I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

IAeANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss OIEIAeO

OAeE 536.48:621.596

?IAEAIOeAA Aiae??e A’y/aneaaiae/

EAI?Ess?II-II?ENO? NO?OEOO?E A OAA?AeEO OI-EIAeIAAAIOAO: OIIAE
OOAI?AIIss, OAIEIO?CE*-

I? AEANOEAINO?, OOIEOe?IIAEUeI? IIAEEEAINO?, NOAE?IAOe?EI?
IOIEIAeAEOAA*? IA ?OI?E INIIA?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.04.03 — oieiaeeeueia oa e??iaaiia oaoi?ea, nenoaie
eiiaeeoe?thaaiiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? oieiaeo

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ni??iia Aai??o Oaaei?iae/, Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oieiaeo,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith nenoai oa?ii?aaoethaaiiy

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Caai?oeei Aaneeue Iieneiiae/,

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
noaeiiaiai aia?aaoe/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy oa oaoi?/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? oeioo

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Niie?eiee TH??e Aoeiiae/,

Iaeanueeee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e eiino?othaaiiy
oa ae?iaieoeoaa ?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oeiioaanueeee Ai?en Aai?a?eiae/,
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e noaeiiaeo aia?aaoe/ieo onoaiiaie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – iaoeiai-ae?iaie/a ia’?aeiaiiy “Ooi?i”,

I?i?noa?noai i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 01”03 1999 a. o 11 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 41.087.01 i?e Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai??
oieiaeo (ca aae?anith: 270026, Iaeana, aoe. Aeai?yinueea, 1/3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? IAeAO (270026,
Iaeana, aoe. Aeai?yinueea, 1/3).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “30”01 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

ae. o. i., i?io. ?. E. I?eoeueoei

AIIOAOe?ss

?iaeaioeaa A.A. Eai?ey?ii-ii?eno? no?oeoo?e a oaa?aeeo oieiaeiaaaioao:
oiiae ooai?aiiy, oaieio?ce/i? aeanoeaino?, ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino?,
noae?iaoe?ei? ioieiaeaeoaa/? ia ?oi?e iniia?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii
niaoe?aeueiino? 05.04.03 – oieiaeeeueia oa e??iaaiia oaoi?ea, nenoaie
eiiaeeoe?thaaiiy. – Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oieiaeo, Iaeana,
1998.

Oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeai? oiiae aeieeiaiiy ?
o?eaaeiai ?nioaaiiy a eiioo?? oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie oaa?aei? oace
oieiaeiaaaioo c ?ooiiith eai?ey?ii-ii?enoith no?oeoo?ith. Aea/ai?
oaieio?ce/i? aeanoeaino? no?oeoo?e ? i?ioeane oaieiianiia?aiino, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a i?e. ?ic?iaeai? ? aeine?aeaeai? aeine?aei? c?acee
aoaeaeeneioieo noae?iaoe?eieo ioieiaeaeoaa/?a, a yeeo ?aae?ciaai?
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? no?oeoo?e ? a yeeo eai?ey?ii-ii?enoee
oaa?aeee oieiaeiaaaio ?nio? aac ii?ooaiiy oee?eoeyoe??. Aecia/ai?
?aoe?iiaeuei? iaeano? canoinoaaiiy oieiaeeeueieo iaoei, i?aoethth/eo c
oaa?aeei oieiaeiaaaioii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaa?aeee oieiaeiaaaio, noae?iaoe?eiee ioieiaeaeoaa/,
eai?ey?ii-ii?enoa no?oeoo?a, naiii?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?oaaiiy.

SUMMARY

Rozhentsev A.V. Capillary-porous structures in solid refrigerants:
conditions of formation, thermophysical properties, functionalities,
sublimation coolers on the basis of them.- the manuscript.

Thesis for a degree of the doctor of technical sciences on speciality
05.04.03 – refrigerating and cryogenic engineering, system of
conditioning. Odessa State Academy of Refrigeration, Odessa, 1998.

Theoretically and experimentally conditions of occurrence and long
existence of the solid phase of refrigerant with dynamic
capillary-porous structure in a contour of the refrigerating machine
were investigated. There were studied thermophysical properties of
structure and heat and mass transfer, occurring in it. Experimental
samples of CO2 sublimation coolers, in which the multifunctional
opportunities of structure are realized and in which is capillary —
porous solid refrigerant exists without infringement of circulation were
worked out and investigated. The rational areas of application of the
refrigerating machines working with the solid refrigerant were
determined.

Key words: solid refrigerant, sublimation, cooler, capillary-porous
structure, self organizing structure formation, heat exchange.

· aeaioiaeoe ? aeine?aeeoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? c?acee, aecia/eoe
?aoe?iiaeuei? iaeano? canoinoaaiiy oieiaeeeueieo iaoei, i?aoethth/eo c
oaa?aeei oieiaeiaaaioii.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, aeieacai? a ?iaio?.

1. Aeyaeaiee a eiioo?? oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie aoaeo ooai?aiiy ii?enoi?
no?oeoo?e oaa?aeiai oieiaeiaaaioo, noi?iaiaeaeo?iee i?ioeanaie
e?enoae?caoe?? ? noae?iaoe?? ia ?? iaaeao, ? aecia/aiiy oiia o?eaaeiai
?nioaaiiy no?oeoo?e, aeicaieythoue ciyoe iaiaaeaiiy ia aeieeiaiiy
oaa?aei? oace ? noai?eoe aacoieiii ae?th/? iaoeie, a yeeo ?iai/a o?ei
cae?enith? oacia? ia?aoiaee “ia? — ??aeeia — oaa?aea o?ei — ia?”.

