2

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AAIEIA?? ? AAIO?I?? AI?TH*EO EIIAEEI

E?OINUeEEE TH??e Ceiia?eiae/

OAeE 551.2/3:553.(477.8)

AAIAeEIAI?*I? OIIAE OI?IOAAIIss ? IAOOIAACIIINI?NOUe

EA?IAONUeEIAI ? AIEEII-IIAe?EUeNUeEIAI

?AA?II?A OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 04.00.17 Aaieia?y iaooe ? aaco

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaaiiio aaieia?/iiio i?aei?e?inoa?
“Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y” Eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue aaieia?? oa

aeei?enoaiiy iaae?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:Aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe

Aieei Aai?a?e THoeiiae/,

?inoeooo aaieia?? ? aaio?i?? ai?th/eo eiiaeei IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Euea?a),
aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oieeAeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe,

?noii?i Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/,

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo i?e?iaeieo aac?a (i.Oa?e?a),
caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eiiAeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe

E?oaeia Noai?neaa Na?a?eiae/,

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueiee ?inoeooo (i.Euea?a),
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oieI?ia?aeia onoaiiaa?inoeooo aaieia?/ieo
iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 5 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.152.01 a ?inoeooo? aaieia?? ?
aaio?i?? ai?th/eo eiiaeei (?AAAE) IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 290053,
i.Euea?a-53, aoe.Iaoeiaa, 3a.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?AAAE IAI Oe?a?ie:
290053, i.Euea?a-53, aoe.Iaoeiaa, 3a.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 1 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe I.A.OiaeaanueeaC A A A E Ue I
A O A ? A E O A ? E N O E E A ? I A I O E

Caaacia/eoe Oe?a?io iaooith ? aacii iaeia c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo caaaeaiue
nueiaiaeaiiy. Aaaeeeao ?ieue a eiai ?ica’ycaii? a?ae?a?a? aeaniee
aeaeiaooie aoaeaaiaei?a. ?c o?ueio iaooiaaciiinieo ?aa?ii?a Cao?aeiee,
aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeyoue Ea?iaonueeee ? Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeee,
noi?oue ia ae?oaiio i?noe? c aeaeiaooeo iaooe ? aaco. Ia aeiionoeoe ooo
iiaeaeueoiai niaaeo iaooiaaciaeaeiaooeo, a iaaiaee, ca?eueoeoe oaea
caaaeaiiy iinoaei ia?aae aaieia?/iith neoaeaith. Aeey oeueiai iio??aii
a?aee?eaaoe iia? ?iaeiaeua ? iieeaaee, ui a oiiaao ‘‘noa?eo’’ ieiu
Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio, aea aeaeiaooie iaooe ? aaco aaaeaoueny i?ioyaii
i?aoi?a noi??//y, cae?enithaaoe aaaeei. Iaiao?aei? ?ic?iaea iiaeo
iaoeiaeo eiioeaioe?e aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo iaooiaaciiinieo ?aa?ii?a,
aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy anueiai aaieiai-aaio?ce/iiai iaoa??aeo ?
aeaieo i?i iaooiaaciiini?noue, aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?ici?uaiiy oa
oiia oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a ? ia oe?e iniia? anoaiiaeaiiy
iiaeo ? ooi/iaiiy a?aeiieo iai?yi?a aaieia?/ieo ?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o.
Ia iaio aaaeeeaei a oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ? caeaoaaeaiiy ?ia?o, ia ui
nooo?ai iiaea aieeiooe iiooe ?iaeiaeu ia iaeeo ? aeoaea iaeeo aeeaeiao
(702000 i).

Aaoi?, i?aoethth/e iiiaae 35 ?ie?a ia ??cieo aaieia?/ieo iinaaeao,
aaciina?aaeiuei i?e/aoiee aei a?aee?eooy ? ?ica?aeee /ioe?ueio ?iaeiaeu
aoaeaaiaei?a o ?aeii? O?aiaiy Othiainueei? iaeano? ?in?? ? a?eueoa 25
ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, a oiio /ene? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo ?
i?aaeaiii-no?aeieo aeie?a iaea?eueoiai ?iaeiaeua Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai
i?iaeio Aeoe?anueeiai, ia?oiai ?iaeiaeua iaooe a aaoiooii?
Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeo Ea?iao Eiiooiyinueeiai, ia?oeo aaciaeo
?iaeiaeu o Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? Nieioaeinueeiai,
?onueei-Eiia??anueeiai, Noai?anueeiai, Ei?ie?anueeiai, ia?oiai ?iaeiaeua
iaooe ia Aieeii-Iiae?euenuee?e ie?a?i? No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? ieaooi?ie
Iaae?anueeiai. Aaeeeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, io?eiaiee i?e aeeiiaii? oeeo
?ia?o, eiai aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
aeena?oaoe??. A ?acoeueoao? ni?ai?aoe? c iieuenueeeie, neiaaoeueeeie ?
oai?nueeeie aaieiaaie aaoi?ii c?a?aiee aaaaoee iiaee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae
ii aaieia?? ? iaooiaaciiiniino? oeeo e?a?i. ?acii c e?oa?aoo?ieie
aeaieie oa ?ioi?iaoe??th, ii/a?iiooith c aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue ia
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo, a?i aeicaieea neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i no/aniee
noai i?ciaiiy aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae ? ?icaeoeo iaooiaaciai? aaieia?? a
aiaeia?/ieo aaieia?/ieo ?aa?iiao noi?aeieo aea?aeaa.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iia? aaieiai-aaio?ce/i? iaoa??aee iieacaee, ui o
aea/ai? ia?niaeoea iaooiaaciiiniino? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie ? i?eeaaeeo
caei?aeiiieo oa?eoi??e ? aaaaoi iaae??oaieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c
o?aeooaaiiyi ?noi??? aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo ? aaiaeeiai?ee, c?noaaeaiiyi
? oa’yceith oaeoii?/ii? aoaeiae, c’ynoaaiiyi caeiiii??iinoae
i?inoi?iaiai ?ici?uaiiy oa oiia oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a.

Oe?a?inuee? aeine?aeieee i?ney ia??iaeo aeineoue aeoeaiiai iaaiai?aiiy
iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy aeey Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio eiioeaioe?e iiai?
aeiaaeueii? oaeoii?ee ? oai??? oaeoii?ee e?oinoa?ieo ieeo o 70-o ? ia
ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a ? e?eoeee oeeo eiioeaioe?e iaaeinoaoiuei a
iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeaaee cai?iiiiiaai? ?aea?. A inoaii?e ia??iae
iaa?oioiao?oueny iiaeyae ia oi?ioaaiiy Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio c iiceoe??
‘‘ioeuenoth/i?’’ Caie?. Ca?oa?aei? aaieiae caeaa?eueoiai canoiniaothoue
aeey Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio oai??th oaeoii?ee e?oinoa?ieo ieeo. Ne?ae
i?aee?aneeoe oe?eaaee aniaeo: o?eueee oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ? ?oioi??
ioiieththoue an? iniiai? aaieia?/i? oi?ioaaiiy, ye? aecia/eee ?icaeoie
Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio. Oae, a Oe?a?i? aeae?eythoue No?aeii- ?
Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueeo ieaooi?ie, Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee ? Caea?iaonueeee
i?iaeie, Iaiiinueeo caiaaeeio, Neeaae/ano? Ea?iaoe. ?io? e?a?ie
aeeth/athoue o?eueee aeaye? c oeeo ?aa?ii?a, iai?eeeaae, a iaae? Iieueu?
ia aoiaeeoue Caea?iaonueeee i?iaei, Neiaa//eie Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee. Oea
ia aeicaiey? ca?oa?aeiei aaieiaai aeaoaeueii aea/aoe aeoaea neeaaeii
iiaoaeiaaiee ?aa?ii Ea?iao, yeee aiie aeine?aeaeothoue ii o?aaiaioao.
A?aoiaoth/e iaaeinoaoi?noue iiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? c aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae ?
iniaeeai iaooiaaciiiniino? ?oioi??, i/aaeaeii, ui no/ania, a?aoiaioiaaia
oyaeaiiy i?i aaiaeeiai?eo Ea?iao iiaeia neeanoe ca aeaieie, iaea?aeaieie
ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Oaea oyaeaiiy ae?ae iaiao?aeia aeey iiaeaeueoiai
o?aeooaaiiy oaeoii?/ii? aoaeiae ?aa?iio, aeae?eaiiy iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo
cii, iniaeeai a aaoiooii? iie?eaii-neeaae/anoi? nii?oaee Ea?iao, oiio ui
a iiae?aieo aaieia?/ieo oiiaao io?eiai? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe
iaooiaaciiiniino? a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao (Neaeyno? ai?e, NOA oa ?i.).
Aiaeia?/i? ieoaiiy aaaeeea? ? aeey Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai aaieia?/iiai
?aa?iio, aea iiooee iiaeo ?iaeiaeu aoaeaaiaei?a iiee ui ia aeathoue
aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, oi/a a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a aaaaea? eiai
ia?niaeoeaiei. Aea/aiiy ?noi??? aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo ? aaiaeeiai?ee
oeueiai ?aa?iio iiaeiii ni?eyoe aeyaeaiith iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo cii o
ia?oo /a?ao oai, aea iiaeeea? eiio?anoia oaeoii?ea ? oi?ioaaiiy
iaae?eieo ianoie, a oaeiae oai, aea ? e?au? eieaeoi?e oa oiiae aeey
i?a?aoe?? oa aeoioeyoe?? aoaeaaiaei?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aena?oeeee a
aeuaaeacai? i?iaeaii? ieoaiiy, ne?ae aeciaoe aeooaeueieie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aea?ai? iai?yie
aeine?aeaeaiue iiai?noth ca?aathoueny c ieaiaie AeAI
’’Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y’’, yea i?iaiaeeei ? i?iaeiaaeo? i?iaiaeeoe
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeuei? ?iaioe ia iaooo ? aac aeeaieei ao??iiyi o
Ea?iaonueeiio ? Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiio aaieia?/ieo ?aa?iiao.

Aeeiiai? aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, ni?eythoue aeeiiaiith Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aia?aaoe/ii? i?ia?aie, Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie ‘‘Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie aei
2010 ?ieo.’’, Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie ‘‘I?ia?aeueii-ne?iaeiia aaca Oe?a?ie
ia ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo.’’

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei c’ynoaaiiy aaiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a
aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo Ea?iaonueeiai ? Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?ii?a,
ye? i?eaaee aei oi?ioaaiiy ?o no/anii? aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae, iiyniaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ?ici?uaiiy oa oiia oi?ioaaiiy ooo iieeaae?a
aoaeaaiaei?a, iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo ? ooi/iaiiy a?aeiieo iai?yi?a
aaieiai-iiooeiaeo ?ia?o.

Iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

aeyaeoe ciie c?oeiaiiy ieeo ? i?e?iieeo o Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?,
iaa?oiooaaoe ?o i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy ? oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? ;

iaa?oiooaaoe c iiceoe?? oai??? e?oinoa?ieo ieeo aaiaeeiai?eo oi?ioaaiiy
Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao, Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ? Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaei?a;

?icaeyiooe aaiaeeiai?/i? i?ioeane Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?iio,
aeynieoe aieea ?ooo e?oinoa?ieo ieeo ia eiai no/anio oaeoii?/io aoaeiao;

ia iniia? iiaeo oyaeaiue i?i aaieia?/iee ?icaeoie Ea?iaonueeiai ?
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?ii?a, iaea?aeaieo iiaeo aeaieo i?i
iaooiaaciiini?noue cai?iiiioaaoe iiyniaiiy oi?ioaaiiy ooo iaooiaeo ?
aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu ? iieeaae?a, aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? iaooiaaciiiniino?;

ocaaaeueieoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe aeai? ii iaooiaaciiiniino?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?aa?ii?a ? aiaeia?/ieo aaieia?/ieo ?aa?ii?a o noi?aeieo
?c Cao?aeiith Oe?a?iith e?a?iao, aeyaeoe aca?iica’ycie iaooiaaciiiniino?
c aaiaeeiai?/ieie i?ioeanaie ? ia iniia? oeueiai cai?iiiioaaoe iia?
ia?niaeoeai? eiiieaene ? oa?eoi??? aeey iiooe?a aoaeaaiaei?a;

?ic?iaeoe iia? e ooi/ieoe a?aeii? iai?yie aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o
ia iaooo ? aac, o oiio /ene? ia iaeeo ? aeoaea iaeeo aeeaeiao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

aeine?aeaeai? aaiaeeiai?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy Ea?iaonueei?
neeaae/anoi-iie?eaii? no?oeoo?e, Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ? Caea?iaonueeiai
i?iaei?a, ye? ocaiaeaeothoueny c oai???th e?oinoa?ieo ieeo;

oia?oa aeey Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?iio iiyniaii i?e/eie iayaiino?
oaeoii?/ieo no?oeoo? aca?iii ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiai i?inoyaaiiy;

ooi/iaii aaioaeoii?/ia ?aeiioaaiiy Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio ?
Aieeii-Iiae?eey;

oia?oa, aeoiaey/e c oiia aaioaeoii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, Ea?iaonueeo
iaooiaaciiinio i?ia?ioe?th a?aeianaii aei iaooiaaciiiniiai aanaeio
eie?c?eiiai oeio, a Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeo iaooiaaciiinio iaeanoue aei
aanaeio oeio ianeaieo eiioeiaioaeueieo iaeaiie?a?i;

aea/aii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeiaeu ? iieeaae?a iaooe ? aaco, ooi/iaii
/an ii/aoeo ?o ooai?aiiy a ??cieo iaooiaaciiinieo iaeanoyo;

ocaaaeueiaii ? nenoaiaoeciaaii iia? aeai? ii iaooiaaciiiniino?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?aa?ii?a ? i?eeaaeeo caei?aeiiieo oa?eoi??e;

aecia/aii iia? e ooi/iaii a?aeii? iai?yie aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o
ia iaooo ? aac.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia?aeaeueii c
i?aeaioiaeith ?iaioe /anoeia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeei?enoiaoaaeany
a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?. A ia?oo /a?ao oea a?aeiineoueny aei ?ic?iaee
? ei?aeoe?? iai?yi?a aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o AeAI
‘‘Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y’’. O?eueee ca inoaii? 13 ?ie?a oe??th
i?aai?caoe??th, aea a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ca ?acoeueoaoe aaieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c iaooe ? aaco ? aaoi?, i?aeaioiaeaii aei i?iieneiaiai
inai?iiy a?eueoa 24 ie?ae. i3 aaco ? 9 iei. o iaooe, ui a?aeia?aaeaii a
Aea?aeaaieo aaeainao caian?a ei?enieo eiiaeei. ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i?
oiiae aaiaeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a ? oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeiaeu
aeicaieyoue aeoea?coaaoe iiooee aoaeaaiaei?a, ianaiia?aae o i?aeianoaieo
ciiao Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio ? a cai?iiiiiaaieo ae?eyieao
Aieeii-Iiae?eey. A aeaiee /an ?aae?cothoueny ?aea? aaoi?a i?i iiooee
?iaeiaeu o aeae?eaieo iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo ciiao Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai
i?iaeio ? Aieeii-Iiae?eey ? iniaeeai ?ioaineaii oa aoaeoeaii
?icaeaa?oueny iai?yi c iiooe?a ? ?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu aoaeaaiaei?a ia
iaeeo ? aeoaea iaeeo aeeaeiao.

Iniaenoee aianie. Caeiaoaa/ naiino?eii noi?ioethaaa iinoaaeai?
i?iaeaie. Iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue ?aea? aeiooiiiiai iieiaeaiiy an???
Ea?iaonueei? neeaae/anoi-iie?eaii? no?oeoo?e, oi?ioaaiiy Caea?iaonueeiai
i?iaeio ia eiae? Iaiiinueei? i?e?iieeoe, oi?ioaaiiy aca?iii
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii? neeaae/anoino? Aieeii-Iiae?eey a ?acoeueoao?
i?aainoi?iiiueiai cnoao No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? ieaooi?ie a?aeiinith
Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? ii e?i?? ?o c/eaioaaiiy, ?aea? a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii
ae?aiiaaieo ianoie ? ooai?aiiy iieeaae?a a?iaaiiei aacii, ?yae
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeae c a?aee?eooy iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a, o oiio /ene? a
oiieioa?oaaoeo eieaeoi?ao na?iaoo ? ia iaaaeeeeo aeeaeiao Ciai?oiuei?
ciie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ii?eethaeiaii ia ia?aaeao, eiioa?aioe?yo ? neiiic?oiao,
ui i?iaiaeeeenue a Oe?a?i?: ‘‘I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ? i?aeaioiaee
?ano?n?a aaco ? iaooe a ca’yceo c ia?niaeoeaaie ?icaeoeo aaciai? ?
iaooiai? i?iieneiaino? O?N?’’ (Oa?e?a, 1974); ‘‘?ieue i?ia?aeia?? a
iiooeao ? ?ica?aeoe? iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu’’ (?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
1976); ‘‘Aaciaaio?i?/i? iaoiaee iiooe?a ei?enieo eiiaeei o
I?aaeaiii-Eani?enuee?e caiaaeei? ? a ia?aieyth/eo a??nueeeo nenoaiao’’
(Aaeo, 1979); ‘‘?anioae?eainueea iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y c canoinoaaiiy
aaio?i?/ieo ? a?ae?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e ?ica?aeoe? ? ?ic?iaoe?
iieeaae?a iaooe, aaco ? eiiaeainaoo’’ (Aaeo, 1980); ‘‘Ia?niaeoeae
?icoe?aiiy ?ano?n?a iaooe ? aaco a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N?’’ (*a?i?a?a, 1980);
‘‘Iioiaeaeaiiy iaooe ? aaco, ?o i?a?aoe?y ? caeiiii??iino? ooai?aiiy ?
?ici?uaiiy iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo iieeaae?a’’ (Euea?a, 1981); ‘‘I?iaeaie
aaieia?? ? aaio?i?? ai?th/eo eiiaeei caoiaeo Oe?a?inueei? ?N?’’ (Euea?a,
1989); ‘‘Oaeoiaaiac ? iaooiaaciiini?noue iaae? Oe?a?ie’’ (Euea?a, 1992);
‘‘Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie’’ (Ee?a, 1994); ‘‘Noai, i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo iaooiaaciaiai eiiieaeno Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie’’ (Euea?a,
1995); ‘‘Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie 96’’ (Oa?e?a, 1996); ‘‘Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie
98’’ (Iieoaaa, 1998), a oaeiae ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiia?anao ?
eiioa?aioe?yo: ‘‘I?aai?/ia aaio?i?y aiae ? iiooeiaa aaio?i?y’’ (Iineaa,
1982); ‘‘Aeeaeiia aoaeiaa e?oinoa?e oa iao?aaeeoe?eia aeei?enoaiiy iaae?
Caie?’’ (Ee?a, 1996); ‘‘Aaieia?/i? ? iaeaiaaiii?oieia?/i? aniaeoe
iaooiaaciiiniino?’’ (Oe?a?ia, E?ei, 1996); ‘‘European union of
geosciences’’ (Strasbourg, 1997); ‘‘Carpation-Balkan geological
association. XVI congres’’ (Vienna, 1998); Ea?iaonuee?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? ‘‘Przemysl naftowy i nauka razem w XXI wiek’’. Iieueua,
1999.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii a 62
ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo, aeeth/ath/e 2 iiiia?ao??, 29 noaoae ? iiiaae 30 oac
aeiiia?aeae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui caoeuathoueny:

1. Aeoaiiiae?aia Ea?iaonueea neeaae/anoi-iie?eaia no?oeoo?a oi?ioaaeany
ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? i?ae aei?noeeie aeieaie ae?aai?o ianea?a ? a
iiaeaeueoiio a ?acoeueoao? ?ooo ieeo ? i?e?iieeo.

2. O ?acoeueoao? eie?c?? ? iieiai? noaaeoeoe?? a?eueo aaaeei? ?
oieiaeii? ?a?ac?enueei? ieeoe i?ae Iaiiinueeo i?e?iieeoo, yea ii/eiath/e
c iaeaiaaio i?ioiaeeoue o iaaeao no/aniiai Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio,
noi?ioaaeanue aeiooiiia neeaae/anoi-iie?eaia no?oeoo?a oe?oaaeo
e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaeo Ea?iao ? iaiaaiiaeo Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?
Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaei?a.

3. Ea?iaonueea iaooiaaciiinia i?ia?ioe?y a?aeiineoueny aei
iaooiaaciiinieo aanaei?a eie?c?eiiai oeio, Aieeii-Iiae?euenueea
iaooiaaciiinia iaeanoue aei aanaei?a oeio ianeaieo eiioeiaioaeueieo
ie?a?i.

4. A?eueo?noue ?iaeiaeu aoee noi?iiaai? a ciiao ?ioaineaii? i?a?aoe??,
ye? i?eo?i/ai? aei ?aeii?a ia?aoeio aaeeeeo iicaeiaaei?o ?iceii?a c
iiia?a/ieie.

5. Aieiaieie ? iiooee iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a a:

aaoiooiiieo a?aeeeaaeao iacicith /ioea ieaooi?i o i?aeianoa?
Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeo Ea?iao ? a eiae? i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? /anoeie
Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao;

aaoiooiiieo a?aeeeaaeao e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo a nioc?
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?iceiio;

ia?aaaoiooiiieo a?aeeeaaeao oe?oaaiai iaeaiaaio Neeaiai? ciie i?ae
iie?eaii E?iniainueei? ? E?iniainueei? i?ae iie?eaii
Aeoeeyinueei-*i?iiai?nueei?;

eieaeoi?ao iacicith, ye? ?icaeioo? a iano?oeoo?ieo ianoeao o Ciai?oi?e
cii?;

i?neiaeeao aaaeai?th ? na?iaoo a e?oieia?/ieo aai no?aoea?ao?/ieo
ianoeao o cii? oeaeno?, ai?o?a iaeai??e ? iaeaii?aeiyoue Ciai?oiuei?
ciie, a oaeiae o i?neiaeeao na?iaoo E?oeaieoeueei? caiaaeeie;

a?aeeeaaeao ieaeiueiai iaeaicith ? i?ioa?icith a Euea?anueeiio
iaeaicienueeiio i?iaei?, Aieeii-Iiae?euenuee?e iiiiee?iae? ?
Eiaaeuenueeiio aenooi?.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 6
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Oaeno aeeeaaeaii
ia 201 noi??ioe? eiii’thoa?iiai iaai?o, ?ethno?aoe?? neeaaeathoue 110
?enoie?a ? 10 oaaeeoeue. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 303 iacae.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe aaaeeeaei aoei ni?eyiiy ea??aieoeoaa Eii?oaoo c
ieoaiue aaieia?? ? aeei?enoaiiy iaae? ae. o. i. N.A.Aioianueeiai, ae. a.
i. I.?.?aaei-uoea, aaia?aeueiiai aee?aeoi?a AeAI ‘‘Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y’’
A.I. Iiaa?aaenueeiai.

Ca oe?ii? ii?aaee aaoi? aaey/iee na?oei? iai’yo? aee?aeoi?o ?AAAE IAI
Oe?a?ie aeaaeai?eo A.TH.Caa?aaeeo, /eaio-ei?aniiiaeaioo IAI Oe?a?ie
i?ioani?o Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.O?aiea Aeooeo
A.A.

