?oa i?e i?eoiaaiiio
?aiiueiio neo?e?n? (12,3%), a oie /an ye i?e aoi?eiiiio ?aoeeaeeaiiio
oeae iieaciee neeaaea? 10,7%, i?e aoi?eiiiio na?aeiio — 10,4% ? i?e
ia?aeiiiio (na?iiiceoeaiee, na?iiaaaoeaiee) — 7,7%.

9. Na?aae oneeaaeiaiue i?neyiieiaiaiai ia??iaeo o ae?iie, ye? ia?aianee
neo?e?n i?ae /an aaa?oiino?, caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao aenieee ??aaiue
ai?eii-naioe/ii? caoai?thaaiino? (a?ae 18,0% aei 31,7%) a oaeiae
ii?ooaiue eiio?aeoeeueii? ooieoe?? iaoee a i?neyiieiaiaiio ia??iae?
(a?ae 31,7% aei 68,4%) ia oii? aenieiai i?e?iaiiai ian?iai?iiy iieiaiaeo
oeyo?a (a?ae 85,7% aei 97,4%).

10. O aeiaaeeo i?ieiiaoaaiiy aaa?oiino? i?ney 20 oeaei?a o ae?iie c
neo?e?oe/iith ?ioaeoe??th iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe eiiieaenio i?io?eaeoeeo
oaoiieaoeaioa?ii? iaaeinoaoiino? (aioeieneaeaioe, aioea?iienaioe,
a?eieneioacoth/? caniae ? a?oai?ie) i?ae eiio?ieai aoi- ?
ea?ae?ioieia?ao?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

11. I?e ?ic?iaeaeaii? ae?iie c neo?e?oe/iith ?ioaeoe??th iaiao?aeii
i?iaiaeeoe i?io?eaeoeeo aiiiae?e iieiaiai? ae?yeueiino? ? iaoeiaeo
e?iaioa/, a oaeiae ia’?eoeaiee eiio?ieue ca aioo??oiueioo?iaiei noaiii
ieiaea.

12. A i?neyiieiaiaiio ia??iae? c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee ai?eii-naioe/ii?
?ioaeoe?? ? ii?ooaiue eiio?aeoeeueii? ooieoe?? iaoee iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aioea?ioeee oeaoaeinii??iiaiai ?yaeo a niieo/aii? c
ooa?ioii?eaie ? ?ioiiei?aeoi?aie oe?ieiai niaeo?a ae??.

13. Ieoaiiy eaeoaoe?? o ae?iie, ye? ia?aianee neo?e?oe/io ?ioaeoe?th
i?ae /an aaa?oiino?, iaiao?aeii ae??ooaaoe noi?nii c
aea?iaoi-aaia?ieiaii c o?aooieii aeeiai?/ieo ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo
aeaieo.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. E?yoei A. I., sseei ss.N., sseei B.C. Iniaeeaino? aeooa?nueei? oa
ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? o ae?iie c neo?e?nii // Iaae?ao??y, aeooa?noai
oa a?iaeieia?y. — 1997. — ?5. — N.55-56.

2. Oa?aoa?e? I.A., ssuoeaae/ I.?., E?yoei A.I., Nai’yi?a I.A., Iaeueiee
I.A. Iniaeeaino? noaio i?noeaaiai ?ioi?oaoo i?e iaaii?ii? o?aai i’yeeo
oeaiei iieiaiaeo oeyo?a // Iaae?ao??y, aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y. 1997.
— ?6. — N.93-95.

3. E?yoei A.I. Neo?e?n oa aaa?oi?noue // Iaae?ao??y, aeooa?noai oa
a?iaeieia?y. — 1998. — ?2. — N.-123-130.

4. Eeyoei A.I. Aa?aiaiiinoue e ?iaeu i?e ?acee/iuo oi?iao neoeeena //A
na. Iao/i. o?. E?uineiai iaaeoieaa?neoaoa «I?iaeaiu, aeinoeaeaiey e
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo iaoe e i?aeoe/aneiai
cae?aaiio?aiaiey». — Neioa?iiieue. — 1997. — N.203-206.

AIIOAOe?ss

E?yoei A.I. Ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aeooa?nueei? oa
ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? i?e ??cieo oi?iao neo?e?no. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.01 — aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y. — A?iieoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa IIC Oe?a?ie.
-A?iieoey, 1997.

Caoeuathoueny /ioe?e iaoeia? ?iaioe, a yeeo ia i?aenoaa?
ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo oa aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino? aeooa?nueei? oa ia?eiaoaeueii? iaoieia?? i?e
??cieo oi?iao neo?e?no o aaa?oieo ae?iie. E??i oiai, ?ic?iaeai?
i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii cieaeaiith /anoioe aeooa?nueeeo oa
ia?eiaoaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue o aaa?oieo c neo?e?nii. Ana oea a noeoiiino?
aeicaieeei iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaeaeaiiy ae?iie c neo?e?oe/iith
?ioaeoe??th.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ee?i?ea, ai?aeai?ieia?y, aeooa?noai, ia?eiaoieia?y,
neo?e?n, i?io?eaeoeea, oneeaaeiaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eeyoei A.I. Eeeieei-yieaeaieieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeooa?neie e
ia?eiaoaeueiie iaoieiaee i?e ?acee/iuo oi?iao neoeeena. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.01 — aeooa?noai e aeiaeieiaey. Aeiieoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao ei. I.E.Ie?iaiaa ICI Oe?aeiu.
— Aeiieoea, 1997.

Caueuathony /aou?a iao/iua ?aaiou, a eioi?uo ia iniiaa
eeeieei-yieaeaieieiae/aneeo e aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey
onoaiiaeaiu iniaaiiinoe aeooa?neie e ia?eiaoaeueiie iaoieiaee i?e
?acee/iuo oi?iao neoeeena o aa?aiaiiuo aeaiuei. E?iia oiai, ?ac?aaioaiu
i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii nieaeaieth /anoiou aeooa?neeo e
ia?eiaoaeueiuo ineiaeiaiee o aa?aiaiiuo n neoeeenii. Ana yoi a
niaieoiiinoe iicaieeei oeo/oeoue ?acoeueoaou ?iaei?ac?aoaiey aeaiuei n
neoeeeoe/aneie eioaeoeeae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeeieea, yieaeaieieiaey, aeooa?noai, ia?eiaoieiaey,
neoeeen, i?ioeeaeoeea, ineiaeiaiey.

ANNOTATION

Kiyashko Gennady P. «Clinical and epidemiological pecularities of
obstetric and perinatal pathology in different forms of syphilis». —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 14.01.01 — obstetrics and
gynecology. State Medical University of Vinnitsa in N.I.Pyrogov
-Vinnitsa, 1997.

Four scientific works are discussed; they are devoted to the
establishment of the pecularities of obstetric and perinatal pathology
in pregnant women with different forms syphilis, confirmed by clinical,
epidemiological and other additional research methods. Practical
recommendations are offered to decrease the incidence of obstetric and
perinatal commplications in pregnant women with syphilis. This has
allowed to improve the results of delivery of women with syphilis.

Keywords: clinic, epidemiology, obstetric, perinatology, syphilis,
preventation, comphcations.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 22.10.98p.

Oi?iao 60o90/16. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,0. Iaeeaae 110.
Cai. 207.

i.*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Oe?a?inueea, 13. Ioi?oeeiaeueia aeaeaaieoeoai “I?noi”.

oae. 585-312, 585-311

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