2. I?e oai?aoe/iiio aiae?c? i?ioean?a no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ?
aeine?aeaeaii? oaieiianiia?aiino eai?ey?ii-ii?enoo no?oeoo?o oaa?aeiai
oieiaeiaaaioo aeioe?eueii i?aaenoaaeoe a aeaeyae? iiiaeeie ?icoaoiaaieo
a oaa?aeiio neaeao? iacaeaaeieo i?e?ieai?ey??a, ye? iiaeooue
?icaeyaeaoeny ye a?aee?eo? oaieia? o?oae c cina?aaeaeaieie ?
?iciiae?eaieie aeaea?aeaie ? noieaie oaiea ? iane, ui ooieoe?iiothoue a
ciiao ae?inaethaaiiy, aeia?iaoaaiiy, eiiaaeoeaiiai ia?aiino ?
aeanoae?iaoe??.

3. No?oeoo?a ? oaieio?ce/i? ia?aiao?e eai?ey?ii-ii?enoiai oaa?aeiai
oieiaeiaaaioo iathoue aeanoeaino? aei naiii?aai?caoe?? oa
naii?aaoethaaiiy, ye? i?iyaeythoueny a oiio, ui no?oeoo?a naiino?eii
i?ecaiaeeoue o a?aeiia?aei?noue oaieiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy, iio?e iane ?
aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e aeieo oaa?aeiai oieiaeiaaaioo.

4. ?ioaineaiee oaieiianiia?aiin a ?ooii?e eai?ey?ii-ii?eno?e no?oeoo??
oaa?aeiai oieiaeiaaaioo caaacia/o? aenie? cia/aiiy ?? aoaeoeaii?
oaieii?ia?aeiino?.

5. Aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? eai?ey?ii-ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e
oaa?aeiai oieiaei-aaaioo aeicaiey? a iaeiiio eiino?oeoeaiiio aoce?
ae??oeoe caaea/? ?iciiae?eo ii?iaeiei aenieiai ? iecueeiai oeneo,
noai?aiiy aoaeoeaiiai ?aeoia?aoeaiiai oaieiiai?iieea, ?aaoeth?iiai
ae?inaey ? oaieiiai?iieea iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaeia ? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe.

1. Aia?oa io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, ui aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe
iniiai? ye?ni? caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a aeieeiaiiy ? o?eaaeiai ?nioaaiiy
oaa?aei? oace ?iai/iai o?ea ia aacii?iieeeea?e iiaa?oi?, ?icoaoiaai?e a
eiioo?? oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie.

2. ?ic?iaeaia oai??y i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy ? ?nioaaiiy ?ooiii?
eai?ey?ii-ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e oaa?aeiai oieiaeiaaaioo a eiioo??
oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie.

3. Aeyaeai? iia? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie no?oeoo?e, aaiiao??? ? aoaeoeaii?
oaieii?ia?aeiino? ii?enoiai oaa?aeiai oieiaeiaaaioo a caeaaeiino? a?ae
?ioaineaiino? i?ioean?a e?enoae?caoe?? ? noae?iaoe?? ia eiai iaaeao, a
oaeiae aecia/ai? e?eoe/i? cia/aiiy oaieiaeo iioie?a, aeua yeeo no?oeoo?a
ao?a/a? ni?iiiaei?noue aei naii?aaoethaaiiy.

4. Aecia/ai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oaieia?, oaiia?aoo?i?, aeeiai?/i?,
a?ae?aae?/i? ? aaaa?eoii — iania? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?aee?eoeo aaeiii —
noae?iaoe?eieo ioieiaeaeoaa/?a (ANI).

5. Aia?oa io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii oaieiiai?io i?e
noae?iaoe?? NI2 a aocueeeo u?eeiao ii?enoiai oaieiiai?iieea a oiiaao,
eiee oaa?aeee aeie oieiaeiaaaioo i?eaeaaeth?oueny aei iiaa?oi?
noae?iaoe?? ??cieoeath oene?a.

6. Rozhentsev A.V., Naer V.A., Rubnikov M.V. Eine Kaeltemaschine mit
Drossel-Sublimation, — Die Kaelte und Klimatechnik, 1995, ?11, s.
940-944.

7. Rozhentsev A.V., Smirnov G.F. Dynamics of interconnected processes of
structure formation, melting, crystallization of solid carbondioxide
into atmosphere.- 10th Int. Heat Transfer Conf., Brighton, 1994,
7-FM-27, Vol. 4, p. 151-156.

8. ?iaeaioeaa A.A., Ni??iia A.O. E aii?ino ia yooaeoeaiie
oaieii?iaiaeiinoe oaa?aeie NI2, noaeeie?othuae ia ii?enoie iiaa?oiinoe.-
I?aoe? I-i? ?in?enei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Eiio. ii Oaieiai?io, Iineaa, 1994,
o.VII, n. 179-183.

9. Rozhentsev A.V., Smirnov G.F. Refrigerating machine using phase
transition liquid-solid-vapour.- Inter. Seminar and Workshop “Heat
pipes, heat pumps, refrigerators”,The Academy of sciences of Belarus,
September 12-15,1995, Minsk, Belarus, p. 24 — 29.

10. Rozhentsev A.V., Naer V.A., Rubnikov M.V., Zaslavsky V.M. Structure
and Heat and Mass Transfer in Solid Capillary Porous Refrigerants.-
Proceedings of 2nd European Thermal-Sciences and 14th UIT National Heat
Transfer Conference, Rome, Italy, May 29-31, 1996,Vol.I, p.379-384.

11. Rozhentsev A.V. A throttle-sublimation refrigerating machine using
the solid coolant with changeable porous structure.- Proc. of 19th Int.
Congr. of Refrigeration, The Hague, The Netherlands, August 20-25,
1995,v.IIIa, 3 Equipment and Processes, p.176-183.

12. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey oaiia?aoo?iuo
oa?aeoa?enoee aaeeiiii-noaeeiaoeeiiiiai ioeaaeeoaey.- I?eaeiii?ianueeee
iaoeiaee ainiee, iaoeiaee aeo?iae, Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, ?54 (65),
a?oaeaiue1997, n.35-38.

13. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Aiaeec onoie/eainoe ?aaeeiia ?aaiou aaeeiiii
-noaeeiaoeeiiiiai ioeaaeeoaey.- V iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio. “*aeiaae e
ie?oaeathuay n?aaea-i?iaeaiu iai?a?uaiiai yeieiae/aneiai ia?aciaaiey a
AOCao”,Na. iaoe. i?aoeue, Oe?a?ia, Iaeana, 16-18 aa?aniy 1996, n. 133.

14. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Oaa?aeua oaieioeaaeiiineoaee n iiaeaeaeiie
eaieeey?ii-ii?enoie no?oeoo?ie.- I?eaeiii?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee,
iaoeiaee aeo?iae, ?8(19), aa?acaiue 1997,n.13-14

15. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Aeeiaie/aneay iiaeaeue oaeaeeneioiiai
aaeeiiii-noaeeiaoeeiiiiai ioeaaeeoaey.- V iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio. “*aeiaae e
ie?oaeathuay n?aaea — i?iaeaiu iai?a?uaiiai yeieiae/aneiai ia?aciaaiey a
AOCao”, Na.iaoe. i?aoeue, Oe?a?ia, Iaeana, 16-18 aa?aniy 1996, n. 134.

16. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Eaieeey?ii-ii?enoia no?oeoo?e?iaaiea oaa?aeie NI2,
noaeeie?othuae ia aacii?iieoeaaiie iiaa?oiinoe.- I?eaeiii?ianueeee
iaoeiaee ainiee, iaoeiaee aeo?iae, ? 8(19), aa?acaiue 1997, n. 11-12

17. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Iiaeaeue oaieiianniiaiaia a ii?enoie no?oeoo?a
iciiiaaciianiiai oeaaeaaaioa — NI2.- V iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio. “*aeiaae e
ie?oaeathuay n?aaea — i?iaeaiu iai?a?uaiiai yeieiae/aneiai ia?aciaaiey a
AOCao”, Na. iaoe. i?aoeue, Oe?a?ia, Iaeana, 16-18 aa?aniy 1996, n. 135

18. Rozhentsev A.V. Dynamics of the structure formation and
heat-and-mass transfer in solid capillary-porous refrigerants.-
Proceedings of 8th Annual Int. Energy Week Conf., January 28-30, 1997,
Houston, Texas, USA, book VI, v.I, p.14-28.

19. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Oaieiianniia?aiin a oaa?aeuo oaieioeaaeiiineoaeyo n
iaiythuaeny iiae aicaeaenoaeai a?aie/iuo oneiaee ii?enoie no?oeoo?ie.-
1V Ananithcia eiio. iieiaeeo a/aieo «Aeooaeueiua aii?inu oaieioeceee e
oece/aneie aeae?iaaciaeeiaieee», Iiainea??nuee; ?ino. oaieio?ceee NA AI
N?N?,1991, n.194-195.

20. Ia?? A.A., ?iaeaioeaa A.A., Caneaaneee A.A. Oaeaeeneioiue
noaeeiaoeeiiiue ioeaaeeoaeue.- Iaoa??aee 60-? iaoe.-oaoi. eiio. Oai?ey e
I?aeoeea AOCianeie Iaoee, Iaeana, Iaeanueea Aea?ae. Aeaaeai?y Oieiaeo,
1995, n. 49-50.

21. Rozhentsev A.V. Solid coolant with changeable porous structure.-13th
European Conf. on Thermophysical Properties, 29 August-3 September 1993,
Lisboa, Portugal, Ps1-19.

22. ?iaeaioeaa A.A., Caneaaneee A.I. Eiioaeoiue oaieiiaiai i?e
noaeeiaoeee oaeaeeneiou ia aacii?iieoeaaiie iaoaeee/aneie iiaa?oiinoe.
-Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie 13.12.94,? 2400-Oe94,10 n.

23. ?iaeaioeaa A.A., Caneaaneee A.A. Noaoeeiia?iay iiaeaeue
oaieiianniiaiaia a naiii?aaiecothueony ii?enouo no?oeoo?ao.- Iaoa?eaee
60-? iaoe.-oaoi. eiio. Oai?ey e I?aeoeea AOCianeie Iaoee, Iaeana,
Iaeanueea Aea?ae. Aeaae. Oieiaeo, 1995, n. 42.

24. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Eiii?anneiiiay-noaeeiaoeeiiiay oieiaeeeueiay
iaoeia.- Iaae?anioaeeeaineay iao/.-i?aeoe/. Eiio. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea
oieiaeeeueiie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee aeey yooaeoeaiiai o?aiaiey e
ia?a?aaioee naeueoici?iaeoeoeee, E?aniiaea?, 1992, n. 6.

25. ?iaeaioeaa A.A., Caneaaneee A.A. Aiaeec onoie/eainoe ?aaeeiia ?aaiou
aaeeiiii-noaeeiaoeeiiiiai ioeaaeeoaey.- Iaoa?eaee 60-? iaoe.-oaoi. eiio.
Oai?ey e I?aeoeea AOCianeie Iaoee, Iaeana, Iaeanueea Aea?ae. Aeaae.
Oieiaeo, 1995, n. 27.

26. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Aeeiaieea nii?yaeaiiuo i?ioeannia
no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey, ieaaeaiey, e?enoaeeecaoeee e noaeeiaoeee oaa?aeie
oaeaeeneiou a aoiinoa?o.- IX oeiea-nai?ia? iieiaeeo a/aieo e
niaoe?ae?no?a Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu aaciaeeiaieee e oaieiianniiaiaia e
iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe yia?aaoe/aneeo onoaiiaie,17-22 o?aaiy ’93,
IAeOO, Iineaa, n.54-55

27. Rozhentsev A.V. Solid coolant with changeable porous structure.-
11th Int. Cong. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Equipment Design and
Automation, Praha, 29.08. — 03.09.1993, p. G8[787].

28. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey a
eaieeey?ii-ii?enouo oeaaeaaaioao.- Oaieiaua ?aaeeiu ioeaaeaeaiey ?YA,
iao/.-oao. na., ? 4, 1997, n.22-26.

29. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Oaieiianniiaiai a ii?enouo oeaaeaaaioao aaeeiiii –
noaeeiaoeeiiiuo ioeaaeeoaeae;
Aaoi?ao.aeen….eaiae.oaoi.iaoe.-Iaeana,1991.- 16 n. (AeNA).

30. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Oieiaeeeueiay iaoeia, ?aaioathuay ia oaa?aeii
oeaaeaaaioa.- Oieiaeeeueiay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey, ?1(57),1997, n. 23-27.

31. Rozhentsev A.V. Capillary-porous structures as a specific form of a
volume sublimation in solid refrigerants.- Third ISHMT/ASME Heat and
Mass Transfer Conf., Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur, India, December
29-31 1997, p.279-284.

32. Rozhentsev A.V., Rubnikov M.V. A peculiarity of effective thermal
conduction in solid capillary-porous refrigerants.- Third ISHMT/ASME
Heat and Mass Transfer Conf., Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur, India,
December 29-31 1997, p.285-287.

33. Rozhentsev A.V. Percolation and heat-and-mass transfer in solid
capillary-porous refrigerants.- Cryogenic Engineering Conf. / Int.
Cryogenic Materials Conf., Portland, Oregon, USA, July 28 — August 1
1997, p. GFG-AB-412.

34. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Ae?innaeueii-noaeeiaoeeiiiay oieiaeeeueiay iaoeia,
?aaioathuay ia oaa?aeii oeaaeaaaioa n eciaiythuaeny ii?enoie
no?oeoo?ie.- I?eaeiii?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee, iaoeiaee aeo?iae,
?15(26), o?aaaiue 1997, n.40-43.

35. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Oaieiiaiai i?e noaeeiaoeee NI2 ia ii?enoie
iiaa?oiinoe.- I?eaeii-i?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee, iaoeiaee aeo?iae,
Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, ?54(65), a?oaeaiue1997, n.10-13.

OIIAI? IICIA*AIIss, ?IAeAENE ? NEI?I*AIIss

l, n ? r — eiao?oe??ioe oaieii?ia?aeiino?, Ao/(i*E*), e?iaiaoe/ii?
a’yceino?, i2/n ? u?eueiino?, ea/i3; N? — ?ciaa?ia oaiei?ie?noue,
Aeae/(ea*E*); p, O, i — oene, Ia, oaiia?aoo?a, E ? aioaeuei?y, Aeae/ea;
qv ? — ?ioaineai?noue aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae oaieioe, Ao/i3 ? iane,
ea/n*i3; R ? m — oi?aa?naeueia aaciaa iino?eia, Aeae/(iieue*E*) ?
iieaeoey?ia iana oieiaeiaaaioo, ea/iieue; I, d ? S — aenioa, i,
ae?aiao?, i ? ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co, i2; Q0 ? aQOI — ei?enia
oaieiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ? noia?iee oaieii?eieea a IOE, Ao;t — /an, n; —
ianiaee aeaeaoie, ea/n; a — e?i?eiee eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/?,
Ao/(i*E*); ? — ii?eno?noue oaa?aeiai aeieo.

O — oaa?aea oaca; ? – ??aeeiia oaca oieiaeiaaaioo; e — e?enoae?caoe?y; n
— noae?iaoe?y; w — no?iea IOE; in — ioi/oth/a na?aaeiaeua; ao —
aoaeoeaia cia/aiiy; IOE — iecueeioaiia?aoo?ia eaia?a; ANI —
aaeiii-noae?iaoe?eiee ioieiaeaeoaa/; EIN — eai?ey?ii-ii?enoa no?oeoo?a.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. A na?e /an Ea?ii anoaiiaea, ui EEAe ?aeaaeueii?
oaieiai? iaoeie ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae ?iai/iai o?ea. Iaeiae,
ianooii? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ye i?eioeeiia? noaie ?aaeueieo
iaoei oae ? ?oiy aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeaoue
a?ae oeeo aeanoeainoae. A i?iiiio?i?e aeena?oaoe?? iniiaia oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny i?iaeai? aeei?enoaiiy ooai?thth/eony a eiioo?? iaoeie
oaa?aeeo ?iai/eo o?e, aea/aiith ?o oaieio?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ?,
cie?aia, aeiaiaeeoueny, ui oeyoii aeoea?caoe?? i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy ?
caaacia/aiiy o?eaaeiai ?nioaaiiy iniaeeai? oi?ie eai?ey?ii-ii?enoi?
no?oeoo?e a oaa?ae?e oac? iiaeeeai noai?aiiy oieiaeeeueieo ? e??iaaiieo
iaoei aacia?a?aii? ae??, a eiioo?? yeeo ?iai/a o?ei cacia? oaciaeo
ia?aoai?aiue “ia? — ??aeeia — oaa?aea o?ei – ia?”. ?ai?oa oea ia
aeiioneaeinue ? aaaaeaeinue, ui iiyaa oaa?aei? oace aaaea aei i?eieiaiiy
oee?eoeyoe?? ? coieiee iaoeie. Inoaii? iaeeaaeaei ?noioia iaiaaeaiiy ia
aea?? ?iai/iai o?ea, oaiia?aoo?i? ??ai?, aia?aaoe/io aoaeoeai?noue ?
?io? oaieioaoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oieiaeeeueieo ? e??iaaiieo iaoei.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue ?icaeyiooi? i?iaeaie aecia/a?oueny oei, ui
?? ??oaiiy aeicaiey? noai?eoe iiao ?aia?aoe?th iaoei, a yeeo
aeiionea?oueny ia?ao?ae ?iai/iai o?ea a oaa?aeee noai, a oaeiae
aeicaiey? iioe?eoe /enei aeei?enoiao?ieo ?iai/eo o?e.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia
ca?aeii ieaio aea?aeathaeaeaoieo IAe? I?i?noa?noaa Ina?oe Oe?a?ie ia
1997-1999 ??., oeo? IAe?: A?E-97/3, iacaa — “Aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia
ooai?aiiy ?ooiieo eai?ey?ii-ii?enoeo no?oeoo? a oaa?aeeo oieiaeiaaaioao,
?o oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ? oaieio?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae” (Iaeac I?i?noa?noaa
Ina?oe Oe?a?ie a?ae 13.02. 97., ?37).