Ca eiinoeueoaoe?? c aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae Iieueu? ? aeiiiiiao a cae?aii?
oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aaey/iee i?aoe?aieeai Polskiego Grnictwa Naftowego
i Gasownictwa aeieoi?o I. Ea?ieianueeiio, aeieoi?o A. ssai?o, aeieoi?o
A. Ii??no ca ni?eueio ?iaioo c aea/aiiy iai?oaeaiino? caiii? ei?e
Aieeii-Iiae?eey — ni?a?ia?oieeo GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam o I?ia//ei?
aeieoi?o O. ?ioo.

Aeneiaethth ue?o iiaeyeo eieaaai aaieiaai Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueiiai ?inoeoooo, Eiiieaenii? aaieiai-aeieia?/ii?
ia?o?? AeAI ‘‘Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y’’, Eaeonueei?, Naia??nueei? ?
No?eenueei? iaooiaaci-?ica?aeoaaeueieo aeniaaeeoe?e aeeaieiai ao??iiy,
Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaai?aoi??? AO ‘‘Oe?iaooa’’,
Euea?anueeiai a?aeae?eo Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo
i?e?iaeieo aac?a, Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueii?
aeniaaeeoe?? ca aeiiiiiao i?e cae?aii? oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo,
ieiaeioai?i? aeeneon?? ? caoaaaeaiiy c ieoaiiue, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny a
?iaio?.

Aaey/iee ni?a?ia?oieeai AeAI ‘‘Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y’’ N.A.Eie?ae?,
E.I.Caaeei, E.A.Aiae?ouae, I.A.Eieiae?e, A.I.Iaeeiooe?, AE.N.Iaeiia/i?e
ca aeiiiiiao i?e ioi?ieaii? aeena?oaoe??.

C I ? N O ? I A I O E

1.AAIAeEIAI?*I? OIIAE OI?IOAAIIss

EA?IAONUeEI? NEEAAe*ANOI-IIE?EAII? NO?OEOO?E

Aaieia?/ia aoaeiaa Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao, Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?
Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaei?a i?ioyaii aeiaoa ye i?aoi?a noi??//y
aeine?aeaeoaaeany aaaaoueia a/aieie.

Aeine?aeaeaiy, a yeeo c?iaeai? ni?iae iiynieoe oi?ioaaiiy Ea?iaonueei?
neeaae/anoi? no?oeoo?e c iiceoe?? oaeoii?ee e?oinoa?ieo ieeo aoee
aeeiiai? E.A.Aeaieeiae/, 1975; A.I.Aeieaieii oa ?i., 1976;
A.A.Eieiae??i, 1989. Oe? aaoi?e aeio?eiothoueny noaie i?aenoao, ia ?o
aeoieo, ienai?/ii? ei?e i?ae eiioeiaioaeueio c i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo ia
i?ai?/iee no?ae. O ?iaioao A.A.*aeoiiaa, 1976, A.A.Nae?eaeaiea, 1978
e?eoe/ii ioe?iaii iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy eiioeaioe?? oaeoii?ee
e?oinoa?ieo ieeo aeey aeaiiai ?aa?iio. N.N.E?oaeia oa ?i., 1985,
iiyniththoue oi?ioaaiiy Ea?iao ae??th oaeoii?/ieo oene?a c aieo
?ic?a??oeo ? ?icoe?aieo ian i?ae Iaiiinueeith ? O?ain?eueaainueeith
caiaaeeiaie, a iayai?noue oeeo ian iia’ycothoue c ia??iaee/iei
noeneaiiyi ? ?icoe?aiiyi caiii? ei?e (“ioeuenoth/i?” Caie?). Oe?ii?
?aea? ?icaeoeo Ea?iaonueei-Iiiiinueeiai ?aa?iio c iiceoe?e oaeoii?ee
e?oinoa?ieo ieeo aeneiaeai? A.?.Oa?iei ? I.A.Eii?ca (1995), a I.N.Nooiea
(1998) aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy
ieeoioaeoii?/iiai i?aeoiaeo.

Iienoaaia oa?eoi??y Ea?iaonueeiai i?iaaia a?aeiineoueny aei
Aeuei?enueei-Ea?iaonueei-Eaaeacueei-A?iaeaenueei? ciie eie?c?e
(A.?.Oa?i, I.A.Eii?ca, 1995). Aaaeeeai anoaiiaeoe, aea naia i?ioiaeeoue
ciia eie?c?e o Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?. Iciaeaie eie?c?e e?oinoa?ieo ieeo
ca?aeii c E.I.Ciiaioaeiii (1984), E.Eiiae? (1990), A.?.Oa?iei (1995) ?:
iayai?noue io?ie?o?a, i?neyi?iaaiiee iaaiaoeci, ?ioaineaia ca?eueoaiiy
oaieiaeo iioie?a, no?ieaoa ca neeaaeii oeth?aeiiane/aiiy, iaoaeiaai?/ia
c?oaeai?iiy, ?io?oceai? o?ea, ??cieoey a aeeaei? caeyaaiiy a?aieoe? Iioi
ieeo, ui c?oeioeeny, oe?ieee ?icaeoie ?ioaineaii? neeaae/anoino? ?
oaeoii?/ieo iie?ea?a, i?enooi?noue a?aa?iao?e/ieo ?aia??a o cii?
c?oeiaiiy.

Oe? an? iciaee i?enooi? o Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei?. Oae, o?aaiaioe
io?ie?o?a a?aeii? a iniia? Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio, a cii? Ia?ia?inueeeo
neaeue, a nioc? ianoao ?ao?anueei-Ao?eoonueei? ciie ia
E?iniainueei-*i?iiai?nueeo ? a o?iioaeuei?e /anoei? Ia?ia?inueeiai
e?enoae?/iiai ianeao (E.A.Aeaieeiae/, 1972; A.I.Aeieaiei ? ?i., 1980).
Iacicienueeee aoeeai?ci i?iyaeany a aeae?eueea oac a?ae o??ano aei
?aiiuei? e?aeaee ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeecuee?noth o?i?/iiai neeaaeo
iniiaieo ii??ae ?ao?anueei-/ea/einueeiai, oaieuenueeiai ?
caea?iaonueeiai eiiieaen?a (i?aaeaiia nioaa) ? aeayeith a?aei?ii?noth
ii??ae o?inoyiaoeueeiai eiiieaeno (i?ai?/ia nioaa) (I.N.Aa?e/aa, 1994).

I?neyi?iaaiiee iaaiaoeci yne?aai ae?aaeaiee Aeai?eao-Aooeinueeei
aoeeai?/iei ianiii, yea i?inoaaeo?oueny ia i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio noee?
Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio a?ae ei?aeiio c Neiaa//eiith aei i. Oono, o
?aeii? yeiai i?inoyaaiiy ci?ith?oueny ia ia?eae?iiaeueia ?
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ia oa?eoi??? ?oioi??. Ianii neeaaeaii
aiaeaceoi-aacaeueoaie (70%), aacaeueoaie (20-25%) ? eeneeie
aeeoa?aioe?aoaie (2-6%). Iaeiicia/ii aaaaea?oueny, ui oe? aoeeai?/i?
ii?iaee oi?ioaaeeny a ie?ioeai? a oiiaao ino??aieo aeoa ? ?o iiaeia
a?aeianoe aei oeiiaeo ino??aii-aeoaiaeo ooai?aiue (A.I.Einothe, 1961;
A.I.Aeieaiei oa ?i. 1980).

O Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? niinoa??aa?oueny ?ioaineaia ca?eueoaiiy
oaieiaeo iioie?a ii??aiyii c Neeaae/anoeie Ea?iaoaie ?
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeei i?iaeiii. Oae, Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee i?iaei
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iecueeei oaieiaei iioieii, o neeaae/anoeo Ea?iaoao
a?i iinooiiai i?aeaeuo?oueny a?ae 1,21,3 ieeae/ni2n o i?ai?/ii-no?aei?e
/anoei? Neeaiai? ciie Ea?iao aei 1,62,0 ieeae/ni2n a ?aeii?
Ia?ia?inueeiai e?enoae?/iiai ianeao. A Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? oaieiaee
iio?e ??cei c?inoa? ? noa? a?eueoei ca 2 ieeae/ni2n. Oae? ae eiai
cia/aiiy oa?aeoa?i? aeey Neiaaoeueei?, Iaiiinueei? ? O?ain?eueaainueei?
caiaaeei (?.?.Eooan, 1975, 1996).

O Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? a inoaii? ?iee a?aee?eo? /ioe?e aacia?
?iaeiaeua: ?onueei-Eiia??anueea, Noai?anueea, Ei?ie?anueea ?
Nieioaeinueea, ia?oa a Oe?a?i? ?iaeiaeua aoaeaeeneiai aaco Ia?o?anueea,
a?aeii? oaeiae /eneaii? aacii?iyae. I?iyae iaooe aoee aeyaeai? a oaooao
a ?aeii? i?no Nieioaeia ? Oono, niinoa??aaeenue o naa?aeeiaeiao 1, 5,
7-Nieioaeinuee?, 9-Oy/?anueea, a ?yae? naa?aeeiaei ia ieiuao Iaieiaa ?
Iaea?iaa. Iaooii?iyae a?aeii? a naeao Iiainaeeoey, E?ioa, Aei?ia?ao?a,
i. Oono. O naeao Iiainaeeoey ? Aeoneia anoaiiaeaii ne?aee anoaeueoeoo.
*eneaii? aacii?iyae ? i?ia?aeuei? aoaeaeene? aeaea?aea a?aei?/ai? a cii?
Ia?ia?inueeeo neaeue ? ia Ia?ia?inueeiio e?enoae?/iiio ianea?.

O Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? a cii? Aa?aa?anueeeo ai?no?a a?aee?eo?
A?aainueea iie?iaoae?/ia ?iaeiaeua ? Ioae??anueea ?iaeiaeua cieioa, a a
Ia?ia?inueeiio e?enoae?/iiio ianea? Naaoeyoeueea ?iaeiaeua cieioa.

O Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? aoeeaiiaaii? ooai?aiiy iathoue aaeeea
iioe?aiiy o a?aeeeaaeao aaaeai?th, na?iaoo ? ie?ioeaio. I?aaenoaaeai?
aiie a iniiaiiio aeaoeeoiaeie ? ??ie?o-aeaoeeoiaeie oooaie ? ooo?oaie.
Iaeiae iiooaei? o?ea ?io?ocea?a a?aee?eo? ii??aiyii iaaeaaii.
Naa?aeeiaeiith 1-?onuee? Eiia??aoe? a Ioea/?anuee?e caiaaeei? o
a?aeeeaaeao na?aaeiueiai aaaeai?th a ?ioa?aae? 19002644 i i?ieaeaia
iiooaeia ?io?oc?y a?aiiae?i?eo-ii?o???a, neeaaeaieo eaa?oeai, eae?eiaeie
iieueiaeie oiaoaie ? aeii?oeaie ?oaeieo i?ia?ae?a. ?io?oceaia o?ei
eaa?oeiaeo ae?i?eo-ii?o???a aeyaeaii a ieaeiueiio aaaeai?th ? ia
Ia?o?anuee?e ieiu? a naa?aeeiaei? 1 a ?ioa?aae? 18901950 i. ?io?oc??
na?iaonueeiai a?eo a?aeii? oaeiae ia Naaeyanuee?e ieiu? a cii?
I’?i?inueeeo neaeue. Ooo aiie i?ieaeai? o a?aeeeaaeao e?aeaee
naa?aeeiaeiaie 1 (650915 i) ? 3 (12301325 ? 14041444 i).

A?aieoey Iioi oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iei i?aeiyooyi (aei 2530 ei) o
Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? ii??aiyii c caio?aiiyi (aei 5565 ei) i?ae
Neeaae/anoeie Ea?iaoaie ? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeei i?iaeiii ii aaio?aaa?no
Aa?aaiaa Aeieeia Aeoiaaaoeue. A?aeiia?aeii ii aaio?aaa?no *ii Naia??
Ai?io?a o Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? aiia ciaoiaeeoueny ia a?aei?ooe? 2832
ei, a a Neeaae/anoeo ciiao Ea?iao ? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? 5565
ei.

O aeaiee /an iie?eaii-neeaae/anoa no?oeoo?a Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao i? a
eiai c aeine?aeiee?a ia aeeeeea? noii?a?a. Aeaoaeuei?oa aiia aea/aia
aaaaoueia aeine?aeieeaie, a oiio /ene? aaoi?ii (TH.C.E?oinueeee, 1975,
1981, 1995), o aeia?a ?icao?aieo ?aeiiao Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio ?
Neeaia?e cii? Ea?iao.

Ia i?aaeaiiiio noiae? oe?a?inueei? /anoeie Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao ia iniia?
aeaieo aeeaieiai ao??iiy ia ieiuao Eiiooia, A?ne?a, Na?a?? ?
naenii?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o iiaeia aiaaiaii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaee oe?o Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeo neeaaeie, Neeaiai?
? Aeoeeyinueei-*i?iiai?nueei? cii ciaoiaeeoueny a aeiooiiiiio
iieiaeaii?, ieae/a eiai caeyaathoue iaiaaiia? iieane ? iacicie /ioea
ieaooi?ie. Ia i?aaeaiiiio noee? Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao iie?eaiee oa?aeoa?
ciie Ia?ia?inueeeo neaeue ? I’?i?inueei? aeiaaaeaiee naa?aeeiaeiaie 3 ?
1 ia Naaeyanuee?e ieiu?.

O Iieueu? ia i?iaeiaaeaii? No?aeieo Ea?iao ? a Cao?aeieo Ea?iaoao
aeeaieei ao??iiyi ia ?yae? ieiu i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui ciie Neeaae/anoeo
Ea?iao (Neieuenueea, I?aen?eacueea, N?eacueea, Iaao?nueea) ciaoiaeyoueny
a aeiooiiiiio iieiaeaii? (A.Ii?en, 1992; A.ssai?, 1992; N.Iieoia?/,
1992). Ia oa?eoi??? ?oioi?? i?ae ianoiooei oe?oai aeae?eythoue
aaoiooiii? a?aeeeaaee i?ioeaio, iaeaiaaio ? iacicith (Naiaeoeaneo, 1994;
Naiaeoeaneo, A?na??ii, Noai?oea, 1994).

Oaeei /eiii, a aaieia?/i?e aoaeia? Ea?iao ? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio
iayai? aeaa iniiai? oaeoii?/i? aeaiaioe aaoiooii ? aeiooii, a nai?
Ea?iaoe iathoue ?ioaineaii aeeneieiaaio iie?eaii-neeaae/anoo no?oeoo?o.

Aaoi?ii o iaaeao Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio iieacaiee a?aa?iao?e/iee ?aia?
ciie c?oeiaiiy, yeee ae?aaeaiee aeiaeaoiueith aiiiae??th neee oyae?iiy,
iia’ycaiith c e?aeiaei aaeii ieeoe, ui i?aenoaa?oueny, iio?i a?ae’?iiith
aiiiae??th, coiiaeaiith aeeaieiaiaeiei aeieiaii, ? ciiao aeiaeaoiueith,
iia’ycaiith c caio?aiiyi o ciio noaaeoeoe?? a?eueo u?eueieo ? oieiaeieo
oa??a. Iaaaaeai? iciaee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iayai?noue ciie eie?c?? a
iaaeao oeueiai i?iaeio.

Aaaaoi ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oi?ioaaiiy Ea?iao iaea?aeaii a ?acoeueoao?
aea/aiiy naeniiaeoeaii? a aeaiee /an ciie aeeaieioieonieo caieao?on?a
A?ai/a a ?oioinueeeo Ea?iaoao. ?? iayai?noue iiynith?oueny eieaeueiei
aoi?aiaiiyi aeoaea iaa??oeo iaaiaoe/ieo ian a iaiaeii??aeiino? ia ??ai?
iaio?? aeeeeeaieo ia?aoeiii aeaio aaeeeeo ?iceii?a, i?eo?i/aieo aei
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? iaae? No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? ieaooi?ie, a oaeiae
ieaiaoa?iiai ?iceiio Neoeee?yO?aeCao?aeiee Nea?? (A.A.*aeoiia, 1987),
aai ?ooii ia aa?oi?o ??aiyo ei?e aeineoue aocueei? ieanoeie ia i?ai?/iee
cao?ae ? i?aeeiiii o cii? A?ai/a ?ic?a??oi? ? ?ici’yeoaii? iaio?eii?
iane (A.I.Aia?einueeee, A.N.Iaea?aneo, I.A.Iiyoa, 1990). Iaeiae,
a?aoiaoth/e, ui a cii? A?ai/a a?aenooi? iciaee c?oeiaiiy e?oinoa?ieo
ieeo, a a i?aaeaii?e /anoei? O?ain?eueaainueei? caiaaeeie, ye ? a
Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei?, ? a?eueo?noue oeeo iciae, iiaeia aeiionoeoe, ui
i?e?iieeoa, yea ?ooa?oueny c i?aaeaiiiai noiaeo (I?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai
?ooo ca A.Aia?einueeei, aai Cao?aeii-*i?iiii?nueea ca E.I.Ciiaioaeiii)
o i?ioean? noaaeoeoe?? caio?th?oueny i?ae O?ain?eueaainueeo caiaaeeio,
aeeeeea? aenieioaiia?aoo?iee oaieiaee iio?e ? ?icoe?aiiy ?ic?a??oeo
aeeaeiieo ian. Oea ?ioaineaii i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? aeeaieioieonieo
caieao?on?a o ?aeii? a?? A?ai/a, aea a?eueo aenieicaeyaath/? oa?e caiii?
ei?e ?icou?eueiai? ciiith ia?aoei?a aaeeeeo ?iceii?a.

Ioaea, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui oi?ioaaiiy i?aaeaiii? /anoeie
Ea?iaonueei? aeoae iia’ycaii ?c c?oeiaiiyi ?a?ac?enueei? ieeoe c
A?aa?enueeith /a?ac i?ii?aei? i?e?iieeoe O?ain?eueaainueei? caiaaeeie,
Cao?aeii-*i?iiii?nueeo ? Aiaoie?enueeo.

Ia iiaoaeiaaiiio aaoi?ii aeeaeiiiio ?ic??c? ii e?i?? Aieeii-Iiae?eey
(Oe?a?ia) ino??a Ei?neea (O?aioe?y) a?aei?/athoueny noaaeoeoe?y
Ao?eeainueei? ieeoe i?ae Aae??aoe/io i?e?iieeoo, eie?c?y ? iieiaa
noaaeoeoe?y Aae??aoe/ii? i?e?iieeoe i?ae Iiiiinueeo c oi?ioaaiiyi
Aeeia?eae, ianoiooeo o cao?aeiiio iai?yieo, eie?c?y ? iieiaa noaaeoeoe?y
?a?ac?enueei? ieeoe i?ae Iiiiinueeo c oi?ioaaiiyi No?aeieo Ea?iao,
ianoiooeo o i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio iai?yieo. Eie?c?eiee iiyn Ao?eeainueei?
ieeoe iaiaaeiaaiee A-noaaeoeoe?eiith ciiith, a ?ioeo i?e?iieeo ?
?a?ac?enueei? ieeoe A-noaaeoeoe?eieie neeaae/anoi-ianoaieie ciiaie.
A?aoiaoth/e, ui Cao?aei? Ea?iaoe ?icoaoiaai? aeioeeith noi?iiith ia
i?ai?/iee cao?ae ? ? iciaee eie?c?? a Neiaaoeuee?e caiaaeei?, eia?/ii
i?eionoeoe ?oo Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? i?e?iieeoe ia i?aaeaiiee no?ae
a?ae Na?aaeeiii-Aoeaioe/ii? ciie ni?aaeeiao.

Oaeei /eiii, oi?ioaaiiy Cao?aeieo, No?aeieo ? I?aaeaiieo Ea?iao, a
oaeiae e?eueoeaiiae?aieo Iaiiinueei? ? O?ain?eueaainueei? caiaaeei ?
aenieee oaieiaee iio?e a ?o iaaeao iiyniththoueny c?oeiaiiyi ?
noaaeoeoe??th i?ae oe? caiaaeeie a?eueo aaaeeeo ? oieiaeieo ieeo c
i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo, i?ai?/iiai noiaeo, i?aaeaiiiai noiaeo ? i?aaeaiiiai
caoiaeo.

2.AAIAeEIAI?*I? OIIAE OI?IOAAIIss ? I?EIOeEIE

?AEIIOAAIIss IA?AAeEA?IAONUeEIAI I?IAEIO

Oi?ioaaiiy i?iaei?a, oei a?eueoa oae neeaaeii iiaoaeiaaiiai ye
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee, c iiceoe?e oaeoii?ee e?oinoa?ieo ieeo aea/aii
iaaeinoaoiuei. Aeeiiaia iaie iiaeaethaaiiy iieaco?, ui oae? aaeee?
aaino?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe caiii? ei?e, a oaeiae noiooi? ?i i?iaaie
ii/eiathoue ooai?thaaoeny aiane?aeie c?oeiaiiy e?oinoa?ieo ieeo
(eie?c??) c ianooiiith noaaeoeoe??th iaei??? ieeoe i?ae ?ioo. Caeaaeii
a?ae iane e?oinoa?ieo ieeo, ye? c?oeioeeny, iiaeeeaa oi?ioaaiiy iaeiiai
i?iaaia ? iaeiiai i?iaeio ia?aae iei o ?ac? yaii a?eueoi? iane ieeoe,
yea eaea a ciio caio?aiiy ? noaaeoeoe??, ? aeieeiaiiy iaeiiai i?iaaia ?
aeaio i?iaei?a o ?ac? i?eaeecii iaeiaeiai? iane ieeo, ui c?oeioeeny. I?e
oeueiio iaeei i?iaei aeieea? a oeeo i?iaaia a cii? eie?c?? ? ianooiii?
noaaeoeoe??, ae?oaee ia?aae o?iioii i?iaaia. Caaaeueiith ia?oii?e/eiith
oi?ioaaiiy i?iaei?a, oae naii ye ? i?iaai?a, ? neee noeniaiiy. Iaeiae o
iiiaio, eiee oe? aaino?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe ii/eiathoue na?e aeaniee
aaiaeeiai?/iee ?icaeoie, o i?iaeiao a?eueo ?ioaineaii ?icaeaathoueny
neee ?icoyaaiiy, aeeeeeai? a iniiaiiio iioneaiiyi oa?eoi??e. Ae?oaee
aa??aio oi?ioaaiiy i?iaaia ? i?iaei?a oa?aeoa?iee aeey Ea?iaonueeiai
?aa?iio. Ooo i?ioyaii i?ciueiai ie?aioeaio i?ciueiai na?iaoo
noi?ioaaeeny Ea?iaonueeee i?iaai, Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee ? Caea?iaonueeee
i?iaeie.