?iaioa oaeiae a na?e /an aeeiioaaeany a a?aeiia?aeiino? c
?icii?yaeaeaiiyi I?aceae?? AI N?N? ia 1988 ?. a ?aieao IAe? “Eaaio”,
aea?ae. ?aa. ? 01880071450, iacaa — “?ic?iaea ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ioieiaeaeoaa/?a OYI ? iao?eoeue ICC”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith i?iiiio?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
?ic?iaea iiaiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo a aaeoc? oieiaeeeueii? ? e??iaaiii?
oaoi?ee, iia’ycaiiai c noai?aiiyi noae?iaoe?eieo oieiaeeeueieo iaoei, a
eiioo?? yeeo ?iai/a o?ei iiaea ia?aoiaeeoe a oaa?aeee noai a aeaeyae?
iniaeeai? aeeiai?/ii? eai?ey?ii-ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

· aeei?enoiaoth/e aeaiieen aoaeaoeth NI2 ye ?iai/a o?ei, oai?aoe/ii ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeeoe oiiae ? i?ioeane aeieeiaiiy ? o?eaaeiai
?nioaaiiy a eiioo?? oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie oaa?aei? oace oieiaeiaaaioo c
aeeiai?/iith eai?ey?ii-ii?enoith no?oeoo?ith (EIN), aea/eoe ??
niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?, oaieio?ce/i? aeanoeaino?, i?ioeane
oaieiianiia?aiino, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a i?e;

· aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? ? aca?iiaieeao no?oeoo?e ? i?ioiaey/eo
e??cue ia? oaieiaeo iioie?a;

· ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoeai? aeaiaioe oieiaeeeueieo ? e??iaaiieo iaoei, ui
caaacia/othoue aeieeiaiiy ? ?nioaaiiy ii?enoi? oaa?aei? oace aac
ii?ooaiiy oee?eoeyoe??, a oaeiae ?aae?cothoue ?? aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeuei?
iiaeeeaino?;

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiianiia?aiino a ??ciiiai?oieo ioaa?ae?eeo aacao
a?aoiaothoue i?ioeane a ?o ci?ii?e ii?eno?e no?oeoo??. Iaeiae, oe?
i?ioeane iia’ycai? c iaiaaeaiith e?euee?noth ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie, ? oeiiai
ianoaoe?iia?ieie ? aeey ?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e ??oaii? noaoe?iia?ieo
caaea/ iaiao?aei? ?noioi? ooi/iaiiy.

3. ? cia/i? ?ica?aeiino? i?ae ?ic?aooieiaeie ? ?ai?oa aeine?aeaeaieie
aenia?eiai-oaeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ANI, aeey onoiaiiy yeeo iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe niaoeeo?/i? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a ii?eno?e
no?oeoo?? ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie.

4. C i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aeieeaa? iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee oai???
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ? ooi/iaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? oaieiianiia?aiino a
oaa?aeeo ?iai/eo o?eao, ui iathoue ii?enoo ioeuenoth/o no?oeoo?o. A
/anoeiaino?, iio??aia ?noioia ooi/iaiiy iaoiaeee ?ic?aooieo
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo eaia? (IOE) ANI ? ia?aa??ea ?oiuei? a??ia?aeiino?
oeyoii ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e aoee
noi?ioeueiaai? aeuacacia/ai? iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy (a?coaeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy).

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia aeine?aeieo c?aceao
?ic?ieiaieo aoaeaeeneioieo IOE ANI. I?eioeeiiaa noaia ANI i?aaenoaaeaia
ia iae. 1. Ione ioieiaeaeoaa/a a?aeaoaa?oueny ne?aeoth/ei /eiii. Caian
??aeeiiiai oieiaeiaaaioo (NI2) ciaoiaeeoueny a aaeii? (noai A) i?e
oaiia?aoo?? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? oeneo p» 5… 6 IIa. I?e
a?aee?eoo? aaioeey 1 ??aeeiiee oieiaeiaaaio, a?ae?a?aiee c aaeiio ?
cacaeaeaa?aeue i?aeioieiaeaeaiee a ?aeoia?aoeaiiio oaieiiai?iieeo 2,
ae?inaeth?oueny a ioneiaiio ae?inae? 3 aei oeneo iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, yea iiaeiii aooe ieae/a iio??eii? oi/ee. Ia? ? oaa?aea
oaca, ui ooai?eeeny ca ae?inaeai, iaaeoiaeyoue a IOE 4. Oaa?ae? /anoee
cao?eiothoueny ia iiaa?oi? aacii?iieeeeaiai oaieiiai?iieea 7, a ia?e
/a?ac ?aeoia?aoeaiee oaieiiai?iiee a?aeaiaeyoueny a aeiae?eey (aai a
eiii?ani?).