Ia i?noea caeeaaeaiiy, iniaeeaino? aoaeiae ? ?icaeoie i?iaeio a
iai?yieo ieaooi?ie aieeaaee neeaaeiiiiaoaeiaai? ae?aai?o? no?oeoo?e
Cao?aeii- ? No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? ieaooi?i, aeieaia??enueeiai
Eaaeaenueei-Aeia?oaecueeiai ianeao, ?ici?uaiiy ianeaieo eiioeiaioaeueieo
ie?a?i c th?nueeei ? e?aeaeiaei i?iaeiaie ? iniaeeai iiia?a/ieo
no?oeoo?, c yeeo o iaaeao Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo /?oeeie ?
I?ai?/ii-Aoeiaeinueea i?aeiyooy ? Iaiiinueeiai-Aieeinueeee i?iaei.

Aiae?c iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ao??iiy ? naeni?ee iieaco?, ui ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie iaeanoue ianeaii? eiioeiaioaeueii? ie?a?ie, aea a?aeeeaaeaany
e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaee oe?o, c i?ai?/iiai noiaeo iaiaaeiaoaaeany
Eaaeaenueeei ianeaii aai eiai iaeaicienueeei iaeyioaaiiyi ii no/aniiio
iieiaeaiith Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?iceiio, yeee o ?icoi?ii? aaoi?a
a?aeiia?aea? ?aa?iiaeueiiio i?i?ioio neee oyae?iiy.

O no/aniiio oaeoii?/iiio ieai? aeaaiy i?aaeaiii-cao?aeia a?aieoey
iaeano? a?aeeeaaeaiiy e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo ca?aa?oueny c ciiith
I’?i?inueeeo ? Ia?ia?inueeeo neaeue. Aiae?c oiia naaeeiaioaoe?? aeaco?
ia caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th aei i?iaeiaiiy aeia oe?oaaiai aanaeio i?e
a?eueo i?aeiyoiio iieiaeaii? eiai i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai ai?oo.

Iai?ee?ioe? ie?aioeaio oe?oaa? oiau? i?aeaeathoueny ae?? ia?oi? oace
Ea?iaonueei? neeaae/anoino? (Naanueea neeaae/ano?noue). Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?icieaii ii??ae aa?oiueiiai?e?oiaeo a?aeeeaae?a
(na?aaei?e iie?ea o Aeoe?anueeiio ia?aoei?), iayai?noth ooo?a o
aa?oiueiiai?e?oiaeo ooai?aiiyo (/a/aeinuee? oooe a ?iaeiyo?anueeiio
ia?aoei?), a oaeiae iaeaea iianthaeiei iioe?aiiyi eiiaeiia?ao?a o
ieaei?e /anoei? iieyieoeueei? oiau?. A ?acoeueoao? oeeo ?oo?a
ca?iaeaeo?oueny aeania Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee i?iaei o aeaeyae? aeieiaa
ia?aae Ea?iaonueeith a??nueeith nii?oaeith. I?ai?/ii-no?aeia /anoeia
oaeueoiai? ae?eyiee iaeaiaaiiaiai ii?y a i?ioean? i?iaaiaco ia aoea
aoyaiooa a i?aeiyooy ? caeeoeeany a aaoiooiiiiio iieiaeaii?. Oaeee
aeniiaie aeieeaa? c iiia?aaeiueiai aiae?co iiaeo iaoa??ae?a
naenii?ica?aeee ca?aeii c yeeie ia ?yae? iiia?a/ieo i?io?e?a /a?ac
Ai?eneaanueeee, Aeaiaenueeee, Iaeaeainueeee ? Eiiooiyinueeee ia?aoeie ia
aaeeeeo aeeaeiao (6000 8000 i) niinoa??aa?oueny ciia aeeeeithaaiiy
a?aeeeaae?a, naeni?/i? a?aeaeooy a?ae yeeo ca oa?aeoa?ii caieno
a?aeiia?aeathoue ii?iaeai oe?oaaiai iaeaiaaio.

Ia ii/aoeo i?ioeaiiaiai /ano i?iaei ci?uo?oueny aei i?ai?/iiai noiaeo
ca ?aooiie iioneaiiy i?eeaaei? /anoeie ieaooi?ie. Iioneaiiy ieaooi?ie ?
i?aeiyooy oe?oaaeo Ea?iao a?aeaoaathoueny aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii ii aaeeeeo
iiia?a/ieo aeieao. O i?aaeaiii-no?aei?e /anoei? i?iaeio ?ioaineai?oa
iionea?oueny i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiee noee Aoeiaeinueeiai i?aeiyooy, ui a
na?aaeei? aaaiao?cueeiai /ano i?eaiaeeoue aei niiacaiiy a i?iaei /anoeie
e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaeo oiau oe?oo, ye? ooo i?ci?oa ooai?eee ieaei?e
iie?ea e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaeo no?oeoo?. O iiaeaeueoiio oe? a?aeeeaaee
?icaeaathoueny ?acii c i?iaeiii, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
iaocaiaeaeai?noth caeyaaiiy neia?aenueeeo eiiaeiia?ao?a ia ??cieo
ai?eciioao iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo a ?aeii? Neiaiaee-?oiao?nueei?.

I?e oi?ioaaii? iie?ea?a o Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? nooo?ao ?ieue
a?ae?a?aaaea neea oyae?iiy (A.A.Ei?i??aa, 1959; TH.C.E?oinueeee, 1975;
A.A.Aooa?iai, 1992).

A ioiaicueeee ? ea?iaonueeee /an i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ?ioaineaia iioneaiiy
e?ath ieaooi?ie, ooai?ththoueny iiooaei? oiau? iiean noaaieoeueei? ?
aaeeoeueei? na?o. Iniiaa i?iaeio ca i?inoyaaiiyi ia oe?a?inuee?e
oa?eoi??? ?ioaineaii caio?th?oueny c i?aaeaiiiai noiaeo ia i?ai?/iee
cao?ae aei oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie (?aeii i?no Aieao?a, Aeieeia, No?ee) ?
c iaioith ?ioaineai?noth aeae? ia i?ai?/iee cao?ae (?aeii i.
Aeia?iieeue).

Niiacaiiy o i?iaei /anoeie e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo, iaeiie/aiiy
i?ioeaiiaeo iiean aaeeei? iiooaeiino? ni?eyei aeoea?caoe?? ieno?aeieo
?oo?a ii iicaeiaaei?o ?iceiiao ae?aaiueiai caeeaaeaiiy (ciia
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?iceiio), oi?ioaaiith iiaeo iicaeiaaei?o ?iceii?a,
iniaeeai a oeaio?? ? ia i?aaeaiiiio noiae? i?iaeio (Eaeonueeee,
Oai?onueeee oa ?i.). Nooath caeeoeeany o?eueee aei?noea /anoeia ia
i?ai?/iiio caoiae?, i?aaenoaaeaia ?eoaenueeeie a?aeeeaaeaie ?
iaeaicienueeei ia?aieaiiyi Eaaeaenueeiai ianeao.

Iai?ee?ioe? ea?iao?th ii/aoeo aaaeai?th a iioneaiiy aoyaothoueny aaeee?
i?inoi?e ieaooi?ie. Iaeaea iianthaeii ooo i?enooi? a?ine oa aia?ae?eoe
oe?anueei? na?oe. Ii E?aeiaaoeueeiio, Noaeiai-Aeoiyinueeiio,
Ai?iaeioeueeiio ? Eaeonueeiio iicaeiaaei?o ?iceiiao iioneathoueny
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeia ? oeaio?aeueia /anoeie oa?eoi???, yea neeaaeaia
?eoaenueeeie, iaeaicienueeeie ? iacicienueeeie oiauaie, i?e/iio inoaii?
o ca’yceo c aaeeeith ia?a?aith a inaaeeiiaa?iiaaeaeaii?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?ioaineaii a?iaeiaaiei ? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei ?aeue?oii
c aeia?a ?icaeiooith nenoaiith aeieei iaeai??e.

O aaaeai?? ? na?iao? i?iaei aeae? ?icoe?y?oueny ia i?ai?/iee no?ae ?
eiai a?aieoey a oeueiio iai?yieo iaaoaa? no/anieo ia?en?a. O aaaeai??
ieno?aei? ?ooe aeoeai?o? ia i?aaeaiiiio noiae?, a a na?iao? ia
i?ai?/iiio caoiae?, aea oi?io?oueny E?oeaieoeueea caiaaeeia.

O i?ciueina?iaonueeee /an ?ioaineaii i?iyaey?oueny ae?oaa oaca
Ea?iaonueei? neeaae/anoino?. Aiia aeeeeeaea oi?ioaaiiy a i?iaei?
ianoiooeo no?oeoo?, neeaaeaieo oe?oai ? iieanaie. Oe? no?oeoo?e
ca?oioaaeenue a ie?ai? iie?eae. A oe?a?inuee?e /anoei?
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio iaie aeae?eai? o?e iie?eae: ieaei?e
?oiao?nueei-Nieieiaaoeueeee, na?aaei?e Aeoe?anueei-?aaiee?anueeee ?
aa?oi?e Iaeaeainueei-Aeieeinueeee. ??aiai c?eao ieanoei ie?aieo
iie?ea?a ? no?eenuee? a?aeeeaaee aa?oiuei? e?aeaee.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui iie?eaia aoaeiaa o?eno?oueny o?eueee ia
i?ai?/iee-cao?ae a?ae Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeo neeaaeie aei ei?aeiio c
Iieueuath ? aeeeeeaia, i/aaeaeii, iayai?noth Iaiiinueei-Aieeinueei?
aeai?an?? a eiae? i?iaeio.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi neacaiiai iiaea aooe oa, ui a cii? ?icaeoeo
Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeiai i?aeiyooy aeey e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo
oa?aeoa?ii o?eueee /a?aoaaiiy aioeee?iaeae ? neiee?iaeae.

Ia?aae o?iioii ianoiooeo no?oeoo? iaio ?ioaineaii aoee c?i’yo? iieane,
ye? a iniiaiiio noi?ioaaee o?e e?i?? aioeee?iaeueieo neeaaeie, iaoeeaieo
o i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio iai?yieo. Oe? no?oeoo?e, ooai?ai? o?eueee iieanaie,
aeioe?eueii aeae?eeoe a ie?aio ciio. Aaee/aci? iane
e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo ? i?ioeaiiaeo iiean aoee ia?anoioo? ia
cia/io a?aeaeaeue o i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio iai?yieo. C ieo noi?ioaaany
aeiooiiiee eiiieaen a?aeeeaae?a, yeee ia?ae?eaa? cia/io /anoeio
??ciia?eiai? iniiae i?iaeio. I?aaeaiii-cao?aeia /anoeia oeueiai
eiiieaeno ii??ae aoea ia?ae?eoa Neeaiaith ciiith Ea?iao.

A eiae? i?iaeio aaoiooii? ooai?eeany eiai Ciai?oiy ciia c
aeeaieiiiouaiith i?aaeaiii-cao?aeiith /anoeiith ? i?aeiyoith
i?ai?/ii-no?aeiith.

Aaaeeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?e ianoaaii? oe?oaaeo ian, ooai?aii?
neeaaeie ? iie?ea?a a?aeaoaa?oueny iioiioaiiy ai?eciio?a oe?oo
(A.?.Oa?i, 1954, 1973). Aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiai? aaoi?ii o ia?aoei?
Aa?caeAeno?eoey, iieacaee, ui i?e oi?ioaaii? iie?ea?a iiooaei?noue
oe?oo ciaiooaaeany a na?aaeiueiio ia 12,8 i ia eiaeiee e?eiiao? eiai
ia?anoaaiiy.

O ca’yceo c a?aee?eooyi Eiiooiyinueeiai iaooiaiai ?iaeiaeua a aaoiooii?
i?ae Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeie Ea?iaoaie iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei
caaaeaiiyi ? aea/aiiy eiaea i?iaeio a i?aeianoa? aeiooiiieo oiau iiean ?
oe?oo, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiae eiaea neeaae/anoi? iaeano?
Ea?iao.

Nie?ath/enue ia ?acoeueoaoe aeeaieiai ao??iiy ii i?io?eth Naiiess?ineaa
ia oa?eoi??? Iieueu?, ia ?yae? ieiu o No?eenueeiio ia?aoei?, ia
Eano?aaoeuee?e ? Aiai?iae/aie-Ia?euainuee?e ieiuao o Iaaea??iyinueeiio
ia?aoei?, a oaeiae ia *i?iiaocuee?e, Oa?aiao?anuee?e, Iea?anuee?e,
Naa?anuee?e, Nayoineaanuee?e, Eiiooiyinuee?e, Aene?anuee?e,
Na?a??anuee?e, ?iaeainuee?e, A?eiyanuee?e ieiuao, a?aoiaoth/e iaoa??aee
naenii?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia ??cieo
ae?eyieao o aoaeia? aaoiooiiiiai eiaea i?iaeio aoaeooue a?aoe o/anoue
a?aeeeaaee i?ioa?icith, iaeaicith, ieaooi?iiiai iacicith ? iaeaiaaio, a
oaeiae e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo.

Ia i?ai?/iee cao?ae a?ae Aieao?anueeiai ia?aoeio i?ae aaoiooiiieie
iieanaie a eiae? i?iaeio iioe?ai? ooai?aiiy ieaooi?iiiai iacicith
ii/eiath/e a?ae Ai?iaeioeueeiai ?iceiio ia i?ai?/iiio noiae? aei
E?aeiaaoeueeiai ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae?. I?ae iieanaie E?oeaieoeueei?
caiaaeeie caeyaathoue a?aeeeaaee i?ioa?icith, a?e yeeo ca aeaieie ii
oa?eoi??? Iieueu? anoaiiaeaii ye aeieaia??enueeee (I.Ea?ieianuee?,
1983). Ia i?aaeaiiee cao?ae a?ae Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?iceiio i?ae
aeiooiiieie iieanaie ? ianoiooeie no?oeoo?aie c iieanaie ? oe?oai
i?iaiico?oueny aaoiooiiiee e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaee oe?o.

Ia i?aaeaiiee no?ae a?ae Aieao?anueeiai ia?aoeio i?ae aaoiooiiieie ?
aeiooiiieie iieanaie ? oe?oai, Neeaae/anoeie Ea?iaoaie ii/eiath/e a?ae
ciie oeaeno? ia i?ai?/iiio noiae? aei ciie Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?iceiio
iioe?ai? a?aeeeaaee ieaooi?iiiai iacicith. Ia ?yae? ae?eyiie (Eieiiey,
Ioeiy oa ?i.) aiie iathoue a?ic?eiee ?aeue?o. Ia aeayeeo ae?eyieao iaae
oiauath iacicith i?enooi? ii?iaee iaeaiaaio a ieaooi?iieo oaoe?yo
(Eiiooia). Ia i?aaeaiiee cao?ae a?ae Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?iceiio i?ae
iie?eaii Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao i?iaiico?oueny aaoiooiiiee
e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaee oe?o.

Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee i?iaei i?ae?icae?eythoue ia o?e naiino?ei? ciie:
A?eue/a-Aieeoeueeo, Naia??nueeo ? Ai?eneaanueei-Iieoonueeo (A.N.Ao?ia,
A.A.Aeooei, A.I.Oae?i, I.O.Oiae, 1969). Oey noaia ?aeiioaaiiy caa?aaeany
aeioaia?. Iaeiae, ye aeaeii c aeeeaaeaiiai, aiia ia a?aeia?aaea? iiaiith
i??ith oa?aeoa?ieo ?en aoaeiae i?iaeio ? eiai ?icaeoeo. A?aoiaoth/e
no/aniee ??aaiue ciaiue, ooo ne?ae aeae?eyoe ianaiia?aae iniiao (eiaea)
i?iaeio aaoiooii ? ianoiooee eiiieaen a?aeeeaae?a aeiooii. Ciai?oiy ?
Aioo??oiy ciie a ?o eeane/iiio ?icoi?ii? iiaeooue aooe i?inoaaeai?
o?eueee a iniia? i?iaeio, i?e/iio ?nioaaiiy Aioo??oiuei? ciie
(neeaae/anoa oe?oaaa eiaea) iiaeia o?eueee i?eioneaoe ia aaeeeeo
aeeaeiao ia oa?eoi???, iaiaaeai?e c i?ai?/iiai noiaeo Ia?aaeea?iaonueeei
?iceiiii, a ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? aeeaeiiei ?iceiiii, yeee i?ioiaeeoue
i?eaeecii iina?aaeei? neeaae/anoi? iaeano? Ea?iao (Oaeioeueeee ?iceii).
A aeiooii? aeioe?eueii aeae?eeoe ciie ianoiooeo iiean ? ianoiooeo
no?oeoo? c iieanaie ? oe?oai. Cai?iiiiiaaia ?aeiioaaiiy oi/i?oa
a?aeiia?aea? neeaaeo ii??ae, ?noi??? ?icaeoeo ? oaeoii?/iiio oa?aeoa?o
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio.

3.AAIAeEIAI?*I? OIIAE OI?IOAAIIss

CAEA?IAONUeEIAI I?IAEIO

?noi??y aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio aena?oethaaeany
aaaaoueia aeine?aeieeaie, iaeiae aeaoaeueiiai ?icaeyaeo aaiaeeiai?/ieo
oiia oi?ioaaiiy Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio aeoiaey/e c iniia no/anieo
ciaiue i?i oaeoii?eo e?oinoa?ieo ieeo c?iaeaii ia aoei.

O aaieia?/i?e aoaeia? eiaea Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio aa?ooue o/anoue
a?aeeeaaee iaeaicith, iacicith ? iaeaiaaio, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
aaoa?iaaiiith aeieiaith aoaeiaith. Nai i?iaei aeiiaiaiee iaiaaiiaeie
iieanaie, iiooaei?noth aei 3500 i, ui iaocaiaeaeaii caeyaathoue ia
oeueiio ??ciia?eiaiio eiae?.

Iaeaeaai?oeie ooo ? iaeaicienuee? ii?iaee, ye? ?ice?eaathoueny
naa?aeeiaeiaie a oeaio?aeuei?e ? i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoeiao. A iacici?
eiaea i?iaeio anoaiiaeai? ii?iaee o??ano, th?e ? e?aeaee.

O a?aeeeaaeao iacicith aeaaii a?aeii? io?ie?oe a ?aeii? i. Aa?aaiaa. A
naa?aeeiaei? 1-?onueei-Eiia??anueea, aeeaeiith 4521 i a?aeeeaaee
iacicith (e?aeaea) i?ieaeai? a ?ioa?aae? 34003920 i. C ?ioa?aae?a
38143822 ? 38473855 i i?aeiyoi ea?i, i?aaenoaaeaiee
e?enoaei-e?oieeanoe/ieie oooaie iniiaiiai ? na?aaeiueiai neeaaeo c
oeaieaie aacaeueo?a, aiaeaceoi-aacaeueo?a ? aiaeaceo?a. Oe? aeai?, ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, aeicaieythoue i?iaanoe iaaeo iioe?aiiy io?ie?o?a iacicith
eiaea i?iaeio aei oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie Ioea/?anueei? caiaaeeie.

Iaeaiaaiia? ii?iaee eiaea i?iaeio i?aaenoaaeai?
oeaio?aeueii-ea?iaonueeei iaeaiaaiii (i?aeaaeuenueeei oe?oai aioeaiiaiai
a?eo), yeee iioe?aiee a oeaio?aeuei?e ? i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoeiao
i?iaeio ? oiio?nueeei oe?oai oaeiai ae a?eo a i?aaeaiii-no?aei?e
/anoei?.

Ia ?icieoiio iacicienueei-iaeaiaaiiaiio eiae? caeyaa? oiaua iaiaaio
aeania Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio, i?aaenoaaeaia i?ioeaiiaeie,
ie?ioeaiiaeie ? ieaenoioeaiiaeie a?aeeeaaeaie.

Iaeaeaai?o? ii?iaee i?ioeaio aaaiao?cuee? (ao?eae?anueea na?oa). Aeua
?ici?uathoueny oae caai? oa?aooeuenuee? eiiaeiia?aoe ea?iao?th, oooe ?
ooo?oe iec?a aaaeai?th (iiainaeeoeueea na?oa), eai’yia n?eue, n?eue c
i?ioa?eaie aeei ieaeiuei-oa?aaeyinueei? i?aena?oe, oe?oi?aei? ii?iaee
na?aaeiueiai ? aa?oiueiai aaaeai?th (aa?oiueioa?aaeyinueea i?aena?oa,
nieioaeinueea, oa?anaeinueea ? aano?anueea na?oe). A na?iaonueeeo
a?aeeeaaeao, ye? iioe?ai? a Ioea/?anuee?e caiaaeei?, aeae?eythoue
aei?ia?ao?anueeo, eoe?anueeo ? aeianueeo na?oe, aeua yeeo caeyaathoue
ii?iaee iaiiio, iiioo ? aeae?e ?oioi?th (?eueieoeueea na?oa).
Caaa?oo?oueny inaaeiaee ?ic??c i?iaeio aeeiaie ? e?ai?oaie ieaenoioeaio
(/iinueea na?oa), a a iaeano? aoeeai?/iiai iania oea aeaa?aeai?
aiaeaceoe ? aacaeueoe aoaei?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

O?aaa caa?iooe oaaao ia iaaecae/aeii aaeeea iioe?aiiy o ?ic??c? iaiaaio
ooo?a, ooo?o?a, oooii?neiaee?a. Aiie i?enooi? a on?o na?oao ii/eiath/e
a?ae iiainaeeoeueei? aaaeai?th. Iiooaeiino? oeeo a?aeeeaae?a aaeee?, a
iiainaeeoeuee?e na?o? aiie aeinyaathoue 600 i. O na?oao, ui caeyaath/eo
aeua, ?o iiooaei?noue ci?ith?oueny a?ae aeae?eueeio aei aeanyoe?a ?
nioaiue iao??a.

O no/aniiio oaeoii?/iiio iieiaeaii? Caea?iaonueeee i?iaei iaiaaeaiee ia
i?ai?/iiio noiae? ciiith I’?i?inueeeo neaeue ? Ia?ia?inueeei
e?enoae?/iei ianeaii, ia i?aaeaiiiio noiae? Ia?aio?anueeei aanaeiii, ia
i?aaeaiiio caoiae? Iaiiinueeith caiaaeeiith ? ia i?ai?/iiio caoiae?
ia?aoiaeeoue o No?aeii-Neiaaoeueeo caiaaeeio. O iicaeiaaeiueiio iai?yi?
a i?iaei? aeae?eythoue: i?ai?/ii-no?aeiee iiiiee?iaeueiee noee,
oeaio?aeueio ciio aioeee?iaeueieo no?oeoo? ? ciio Aa?aa?anueeeo ai?no?a.
Ocaeiaae i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai noeeo i?iaeio i?inoyaa?oueny
Aeai?eao-Aooeinueea aoeeai?/ia ianii, yea a ?aeii? i. Oono ia?an?ea?
eiai a ia?eae?iiaeueiiio iai?yieo, ?icae?eyth/e ia aea? caiaaeeie:
Ioea/?anueeo ? Nieioaeinueeo.

A i?iaei? aeioe?eueii aeae?eeoe o?e no?oeoo?ii-oaeoii?/i? iiaa?oe:
iaeaicienueeee, iacicienueei-iaeaiaaiiaee ? iaiaai-ieaenoioeaiiaee.
Ia?o? aeaa neeaaeathoue eiaea, aeaoae? ?o oaeoii?/ii? aoaeiae aea/ai?
iaei. Iaaaaaoi e?aua aeine?aeaeaia oaeoii?ea iaiaai-ieaenoioeaiiaiai
no?oeoo?ii-oaeoii?/iiai iiaa?oo. Aaieia?/iith ceiieith, no?oeoo?iei ?
aeeaieei ao??iiyi, a oaeiae naenii?ica?aeeith ooo aeyaeaii ?yae
aioeee?iaeueieo i?aeiyoue. Aiie yaeythoue niaith iaaaeee?
a?ao?aioeee?iaeuei? neeaaeee iaei? aiie?ooaee, ?icaeo? iiia?a/ieie,
iicaeiaaei?ie, aeaeiee ??ciini?yiiaaieie, ye i?aaeei, iaeiaiie?ooaeieie
ii?ooaiiyie ia ie?ai? aeiee. Caneoaiao? ia oaaao oa, ui i?inoyaaiiy
no?oeoo? ia iaia’yceiai «ea?iaonueea», oiaoi i?ai?/iee cao?ae
i?aaeaiiee no?ae. Cono??/a?ii i?inoyaaiiy ? ia?eae?iiaeueia, ?
i?ai?/ii-no?aeia, /iai ia iiaei aooe a ?ioeo ciiao Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao ?
a Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiio i?iaei?. Oea na?ae/eoue, ui a iaiaai-ieaenoioeai?
ia o?eueee neee noeniaiiy aoee i?e/eiith oi?ioaaiiy eieaeueieo
aioeee?iaeae. Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a aeia?a ?ica?aeaieo no?oeoo? iieaco?, ui
ia aeaiee i?ioean aieeaaee ua o?e nooo?a? oaeoi?e. Ii-ia?oa, oea iiaee
aooe no?oeoo?e iaaie?eaiiy aaoa?iaaiieo iacicienueei-iaeaiaaiiaeo ?
iaeaicienueeeo aeie?a eiaea i?iaeio. Ii-ae?oaa, neeaaeee oi?ioaaeeny
i?ae ae??th ?io?oc?e a?aiiae?i?eo-ii?oe??a aaaeainueeiai a?eo, a
iniiaiiio a Ioea/?anuee?e caiaaeei?. Ii-o?ao?, aiie aeieeee a
?acoeueoao? nieyiiai ae?ai??ecio, ia?aaaaeii a Nieioaeinuee?e caiaaeei?.

Cia/ia iioe?aiiy a Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? iathoue aeaai? no?aoiaoeeaie,
ui ciaoiaeyoueny a ciiao iicaeiaaei?o aai iiia?a/ieo ?iceii?a ? a cii?
iioe?aiiy aoocea?a Aeai?eao-Aooeinueeiai iania, yea, aac noii?ao, oaeiae
iia’ycaia c aaeeeiaiie?ooaeieie ?iceiiaie.

I?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeio a?aeaoaaeeny a ia?ic?eaiiio ca’yceo c
aaioaeoii?/ieie iiae?yie a Iaiiinuee?e caiaaeei?, Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iaoao
? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiio i?iaei?, oiaoi Ea?iaonueei-Iaiiinueeee ?aa?ii
?icaeaaany ye ia?ic?eaia oe?ea.

Caea?iaonueeee i?iaei, ye ? any Ea?iaonueea neeaae/anoa nenoaia, aei
yei? a?i aoiaeeoue, noi?ioaaany a aeuei?enueeo aiioo neeaae/anoino?. A
naith /a?ao, Ea?iaonueea nenoaia ? /anoeiith Na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai
neeaae/anoiai iiyna, yeee i?inoyaa?oueny a oe?ioiiio iai?yi? a?ae
Ea??anueeiai aei I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueeiai ii?y. Oeae iiyn aeiee ia i?noe?
iaoe?iiai ieaaio Oaoen, yeee iai?ee?ioe? na?aaeiuei? th?e ?icae?eya
noia?eiioeiaio Iaiaath ia Eaa?ac?th ? Aiiaeaaio. Ia ii/aoeo e?aeaeiaiai
/ano a ?acoeueoao? caeeaeaiiy ?a?ac?? c Ao?eeith, A?aa??th, ?iae??th oa
Aano?ae??th ii?a ii/aei nei?i/oaaoeny. Oaeei /eiii, Na?aaecaiiiii?nueeee
neeaae/anoee iiyn ? i?aeeiioeiaioaeueiei, aeey i?ioeano ?icaeoeo yeiai
oa?aeoa?i? iiaeeiaiiy ieaai?/ii? ei?e, eie?c?y eiioeiaio?a ?
i?e?ieiioeiaio?a. Iayai?noue ieaai?/ii? ei?e a ?icaeyaeoaaiiiio ?aa?ii?
iaeiicia/ii i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeyaeaieie io?ie?oaie. O?aaa
a?aecia/eoe, ui io?ie?oe a?aeii? oaeiae o Aioo??oi?o Ea?iaoao ?
Iaiiinuee?e caiaaeei?. Oaea ?ici?uaiiy iiai?noth ocaiaeaeo?oueny c
aieiaiei iaoai?ciii iaaeoeoe?? i?e cae?eoo? aanaei?a ieaai?/iiai oeio
(A.?.Oa?i, I.A.Eii?aeca, 1995). sse a?aeiii, io?ie?oe caaaeaee
ciaoiaeyoueny a aeiooiiiiio noaiiaeu?. A.?.Oa?i iaa?oue aaaaea?, ui
iie?eae e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae o Aioo??oi?o ciiao Ea?iao (Ia?ia?inueeee
ianea) ii/aoeiai iaeaaeaee aaea ae?oaiio i?e?ieiioeiaioo, a naia
Aeoa?nueeiio (Iaiiinueea caiaaeeia).

A.I.Aeieaiei oa ?i. (1980) aaaaeaee, ui Ea?iaonueea aaineiee?iaeueia
ciia ciaoiaeeeanue o aei?noeeo iaaeao aeieaia??enueeeo aaino?oeoo?ieo
nii?oae: *anueeiai ianeao, Aieeii-Iiae?euenueei? ieeoe, I?c?enueei?
ieeoe ? Iaiiinueeiai na?aaeeiiiai ianeao. Aaoi? aeoia?, ui aeania
iayai?noue aei?noeeo iaae oa ?o ia?ene iaoiiaeee aaeeeith, iiaeeeai,
ae??oaeueiith i??ith no/anio aeoaiiiae?aio eiio?ao?aoe?th Ea?iaonueei?
neeaae/anoi? nii?oaee.

O e?aeae? ? iaeaiaai? a Ea?iaonuee?e iaeano? Na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai
neeaae/anoiai iiyna ia ianeaieo ie?a?iao No?aeii- ?
Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? ieaooi?i ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny iiooaeiee
ae?aoe?eiee oeaieiaee eeei, neeaaeaiee oe?oaaith oi?iaoe??th. Ia i?noe?
Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio ca?iaeaeo?oueny ciia noaaeoeoe??, iaae yeith
aeieeea aoeeai?/ia ciia, a ia?aae iath ?icaeaa?oueny aeeaieiaiaeiee
aeieia ia?aaeaeoaiaee i?iaei. A ie?a?iiiio ii??, yea caeiaei oa?eoi??th
i?ae Iaiiinueeei ianeaii ? no/aniith ciiith I’?i?inueeeo neaeue,
a?aeeeaaeaeeny oiau? e?aeaee ? iaeaiaaio eiaea Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio.

E?aeiaei aaeii ia?aaeaeoaiaiai i?iaeio iiaee aooe aaiiyee, iiaeeeai,
?eoia? aaiiyee th?nueeiai ? e?aeaeiaiai a?eo. I?ioeeaaeiei aa?aaii
ie?a?iiiai ii?y aoa Iaiiinueeee ianea. Neeaaeaiee a?i ae?aaaci-o?e?oaie
aeieaia??th ? ieaeiueiai eaia??th, na?eoeeoiaeie neaioeyie, eaa?oeeoaie,
i?neiaeeaie ? a?a?e?oaie aa?oiueiai eaia??th, i?aeiaeeo ? aeaaiio,
iieaniiiae?aieie a?aeeeaaeaie ea?aiio ? ia?i?, ieaooi?iieie o??ano oa
th?e, oe?oiiiae?aieie e?aeaee ? aioeaio, ia a?ic?ei?e iiaa?oi? yeiai
a?aeeeaaeaeeny ii?iaee i?ioeaio. sse aeaeii, Iaiiinueeee na?aaeeiiee
ianea noi?ioaaany ia ei?? eiioeiaioaeueiiai oeio.

Oaeei /eiii, a iaeano? no/aniiai iieiaeaiiy Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio
iai?ee?ioe? iaeaiaaio ?icii/eiathoueny eie?c?y ? iieiaa noaaeoeoe?y
noi?iiaaieo ia ei?? eiioeiaioaeueiiai oeio i?e?ieiioeiaioo Iaiiinueeiai
ianeao c eiioeiaioii ?a?ac??. Naia ae iaeanoue, iaae yeith ooai?eeinue
ie?a?iia ii?a, ye aeieeaa? ?c iayaiino? io?ie?o?a, oi?ioaaeany ia ei??
ieaai?/iiai oeio, ? aoeeai?/ia ciia Caea?iaooy yaey? niaith aineiaoe/io
aeoao. Ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo ?icaeoeo eie?c?? a oeueiio ?aa?ii?
(e?iaoeue ?aiiuei? e?aeaee iaeaiaai), eiee cae?i/eany ni?aaeeia ?
caaa?oeeiny iiaeeiaiiy ieaai?/ii? ei?e a iieiao ciio noaaeoeoe??, ooo
onoaiiaeeenue oiiae noeniaiiy, ye? ia aeeeth/athoue, a iaaiaee, iaaooue,
caeiiii??ii aeeeeeathoue ?icoyaiaiiy e?ee i?iaeio ? a?aeiia?aeii
ciaioaiiy ?o oiaueie. Oea i?eaaei aei oiai, ui a Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei?
i?e eiai oi?ioaaii? iiyaeeeny ?iceiie ? o i?ciueiio iaeaiaai?
?icii/aeany aoeeai?/ia ae?yeuei?noue.

Iaeaiaaiiaee aoeeai?ci aoa ii/aoeii eie?c?? ? ca?iaeaeaiiy
Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio. Iaeanoue inoaiiueiai c ?icaeoeii i?ioeano
eie?c?? ? iieiai? noaaeoeoe?? iiaeiia aoea i?iaeiaoeny /ei ?ac a?eueoa,
a ?ioaineai?noue aoeeai?/ii? ae?yeueiino? c?inoaoe. Oaeoe/ii oea ?
a?aeaoaaeinue. Aaeeea iiooaei?noue ? oe?ieee ?icaeoie o i?iaei?
aoeeai?/ieo a?aeeeaae?a na?ae/aoue i?i ianooaae i?iya?a aoeeai?cio.

Ii/aoie eie?c?? noi?iaiaeaeoaaany noeniaiiyi ? a iaoe?i?e iaeano?
ae?aoe?eiiai oe?oaaiai eeeio, ui oi?ioaaany ia ie?a?iao ieaooi?i. O
?acoeueoao? ooo ca?iaeaeothoueny i?aeaiaei? o?aaoe ? iaaeaiaei?
ei?aeeeue??e, ye? a iaeaiaaiiaee /an aeinyaee aaeeeiai ?icaeoeo, ui
ni?e/eieei ooai?aiiy ??cieo e?oieiai-oaoe?aeueieo cii e?aeaee ?
iaeaiaaio, c o?aooaaiiyi yeeo, oaia? i?iaiaeyoue iiae?e Neeaae/anoeo
Ea?iao.

??ci? /anoeie Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio iioneaeeny c ??ciith
?ioaineai?noth. A aaaeai?? oeae i?ioean iaeaeoeai?oa i?ioiaeea ia
i?aaeaiiiio noiae? (Nieioaeinueea caiaaeeia), a na?iao? ia i?ai?/iiio
caoiae? (Ioea/?anueea caiaaeeia). A Nieioaeinuee?e caiaaeei? a aaaeai??
oi?ioaaeeny iiooaei? oiau? aaaii?eoiaeo a?aeeeaae?a, a a Ioea/?anuee?e
?ioaineaii i?iyaeyeiny aoi?aiaiiy ?io?oc?e a?aiiae?i?eo-ii?o???a.
Iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiei aoeeai?ci aoa o na?iao?, iaiii? ? aeae?e-?oioi??.
A oeae naiee /an ae?yee ? neee noeniaiiy, i?i ui na?ae/eoue a?eueo /anoa
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeia i?aaeaiii-no?aeia i?inoyaaiiy a?ao?aioeee?iaeueieo
no?oeoo? Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio.

sse a?aeiii, oooe ? ooo?oe iioe?ai? a na?iao? Caea?iaonueeiai ?
Ia?aaeea?iao-nueeiai i?iaei?a. Iaeiae o ia?oiio c ieo iiooaeiino?
aoeeaiiaaiieo ii??ae aeinyaathoue nioaiue iao??a, a a Ciai?oi?e cii?
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio oea o?eueee i?ioa?ee iiooaei?noth a
aeae?eueea iao??a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey no?aoeo?eaoe?? ?ic??co
na?iaoo a i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei? ciie. Iayai?noue oeeo aoeeaiiaaiieo
?aia??a aeo?eiaii? iiooaeiino?, ui iiaoi?ththoueny ia aaeee?e oa?eoi???
Ciai?oiuei? ciie, ne?ae iiynieoe aeiaaeaiiyi o Na?iaonueea ii?a
aoeeai?/iiai iiiaeo, aeaea?aeaie yeiai iiaee aooe o?eueee aoeeaie
Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio.

Acaaae? i?ai?/ii-cao?aei? /anoeie iaio i?iaei?a a?eueo i?iaioo? a
na?iao?, a i?aaeaiii-no?aei? a aaaeai??; neeaae ii??ae i?iaei?a oaeiae
iiae?aiee, ui ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeo? neio?iii?noue ? iaeiaeiao
i?e/eii?noue ?o ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo.

I?ioeane ?aa?iiaeueiiai noeniaiiy a i?iaaiio noaae?th, ui aeeeeeaee
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie Caea?iaonueeiai ? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaei?a o
Neeaae/ano?e cii? Ea?iao, coiiaethaaee ooai?aiiy neeaae/anoino? ?
iie?ea?a.

sse oaea aeacoaaeiny, noaaeoeoe?y ?a?ac?enueei? ieeoe i?ae Iaiiinueeo
i?e?iieeoo aeeeeeaea ?ic?a??a iaio?eieo ian ? aeieeiaiiy iaio?eiiai
anoaiie?oo, eiai i?aeiyooy ? ciaioaiiy iiooaeiino? ei?e i?ae
Iaiiinueeith caiaaeeiith. Oeei, a ia i?enooi?noth ieaai?/ii? ei?e iiaeia
iiynieoe aeniea iieiaeaiiy a?aieoe? Iioi i?ae aeaiith caiaaeeiith.

Ii-iiaiio ne?ae o?aeooaaoe aeai? a?aa?iao???. ?aa?iiaeuei? iaeneioie
aiiiae?e nee oyae?iiy a Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? iaiao?aeii iia’ycoaaoe
ia c iayai?noth aeaai?o u?eueieo ii??ae, ye oea oyaeyeiny ?ai?oa, a ?c
ciiith e?aeiaiai aaeo (i?ai?/ii-no?aeiee iaeneioi aiiiae?e nee oyae?iiy)
? c? nioaith a?eueo ??ceiai caio?aiiy ?a?ac?enueei? ieeoe a ciio
noaaeoeoe?? (i?aaeaiii-cao?aeiee iaeneioi aiiiae?e nee oyae?iiy).

4.AAIAeEIAI?*I? OIIAE OI?IOAAIIss

? I?EIOeEIE ?AEIIOAAIIss AIEEII-IIAe?EEss

Aea/aiiyi aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae ? ei?enieo eiiaeei Aieeii-Iiae?eey
caeiaeiny aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a, i?ioa o?aaa a?aecia/eoe, ui aeey
iaooiaaciai? aaieia?? oeae ?aa?ii ii??aiyii c Ea?iaonueeei aoa
ae?oai?yaeiei ? /anoi ?icaeyaeaany o?eueee iia?aeii, i?e/iio ye oaeee,
aea a iniiaiiio ia?aaaaeaee aa?oeeaeuei? ?ooe caiii? ei?e.

Aaaaea?oueny, ui aeieiaa oaeoii?ea e?enoae?/iiai ooiaeaiaioo neoaeeea
ea?eanii aeey caeeaaeaiiy oaia?icienueeeo ?aa?iiaeueieo aaino?oeoo?. O
??ci? aaieia?/i? aiioe ooo aoee noi?iiaai?: a ?eoa? Aieeii-Iie?nueeee
?eoaenueeee i?iaei ? Iiae?euenueeee aeieaia??enueeee aenooi; o aaiae? —
?aiiueiio aeaaii? Aei?noa?nueeee ia?ee?aoiiiee i?iaei; o na?aaeiueiio
aeaaii? — ea?aii? Euea?anueeee iaeaicienueeee i?iaei, Eiaaeuenueeee
aenooi ? Eoe?anueei-?aoi?anueeee ai?no; o iacici? — No?eenueeee
th?nueeee i?iaei ? Iaciaaoeueei-Euea?anueeee e?aeaeiaee i?iaei (?.?.
*aaaiaiei oa ?i., 1990).

O aaieia?/i?e aoaeia? oa?eoi??? aa?ooue o/anoue inaaeia? ooai?aiiy
aa?oiueiai i?ioa?icith (?eoae, aaiae), iaeaicith (eaia??e, i?aeiaee,
neeo?, aeaaii, ea?aii), iacicith (th?a, e?aeaea) ? eaeiicith (iaiaai).
Aiie caeyaathoue ia a?oae-i?ioa?icienueeiio e?enoae?/iiio ooiaeaiaio?,
ui aeoiaeeoue ia iiaa?oith a iaeano? OU ? caio?th?oueny a
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeiiio iai?yi? aei aeeaeie 8 ei ia a?aieoe? c
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeei i?iaeiii, oiio iiaiioa ?ic??co ? oiaueie inaaeiaeo
ooai?aiue ca?eueoothoueny aei i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo. No?aoea?ao?/ia
?ic/eaioaaiiy inaaeiaiai eiiieaeno, neeaae ii??ae, ?o oaoe?aeuei? ci?ie
? cai?uaiiy aea/ai? aeineoue aeaoaeueii. Oe? aeai? oa ?o ei?aeyoe?y aeey
Euea?anueeiai iaeaicienueeiai i?iaeio, Aieeii-Iiae?euenueei? iiiiee?iae?
? Eiaaeuenueeiai aenooio aaoi?ii iaaiaeyoueny ia noai?, neeaaeai?e ca
iaoa??aeaie Oe?AeA?O ? AeAI ‘‘Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y’’. Iniiai? ?icieae,
eooia? ? no?aoea?ao?/i? iaca?aeiino? i?eo?i/ai? aei a?aieoeue: ieaei?e
i?ioa?icie ?eoae, ?eoae ieaei?e aaiae; ieaei?e aaiae aa?oi?e aaiae;
eaia??e neeo?; ieaei?e aeaaii na?aaei?e aeaaii: aa?oi?e aeaaii
ea?aii; iaeaicie iacicie; iacicie eaeiicie. ?ooe, ye? aeeeeeaee oe?
iaca?aeiino?, iia’ycai? c ea?aeuenueeith, aaeeaeuenueeith,
eaeaaeiinueeith, aa?enoe?enueei?, eaia??enueeith oa aeuei?enueeith
neeaae/anoinoyie.

O ?eoaenueeee aoai ?icaeoeo Aieeii-Iiae?eey caeeaany Aieeii-Iie?nueeee
i?iaei, ui aoei aeeeeeaii aeiaaeueiith ci?iith aaioaeoii?/iiai ?aaeeio
ieaiaoe, aeano?oeoe??th Iaiaa? oa ooai?aiiyi ieaaio I?ioioaoeno.
Oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeio noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny i?iaeiaiiyie /anoeie oa?eoi??? ?
?ic?eaii nooe?eueiino? ei?e ? e?oinoa?e aeeaeiieie ?iceiiaie, ii ciiao
yeeo a?aeaoaaeeny ia??iaee/i? aeeeae iaaie, i?i ui na?ae/aoue ieanoia?
?io?oc?? e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae. Aaaaeathoue, ui oe? iaeae?aai?o? ?iceiie
iaee i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiee ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeiee iai?yie (A.I. Aeieaiei oa
?i., 1980; ?.?.*aaaiaiei oa ?i., 1990). Iai?ee?ioe? ?eoath ia ii/aoeo
aaiaeo ?icaeoie ianeaii? ie?a?ie ieaooi?ie aoa oneeaaeiaiee
ei?ioei/aniith oacith noeniaiiy, ui coiiaeei ianoaaiiy ia e?ae
No?aeii-?a?iiaenueeiai e?aoiio eiai aao?aeueieo inaaee?a (I.N.Nooiea,
1980). O i?ciueiio ?eoa? ?aiiueiio aaiae? ia i?aaeaiiee cao?ae a?ae
?icaeyaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? ?icaeaa?oueny Aaeeoeueea ?ooiia iaeanoue, o
ca’yceo c /ei a oiiaao ?icoyaiaiiy o nioc? i. Eia?ei i. Oa?iii?eue
oi?io?oueny o?aiiaa oi?iaoe?y aieeinueei? na???. O eaia??enueeee /an
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny caio?aiiy an??? oa?eoi???, a ia ii/aoeo neeo?o, a
?acoeueoao? ?oo?a eaeaaeiinueeiai i?iaaiaco a noi?aei?e ?ooii?e iaeano?,
oa?eoi??y Aieeii-Iiae?eey aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo ?aeeiiai no?aeiiai
oaeueoo Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueeiai ii?nueeiai aanaeio, o no?aei?e /anoei?
yeiai ooai?eeeny aa?’??i? ?eoe ia onooiao i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai
i?inoyaaiiy. A ?aiiueiio aeaaii? ia i?ai?/iiio caoiae? a ?ooii?e iaeano?
Aaeeoeeae o?eaathoue ?ioaineai? i?ioeane i?iaaiaco, a e?aeiaa /anoeia
noa?i? ieaooi?ie ?ioaineaii iionea?oueny ? caeeaaea?oueny Aiyiaoeueeee
ia?aaea??nueeee i?iaei. O na?aaeiueiio aeaaii? ii/eia? ?icaeaaoeny
Euea?anueeee iaeaicienueeee i?iaei, inueiaa /anoeia yeiai ia i?ioyc?
na?aaeiueiai i?ciueiai aeaaiio i?a?o? ia i?ai?/ie no?ae. O oeae ia??iae
o iaaeao i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? /anoeie oa?eoi??? i?iaeiaaeothoue
oi?ioaaoeny e?i?ei? aioeee?i?aeuei? i?aeiyooy i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai
i?inoyaaiiy, a ia i?ai?/iiio noiae?, ia?aae Eiaaeueneei aenooiii,
no?oeoo?e Eiea/einueeiai aaeo i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai i?inoyaaiiy. A ea?aii?
a i?iaei? noi?ioaaeany iiooaeia oi?iaoe?y Euea?anueei-Aieeinueeiai
aoa?eueiiai aanaeio ?, i?ney aeiaai? ia?a?ae a inaaeeiiaeiie/aii?,
o?eueee a th?? o i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e /anoei? ooai?eany No?eenueeee
th?nueeee i?iaei, a a e?aeae? Euea?anueea e?aeaeiaa ioeueaea.