Ii i??? iaeiie/aiiy oaa?aei? oace 6 ?iai/ee ia’?i IOE aa?iaoeco?oueny,
oene a iueiio c?inoa?. C oiai iiiaioo, eiee oene a IOE noa? ??aiei oeneo
a aaeii?, ae?inaethaaiiy a ioneiaiio ae?inae? i?eieiy?oueny ? a eaia?o
iaaeoiaeeoue ??aeeiiee oieiaeiaaaio, ui i?eoenea? oaa?aeo oaco aei
aacii?iieeeeaiai oaieiiai?iieea. Ia oeueiio i?ioean ioneo caaa?oo?oueny.

A noaoe?iia?iiio noai? ??aeeiia NI2 c ia?aiao?aie B ?ooa?oueny aiec ii
eaia?? ? ioieiaeaeo?oueny i?e iino?eiiio oeneo aei oaiia?aoo?e
e?enoae?caoe?? (oi/ea C). Ioieiaeaeoaaiiy ??aeeiii? oace oieiaeiaaaioo ?
eiai e?enoae?caoe?y i?e aenieiio oeneo a?aeaoaathoueny ca ?aooiie
/anoeie oaieioe noae?iaoe?? oaa?aei? NI2 i?e iecueeiio oeneo. ?ioa
/anoeia oaieioe noae?iaoe?? eiiiaino? oaieiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy Q0 a?ae
ia’?eoo ioieiaeaeaiiy.

I?e iaeiinooiaiaaiio eiii?ani?? iiae?aia aoaeaeeneioia iaoeia iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aei oaiia?aoo? ii?yaeeo 190 E. Aiia iiaea
canoiniaoaaoeny oaeiae a yeino? iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? nooi?i? a
eaneaaei?e oieiaeeeuei?e iaoei?.

?nieoe aeine?aeiiai c?acea i?aeoaa?aeeee ia?niaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii?
noaie.

Ia i?aenoaa? iaaaaeaieo aeua oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ?ic?iaeai? aeine?aei? c?acee aoaeaeeneioieo ANI aeey
Ioeeianueei? ? A??iainueei? iana?aaoi??e. C?acee ?ic?iaeyeeny ii
caaaeaiith AAI AI N?N?. Ieae/a i?eaiaeyoueny oaoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaeiiai c aeine?aeieo c?ace?a ANI.

Oieiaeiaeaeaoi?noue

iaeneiaeueia 15 Ao

iii?iaeueia 2.5 Ao

Oaiia?aoo?a oa?iinoaa?e?caoe?? 200 E

Oi/i?noue i?aeo?eiaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ± 0.3 E

*an aeoiaeo ia oaiia?aoo?o 200 E,

ia a?eueo 300 c

Iana NI2, ui niiaeeaa?oueny ca /an ioneo,

ia a?eueo 0.15 ea

Aeo?aoa NI2 a noaeiio ?aaeei? 2.8*10-5 ea/n

?ici??e IOE — ae?aiao? 0.031 i, aenioa 0.030 i.

Aaaa?eoe ? iana ?ao?eaea?aoi?iiai aeieo — 0.130? 0.150? 0.200 i ? 0.9
ea.

A aeiiiaiaiiy aei oeeo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaaeaii, ui aeine?aei? c?acee ANI
i?aoethaaee a ai?ao o?eaei a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua 300…243 K ? iiai?noth caaeiaieueiyee oiiaai oaoi?/iiai
caaaeaiiy.

Aeniiaee

1 I?iaaaeai? o a?coaeuei?e eaia?? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieacaee, ui a IOE ANI ia aacii?iieeeea?e iiaa?oi? iiaea aeieeaoe
ioeuenoth/a eai?ey?ii-ii?enoa no?oeoo?a oaa?aeiai oieiaeiaaaioo,
ooai?aia neaeaoii ? aace?//th oii?yaeeiaaieo ia??iaee/ii iiiaethth/eony
i?e?ieai?ey??a, ye? aa?ooue ia/aei a cii? noae?iaoe?? ? i?iiecothoue
oaa?aeee aeie aei eiai ei?aeiio c ??aeeiiith oacith.

2 Noi?ioeueiaai? iaiao?aei? ? aeinoaoi? oiiae ooai?aiiy ? o?eaaeiai
?nioaaiiy eai?ey?ii-ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e oaa?aeiai oieiaeiaaaioo a
caieiaiiio eiioo?? noae?iaoe?eieo oieiaeeeueieo iaoei aeicaieeee
?ic?iaeoe iia? noaie ? eiino?oeoe?? iaoei, ye? i?aoeththoue aac
ii?ooaiiy oee?eoeyoe?? ? aeei?enoiaothoue niaoeeo?/i? aeanoeaino?
ii?enoeo no?oeoo?.

3 ?ic?iaeaia aeaii??ia ianoaoe?iia?ia iiaeaeue no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a
ii?enoeo oieiaeiaaaioao i?ecaaea aei ?ic?aooieiaeo ni?aa?aeiioaiue,
aecia/ath/eo i?ioeane ca?iaeaeaiiy, c?inoaiiy, noaoe?iia?iiai ?nioaaiiy
? cieuaiiy i?e?ieai?ey??a a aeaeyae? i?inoi?iaeo aaiiao?e/ieo
iiaa?oiiue.

4 Inaaaeinoaoe?iia?ia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, a oaeiae aaaaoinooiaiaaa
oaeaneii?/ia oi?ia i?e?ieai?ey??a ? ?oiy iiae?ai?noue a?aee?eoei
oaieiaei o?oaai aeaee iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe oaieia? iioiee ia ei?aeiiao
aeieo oaa?aeiai oieiaeiaaaioo, aea a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane
e?enoae?caoe?? ? noae?iaoe??.

5 I?iaaaeaia ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
ANI aeaei aeia?a iiaiaeaeaiiy, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?aaii??i?noue
aeiiouaiue, i?eeiyoeo i?e oai?aoe/iiio aiae?c?, ? iiaeeea?noue
canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo ??aiyiue aeey ?ic?aooieo ?icaeyiooeo nenoai.