?noi??y oi?ioaaiiy Aieeii-Iiae?eey i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ieaiaoa?i?
caeiiii??-iino? aaiaeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ca?aeii c yeeie ia
i?ciueiiaeaicienueeiio ?aiiueiiacicienueeiio aoaiao a?ae?iaeeeany
Iaiaay, a c na?aaeeie th?e ciiao ?icii/aany ?? ?iciaae, ui
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny oaia?.

Aaoi?ii ia oa?eoi??? Aieeii-Iiae?eey aea/aeeny oa?aeoa?enoeea
iaioaeoii?/ieo ?oo?a, naeni?/i?noue, aeeneieiaai?noue, o??ueioaao?noue ?
iai?oaeai?noue a??nueeeo ii??ae. Iaioaeoii?/i? ?ooe iaea?eueo? ia
i?aaeaiiee cao?ae ? i?aaeaiiee no?ae a?ae i.Euea?a, i?e/iio a ia?oiio
aeiaaeeo ?cie?i?? ?o noia?ieo aiie?ooae iathoue i?ai?/ii-cao?aeia
i?aaeaiii-no?aeia i?inoyaaiiy, a ae?oaiio ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia aei iueiai,
oiaoi i?ai?/ii-no?aeia. Aaaaeaeiny, ui oa?eoi??y Aieeii-Iiae?eey
neaainaeni?/ia aai ianaeni?/ia. Iaeiae ooo cao?eniaai? i?noeaa?
caieao?one. Oae, aeaa caieao?one noaeeny a ?aeii? i. Cae?ueee a 1880 ?
1903 ??. Ae?in ?cinaeo inoaiiueiai c ieo aoa aeoyaiooee o ea?iaonueeiio
iai?yieo. A 1885 ?. caieao?on noaany a ?aeii? i. Aaeee? Iinoe. Eiai
?ioaineai?noue aeinyaaea 6 aae?a. Ua iaeei ai?oeaio? naeni?/ii?
aeoeaiino? cao?eniaaiee a ?aeii? i. Noi?iaeeiaoeue (E.Ae.Aioooaei,
1979). O aa?aci? 1999 ?. i?ana iia?aeiieea i?i caieao?on o ?aeii? i?no
Iaeana ? *a?i?aoe?. I/aaeaeii, ui ai?oeaio?e aeacaieo caieao?on?a ne?ae
iia’ycoaaoe c a?aeiiaeaiiyi aeoeaiino? ?iceii?a caiii? ei?e
Aieeii-Iiae?eey.

Oa, ui naeni?/ii aeoeaieie aeyaeany oaeee, caeaaaeiny a, noaa?eueiee
?aa?ii, ye Aieeii-Iiae?eey, iiaeeeai, iiyniththoue aeae?eai? inoaii?i
/anii aiiiae?? oaieiaiai iioieo, ye? ia?aaeuothoue oiiia? ia 2030 iAo/i2
? i?inoyaathoueny eaioethaeeii a?ae Aioi?/ii? caoiee Aaeo?enueeiai ii?y
aei A?aa?enueeiai i?aino?iaa (Eeaeiaaenueea, Oaeinueea, ssai??anueea,
*a?i?aaoeueea, Aaecueea, Aaenonueea, ?ai?enueea, Oa?oaieoonueea oa ?i.)
(A.A.Ai?aeaiei oa ?i., 1996). Ai?oeaio?e caieao?on?a i?eo?i/ai? aei
o?ainoi?iiiai ?iceiio, yeee aeia?a o?ano?oueny ii e?iaaiaioao,
aeae?eaieo ca einiioioici?ieaie, a iai?yieo i?no Iaeana Eeoei?a
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee Caa?aae Eooeuee (?.A.Aeoiyeia oa ?i.,
1984). Ua iaeia ciia ?iceiio iaeaea ia?eae?iiaeueiiai i?inoyaaiiy
o?ano?oueny ii e?i?? i?no ??aia Ai?u?a Oa?iii?euenueei? iae. n.
Iiain?eee (*a?i?aaoeueea iae). I?iaeiaaeaiiy oeueiai ?iceiio ia
oa?eoi??? ?oioi?? i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac naeni?/ii aeoeaio oaia? ciio A?ai/a.
E?iaaiaioe iiae?aieo iai?yie?a aeae?eythoue oaeiae ?.Ae. Aioooaei ? A.I.
Iaaeaaae?a (1989).

Iayai?noue aeacaieo ?iceii?a, ?o aeoeai?noue iiaeia iia’ycaoe c ?ooii
A?aa?enueei? ieeoe, Aiaoie?enueei? ? Cao?aeii-*i?iiii?nueei? i?e?iieeo o
i?ai?/iiio ? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio iai?yiao. Iaeia /anoeia
(i?aaeaiii-cao?aeia) Cao?aeii-*i?iiii?nueei? i?e?iieeoe eaea a ciio
noaaeoeoe?? i?ae O?ain?eueaainueeo caiaaeeio, a ae?oaa i?iaeiaaeo? ?oo
ia i?ai?/iee cao?ae. A?aieoeath i?ae ieie ?, eiia??ii, ?icae?e i?ae
No?aeii- ? Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueeith ieaooi?iaie (ciia Oaennae?a —
Oi?iea?noa).

?ic?eai? ii?ooaiiy Aieeii-Iiae?eey i?inoaaeothoueny /a?ac onth oiauo
inaaeiaeo ii??ae ? i?inoi?iai ca?aathoueny c ?iceiiaie, aeyaeaieie a
e?enoae?/iiio ooiaeaiaio? (A.A.Nieiaeia oa ?i., 1989).

Ia Aieeii-Iiae?ee? ?niothoue aea? nenoaie aca?iii ia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo
o??uei: i?ai?/ii-cao?aeia ae?aaiiaeueia ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeia
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia aei ia?. Oe? nenoaie aeuei?enueeiai a?eo ?icaeioo? a
on?o a?aeeeaaeao, aeeth/ath/e iaiaaiia? (?.Ae. Aioooaei, 1979).
O??ueioaao?noue ii??ae o ?aeii? A?a?ea Aeiieee aea/aia ca ea?iii
aeaaiinueeiai a?eo I.I. Aiae?ae/oeii o ?aieao iaoi? ni?eueii? ?iaioe c
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (I?ia//eia). Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aaaaeath/ee
iai?yi o??ueioaaoino? a no?aeieo ?aeiiao Aieeii-Iiae?eey (Iiianoe?nuee,
I?aeaaeoe?, Eicaaa) ? cao?aeieo (Aeiieee A?a?ea) ia?iaiaeeeoey?iee.
Oea, i/aaeaeii, iiaeia iiynieoe aca?iii ia?iaiaeeeoey?iei noaiii
aaeoi??a iai?oaeaiino? ii??ae o aeaieo ?aeiiao: i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiei o
ia?oiio ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeiei o ae?oaiio.

Aeeiiaiee aaoi?ii aiae?c iaoa??ae?a naenii?ica?aeoaaeueieo ? ao?iaeo
?ia?o inoaii?o ?ie?a iieacaa, ui i?inoi?iaa ?ici?uaiiy an?o aeyaeaieo ?
i?aeaioiaeaieo aei ao??iiy naenii?ica?aeeith no?oeoo? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aeaiia iciaeaie: i?ai?/ii-cao?aeia aai i?aaeaiii-cao?aeia i?inoyaaiiy oa
?ioaineai?noue aeeneieaoe?e. No?oeoo?e Iaae?anueea, I?aeaa?ac?anueea ?
Eieeie?anueea i?aaeaiii-cao?aeiiai aai ia yaii ae?aaeaiiai i?inoyaaiiy,
niie?eiiai caeyaaiiy. Ae?oaa a?oia no?oeoo? Eoaeeinueea, Eiia??anueea,
Aaeeeiiino?anueea, Ae?a??anueea, Caa??’?anueea, I?e??anueea
e?i?eii-aeoyaioo? aocuee? aioeee?iae? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai aai
ia?eae?iiaeueiiai i?inoyaaiiy, aeeneieiaai? oaeoii?/ieie ii?ooaiiyie ?
iaeiaiie?ooaeieie ianoaaie o aeaaiinueeeo a?aeeeaaeao. A?aieoey i?ae
ieie i?ioiaeeoue ii Iiaiaieeinueeiio ?
?aaeao?a-?iaaoeinueei-Iiianoe?nueeiio ?iceiiao. Oiio, a?aoiaoth/e aeua
aeeeaaeaia, i?aeoaa?aeaeo?ii aeniiaie N.N. E?oaeiaa oa ?i. (1985) i?i
oa, ui a?aieoey i?ae No?aeii-?a?iiaenueeith ? Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueeith
ieaooi?iaie (ciia Oaennae?a — Oi?iea?noa) i?ioiaeeoue ii oeeo ?iceiiao.
Iaaaaeai? aeai? ca?aathoueny c oyaeaiiyie A.I.Iaaeaaae?aa, ca?aeii c
yeeie ia no?ae ? cao?ae a?ae ?aaeao?anueeiai ?iceiio ?aeue?o iiaa?oi?
Iioi?iae/e/a ia? ??cio oa?aeoa?enoeeo oa ?io?ano?oeoo?o aei?eoaenueeiai
? ?eoaenueeiai ooiaeaiaioo. ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ?ooe caiii? ei?e a iaaeao
Aieeii-Iiae?eey ? i?noea iieiaeaiiy ciie Oaennae?a — Oi?iea?noa
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aiae?cii aeuei?enueei? neeaae/ano?. ?icaeyae no?oeoo?ii?
ea?oe ii i?aeioa? aeuea-aa?oiueie?aeaeiaiai (?aiiueiaeuei?enueeiai)
eiiieaeno, yeo neeaa ?.A. Aeoiyeia (1990), iieaco?, ui a?ae
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? /anoeie oa?eoi??? aei i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? i?inoyaaiiy
?cia?in i?aeioae aeuea-aa?oiueie?aeaeiaeo a?aeeeaae?a ci?ith?oueny c
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai aei i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai ? iaeaea no?aeiiai. Oey ci?ia
i?eo?i/aia aei ciie Oaennae?a — Oi?iea?noa. Ia i?aaeaiue a?ae
Eiaaeuenueeiai aenooio aeaeii /eneaii? ioeueaee, a ia i?aaeaiue a?ae
ciie a?aenooi?noue aeuea-aa?oiueie?aeaeiaeo a?aeeeaae?a (Iiae?euenueeee
aenooi) i?inoyaaiiy ?cia?in iaeaea oe?ioia, ui a ?aa?iiaeueiiio ieai?
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? c?iaeai? aeniiaee.

?niothoue ??ci? oi/ee ci?o uiaei aaieiai-oaeoii?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy
Aieeii-Iiae?eey (N.N. E?oaeia, N.?. Nie?iia oa ?i., 1985; ?.?.*aaaiaiei,
?.A.Aeoiyeia, oa ?i., 1990; I.?.Iaethe, A.I.??coi, oa ?i., 1998). Oaeiae
iaiaeiicia/ii o?ano?oueny i?noeaiieiaeaiiy a?aieoe? i?ae No?aeii- ?
Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueeith ieaooi?iaie (A.A. Aeooei, 1968; A.I. Aeieaiei oa
?i., 1980; N.N. E?oaeia, N.?. Nie?iia oa ?i., 1985; ?.Ae. Aioooaei,
1992). Oaeiae ? ?yae iaaeyniaieo ieoaiue uiaei a?aieoeue Euea?anueeiai
iaeaicienueeiai i?iaeio ? cii o eiai iaaeao, ia ?nioaaei
a?aoiaioiaaiiai iiyniaiiy i?e/ei aca?iii ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii?
neeaae/anoino?.

Aeeeaaeaiee iaoa??ae aeicaiey? aaoi?o noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui neeaaeee ? aaee
noaoe?ioiiai i?inoyaaiiy oa?aeoa?i? aeey No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei?
ieaooi?ie. Aiie aeieeee oai, aea aoa oii? i?aainoi?iiiueiio ?ooia? ia
i?ai?/iee cao?ae /anoeie ei?e oe??? ieaooi?ie, iaiaaeaii? ciiith
o?ainoi?iiiai ?iceiio i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai iai?yieo ? ciiith Oaennae?a —
Oi?iea?noa. Oaeei i?aeiyooyi aoa ? caeeoa?oueny Eiaaeuenueeee aenooi ?,
iiaeeeai, neoaeeoue Iiae?euenueea i?aeiyooy. Ia i?aaeaiiee no?ae a?ae
ia?oiai aoa noi?iiaaiee Eiea/einueeee aae, ia i?aaeaiiee no?ae a?ae
ae?oaiai ca aeaieie naenii?ica?aeee, aeeiiaii? ooo ua a iaaeinoaoi?o
ianyaao, oaeiae iai?/a?oueny i?ai?/ii-no?aeia i?inoyaaiiy no?oeoo?
(Eieeie?anueea ieiua a ?aeii? i. *a?i?aoe? oa ?i.).

C o?aoiaaiiyi iaoai?cio aaiaeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo Aieeii-Iiae?eey
ooi/iaia noaia eiai aaieiai-oaeoii?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy. A ia?oo /a?ao ooo
ne?ae aeae?eyoe No?aeii-?a?iiaenueeo (noa?o) ? Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueeo
(iieiaeo) ieaooi?ie. A?aieoey i?ae ieie i?ioiaeeoue ii Iiaiaieeinueeiio
? ?aaeao?a-?iaaoeinueei-Iiianoe?nueeiio ?iceiiao (ciia
Oaennae?a-Oi?iea?noa). O No?aeii-?a?iiaenuee?e ieaooi?i? anoaiiaeai?
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueea iiiiee?iaeue, Eiaaeuenueeee aenooi ? Euea?anueeee
iaeaicienueeee i?iaei. Eiioo? i?iaeio ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe ii a?aieoeyo
iioe?aiiy na?aaeiueiaeaaiinueeeo a?aeeeaae?a. O i?iaei? iaiao?aeii
aeae?eyoe Ciai?oith ciio, ui noi?ioaaeany ia neaaiaeeneieiaaieo
a?aeeeaaeao ?eoae-na?aaeiueiaeaaiinueeiai a?eo. Ia
Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenuee?e ieaooi?i? aeioe?eueii aeae?eeoe Euea?anueeee
iaeaicienueeee i?iaei Aioo??oith ciio, ui noi?ioaaeany ia aeeneieiaaieo
a?aeeeaaeao ?eoae-na?aaeiueiaeaaiinueeiai a?eo, ? ?aaa-?onueeo
neeaae/anoo ciio c iaeeaaeaiith Euea?anueeith e?aeaeiaith ioeueaeith a
?? i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei?.

Ia i?aaeaiiee no?ae a?ae Aioo??oiuei? ciie Euea?anueeiai iaeaicienueeiai
i?iaeio ia Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenuee?e ieaooi?i? ne?ae aeae?eeoe ciio e?i?eii
aeoyaiooeo no?oeoo? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai i?inoyaaiiy, oaeoii?/ia aoaeiaa
yeeo iiae?aia aei aoaeiae no?oeoo? i?iaeio, aea a ?ic??c? yeeo a?aenooi?
a?aeeeaaee na?aaeiueiai aeaaiio ? ea?aiio. Oeth ciio i?iiiio?oueny
iacaaoe I?e??anueeith ca iacaith ia?oi? no?oeoo?e, aeyaeaii? ooo
naenii?ica?aeeith.

5.CAEIIII??IINO? ?ICI?UAIIss ? OIIAE OI?IOAAIIss IIEEAAe?A AOAEAAIAeI?A

Caeiiii??iino? ?ici?uaiiy ? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a o
Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?, iniaeeai a Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiio i?iaei?, aea/aeeny
aaaaoueia aeine?aeieeaie.

sse na?ae/eoue aiae?c iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, ?niothoue aea? eiioeaioe??
iioiaeaeaiiy aoaeaaiaei?a o Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii? iai?aai?/iiai oa
i?aai?/iiai. ? ia?oa, ? ae?oaa ciaoiaeyoue, ia aeoieo ?o i?eoeeueiee?a,
iacaia?a/i? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy naia a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?. Ooo, ye
aaaaeathoue o?, ooi iiae?ey? aeoieo i?i iai?aai?/ia iioiaeaeaiiy
aoaeaaiaei?a, ? eeane/i? oiiae aeey naia oaeiai ?o ooai?aiiy ? i?a?aoe??
a ianoee ii /eneaiieo iiia?a/ieo ? iicaeiaaei?o ?iceiiao. Aeacothoue
oaeiae ?iia??i? aeaea?aea i?a?aoe?? aoaeaaiaei?a, iia’ycai? c ciiaie
ia?an?/aiiy iicaeiaaei?o ? iiia?a/ieo ?iceii?a, iiaeeco yeeo
a?oiothoueny ?iaeiaeua. I?eoeeueieee i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy
aoaeaaiaei?a iineeathoueny ia i?enooi?noue o Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii? ?yaeo
iiaeeeaeo iaooiiaoa?einueeeo (iaooii?iaeoeoth/eo) a?aeeeaae?a, eeane/iei
c?aceii yeeo aaaaea?oueny aaaaoa i?aai?eith iai?e?oiaa na?oa.

C?iaeai? ni?iae iia’ycaoe iaaaaeai? iiaeyaee a iaeei, oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy oai??? e?oinoa?ieo ieeo aei i?ioean?a iaooiaaciooai?aiiy.
I?eionea?oueny, ui inaaeia? a?aeeeaaee ?acii c ?icn?yiith a ieo
i?aai?eith iio?aieythoue a ciio noaaeoeoe??, aea a ?acoeueoao? ae??
aenieeo oaiia?aoo? ? oene?a aaia?othoue aoaeaaiaei?, ye? ii ciiao
?iceii?a i?a?othoue o ianoee. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ia iio??aii
aaccanoa?aaeii a?aeaeaaaoe ia?aaaao ye?enue iaei?e a?iioac? iioiaeaeaiiy
aoaeaaiaei?a. Oea iiaea i?eaanoe aei iaaaaeaieo iane?aee?a ? a
?acoeueoao? aei a?aenoaaaiiy a oai???, a iio?i ? a i?aeoeoe?
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia iaooo ? aac.

Uiaei caeiiii??iinoae ?ici?uaiiy iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a o Ea?iaonueeiio
?aa?ii?, oi iaeaea an? aeine?aeieee caa?oathoue oaaao ia i?eo?i/ai?noue
iieeaae?a iaooe ? aacieiiaeainaoo a iniiaiiio aei ciie ianoiooeo
no?oeoo? c iieanaie ? oe?oai Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio, a aaco ?
aacieiiaeainaoo aei Ciai?oiuei? ciie. A?eueo?noue aaoi??a iia’yco?
iayai?noue neoi/aiue aaco a Ciai?oi?e cii? c eiai eaoa?aeueiith
i?a?aoe??th ii ciiao ?iceii?a, a aeaye? aaa/athoue eiai o ?icn?yi?e
i?aai?oe? aaaeai?e-na?iaonueeeo aai th?nueeeo a?aeeeaae?a. Aeine?aeieee
ia?aaaaeii iiaiaeaeothoueny ia oiio, ui oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a o
e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaeo a?aeeeaaeao Aioo??oiuei? ciie i?iaeio ? a
Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iaoao a?aeaoaaeiny a aeaa aoaie: aeiianoaiee ?
i?neyianoaiee.

Aaiaeeiai?/iee ?icaeoie Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao, Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?
Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaei?a iieaco?, ui aeey aeaieo aaieia?/ieo ?aa?ii?a
a?i aoa aca?iiiia’ycaiee ? a?aeaoaaany ca?aeii c oaeoii?eith e?oinoa?ieo
ieeo.

O Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? a?aeii? /ioe?e aacia? ?iaeiaeua aoaeaaiaei?a,
o?e c ieo o Ioea/?anuee?e (?onueei-Eiia??anueea, Noai?anueea,
Ei?ie?anueea) ? iaeia (Nieioaeinueea) a Nieioaeinuee?e caiaaeeiao.
A?aee?eoi oaeiae i?iieneiaa neoi/aiiy aoaeaeeneiai aaco a na?iao? ia
Ia?o?anuee?e ieiu?.

Anoaiiaeth?oueny oaea caeiiii??i?noue: ?ici?uaiiy an?o a?aee?eoeo
?iaeiaeu aoaeaaiaei?a ? neoi/aiiy aoaeaeeneiai aaco iia’ycaia c
iicaeiaaeiueith nioaith a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio,
oiaoi c ciiith ?icaeoeo Oeaio?aeueii-Caea?iaonueeiai iicaeiaaeiueiai
?iceiio. Ia an?o ?iaeiaeuao i?iieneia? iieeaaee aac?a i?eo?i/ai? aei
iaiaaio. Iai?iieneia? ?o neoi/aiiy anoaiiaeai? a eiiaeiia?aoao
ea?iao?th, oe?oiiiae?aieo a?aeeeaaeao iaeaiaaio ia Nieioaeinuee?e ieiu?
? a ooai?aiiyo e?aeaee ia Oa?aaeyinuee?e. Caa?oathoue ia naaa oaaao
aenieee ai?no o aacao acioo (0,6633%), aoaeaeeneioe (0,210,6%), a e??i
oiai, ne?aee n??eiaiaeith o aacao ?onueei-Eiia??anueeiai ?iaeiaeua.

Caea?iaonueeee i?iaei ciaoiaeeoueny a cii? eie?c?? ?a?iac?enueei? ieeoe
c i?e?iieeoith Iaiiinueei? caiaaeeie. A?i ooai?eany ia eiae? inoaiiuei?,
? oi?ioaaiiy ooo ?iaeiaeu iiaeiii aooe aiaeia?/iei. O ae?eniino? oae
aiii ? ?. ? ooo, ? oai i?enooi? aiaeia?/i? eiiieaene ii??ae, ye?
i?noyoue iieeaaee aoaeaaiaei?a. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui a Iaiiinuee?e caiaaeei?
i?iieneia? iieeaaee aoaeaeeneiai aaco a?aeii? aaea aeaaii ia aaaaoueio
?iaeiaeuao; a aac? aenieee ai?no acioo.

Neeaae aac?a iieeaae?a Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio ? Iaiiinueei? caiaaeeie
aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui ooai?eeeny aiie a ?acoeueoao? aa?oeeaeueii?
i?a?aoe??. Oeyoaie i?a?aoe?? o ianoee ? iicaeiaaei? ?aa?iiaeuei? ?iceiie
Caea?iaonueeee, Oeaio?aeueii-Caea?iaonueeee, I?eiaiiinueeee, a oaeiae
o??ueie, ui aeieeee a ?acoeueoao? oei??iaiiy iaaie. Oae? o??ueie ?aeooue
ia aaeee? aeeaeie aeinyaath/e aa?oiuei? iaio??. Noaaeoeoe?y i?ae
Caea?iaonueeei i?iaeiii ? Iaiiinueeith caiaaeeiith aaeeeeo ian a??nueeeo
ii??ae, o oiio /ene? aaaaoeo i?aai?eith, iiaea i?eaanoe aei aaia?aoe??
iaooiaeo aoaeaaiaei?a ? ?o i?a?aoe?? a ianoee iacicith, iaeaiaaio ?
iaiaaio. Ia aeeeth/aii, ui i?e aoi?aiaii? iaaiaoe/ieo o?e a inaaeia?
oiau? c ?icn?yiith aai aiiiaaiiith i?aai?eith aenie? oaiia?aoo?e
aeeeeeathoue i?e?iaeiee e?ae?ia-i?ioean c ooai?aiiyi aaciiiae?aieo ?
eaaeeo aoaeaaiaei?a.

?iaeiaeua aoaeaaiaei?a ooai?eeenue o iinoie?ioeaiiaee /an ?, iaiaaii,
i?iaeiaaeothoue oi?ioaaoenue o no/anio aiioo. A?eueo ?aii? aeieeiaiiy
iieeaae?a aeeeth/aii, oiio ui aiie aoee a c?oeiiaai? ie?ioeaiiaei
aoeeai?ciii. O eiae? i?iaeio aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue caaaa/ai?
i?aai?eith ii?iaee e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo. I?e iayaiino? ianoie ?
aeia?eo ae?ai?a ooo iiaee noi?ioaaoeny iieeaaee ia o?eueee aaco, aea ?
iaooe.

A oe?a?inuee?e /anoei? Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao aoei aeyaeaii a?eueoa
aeanyoea ?iaeiaeu iaooe o a?aeeeaaeao oe?oo aa?oiuei? e?aeaee, aioeaio,
a iai?e?oia?e ? aieiaaoeuee?e na?oao ie?aioeaio o Neeaia?e ?
E?iniainuee?e ciiao ia aeeaeiao a?ae ia?oeo nioaiue aei 4600 i. Ia
oa?eoi??? Iieueu? a?aeiii iiiaae ni?ie ?iaeiaeu iaooe a on?o
no?oeoo?ii-oaeoii?/ieo ciiao.

O Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iaoao no/ania ??/eiaa nenoaia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iayai?noth aeieei aieiaiei /eiii i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai aai
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeiiai iai?yie?a, iia’ycaieie c ciiaie iiia?a/ieo
ii?ooaiue. A?eueo?noue a?aeiieo iaooii?iya?a, caea?oiaaieo ia iiaa?oi? a
Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iaoao, i?eo?i/ai? aei aeieei ??e ? iioie?a, oiio iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aiie ? ?acoeueoaoii ?oeioaaiiy iieeaae?a aiane?aeie
i?a?aoe?? ii i?ia?aeieo ciiao iiia?a/ieo ?iceii?a. I?ia?aeiee oa?aeoa?
iiia?a/ieo ?iceii?a aeiaiaeyoue oaeiae aeai? aaio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.
Oiio, aiae?coth/e iaoa??aee ii aeaaii a?aeiieo ? iaaeaaii a?aee?eoeo
?iaeiaeuao ? neoi/aiiyo aoaeaaiaei?a, a?aoiaoth/e iaooiaacii?iyae ?
i?e/eie iaaaoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
iaiao?aeiith oiiaith iayaiino? iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a o Neeaae/anoeo
Ea?iaoao iiaeii? aooe eiiaeeoe?ei? ianoee a iaaeao iaeiiai iiia?a/iiai
aeiea no?oeoo?e. Oea ne?ae ?icoi?oe oae, ui iiia?a/i? ?iceiie aai cnoae
iaa?oue i?e ?o cia/i?e aiie?ooae? a oiiaao eiiiaoaioieo ii??ae oe?oo ia
? ae?aiaie. A aioeee?iaeyo Neeaiai? ciie, Iaeaeainueeiai oaeoii?/iiai
i?aa?eia ? Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeo Ea?iao i?oei? i?neiaeee
aioeai-iaeaioeaiiaeo ? e?aeaeiaeo a?aeeeaae?a a ?o yae?ao coiiaeee
i?aeaeuaia iieiaeaiiy a ?aeue?o? neeai?iue no?oeoo?. Ia?eee?iaeuei?
/anoeie, ye i?aaeei, ?icaeo? iiia?a/ieie ii?ooaiiyie, ui aeinyaathoue
aeaiii? iiaa?oi? ia a?eueo iecueeeo aaniethoieo iicia/eao, i?ae iicia/ee
neeai?iue no?oeoo?. Aeey oaeeo no?oeoo? a aioeai-iaeaioeaiiaeo ?
e?aeaeiaeo a?aeeeaaeao oa?aeoa?ia ?io?eueo?aoe?eia aiaeiiai??ia nenoaia
?ooo aiaee a?ae neeai?iiy aei ia?eee?iaeae ? aeae? aei ciie
?icaaioaaeaiiy ii aa?oeeaeueieo i?ia?aeieo iiia?a/ieo ii?ooaiiyo o
ia?eee?iaeueieo /anoeiao, aeeeeeaia a?eueo aenieei a?iniiao?e/iei
iieiaeaiiyi ciie aeeaeaiiy aiae iaae ciiith ?o ?icaaioaaeaiiy. Aeyaeaiiy
oeeo iniaeeainoae aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae ? ?ooo ?io?eueo?aoe?eieo aiae
aeicaieeei aaoi?o aia?oa i?iaiicoaaoe iiaeeeaino? iayaiino?
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii ae?aiiaaieo iieeaae?a a a?aecia/aieo aeua ?aeiiao.

O cii? ianoiooeo no?oeoo? c iieanaie ? oe?oai iaooia? ? aacieiiaeainaoi?
iieeaaee a?aeii? o oe?o? iaeaiaaio, a neoi/aiiy aoaeaaiaei?a, a
iniiaiiio aaciiiae?aieo, c aiiiaeueii aenieeie ieanoiaeie oeneaie o
oe?o? aa?oiuei? e?aeaee ? iieanao iaiaaio; a inoaii?o aeyaeai? oaeiae
?iaeiaeua iciea?eoo.

A?eueo?noue a?aeiieo ?iaeiaeu ?icoaoiaai? a cii? iicaeiaaeiueiai
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?iceiio, yeee ioioiaeith?oueny c Ia?aaeea?iaonueeei
?aa?iiaeueiei i?i?ioiii neee oyae?iiy ? yeee ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeiith
a?aieoeath iioe?aiiy aaoiooiiiiai oe?oo. I/aaeaeii, oaea ?icoaooaaiiy
iia’ycaii c aeeaieei i?iieeiaiiyi ?iceiio a caiio ei?o. Ae?oaa
iicaeiaaeiy nioaa ?iaeiaeu, iaioeo ca caianaie, i?inoyaa?oueny ia
a?aenoai? 2030 ei ia i?aaeaiiee cao?ae a?ae ia?oi?. Oea oae? ?iaeiaeua,
ye I?aaeaiii-Iiianoe?aoeueea, Iiaino?aeieoeueea, Caaiae?anueea,
Aeoaeoeueea, Aeno?eoeueea, Aeiaaooainueea. I?ioa iaea?eueo? neoi/aiiy
aoaeaaiaei?a niinoa??aathoueny a ciiao ia?aoeio iicaeiaaeiueiai
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ? ?yaeo iiia?a/ieo ?iceii?a. Oe? aocee ia?aoeio ?
aeaea?aeaie ?ioaineaii? i?a?aoe?? aoaeaaiaei?a c aeeaei aei iiaa?oi?.
Iiaeia aeae?eeoe n?i oaeeo iniiaieo aeaea?ae o cii? ia?aoeio c
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeei iiia?a/ieo ?iceii?a: Aei?noa?nueeiai
(Noa?inaia??nueea, Aeaae?anueea, No?aoaaeoeueea ?iaeiaeua),
?ioi/einueeiai (Ai?eneaanueea ? i?eeaae? ?iaeiaeua), No?eenueeiai
(Noeiaanueea, Caaiae?anueea, Naieaei?anueea, Iaeueie/einueea ? i?eeaae?
?iaeiaeua), Oo?yinueeiai (Aeieeinueea ? I?ai?/ii-Aeieeinueea ?iaeiaeua),
E?iieoeueeiai (No?ooeinueea, Aa?oiueieoeaeinueea ? i?eeaae? ?iaeiaeua),
Iaiyanueeiai (Iiianoe?aoeueea, ?in?eueiyinueea, Einiaoeueea,
Aecaeiyoeueea ?iaeiaeua), Aeno?eoeueei-Iaaea??iyinueeiai (Aeno?eoeueea,
Aeoe?anueea, Ian?/iyinueea, Aa?caeaoeueea, Ii?anueea ? i?eeaae?
?iaeiaeua) ? Iieoonueeiai (Ieeoee/einueea ?iaeiaeua). A oeeo ciiao
?ioaineaii? i?a?aoe??, ye i?aaeei, iaooiaaciiini? an? a?aeii? ianoee ii
anueiio ?ice?eoiio ao??iiyi ?ic??co oe?oo. I?iaiico?oueny, ui a ae?oa?e,
?icoaoiaai?e aeae? ia i?aaeaiiee cao?ae nioc? ?iaeiaeu aoaeooue oaeiae
aeyaeai? iiae?ai? aeaea?aea ?ioaineaii? i?a?aoe?? ? aiie aoaeooue
iia’ycai? c ciiaie ia?aoeio aeuaiacaaieo iiia?a/ieo ?iceii?a c
iicaeiaaei?i aeeaeiiei ?iceiiii, ui i?ioiaeeoue i?eaeecii iina?aaeei?
Neeaiai? ciie ii e?i?? n?e No?aeieoey Neiea Caeaia ssaeoieoey.

Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? a iaooiaaciiaeiie/aii? ie?aieo oaeoii?/ieo
iie?ea?a ciie ianoiooeo no?oeoo? c iieanaie ? oe?oai. Oae, aeey
i?aaeaiii-no?aeii? /anoeie ciie aoei i?inoaaeaii c?inoaiiy ia?aaeuaiiy
ieanoiaeo oene?a iaae oiiaii a?ae?inoaoe/ieie a?ae aa?oiueiai iie?eao
aei ieaeiueiai (N.N. Ao/eianueeee, A.ss. Ai?eoei, TH.C. E?oinueeee,
1976). Oey caeiiii??i?noue o iiaeaeueoiio aoea i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aeey
an??? ciie i?inoyaaiiy oe?oaaeo no?oeoo? i?iaeio (A.A.Eieiae?e,
E.O.Aie/aanueea, E.A.Eo?eethe, 1997) ? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean aa?oeeaeueii? i?a?aoe?? oeth?ae?a.

Ca oaiia?aoo?ieie cai??aie neeaaeai? a?ao?ee ci?ie aaioa?i?/ieo
a?aae??io?a iaeaea aeey an?o a?aeiieo iieeaae?a o iaeaiaai?
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio ? aecia/ai? oaiia?aoo?e no?oeoo? ia c??c?
i?ion 2000 i ? ia iniia? oeueiai anoaiiaeaii i?aeaeuaiiy aaioa?i?/iiai
a?aae??ioa ? na?aaei?o cia/aiue oaiia?aoo? o iaooiaaciiinieo no?oeoo?ao
a?ae ieaeiueiai iie?eao aei aa?oiueiai, ui oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
aa?oeeaeueio i?a?aoe?th oeth?ae?a (TH.C.E?oinueeee, A.ss.Ai?eoei, 1982).
Aeine?aeaeaiiyie ci?i a?aeiioaiue i?ae aoeeaaicieii ? iaoaeneeieii, a
oaeiae i?ae iaoa- ? ia?aeneeieai o iaooao ? eiiaeainaoao
i?aaeaiii-no?aeii? /anoeie ciie ianoiooeo no?oeoo? c iieanaie ? oe?oai
iieacaii, ui iae?ioaineai?oa i?a?aoe?y aoaeaaiaei?a iia’ycaia c?
Na?oeueeei, Oo?yinueeei, E?iieoeueeei, Aaa/ainueeei ?
Aeno?eoeueei-Iaaea??iyinueeei ?iceiiaie (TH.C.E?oinueeee oa ?i., 1982).

O Ai?eneaanueei-Iieoonueeiio iaooiaaciiiniiio ?aeii? ia aaeeeeo aeeaeiao
(a?eueo 4000 i), a?aee?eo? iaooia? ?iaeiaeua: I?aaeaiii-Noeiaanueea,
Iaeueie/einueea, Nieieiaaoeueea, Iiain?ee?anueea, a?aeii? iaooii?iyae a
naa?aeeiaeiao, ui aaaeei iiynieoe i?a?aoe??th c iaio?eieo cii. Oiio
aeneiaeth?oueny i?eiouaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue aaia?aoe?? iaooiaeo
aoaeaaiaei?a ia oeeo aeeaeiao o oe?oaaeo a?aeeeaaeao ieaeiuei? ?
aa?oiuei? e?aeaee, iaeaioeai-aioeaio ?, a iniiaiiio, a iai?e?oiaeo
a?aeeeaaeao ie?aioeaio. Naia oe? ii?iaee iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny
iaooiaaia?oth/eie, ui anoaiiaeaii ca iaoiaeeeith ?ie-Aaae niaoe?ae?noaie
O?aineaao, ye? aeeiiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?aieao i?ia?ai OAN?N (1997), ?
TH.A.Eieooiii (1998).

Oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a o Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iaoao ? iie?eaao
Ai?eneaanueei-Iieoonueeiai iaooiaaciiiniiai ?aeiio ia iiaei ?icii/aoeny
?ai?oa e?ioey neeaaeei- ? iie?eaiooai?thth/eo ?oo?a, oiaoi ii/aeiny a
i?neyna?iaonueeee /an ? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny oaia? iaeii/anii c i?ioeanii
?oeioaaiiy aeayeeo c ieo.

O Ciai?oi?e cii? a?aeii? iaooia?, aacieiiaeainaoi? ? aacia? iieeaaee,
iaeiae iniiaio e?euee?noue neeaaeathoue aacia?, oiio ?? iiaeia iacaaoe
ciiith ia?aaaaeiiai aaciiaeiie/aiiy. A?aee?eoi o?eueee aeaa ?iaeiaeua
iaooe: Eiiooiyinueea a i?aaeaiii-no?aei?e /anoei? i?ae iie?eaii
Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeo Ea?iao c iieeaaeaie iaooe a th?nueeeo,
e?aeaeiaeo ? iaeaiaaiiaeo a?aeeeaaeao ? Eioai?anueea a
i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei? c iieeaaeii aaaeei? ieeneaii? n??/enoi? iaooe
a th?nueeeo ? ea?iaonueeeo ooai?aiiyo. Iiae?ai? neoi/aiiy aaaeei? iaooe
a ea?iao?e-th?nueeeo a?aeeeaaeao a inoaii? ?iee aeyaeai? ia
Ieeeiaeoeueeiio ? Aeoiyinueeiio ?iaeiaeuao. Aeaye? iieeaaee aaco ?
aacieiiaeainaoo a?aee?eo? o aa?oi?e ?icieo?e /anoei? iacicith ? o
a?aeeeaaeao ea?iao?th, aea noi?iiaaiee ?aeeiee ?aca?aoa? i?ae
?aa?iiaeueiith iie?eoeith ii??ae a?iniaia?ae?eoiaiai ai?eciioo
aaaeai?th. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue ?iaeiaeu aaco ? aacieiiaeainaoo
iia’ycaia c i?uaieie ai?eciioaie aaaeai?th (oeaio?aeueia ?
i?aaeaiii-no?aeia /anoeie ciie) ? na?iaoo (i?ai?/ii-cao?aeia /anoeia
ciie).

Iaeaea an? ?iaeiaeua i?inoi?iai ?ici?uai? acaeiaae cii ?aa?iiaeueieo
iicaeiaaei?o ?iceii?a Ai?iaeioeueeiai, Aeoiyinueeiai, E?aeiaaoeueeiai,
Eaeonueeiai, iaeiae ciiao ae oaee o?aaa eiinoaooaaoe, ui aiie
ooai?ththoue a?oie, ye? oyae?thoue aei cii ia?aoeio iicaeiaaei?o ?
iiia?a/ieo ?iceii?a, oiaoi a Ciai?oi?e cii? ?niothoue i?noey ?ioaineaii?
i?a?aoe?? aoaeaaiaei?a.

Iaooe c th?nueeeo, e?aeaeiaeo ? iaeaiaaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a Eiiooiyinueeiai
?iaeiaeua ca o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie iiae?ai? i?ae niaith ?
aiaeia?/i? iaooai oe?oaaeo a?aeeeaae?a. Niaoe?ae?noe O?aineaao ca
aeaieie aeine?aeaeaiue ca iaoiaeeeith ?ie-Aaae aaaaeathoue, ui oe? iaooe
iiaee ooai?eoenue o?eueee c i?aai?ee ieaooi?iieo a?aeeeaae?a aeueao,
oiio ui c?acee an?o ?ioeo ii??ae iacicith ? iaeaicith ooo ia iathoue
aeinoaoiueiai iaooiaaciaaia?oth/iai iioaioe?aeo (1997); iiae?aieo
iiaeyae?a aeio?eio?oueny ? A.E.Ia?anueeee (1992). Ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
iaooiaaciaaia?oth/eie iiaeooue aooe oe?oaa? a?aeeeaaee e?aeaee ?
iaeaiaaio, ye? ia i?aaeaiiee cao?ae caeyaathoue ia a?eueoeo aeeaeiao, a
i?a?aoe?th a ianoee Eiiooiyinueeiai ?iaeiaeua caaacia/eea nenoaia
aeia?eo eieaeoi??a ? ?ic?eaieo ii?ooaiue. Aaaee? a’yce? iaooe o
a?aeeeaaeao th?e-ea?iao?th ia i?ai?/iiio caoiae? ciie oea caeeoee
iieeaae?a, c?oeiiaaieo i?ae /an o?eaaei? ia?a?ae i?ae e?aeaeith ?
ea?iao??i, ye? /anoeiai caa?aaeeny aiane?aeie a?aeeeaaeaiiy ae?aioth/eo
oiau aaaeai?th, aai oea “iac??e?” ?aiiueieaoaaaiaoe/i?, ca?aeii c
I.E.Aaaeaiiaith (1990), iaooe. Neoi/aiiy iaooiaeo aoaeaaiaei?a i?ae
iieanaie iaiaaio ia oa?eoi??? Iieueu? iiaee oi?ioaaoeny aiane?aeie
i?a?aoe?? cieco c aeeaoeo ai?eciio?a, oei a?eueoa ui i?iyae iaooe
niinoa??aaeeny a ei?? aea?o?thaaiiy aeieaia??th ia ?iaeiaeu? Ioaieneue.
A?aeii? oaeiae /eneaii? i?iyae ? ?iaeiaeua iaooe a e?enoae?/iiio
ooiaeaiaio? Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio (A.I.Eaaeeaeainueeee, 1982).

Iaooia? ?iaeiaeua Ciai?oiuei? ciie Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio iiaee
ooai?eoeny o?eueee i?ney a?aeeeaaeaiiy ae?aioth/eo oiau ieaeiueiai
aaaeai?th.

I?e ?icaeyae? oiia oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a aaco a ea?iao?e-iacicienuee?e
oiau? Ciai?oiuei? ciie iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeiaaaeaiei, ui ooo ia? i?noea
?aeeiee ?aca?aoa? ia aaeee?e oa?eoi??? oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie ciie. A
?acoeueoao? a?aeai?o aaeeei? e?eueeino? aaco c oeeo a?aeeeaae?a ia
?oaee?anueeiio, Oaa?nueeiio ? A?eue/a-Aieeoeueeiio ?iaeiaeuao ? niaaeo a
ieo ieanoiaeo oene?a, a?aeiia?aeii iiieceeeny ieanoia? oenee ? a
iieeaaeao ?iaeiaeu, a?aee?eoeo iaaeaaii (Eaoiyinueea, Aa?anueea,
No?aeii-Aeiaa?anueea, I?aaeaiii-A?aaeinueea). Niaae oene?a aeineoue
cia/iee 10,011,0 IIa ieae/a a?ae a?ae?inoaoe/iiai. Aeyaeaiiy neoi/aiue
aaco a iiaiio aeey na?iaonueeeo a?aeeeaae?a oiieioa?oaaoiio eieaeoi?? ia
Aeaeiieyinueeiio ?iaeiaeu?, a iio?i ia Aeoiyinueeiio, aea a eiaeiiio
i?iieanoeo i?neiaeeo oiaueiith a?ae 0,1 aei aeae?eueeio iao??a iayaiee
?cieueiaaiee i?e?iiieeaae aaco, aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui oae?
i?e?iiieeaaee, ye? a noi? neeaaeathoue iieeaae c oyaiei
‘‘aa?oeeaeueiei’’ aaci-aiaeyiei eiioaeoii, iiaee oi?ioaaoeny o?eueee a
?acoeueoao? aieiai? i?a?aoe?? aoaeaaiaei?a.

Ia i?aaeaiiiio noiae? ciie a?aee?eoi ?yae ?iaeiaeu aaco (*i?iiaocueea,
Oa?aiao?anueea, E?anii?euenueea, Ieeei?anueea, No?oie?a-*a?aio?anueea,
Aeaaaneaaeoeueea) ia iaeeo ? aeoaea iaeeo aeeaeiao. Oe? ?iaeiaeua
noi?iiaai? a?iaaiiei aacii, ui ooai?th?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ae?yeueiino?
iaoaiooai?thth/eo aaeoa??e. Aiie i?iaeiaaeothoue oi?ioaaoenue ? oaia?.
Aaci-aiaeyi? eiioaeoe a ieo iiaeooue aooe iaoeeaieie. Iiae?ai? ?iaeiaeua
i?iaiicothoueny ia iaoe?i?e oa?eoi??? oeaio?aeueii? ? i?aaeaiii-no?aeii?
/anoei Ciai?oiuei? ciie a ?aeiiao oeaeno?iiai c/eaioaaiiy c ieaooi?iith.