6 Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae ioeuenoth/i? no?oeoo?e aeicaieeei aeyaeoe
?? iiao ooieoe?th, yea aeyaey?oueny a oiio, ui aiia iiaea aeeiioaaoe
?ieue naii?aaoeth?iiai ae?inaey, aaoiiaoe/ii iioei?coth/iai ?iaioo
oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie i?e ??ciiiai?oieo ei?enieo oaieiaeo iaaaioaaeaiiyo.

7 Aea/aiiy oaieiianiia?aiino a eai?ey?ii-ii?eno?e no?oeoo?? oaa?aei? NI2
iieacaei, ui aiia ia? aoaeoeaio oaieii?ia?aei?noue, ia?aaeuoth/o
oaieii?ia?aei?noue cae/aeii? oaa?aei? oace a 5-8 ?ac, ? oea aea?
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaoe aeie ii?enoiai oieiaeiaaaioo a yeino?
aoaeoeaiiai ?aeoia?aoeaiiai oaieiiai?iieea, i?aoethth/iai a ae?aiacii?
oaiia?aoo? i?ae oaciaeie ia?aoiaeaie e?enoae?caoe?? ? noae?iaoe??, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny i?e ?noioii ??cieo cia/aiiyo oeneo.

8 Aeine?aeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a noae?iaoe?eieo
ioieiaeaeoaa/?a iieacaee, ui u?euei?noue oaieiaiai iioieo a?ae ia’?eoo
ioieiaeaeaiiy aei noae?ioth/iai oieiaeiaaaioo ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe
cia/aiue q0 » 2*104 Ao/i2, a?aeianaieo aei ieiu? aaciai? iiaa?oi?
aacii?iieeeeaiai oaieiiai?iieea. Ia?aaeuaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue
aei i?i?eao ??aeei? oace a iaeanoue iecueeiai oeneo ? aei cai?ioiiai
?oeioaaiiy ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e a oaa?aeiio oieiaeiaaaio?.

9 Cai?iiiiiaai? iia? noaie eiii?an?eii-noae?iaoe?eieo ioieiaeaeoaa/?a
aeiioneathoue ia?ao?ae ?iai/iai o?ea a oaa?aeee noai aac ii?ooaiiy
oee?eoeyoe??, iioe?thth/e aea?? ?iai/eo o?e ? oaiia?aoo?i? ae?aiaciie
?iaioe ioieiaeaeoaa/?a.

10 Aeine?aei? c?acee aoaeaeeneioieo aaeiii-noae?iaoe?eieo
ioieiaeaeoaa/?a oni?oii aeei?enoai? a ano?iiii?/ieo iana?aaoi??yo
Oe?a?ie, ?in?? ? A??iai?? aeey ioieiaeaeoaaiiy oioiiiiaeeoae?a aei
oaiia?aoo?e 200 E i?e oaieiaiio iaaaioaaeaii? 6 Ao.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee a ioae?eaoe?yo:

8. Aaaethe A.I., Aeai?i?oeei A.I., ?iaeaioeaa A.A., Naaia A.A. Aaeiiiue
noaeeiaoeeiiiue ioeaaeeoaeue.- Aii?inu ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee, Na??y
IA?(O?OI), 1989, aei.12, n.27-33.

9. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Oaieiianniia?aiin a ii?enouo oeaaeaaaioao
noaeeiaoeeiiiuo ioeaaeeoaeae.- Aii?inu ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee, Na??y
IA?(O?OI), 1990, aei. 12, n. 93-101.

10. Aaaethe A.I., Aeai?i?oeei A.I., ?iaeaioeaa A.A., Naaia A.A.
Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue aaeeiiii-noaeeiaoeeiiiiai ioeaaeeoaey.-
Oieiaeee. oaoieea e oaoiieiaey: ?ani. i?aea?ae. iaoe.-oaoi. na., 1989,
aei. 48, n. 32-34.

11. Aaaethe A.I., Aeai?i?oeei A.I., ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Aaeeiiiue
noaeeiaoeeiiiue ioeaaeeoaeue.- I?eai?u e oaoieea yenia?eiaioa, 1989, ?
6, n. 12.

12. Aaeici?iaa E.A., Eiotheia TH.Ae., ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Ono?ienoai
oa?iinoaaeeecaoeee eaoiaea oioiyeaeo?iiiuo oiiiaeeoaeae.-I?eai?u e
oaoieea yenia?eiaioa, 1986, ?3, n.11-12.

13. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Yooaeoeaiay oaieii?iaiaeiinoue ii?enoie
oaeaeeneiou.- Oieiaeee. oaoieea e oaoiieiaey: ?ani. i?aea?ae.
iaoe.-oaoi. na., 1994, aei. 56, n. 57-61.

14. ?iaeaioeaa A.A. Eiii?anneiiii-noaeeiaoeeiiiay oieiaeeeueiay iaoeia,
?aaioathuay ia oaa?aeii oeaaeaaaioa.- Oieiaeeeueiay oaoieea, 1992, ?
11-12, n. 24-25.

A??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aeoaa?aeaeaia caaeia?eueiei iiaiaeaeaiiyi ?ic?aooieiaeo
? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaieioaoi?/ieo ? aaaa?eoii-ianiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeine?aeieo c?ace?a ANI, a oaeiae aeia?ei ca?aii oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a a oieiaeiaaaio?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

1. ?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? oai??y ooai?aiiy ? ?nioaaiiy
eai?ey?ii-ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e a eiioo?? oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie,
?ic?aooieia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy ?iai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee
ioieiaeaeoaa/?a, a oaeiae i?ia?aie ? aeai?eoie aeicaieeee noai?eoe
i?ino? ? aeinoaoiuei oi/i? ?iaeaia?i? caniae i?iaeooaaiiy aaeiii —
noae?iaoe?eieo ioieiaeaeoaa/?a a?aee?eoiai oeio.

2. Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?iai/? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeine?aeieo c?ace?a
noae?iaoe?eieo ioieiaeaeoaa/?a iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ye iniiaiee
iaoa??ae i?e ?oi?e ?ic?iaoe? ? aecia/aii? ?aoe?iiaeueieo iaeanoae
canoinoaaiiy.

3. Cai?iiiiiaai? can?a ?iaioe, noaie ? eiino?oeoeai? aocee ?ic?ieiaieo ?
aacoieiii ae?th/eo noae?iaoe?eieo oieiaeeeueieo iaoei, a yeeo
a?aeaoaathoueny oacia? ia?aoiaee “ia? — ??aeeia — oaa?aea o?ei — ia?”.

4. Aeine?aei? c?acee ANI oni?oii aeei?enoai? ye ioieiaeaeoaa/? OYI ?
iao?eoeue ICC.

.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a 37 iaoeiaeo
?iaioao, a oiio /ene? ia aeanyo? i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo, ui
i?ioiaeeee a NOA, Aiae??, I?aea?eaiaeao, ?oae??, ?iae??, Ii?ooaae?? ?
*ao??, c yeeo 6 iioae?eiaai? a i?aoeyo eiioa?aioe?e ? 5 a aeaeyae? oac,
a oaeiae ia 10-e eiioa?aioe?yo a Oe?a?i? ? e?a?iao NIAe.

Iniaenoee aeeaae aaoi?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue 22 naiino?ei? iaoeia?
ioae?eaoe??. A ieo aeeeaaeai? oai?aoe/i? iiaeae?, iaoaiaoe/iee iien ?
?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ioieiaeaeoaa/?a, a yeeo
oieiaeiaaaio iaaoaa? oaa?aei? ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (155 iaeiaioaaiue) ? i?noeoue 281 noi??ieo,
aeeth/ath/e 75 iaethie?a, 22 oioia?ao?? ? 2 oaaeeoe?.

NOENEEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

I?iaaaeaiee e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae ii aeanoeainoyi ii?enoeo iaoa??ae?a,
a?ae?aae?/iei i?ioeanai ? i?ioeanai oaieiianiia?aiino, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a ieo, a oaeiae ii oieiaeeeueiei ? oaieioaoi?/iei
i?eeaaeai, a yeeo ?iai/a o?ei cacia? oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a “??aeeia —
oaa?aea o?ei – ia?” aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe ianooiia.

1. A?eueo?noue ?icaeyiooeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?enay/aia aea/aiith
a?ae?aae?ee ? oaieiiani-ia?aiino a o?eao, ui iathoue iino?eio ? iaci?iio
ii?enoo no?oeoo?o, aai i?eioneathoue oe? oiiae iaa?oue oai, aea ?o iaia?
(noae?iaoe?eia nooea, iecueeioaiia?aoo?i? eaia?e ANI).

aeaeyaea? ye ia??iaee/ia ca?eueoaiiy ? ci?ithth/a eiai ciaioaiiy aenioe
aeieo oaa?aei? oace (iae.4).

Iae. 4 I?ioeane ci?ie aenioe oaa?aeiai ii?enoiai aeieo oieiaeiaaaioo

6. C? ca?eueoaiiyi oaieiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy Q0 iaiao?aeii ?ioaineo?eoaaoe
i?ioean e?enoae?caoe??, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny aaoiiaoe/ii oeyoii cieaeaiiy
aenioe oaa?aei? oace. Oea, a ii?aeiaii? c i?ioeanaie, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a i?e?ieai?ey?ao, i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui
no?oeoo?a aeeiio? ?ieue aaoi?aaoeth?iiai ae?inaey, ocaiaeaeoth/iai
oaieiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy, ianiaee aeaeaoie oieiaeiaaaioo ? aaiiao??th
oaa?aeiai aeieo.

7. Aaiiao??y no?oeoo?e ? aeeiai?ea ?? ?icaeoeo aecia/athoue
eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e IOE i?e caaeaiiio oaieiaiio iaaaioaaeaii?, a
oaeiae cia/aiiy ?? a?aie/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aeey an?o c?ace?a, ui
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, iaea?eueoa a?aie/ia oaieiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy Qmax
a?aeiia?aeaei i?i?iaeuei?e oiauei? aeieo oaa?aeiai oieiaeiaaaioo HO F 1
ii. I?e Q0 ? Qmax iaoai?/ia no?ee?noue aeieo noa? iaaeinoaoiueith aeey
no?eioaaiiy ??aeeiii? oace oieiaeiaaaioo. Aeie ?oeio?oueny ? ??aeeiia
oaca i?i?eaa?oueny e??cue oaieiiai?iiee.

8. Iao? iina?aaei? ioe?iee, iia’ycai? c a?coaeueieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie, a
oaeiae aeai?, io?eiai? A. ?. Aa?e?iei ? eiai ni?a?ia?oieeaie i?e
niinoa?aaeaii? ca i?ioeanaie ioaa?ae?iiy aac?a, aeicaieythoue
caoaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?e?ieai?ey?e iathoue ae?aiao?e ii?yaeeo (0.5 …
1.0)*10-6 i i?e ii?enoino? oaa?aeiai aeieo 30…40%.

?ic?iaeaia oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue iiaaae?iee o?eoacii? nenoaie “??aeeiiee —
oaa?aeee – ia?iiiae?aiee” oieiaeiaaaio a IOE ANI.

A yeino? ia?oiai iaaeeaeaiiy aeie oaa?aei? oace i?eeiaany iiiie?oiei,
iaeii??aeiei aac aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae (noie?a) oaiea ? iane.
Aeeoa?aioe?aeueia ??aiyiiy aia?a?? aeey oaa?aei? oace oieiaeiaaaioo ia?
ianooiiee aeaeyae:

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