Ia oa?eoi??? Aieeii-Iiae?eey a?aeii? Eiea/einueea ? Aaeeeiiino?anueea
aacia? ?iaeiaeua ? iaooiaa neoi/aiiy ia Iaae?anuee?e ieiu?. Iaea
e?euee?noue a?aee?eoeo iieeaae?a ia aeicaiey? a?aoiaioiaaii aena?oeeoe
oiiae ?o oi?ioaaiiy. Iaeiae iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ianoee a
i?ioa?ici? ? eaia??? ooai?ai? aaeeaeuenueeeie ?ooaie, a i?aeiaeeo,
neeo?? ? ieaeiueiio aeaaii? aa?enoe?enueeeie, oiio eiioi?ii?noue ianoie
o oeeo a?aeeeaaeao iaeieiia??ia. ?aeeiith ?aa?iiaeueiith iie?eoeith o
a?aeeeaaeao iaeaicith ? oiaua ianeaieo aeieii?o?a oa
aeieii?oi-aia?ae?eo?a aaeeeiiino?anueei? na?oe, a a iacicienueeeo
ii?iaeao, ui ia?ae?eaathoue iaeaicienuee?, iiaeeea? o?eueee eieaeuei?
ae?aie. Iieeaaee aoaeaaiaei?a a iaeaici? ooai?ai? ia ?ai?oa
a?aeeeaaeaiiy ii??ae aa?oiueiai ea?aiio.

I?ci?oa a?aeaoaaeeny i?ioeane aeoea?caoe?? oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a o
ca’yceo c ?icaeoeii oaeoii?/ieo ?oo?a ii ?iceiiao, aea a oie naiee /an
iiaei aooe ? i?enei?aia ?o ?oeioaaiiy o ca’yceo c? ca?eueoaiiyi
o??ueioaaoino? ii??ae. Oaeei /eiii, noa? i/aaeaeiei, ui a
iaooiaaciiini?e iaeano? Aieeii-Iiae?eey aaaeeeaa ?ieue o oi?ioaaii?
iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a iaeaaeeoue ?iceiii?e oaeoii?oe?, ui, iiaeeeai,
iaaeiioe?ithaaeiny i?e i?iaaaeaii? ooo iiooeiaeo ?ia?o.

?icaeyioaoe caeiiii??iino? ?ici?uaiiy ? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a
aoaeaaiaei?a Ea?iaonueeiai ? Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?ii?a, iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a oeeo ?aa?iiao ? ?aeiie aeiaaio?eaaeiai ?
noaa?eueiiai i?iaeiaiiy, oae?, ye Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee ? Caea?iaonueeee
i?iaeie, aaoiooii Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao, Euea?anueeee iaeaicienueeee
i?iaei, Aieeii-Iiae?euenueea iiiiee?iaeue. Aeey iiae?aieo oa?eoi??e
anoaiiaeaii i?yiee aaiaoe/iee ca’ycie i?ae ?o aeieeiaiiyi, ?icaeoeii ?
ciaoiaeaeaiiyi a ieo aaeeeeo ?iaeiaeu aoaeaaiaei?a. Oiio ne?ae
iaaieineoe, ui o aeuaia?ae?/aieo ?aeiiao aeineoue aeaoaeueii ?ica?aeaii
o?eueee aeiooiii? a?aeeeaaee Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio, a a:
Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei?, aaoiooii? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio ?
Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao, Euea?anueeiio iaeaicienueeiio i?iaei? ? ia
Aieeii-Iiae?euenuee?e iiiiee?iae?, eiia??ii, iayai? ua iaa?aee?eo?
?iaeiaeua aoaeaaiaei?a, o oiio /ene? ?c na?aaei?ie ? aaeeeeie caianaie.

6. IAOOIAACIIINI?NOUe ? INIIAI? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

UIAeI IAI?ssIE?A ?IA?O

Aeaeiaooie iaooe a Cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? aaaeaoueny a?eueoa ye i?aoi?a
noi??//y. Iaeiae ? nueiaiaei?, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui c iaae? aeaeiaooi
a?eueoa 106,7 iei. o iaooe ? 282,6 ie?ae. i3 aaco, oeae ?aa?ii iin?aea?
ia?oa i?noea a aea?aeaa? ca ?ano?naie iaooe. Ia?niaeoeai? ia iaooo ? aac
caie? ciaoiaeyoueny (a ii?yaeeo e?eueeino? ?ano?n?a) ia oa?eoi??yo
?aaii-O?aie?anueei?, Euea?anueei?, Caea?iaonueei?, *a?i?aaoeueei?,
Aieeinueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei? ? ??aiainueei? iaeanoae. Iaea?eueoee
aeaeiaooie iaooe ? aaco a?a aeinyaiooee a 60-o ?ieao, oaia? a?i cia/ii
cieceany, ye ? i?e??no caian?a, ui iia’ycaii c aaeeeei nei?i/aiiyi
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueiiai ? aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ao??iiy. I?ioa, ia
caaaeath/e ia o?oaeiiu?, ca ia??iae 1990-1997 ??. a?aee?eoi 13 iiaeo
?iaeiaeu iaooe ? aaco. C iaoith aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae
i?inoi?iaiai ?ici?uaiiy ?iaeiaeu aaoi?ii ?acii c A.I.Eioeeii neeaaeaia
“Oaeoii?/ia ea?oa ?icoaooaaiiy ?iaeiaeu iaooe ? aaco No?aeieo Ea?iao ?
i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e”, ia ye?e o a?aeiia?aeieo oaeoii?/ieo ciiao iieacai?
?iaeiaeua a Iieueu?, Neiaa//ei?, Oai?uei? ? ?oioi?? ia oa?eoi??yo, ye?
i?eeyaathoue aei ei?aeii?a Oe?a?ie.

C iaoith iaooiaacii?iieneiaiai ?aeiioaaiiy aeae?eaii Ea?iaonueeo
iaooiaaciiinio i?ia?ioe?th (IAI) ? Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeo iaooiaaciiinio
iaeanoue (IAI). A Ea?iaonuee?e IAI o naith /a?ao aeae?eaii
iaooiaaciiini? iaeano? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeo, Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao ?
Caea?iaonueeo, a ia?o?e c yeeo ?icoaoiaai? A?eue/a-Aieeoeueeee ?
Ai?eneaanueei-Iieoonueeee iaooiaaciiini? ?aeiie (IA?) (A.?.Aeaiaaa,
TH.C.E?oinueeee, 1990).

Ca oai???th e?oinoa?ieo ieeo onoaiiaeaii oi?ioaaiiy ??cieo oei?a
iaooiaaciiinieo aanaei?a, ye? ?icaeaathoueny ia i?ioyc? o?ueio aieiaieo
ia??iae?a: aeeaa?aaioiiai (?aiiueiai), eiiaa?aaioiiai (na?aaeiueiai) oa
?cinoac?? (caeeth/iiai) (A.N.Oa?i, E.A.Eeauia, A.A.Oa?i oa ?i., 1986,
1990).

Aeio?eioth/enue cai?iiiiiaaii? eeaneo?eaoe??, aaoi? oia?oa a?aei?n
Ea?iaonueeo IAI aei eie?c?eiiai oeio, a Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeo IAI aei
oeio ianeaieo eiioeiaioaeueieo iaeaiie?a?i. O aeaiee /an ia?oa c ieo
ciaoiaeeoueny a eiiaa?aaioiiio ia??iae?, aeey yeiai oa?aeoa?i? c?oeiaiiy
ieeo ? ai?eciioaeuei? ia?ai?uaiiy, iayai?noue ?ioaineaii? i?a?aoe??
aoaeaaiaei?a, ae?oaa a ia??iae? ?cinoac??, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aa?oeeaeueieie ?ooaie ? aa?oeeaeueiith i?a?aoe??th.

O Ea?iaonuee?e IAI a ia??iae a?ae 1980 aei 1998 ?. a?aee?eoi 36
?iaeiaeu, c ieo 23 aaciaeo ? 13 iaooiaeo. Aei a?aee?eoo?a, ye? iathoue
i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy, ne?ae a?aeianoe aenieiaeaa?oi? i?eieeae iaooe c
ieaooi?iieo a?aeeeaae?a iacicith ? iaeaiaaio ia Eiiooiyinueeiio
?iaeiaeu? a aaoiooii? i?ae iie?eaii Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeo Ea?iao,
aacia? ?iaeiaeua a Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei?, i?iieneia? i?eieeae aaco c
a?aeeeaae?a ie?aioeaio E?iniainueei? ciie i?ae iie?eaii *i?iiai?nueei?.

O A?eue/a-Aieeoeueeiio IA? ca ia??iae 1980-1998 ??. a?aee?eoi 17
aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu, iaeia aacieiiaeainaoia (Eaoiyinueea) ? iaeia iaooiaa
(Eiiooiyinueea). I?e aea/aii? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu aeyaeaii ?yae oaeoi??a,
ye? cia/ii ca?eueoothoue ia?niaeoeai?noue oa?eoi??? IA?. Oae, oia?oa
aeiaaaeaia aaciiini?noue i?neiaee?a ea?iao?th (Eaoiyinueea ?iaeiaeua) c
ieoiiei iii?ii 2 4 Ii.i, ye? ?ai?oa ioe?ithaaeenue ye aiaeiiini? ? ia
aei?iaoaaeenue. Iecuee? iii?e iia’ycai? c aaeeeei ai?noii aeaoeii?oo.
Anoaiiaeaii (Aa?anueea, Eaoiyinueea, No?aeii-Aeiaa?anueea,
Ai?iaeioeueea, No?oie?a-*a?aio?anueea, Aeaaaneaaeoeueea, Ieeei?anueea
?iaeiaeua), ui ?yae iieeaae?a aaco i?noeoueny a eieaeoi?ao na?iaoo ?
aaaeai?th, ye? aeeeeiththoueny aai cai?uothoueny aeeienoeie ??ciiaeaeaie
ii??ae aei neeai?iue i?aeiyoue, ai?o?a iaeai??e, cii iicaeiaaei?o
?iceii?a, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe iano?oeoo?i? ianoee ? eieae?coaaoe
?aeiie iiooeo.

Aeyaeaii iiaee oei oiieioa?oaaoiai eieaeoi?a a na?iaonueeeo a?aeeeaaeao,
c yeiai, ca ?aeiiaiaeaoe??th aaoi?a, aia?oa io?eiaii i?iieneia? i?eieeae
aaco ia Aeaeiieyinueeiio ?iaeiaeu?. Ni?iaiiciaai? iia? oa?eoi???, aea
iioe?ai? iiae?ai? eieaeoi?e. Ia aeayeeo ae?eyieao oia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui
aaciiinieie ? ieanoe i?neiaee?a, ui i?aei?iathoueny ia i?aaeaiiee
cao?ae, a caa?oo ae?aiothoueny ianoaii iiean (Oei?anueea ? Ethaao?anueea
?iaeiaeua). Iiooe iiae?aieo ianoie ia?niaeoeaiee iai?yi. O
ea?iao?e-iacicieneeo a?aeeeaaeao i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie IA? cia/ii
?icoe?aiee ?aeii iayaiino? aaaeeeo iaoo, i?eieeae yeeo iaea?aeaii ia
Ieeeiaeoeueeiio ? Aeoiyinueeiio ?iaeiaeuao. Iiaei ia?niaeoeaiei ?aeiiii
? i?aeianoa Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeo Ea?iao. Ia i?aaeaiiee cao?ae a?ae
Eiiooiyinueei? neeaaeee a aaoiooii? aeyaeaii 12 iiaeo no?oeoo? o
ieaooi?iieo iacicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeao. O oeueiio ?aeii? aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy ia?niaeoeaiino? no?oeoo? aaoi?ii ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co ca iaoiaeii “iani?aaaeiuei?” iie?eoee ? aeyaeaiiy
cii a?aenooiino? eieaeoi??a a th?? ? e?aeae?. Ia aeeeth/ii, ui iieeaae
iaooe o aaiiyeao th?e ia Eiiooiyinueeiio ?iaeiaeu? iia’ycaiee c
a?iaa?iieie iiaoaeiaaie, oiio a nioaao iicaeiaaei?o ?iceii?a Ciai?oiuei?
ciie aa?oi aanoe iiooe ianoie, iia’ycaieo c ?eoaie ? a?iaa?iaie.

O Ai?eneaanueei-Iieoonueeiio IA? a 1980-1998 ??. a?aee?eoi 12 iaooiaeo
?iaeiaeu. Aaaeeeaei ? a?aee?eooy ?yaeo iaooiaeo ?iaeiaeu ia aaeeeeo
aeeaeiao (4600 5800 i) o oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? IA?: ssie?anueeiai,
Iaeueie/einueeiai, I?aaeaiii-Noeiaanueeiai a na?aaeiueiio iie?ea? ?
Nieieiaaoeueeiai (iieeaae iaooe ia aeeaei? 5700 5800 i iaeei c
iaeaeeaoeo a ?a?ii?) a ieaeiueiio. Iia? a?aee?eooy c?iaeai? a
i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei? IA? (Aeaae?anueea ? No?aoaaeoeueea ?iaeiaeua)
? a i?aaeaiii-no?aei?e (Ieeoee/einueea ?iaeiaeua). ?aeiie, aea c?iaeai?
oe? a?aee?eooy, ? a iiaeaeueoiio aeoaea ia?niaeoeai?. Iaiao?aeii
iineeeoe iiooeia? ?iaioe ia no?oeoo?e aa?oiueiai iie?eao i?ae a?aeiieie
Aeno?eoeueei-Aeiaaooainueeeie ? A?eiuee?anueei-No?aeii-Eoeaeinueeeie
no?oeoo?aie, a oaeiae i?ae Aeaiaea-Aeoaeoeueeith ? Iiaino?aeieoeueeith
neeaaeeaie, oiaoi a i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e /anoei? IA?. Ia?niaeoeaieie ?
aaoiooiii? e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiia? a?aeeeaaee, ui aeeeeiththoueny aei
i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai e?ath ae?aoe?eiiai oe?oaaiai eeeio a cii?
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?iceiio.

Iaeaaaeeea?oa i?iaeaia iaooiaaciiiniino? Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao i?iaeaia
iie?eoie ? ye?nieo ianoie. O ca’yceo c oeei iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie ?
ia?aaaoiooiii? a?aeeeaaee Neeaiai? ciie i?ae iie?eaii E?iniainueei?,
ia?aaaoiooiii? a?aeeeaaee E?iniainueei? ciie i?ae iie?eaii Aeoeeyinueei?
? *i?iiai?nueei?. Oey ?aeay aoea oni?oii ?aae?ciaaia ia A?eiyanuee?e
ieiu?, aea a ii?iaeao ie?aioeaio E?iniainueei? ciie, i?ae iie?eaii
*i?iiai?nueei? ia aeeaei? 4602 4410 i aoa anoaiiaeaiee iieeaae
aacieiiaeainaoo. Ia?niaeoeaieie ? ia?aaaoiooiii? a?aeeeaaee aioo??
Neeaiai? ciie, oiaoi no?oeoo?e, iai?eeeaae Aa?aaiai? neeae, i?ae ianoaii
?icoaoiaaii? aeae? ia i?aaeaiiee cao?ae I??anueei? neeae. Iaiao?aeii
oaeiae, uia oe? no?oeoo?e iaee ia?eee?iaeuei? cae?i/aiiy a iaaeao
iaeiiai aeiea. Ca iaaieo oiia (Neeaiaa ciia, Iaeaeainueea oaeoii?/ia
i?aa?eii, Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinuee? Ea?iaoe) ia?niaeoeaieie iiaeooue aooe
ia?eee?iae? no?oeoo?, aea iiaeeea? a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii ae?aiiaai? iieeaaee
iaooe. A E?iniainuee?e cii? ne?ae aanoe iiooee ia aioeee?iae?, ye?
caea?oiaai? aaieiaici?iaeueieie ?iaioaie. Ia iaei?e c oaeeo no?oeoo?
A?oeyinuee?e, o i?iao?ai?e ca ?aeiiaiaeaoe??th aaoi?a naa?aeeiaei?, ca
aeaieie AAeN aeyaeaii ?yae aaciiinieo ieano?a.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?aea? aeiooiiiiai caeyaaiiy cii Neeaae/anoeo
Ea?iao, o oiio /ene? Ia?ia?inueeiai e?enoae?/iiai ianeao, aea/aiiy a?eo,
neeaaeo ? iaooiaaciiiniino? ii??ae i?iiiiothoueny naeni?/i? i?io?euei?
?iaioe ? ia?aiao?e/ia ao??iiy a iaaeao oeueiai ianeao.

Caea?iaonueea IAI aeyaeaia a 1982-1998 ??., i?ioyaii yeeo aoee a?aee?eo?
Nieioaeinueea, ?onueei-Eiia??anueea, Noai?anueea, Ei?ie?anueea aacia?
?iaeiaeua ? Ia?o?anueea ?iaeiaeua aoaeaeeneiai aaco a i?neiaeeao ?
ooo?oao iaiaaio. Ooo ? ?yae no?oeoo?, i?aeaioiaeaieo naenii?ica?aeeith
aei ao??iiy, a oaeiae aaaaoi aeyaeaieo, ? ?o iio??aii aiooaaoe
naenii?ica?aeeith aeey iiooeiaiai ao??iiy. Aoeeaiiaaii? eieaeoi?e ne?ae
aei?iaoaaoe aaeeeeie ?ioa?aaeaie.

O Aieeii-Iiae?euenuee?e IAI a?aee?eoi o?eueee aeaa aaciiinieo ?iaeiaeua
Aaeeeiiino?anueea ? Eiea/einueea ? iaeia iaaaeeea iaooiaa Iaae?anueea a
aeaaiinueeeo a?aeeeaaeao. Aea/aiiy aaoi?ii ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c
iaooiaaciiini?noth oeueiai ?aa?iio, aeicaieeei a?aeianoe aei ?aiao
ia?niaeoeaieo e??i Euea?anueeiai iaeaicienueeiai i?iaeio oa?eoi??th
cao?aeiiai noeeo OU (Aieeii-Iiae?euenueea iiiiee?iaeue), aeoea?coaaoe
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeuei? ?iaioe ia Eiaaeuenueeiio aenooi?.
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny iiee ui aanoe iiooeia? ?iaioe aeeaieei ao??iiyi o?eueee
ia a?aeeeaaee aeaaiio, oiio ui no?oeoo?i? ianoee a ieo naenii?ica?aeeith
ea?oothoueny iaea?eueo oi/ii. I?e i?aeaioiaoe? aei iiooe?a ia’?eo?a o
eaia??enueeeo a?aeeeaaeao ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui iaee?au? eieaeoi?e a ieo
? ia oa?eoi??? i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? /anoeie EII. E??i aioeee?iaeae
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aanoe iiooee ia no?oeoo?ieo iinao, na?aae yeeo
ia?oi/a?aiaei ia’?eoii ? ieiua Ieanueei-Ciei/?a. O a?aeeeaaeao neeo?o
aeey iiooe?a ianoie, iia’ycaieo c ?eoaie, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii canoiniaoaaoe
iaae/ooeeao a?aa??ica?aeeo. A ca’yceo c anoaiiaeaiiyi aaaeeeai? ?ie?
ia?eae?iiaeueieo ?iceii?a ? ?iceii?a i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai iai?yio
iio??aii eieae?coaaoe iiooee no?oeoo? naenii?ica?aeeith a ciiao oeeo
?iceii?a. Aioeee?iaeuei? ianoee iaea?eueo ?iia??i?, ye aoei anoaiiaeaii,
ia i?aaeaii?e no?ae a?ae Eiaaeuenueeiai aenooio ? Iiae?euenueeiai
i?aeiyooy.

?icaeyae aaoi?ii iaooiaaciiiniino? ?aa?ii?a ? ?iaeiaeu ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i
c aaieia?/iith aoaeiaith, iiae?aiith aei aoaeiae cao?aeieo iaeanoae
Oe?a?ie, iieacaa, ui ca aiaeia??th c oa?eoi???th Iieueu?, aea a?aee?eoi
aeecueei 10 ?iaeiaeu aoaeaaiaei?a o ciiao aeeeeithaaiiy i?neiaee?a
naiiiaio, ne?ae caa?iooe iniaeeao oaaao ia iiooee iano?oeoo?ieo ianoie o
ieaooi?iieo a?aeeeaaeao e?aeaee ? th?e Ciai?oiuei? ciie; ?icii/aoe
ieaiii??ia aea/aiiy naenii?ica?aeeith oa aanoe iiooee aeeaieei ao??iiyi
ia no?oeoo?ao o na?iaonueeeo ooai?aiiyo o E?oeaieoeuee?e caiaaeei?, ia
i?iaeiaaeaii? yei? a Iieueu? a?aeiia aaciaa ?iaeiaeua Ioaieneue,
iaea?eueoa a ?a?ii?. Aei iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo eiiieaen?a ne?ae a?aeianoe
a?aeeeaaee ea?aiio ? aa?oiueiai aeaaiio Euea?anueeiai iaeaicienueeiai
i?iaeio, a yeeo ia oa?eoi??? Iieueu? a?aee?eo? iaooiaa ?iaeiaeua
Naeaeiee ? aaciaa Oeaoeaae?i. A?aoiaoth/e, ui o a?aeeeaaeao
i?aeaaeuenueeiai oe?oo ia oa?eoi??? Neiaa//eie a?aee?eoi iaooiaa
?iaeiaeua E?iaie, a aei ii??ae e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo i?eo?i/ai?
iieeaaee aaco iaea?eueoiai ?iaeiaeua Oai?ueie Oaeaeoniainei, oe?
eiiieaene ii??ae o Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? ii?yae c ooai?aiiyie iaiaaio
iiaeii? noaoe ia’?eoaie aeey iiooeo aoaeaaiaei?a.

A E N I I A E E

1. Ea?iaonueea aeoaiiiae?aia neeaae/anoi-iie?eaia no?oeoo?a ooai?eeany a
aei?noeeo iaaeao aeieaia??enueeeo aaino?oeoo?ieo nii?oae *anueeiai
ianeao, Aieeii-Iiae?euenueei? ? I?c?enueei? ieeo, Iaiiinueeiai
na?aaeeiiiai ianeao c ianooiiei c?oeiaiiyi ?yaeo ieeo ? i?e?iieeo
No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? i?e?iieeoe c Ao?eeainueeith ieeoith, yea
?ooa?oueny c i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo /a?ac i?ii?aei? Aae??aoe/io oa
Iaiiinueeo i?e?iieeoe; Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? i?e?iieeoe, ui ?ooa?oueny
c i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo, c Iaiiinueeith; ? A?aa?enueei? ieeoe, ui
?ooa?oueny c i?aaeaiiiai noiaeo /a?ac Aiaoie?enueeo ?
Cao?aeii-*i?iiii?nueeo i?e?iieeoe, c i?e?iieeoith O?ain?eueaainueei? ?
Iaiiinueei? caiaaeei. ??cieoe? a ianao ieeo ? i?e?iieeo iaaaeee?, oiio
c?oeiaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ca noaiith eie?c?? ? iieiai? noaaeoeoe?? i?ae
Iaiiinueeo ? O?ain?eueaainueeo caiaaeeie aeaui a?eueo aaaeeeo ?
oieiaeieo ieeo c i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo, i?ai?/iiai noiaeo ? i?aaeaiiiai
noiaeo. Eie?c?ei? iiyne oeeo ieeo ? i?e?iieeo iaiaaeiaai?
neeaae/anoi-ianoaieie A-noaaeoeoe?eieie ciiaie.

Eie?c?y ? iieiaa noaaeoeoe?y aeeeeeaee ?ic?a??a iaio?eieo ian,
oi?ioaaiiy iaio?eiiai anoaiie?oo ? eiai i?aeiyooy, ui i?eaaei aei
?ioaineaiiai oaieiaiai iioieo ? ciaioaiiy iiooaeiino? ei?e i?ae
Iaiiinueeith ? O?ain?eueaainueeith caiaaeeiaie. Oeei iiynith?oueny
aeniea iieiaeaiiy a?aieoe? Iioi i?ae aeaieie caiaaeeiaie.

A ?acoeueoao? noaaeoeoe?? ?a?ac?enueei? ieeoe i?ae Iaiiinueeo i?e?iieeoo
iiaeeiaii aeecueei 150 e?i?eieo e?eiiao??a noano?aoo.

2. Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee ? Caea?iaonueeee i?iaeie ii/aee oi?ioaaoeny
iai?ee?ioe? iaeaiaaio a ?acoeueoao? eie?c?? ?a?ac?enueei? ieeoe c
Iaiiinueeith i?e?iieeoith. A?aeeeaaee iaiaaio a oeeo i?iaeiao
iaa?iiaaeaeoaaeeny a oiiaao ?icoyaiaiiy i?e iaeii/aniiio noeneo ii??ae a
i?iaaii?e iaeano?.

A Caea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? ? an? iciaee c?oeiaiiy e?oinoa?ieo ieeo
(o?aaiaioe ieaai?/ii? ei?e io?ie?o?a, i?neyi?iaaiiee iaaiaoeci,
?ioaineaia ca?eueoaiiy oaieiaeo iioie?a, no?ieaoa ca neeaaeii
oeth?aeiiane/aiiy, iaoaeiaai?/ia c?oaeai?iiy, ?io?oceai? o?ea, ??cieoey
a aeeaei? caeyaaiiy a?aieoe? Iioi, i?enooi?noue a?aa?iao?e/ieo ?aia??a).
Ooo o iaeaiaai-iaiaaiiaee /an a?aeaoaaeanue ?ioaineaia aoeeai?/ia
ae?yeuei?noue. Iii?e aoeeai?a na?iaonueeiai /ano aeinyaaa ?aeii?a
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio. E?aeiaei aaeii ia?aae ii/aoeii oi?ioaaiiy
Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio aoee a?aeeeaaee iacicith /ioea Cao?aeii- ?,
iiaeeeai, No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? ieaooi?i.

Ae?aoe?eiee oe?oaaee eeei e?aeaee ? iaeaiaaio oi?ioaaany ia ianeaieo
ie?a?iao ieaooi?i, a ii/aoie eie?c?? noi?iaiaeaeoaaany noeniaiiyi, ui
aeeeeeaei aeieeiaiiy i?aeaiaeieo o?aao?a, iaaeaiaeieo ei?aeeeue?? ? a
?acoeueoao? ??cieo e?oieiai-oaoe?aeueieo cii oe?oo.

A Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? i?ae ae??th nee a?aa?oaoe?? ? noeniaiiy
/?oei ?iciaaeoaaeeny ianoioo? aeiooiii? a?aeeeaaee ? aaoiooiii? ii?iaee
eiaea i?iaeio. A aeiooiiieo a?aeeeaaeao aeae?eythoueny ciia ianoiooeo
iiean ? ciia ianoiooeo no?oeoo? c iieanaie ? oe?oai, a inoaii?e o?e
ie?ai? iie?eae, i?e oi?ioaaii? yeeo iiooaei?noue oe?oo ciaiooaaeany a
na?aaeiueiio ia 12,8 i ia eiaeiee e?eiiao? eiai ia?anoaaiiy. A
aaoiooiiieo a?aeeeaaeao i?iaeio aeiaaaeaia iayai?noue ii??ae iacicith
(e?aeaea, th?a) /ioea ieaooi?i, aeiaiaeeoueny i?enooi?noue oe?oaaeo
a?aeeeaae?a oaeueoo e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai aanaeio. A?aieoey i?ae
ieaooi?iieie ? oe?oaaeie a?aeeeaaeaie i?ioiaeeoue ii Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiio
aeeaeiiiio ?iceiio, yeee ioioiaeith?oueny c ciiith Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai
?aa?iiaeueiiai i?i?ioio nee oyae?iiy. Ii oe?e a?aieoe? i?iiiio?oueny
aeae?eyoe Ciai?oith ? Aioo??oith ciie a aaoiooii? i?iaeio.

3. Aeey Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?iio eiiieaeniei aiae?cii, o oiio
/ene? aea/aiiyi iai?oaeaiino? a??nueeeo ii??ae, i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui
a?aieoeth i?ae No?aeii- ? Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueeith ieaooi?iaie (e?i?y
Oaennae?aOi?iea?noa) ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe ii Iiaiaieeinueeiio ?
?aaeao?anueei-?iaaoeinueei-Iiianoe?nueeiio ?iceiiao. No?oeoo?e a
i?ioa?ici?, eaia???, ieaeiueiio, na?aaeiueiio aeaaii? ? ea?aii?
oi?ioaaeeny a ??ci? oace neeaae/anoino?, oiio eiioi?ii?noue ?o ii
aeuaia?ae?/aieo a?aeeeaaeao iaeieiia??ia. Ia Aieeii-Iiae?euenuee?e
iiiiee?iae? aeae?eai? ciie o?ainoi?iieo ?iceii?a i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai
i?inoyaaiiy.

Iayai?noue aca?iii ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii? neeaae/anoino? ia Aieeii-Iiae?ee?
iiynith?oueny i?aainoi?iii?i cnoaii ieanoeie i?ae aeae?eaieie
o?ainoi?iieie ?iceiiaie a i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio iai?yieo ? oii?ii oeueiio
?ooo, yeee /eieee Eiaaeuenueeee aenooi ?, iaiaaii, Iiae?euenueea
i?aeiyooy.

4. A?aeiia?aeii aei oiia aaiaeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeoiaey/e c oaeoii?ee
e?oinoa?ieo ieeo Ea?iaonueeo IAI a?aeianaii aei iaooiaaciiinieo aanaei?a
eie?c?eiiai oeio, a Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeo IAI aei aanaeio oeio ianeaieo
eiioeiaioaeueieo iaeaiie?a?i.

A Ea?iaonuee?e IAI aeae?eaii Ia?aaeea?iaonueeo IAI c
A?eue/a-Aieeoeueeei ? Ai?eneaanueei-Iieoonueeei IA?, IAI Neeaae/anoeo
Ea?iao ? Caea?iaonueeo IAI.

Aeey iaooiaaciiinieo iaeanoae Ea?iaonueei? IAI anoaiiaeaia
caeiiii??i?noue ?ici?uaiiy ?iaeiaeu aoaeaaiaei?a ocaeiaae aaeeeeo
iicaeiaaei?o ?iceii?a. Iiae?aia caeiiii??i?noue aeooaeueia aeey
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueei? IAI, ui iaaeiioe?ithaaeanue i?e i?iaaaeaii? ooo
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o. I?e/eiith oeeo caeiiii??iinoae ?
ia?aaaaeii aa?oeeaeueia i?a?aoe?y aoaeaaiaei?a ii ciiao oeeo ?iceii?a,
ui aeieeee a ?acoeueoao? nee ?icoyaiaiiy ? aeeaiei i?iieeathoue o caiio
ei?o.

O Ai?eneaanueei-Iieoonueeiio IA? anoaiiaeaii c?inoaiiy ia?aaeuaiiy
ieanoiaeo oene?a iaae oiiaii a?ae?inoaoe/ieie a?ae ?aca?aoa??a o
aa?oiueio iie?ea? aei ieaeiueiai, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy aaioa?i?/iiai
a?aae??ioa ? na?aaei?o cia/aiue oaiia?aoo? no?oeoo? ia c??c? -2000 i o
iai?yieo a?ae ieaeiueiai iie?eao aei aa?oiueiai, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
aa?oeeaeueio i?a?aoe?th oeth?ae?a.

O Ia?aaeea?iaonuee?e IAI ?niothoue ciie ?ioaineaii? i?a?aoe??
aoaeaaiaei?a, ye? iia’ycai? c ia?aoeiii aaeeeeo ?iceii?a, ui aeey
Ai?eneaanueei-Iieoonueeiai IA? aeiaiaeeoueny aea/aiiyi nooiaiy
a?aeiiniiai ia?aoai?aiiy iaooe ? eiiaeainaoo, anoaiiaeaiiai ci?iith
a?aeiioaiue i?ae aoeeaaicieii ? iaoaeneeieii, i?ae iaoa- ? ia?aeneeieii,
a oaeiae ci?iith ?ioeo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae aoaeaaiaei?a.
Iayai?noue iiae?aieo cii ?ioaineaii? i?a?aoe?? i?iaiico?oueny a
iaooiaaciiinieo iaeanoyo Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao ? Aieeii-Iiae?euenuee?e.

5. A iaooiaaciiinieo iaeanoyo Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao ? Ia?aaeea?iaonuee?e
iiaeeeaa aaia?aoe?y ??aeeeo aoaeaaiaei?a ia aeeaeiao 45005000 i
iaoa?einueeeie ii?iaeaie, yeeie iiaeooue aooe ieaooi?ii? oiau? ieaeiuei?
e?aeaee ? oe?oaa? a?aeeeaaee ieaeiuei? ? aa?oiuei? e?aeaee,
iaeaioeai-aioeaio oa ie?aioeaio.

A Neeaia?e cii? ? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiio i?iaei? ia iaaaeeeeo aeeaeiao i?e
a?aeiia?aeieo oiiaao ooai?eeeny a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii ae?aiiaai? iieeaaee
aoaeaaiaei?a.

?iaeiaeua aaco ia iaeeo ? aeoaea iaeeo aeeaeiao o i?aaeaiii-no?aei?e
/anoei? Ciai?oiuei? ciie noi?iiaai? a?iaaiiei aacii.

*an ii/aoeo oi?ioaaiiy iieeaae?a o Caea?iaonuee?e IAI
iinoie?ioeaiiaee; a aaoiooiiieo a?aeeeaaeao iaooiaaciiinieo iaeanoae
Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao ? Ia?aaeea?iaonuee?e iinoaaaeainueeee; a aeiooiiieo
a?aeeeaaeao oeeo iaooiaaciiinieo iaeanoae iinona?iaonueeee; o
Aieeii-Iiae?euenuee?e IAI iinoea?aiiiaee. O Ea?iaonuee?e
iaooiaaciiini?e i?ia?ioe?? iieeaaee aoaeaaiaei?a i?iaeiaaeothoue
oi?ioaaoeny ? ?icoi?iiaoaaoeny ? a oaia??oi?e /an.

6. I?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iiaeaeueoa ia?niaeoeai?noue Ea?iaonueeiai ?
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai aaieia?/ieo ?aa?ii?a. A on?o iaooiaaciiinieo
iaeanoyo oeeo ?aa?ii?a i?iiiio?oueny i?iaeiaaeeoe ia?aiao?e/i? ?
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeuei? ?iaioe, iineeeaoe ?o o i?aeianoa?
Iieoonueei-Aoeiaeinueeeo Ea?iao ? E?oeaieoeuee?e caiaaeei?.

7. Iiaeie ia?niaeoeaieie oa?eoi??yie ? iai?yiaie
aaieiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia iaooo ? aac i?iiiio?oueny aaaaeaoe:

aaoiooiii? a?aeeeaaee e?aeaeiai-iaeaiaaiiaiai oe?oo a nioc?
Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?iceiio;

aaoiooiii? a?aeeeaaee ieaooi?iiiai iacicith /ioea ieaooi?ie a eiae?
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? /anoeie Neeaae/anoeo Ea?iao;

ia?aaaoiooiii? ooai?aiiy oe?oaaiai iaeaiaaio Neeaiai? ciie i?ae iie?eaii
E?iniainueei? ? E?iniainueei? i?ae iie?eaii
Aeoeeyinueei-*i?iia??nueei?, a ia?oo /a?ao ia ae?eyieao ?o iieiaeo
ianoa?a;

iiooee iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a o:

i?neiaeeao ea?iao?th, ui ooai?ththoue iicaeiaaei? nioae i?uaieo o?e
oeio aa??a o oeaio?aeuei?e ? i?ai?/ii-no?aei?e /anoei? Ciai?oiuei? ciie;

i?neiaeeao aaaeai?th ? na?iaoo, ye? aeeeeiththoueny aei cii
iicaeiaaei?o ?iceii?a;

i?neiaeeao aaaeai?th a cii? oeaeno?, a oaeiae i?neiaeeao aaaeai?th, ye?
aeeeeiththoueny aei ai?o?a iaeai??e aai iaeaii?aeiyoue o
i?aaeaiii-no?aei?e /anoei? Ciai?oiuei? ciie;

eieaeoi?ao iacicith (e?aeaea, th?a), ye? no?aoea?ao?/ii aeeeeiththoueny
aai oaoe?aeueii cai?uathoueny iaeieaeoi?nueeeie ??ciiaeaeaie ii??ae o
Ciai?oi?e cii?;

?eoiaaiieo ? i?aaiiaaiieo iiaoaeiaao th?nueeiai a?eo a ciiao aaeeeeo
iicaeiaaei?o ?iceii?a Ai?iaeioeueeiai, Eaeonueeiai,
Naia??-Iaaea??iyinueeiai ? E?aeiaaoeueeiai;

a?aeeeaaeao i?ioa?icith ? ieaeiueiai iaeaicith ia oa?eoi???
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueei? iiiiee?iae? ? Eiaaeuenueeiai aenooio;

i?neiaeeao ea?aiio ia oa?eoi??? Euea?anueeiai iaeaicienueeiai i?iaeio;

a?aeeeaaeao iaeaicith ? iacicith ia oa?eoi??? ?aaa-?onnueei? ciie ?
Euea?anueei? e?aeaeiai? ioeueaee.

Iiaa o?aeooaaiiy aaiaeeiai?/ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy Ea?iaonueeiai ?
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?ii?a, anoaiiaeaiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae
?ici?uaiiy oa oiia oi?ioaaiiy ooo iieeaae?a aoaeaaiaei?a ? cai?iiiiiaai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o iiooe?a aacnoii?aii i?eaaaeooue aei a?aee?eooy
iiaeo ?iaeiaeu iaooe ? aaco ? ca?eueoaiiy ?o aeaeiaooeo a oeeo
?aa?iiao.

INIIAI? IIOAE?EIAAI? ?IAIOE II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Nio?oaeie/anoai no?ai/eaiia NYA a iaeanoe iieneiai-?icaaaei/iuo ?iaio
ia iaooue e aac // ?ino A. (AAe?), Ea?ieianee I. (II?), A?iiaea A.,
Aeeoia? A.E., Aeiaaeie A., Aieoaiia A., E?oineee TH., Iaea?ia A.,
Ia?ooiye I., Iiaeeia A., Ie?aieee ?., Naeaeaonean E. (NNN?), Aaaea A.,
Einoaeueie/ae I., Iaaua? TH., Oeei?en A. (*NN?). I.: Ecae-ai
Nae?aoa?eaoa NYA, 1991. 74 n.

2. Oaeoiii-iaaiaoe/aneay yaiethoeey Ea?iao // Eyoeaae/ C.I., Iaaeaaaeaa
A.I., E?oineee TH.C., Aa?e/aa A.N., Nooiea I.I. E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea,
1995. 158 n.

3. E?oineee TH.C., Aie/eiaa A.A., Aaceeaae/ A.A. Ia?aay iaooue n aeoaeiu
5000 i a I?aaeea?iaouea // Iaooaaaciaay aaieiaey e aaioeceea:
Yeni?ann-eioi?iaoeey. 1976. ? 12. N. 1 — 4

4. Ao/eianeee N.N., Ai?uoei A.ss., E?oineee TH.C. Ieanoiaua aeaaeaiey a
iaooaaaciiiniuo no?oeoo?ao iie?iaia thai-ainoi/iie /anoe
I?aaeea?iaoneiai i?iaeaa // Iaoo. e aac. i?ii-noue. — 1976. — ? 5. — N.
28-30.

5. E?oineee TH.C., Aoaiaithe I.E., Aaceeaae/ E.A. Aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea
?an/?ou aeey iieneia aeae?aaee/anee ye?aie?iaaiiuo eiaooae
oaeaaiaei?iaeia a I?aaeea?iaoneii i?iaeaa // ?acaaaeea e ?ac?aaioea
iaooyiuo e aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee: ?ani. iaaeaaaeiinoa. na. Aui 15. —
Eueaia: Aeua oeiea. — 1978. — N. 13-17.

6. E?oineee TH.C., Eeeiaiei A.A., Eiceineee I.A., Iaaeaa A.A.,
Ieoaeieeiaa A.E. Iaeioi?ua aaieiai-aaioeie/aneea iniaaiiinoe iaooae e
aacieiiaeainaoia I?aaeeaaeacuey // Aii?inu iaooyiie aaieiaee,
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AIIOAOe?ss

E?oinueeee TH.C. Aaiaeeiai?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ? iaooiaaciiini?noue
Ea?iaonueeiai ? Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aaieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth: 04.00.17 aaieia?y iaooe ? aaco. ?inoeooo aaieia??
? aaio?i?? ai?th/eo eiiaeei IAI Oe?a?ie, Euea?a, 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeaiieo ieoaiue aaiaeeiai?/iiai
?icaeoeo neeaae/anoi-iie?eaii? no?oeoo?e Ea?iao, Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai ?
Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaei?a ? Aieeii-Iiae?eey, a oaeiae iaooiaaciiiniino?,
?? ia?niaeoeaai ? aecia/aiith iiaeaeueoeo iai?yi?a
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o o oeeo ?aa?iiao. Aeoiaey/e c oaeoii?ee
e?oinoa?ieo ieeo iieacaii, ui a iaaeao Caea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio ? ciia
eie?c?? ?a?ac?enueei? ieeoe c Iaiiinueeith i?e?iieeoith, a oi?ioaaiiy
aeoaiiiae?aii? nenoaie Ea?iao iia’ycaii c ?ooii ?yaeo ieeo ? i?e?iieeo
i?ae Iaiiinueeo ? O?ain?eueaainueeo caiaaeeie. O Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiio
?aa?ii? ooi/iaii iieiaeaiiy a?aieoe? i?ae No?aeii- ?
Cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueeith ieaooi?iaie, iiyniaii oi?ioaaiiy ooo aca?iii
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii? neeaae/anoino? i?aainoi?iii?i cnoaii
No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? i?e?iieeoe.

C’yniaai? caeiiii??iino? ?ici?uaiiy oa oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeiaeu
aoaeaaiaei?a. Aena?oeaii iia? a?aee?eooy inoaii?o ?ie?a ye o
aeine?aeaeaieo ?aeiiao Oe?a?ie, oae ? ia i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??yo
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i. Ooi/iaii a?aeii? ? cai?iiiiiaaii iia? iai?yie
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia iaooo ? aac.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Ea?iaoe, Ia?aaeea?iaonueeee i?iaei, Caea?iaonueeee
i?iaei, Aieeii-Iiae?eey, oaeoii?ea e?oinoa?ieo ieeo, iaooiaaciiini?noue,
iiooee.

AIIIOAOeEss

E?oineee TH.C. Aaiaeeiaie/aneea oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey e
iaooaaaciiiniinoue Ea?iaoneiai e Aieuii-Iiaeieueneiai ?aaeiiia Oe?aeiu.
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aaieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe: 04.00.17 aaieiaey iaooe e aaca. Einoeooo aaieiaee
e aaioeiee ai?th/eo eneiiaaiuo IAI Oe?aeiu, Eueaia, 1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea i?iaeaiiuo aii?inia aaiaeeiaie/aneiai
?acaeoey neeaae/aoi-iie?iaiie no?oeoo?u Ea?iao, I?aaeea?iaoneiai e
Caea?iaoneiai i?iaeaia e Aieuii-Iiaeieee, a oaeaea iaooaaaciiiniinoe, aa
ia?niaeoeaai e ii?aaeaeaieth aeaeueiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee
aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio a yoeo ?aaeiiao. Enoiaey ec oaeoiieee
eeoinoa?iuo ieeo iieacaii, /oi a a?aieoeao Caea?iaoneiai i?iaeaa
iaoiaeeony ciia eieeecee ?a?aceeneie ieeou n Iaiiiineie iee?iieeoie, a
oi?ie?iaaiea aeoaiia?aciie nenoaiu Ea?iao naycaii n aeaeaeaieai ?yaea
ieeo e iee?iieeo iiae Iaiiiineoth e O?aineeueaaineoth aiaaeeiu. A
Aieeii-Iiaeieueneii ?aaeiia ooi/iaii iieiaeaiea a?aieoeu iaaeaeo
Ainoi/ii- e Caiaaeii-Aa?iiaeneie ieaooi?iaie, iauyniaii oi?ie?iaaiea
caeanue acaeiii ia?iaiaeeeoey?iie neeaae/aoinoe i?aainoi?iiiei naeaeaii
Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie iee?iieeou.

Onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe ?aciauaiey e oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey
ianoi?iaeaeaiee oaeaaiaei?iaeia. Inaauaiu iiaua ioe?uoey iineaaeieo eao
eae a eco/aiiuo ?aeiiao Oe?aeiu, oae e ia i?eeaaathueo oa??eoi?eyo
ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. Ooi/iaiu ecaanoiua e i?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua iai?aaeaiey
aaieiai?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio ia iaooue e aac.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Ea?iaou, I?aaeea?iaoneee i?iaea, Caea?iaoneee i?iaea,
Aieuii-Iiaeieey, oaeoiieea eeoinoa?iuo ieeo, iaooaaaciiiniinoue, iienee.

ANNOTATION

Y. Krupskyj

Geodynamical conditions of forming and oil-gas bearing of the Carpathian
and the Volyn-Podillia regions of Ukraine.

Manuscript.

The thesis for a Doctor degree of Geological sciences specialized in:
04.00.17 – oil and gas geology. – Institute of geology and geochemistry
of fossil fuels of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv,
1999.

The thesis is dedicated to research of arguable matters of the
geodynamical development of the thrust-and-fold structure of the
Carpathians, Carpathian Foredeep, Transcarpathian Depression and
Volyn-Podillia, as well as to the oil-gas bearing, its perspectives and
to defining further directions of geological-exploration operations in
these regions. Based upon the tectonics of the lithospheric plates, it
is indicated that the Transcarpathian Depression contains the area of
the collision of the Euro-Asian plate with the Pannonian microplate, and
that the formation of the arched Carpathian system pertains to the
movement of a number of plates and microplates under the Pannonian and
Transilvanian depressions. The location of the border between the East-
and West-European platforms in the Volyn-Podillia region has been
specified, the formation of the cross folding here has been explained by
the right-side shift of the East-European microplate.

The regularities of the hydrocarbon fields occurrence and conditions of
their forming have been clarified. New discoveries of recent years in
the studied regions as well as in the adjacent territories of the
foreign countries have been analized. The known directions of the
geological-exploration operations for oil and gas have been specified
and the new ones suggested.

Key words: the Carpathians, the Carpathian Foredeep, the Transcarpathian
Depression, Volyn-Podillia, tectonics of the lithospheric plates,
oil-gas bearing, prospecting.

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