1

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie

Caa?eaee Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 370.186

OI?IOAAIIss O NOA?OIEEANIEE?A

I?CIAAAEUeIIAI ?IOA?ANO AeI

AEIIII?*IEO CIAIUe

O IICAEEANI?E ?IAIO?

13.00.01 — oai??y ? ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ??aiainueeiio aeiiii?ei-aoiai?oa?iiio ?inoeooo?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeai’yi/oe Aiaoie?e Noaiaiiae/, ??aiainueeee aeiiii?ei-aoiai?oa?iee
?inoeooo, ?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ei?i??a A?eoi? Iao?iae/, ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

-eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaaeaeea Ieaa Naiaiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, i?i?aeoi?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie. i.Eooeuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 5 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.452.01 a ?inoeooo?
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: (252053, i. Ee?a-53, aoe. A?oaia,
52-a.)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 2 ” aeiaoiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, i?ioani? Eaaeee I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
ia?aoai?aiiy a aea?aeaa?, iia’ycai? c io?eiaiiyi noaa?ai?oaoo ?
iacaeaaeiino?, c ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, i???ioaoe??th ia
caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino?, iio?aaothoue i?aeaeuaii? oaaae, ?ioa?ano
aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o/i?anueei? iieiae?.

I?iaeaia aeiiii?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iniaenoino? caaaeaee aoea ? iaaeae?
caeeoa?oueny iaei??th c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo o iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? oa
oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?, iniaeeai ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy
aeaniino?, ?icai?oaiiy i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe??, ooaa?aeaeaiiy iiaeo
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aeiiii?/ia na?aeii?noue i?iieea? a nooue ? ci?no
aeiiii?/ieo yaeu, i?ioean?a, ?ice?eaa? caeiiii??iino? ?o ?icaeoeo. sse
ocaaaeueiaiiy a?eueo aenieiai ii?yaeeo, iaoeiaa aeiiii?/ia ieneaiiy
iiaeiii oi?ioaaoeny, cie?aia o noa?oieeaniee?a, a /?oeo nenoaio
iiaeyae?a, o iaai? i?aeoe/i? ia?aeiiaiiy, ui aacothoueny ia
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoyo: /ano?, nia?no?, i?aaaeeaino?,
aeia?ice/eeaino?, aa?aaeeeaino?, i?aei?e?ieeaino? oa ?ioeo. Naia oiio
iioei?caoe?y ci?noo oa oeyo?a ?aae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe ? iaeiei ?c
ia?oi/a?aiaeo caaaeaiue ?iaioe caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

O oeueiio ca’yceo iniaeeai aeooaeueiiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? i?iaeaia
oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano o noa?oieeaniee?a aei aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue o iicaeeani?e ?iaio?, ui ? iaea?eueo aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith
no/anii? iaaeaaia?ee ? i?aeoeee o ca’yceo c ?eieiaeie ia?aoai?aiiyie o
iao?e aea?aeaa?. ?? ?ica’ycaiiy aeiaaa? iiooeo iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a caeiaoooy
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, ine?eueee aeiiii?/ia iaa/aiiy ? eiai
?acoeueoaoeai?noue coiiaeththoueny aeoeaiei aeeth/aiiyi aei oeueiai
i?ioeano o/i?a, iioei?caoe?? ?o ae?yeueiino?.

Iniiaia iaoa aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieyaa? o caaacia/aii? ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? noa?oieeanieea, o nenoaiaoe/iiio oi?ioaaii? iniia
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy, aenieiai ??aiy
aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a oa ?aae?caoe?? ia oe?e iniia?
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai, oai?/iai, eoeueoo?iiai iioaioe?aeo iniaenoino?.

Eiaeai noa?oieeaniee ? ia’?eoii ? noa’?eoii ?icaeoeo, iaa/aiiy oa
aeoiaaiiy ae?eiaeo yeinoae iniaenoino?. Ioaea, aeiiii?/ia inoa?oa ?
iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo eiiiiiaio?a i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa,
yeee aaco?oueny ia iaa?oiooaaii? oa ocaaaeueiaii? iaoeiai? oai???,
a?aoiaoth/e aii??e/i? oaeoe oa yaeua, a?aeiia?aeii aei ?icaeoeo
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee oa aeiiii?ee noni?euenoaa.

Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iith ? iaoiaee/iith iaoeith oa no/anieie iaaeaaiaaie
iaeiie/aii cia/iee aeina?ae c aeiiii?/iiai iaa/aiiy thiae?a oa ae?a/ao.
Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue aeey ocaaaeueiaiiy oeueiai aeina?aeo ia iaoeiaiio
??ai? iinoaiiaee iiaeo caaaeaiue ? ?ica’ycaiiy ?o c o?aooaaiiyi
aeinyaiaiue no/anii? aeiiii?/ii? oa noi?aeieo c iath iaoe. I?ioa a
iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, aeena?oaoe?eieo ?iaioao i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy
i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o noa?oieeaniee?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o
iicaeeani?e ?iaio? iiee ui aena?oeaia ? ?ic?iaeaia iaaeinoaoiuei.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai /anoi aeieea? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue i?aai?c?oe??
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? oei caaaeaiiyi, ui noaaeoue
noni?euenoai ia?aae ina?oith.

Oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano o/i?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue
oe?eaaeei a ??ci? /ane aeaeaoieo oe?a?inueeeo ieneeoae?a, iaaeaaia?a,
i?ina?oeoae?a (?ii Ai?aoeueeee, Oaioai I?ieiiiae/, A?eai??e Neiai?iaea,
Iaio?e Eica/einueeee, Oa?an Oaa/aiei, ?aai Eioey?aanueeee, ?aai O?aiei,
Iaaei A?aaianueeee, Ieoaeei Ae?aaiiaiia, Ieoaeei Eioethaeinueeee, Eany
Oe?a?iea, Aaneeue Nooiieeinueeee oa ?i.)

O nai?o i?aoeyo aiie i?aaioee ia o?eueee ie?aneeoe canaaee
aoiai?noe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo ethaeeie, a e /anoeiai ?ica’ycaoe ie?ai?
ieoaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe. I?e oeueiio, aiie ?icaeyaeaee ethaeeio ye
iniaeno?noue aeiiii?/ii ina?/aio, eio?a i?aaia iaoe aeeaie? aeiiii?/i?
ciaiiy.

Oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o
noa?oieeaniee?a o i?ioean? iicaeeanii? ?iaioe nie?a?oueny ia
ineoieia?/i? iaaeaaia?/i? oa aeiiii?/i? oai??? oa eiioeaioe??
oe?a?inueeeo o?einio?a, ineoieia?a oa iaaeaaia?a (I.I.A?a?e, ?.Ae.Aao,
I.?.Aoaaeia, I.I.Ao?einueea, N.O.Aii/a?aiei, A.N.Aeai’yi/oe,
A.?.Aeueii?i, ?.A.Cycthi, I.?.Eiaa, A.I.Ei?ia?a, I.A.Eaae?anueeee,
?.E.Iaothoa, A.I. Iaaec?aii, A.I. I?aeaoianueea, I.N.Iaaeaeea,
A.E.Ne?ioaiei, ?.A.Oea/aiei, I.Ae.ss?ia/aiei oa ?i.).

A inoaii? ?iee iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea o a?aeiia?aeue ia aeiiae noni?euenoaa
aei i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iniaenoino?, yea anooia? a naiino?eia
aeeooy, ii/aea i?eae?eyoe ana a?eueoa oaaae i?iaeaiai oai??? ? i?aeoeee
aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe o/i?a. Oiio c’yaeeiny ?yae i?eeeaaeieo oa iaoiaee/ieo
i?aoeue aeey i?aeoe/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a c aeaii? i?iaeaie (I.A.Ie/eaei,
?.O.Ionoia?eo, O.?.Nouaiei, I.I.Oeiaiei, ?.O.?iae?iiaa oa ?i.).

I?iaeaio i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano ye aeooaeueio oaiaoeeo a ineoieia??,
iaaeaaia?oe? ? iaoiaeeoe?, ?icaeyaeaee aeine?aeieee aeaeaeiai
ca?oa?aeaey (Aeae.A?oia?, O.Aanee’?a , N.A?ai?ianueeee, A.Aoianeo,
O.Aeaeaein, ?.Eeaia?aae, I.E??aeo, A.Eaeoai ? ?i.).

Aiae?c i?iaeaie a ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e ? iaoiaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??
cana?ae/o?, ui oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano a o/i?a aei aeiiii?/

ieo ciaiue ua /aea? nai?? eiioeaioe??, a ?ic?iaea ieoaiue
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano o ca’yceo c
aea/aiiyi i?e?iaeie/eo aeenoeeie?i aoea acyoa iaie ia ica?i?iiy. Iiaa
eaea a ia?oo /a?ao i?i iaa?no?aeuei? oeyoe ( iaoiaee, i?eeiie, oi?ie,
caniae) o aea/aii? i?e?iaeie/eo ? aeiiii?/ieo i?aaeiao?a o i?ioean?
iicaeeanii? ?iaioe, a naia: naiiianeoaiaoaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a o nenoai?
oi?ioaaiiy ?o ?ioa?ano aei i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? oa i?aoe?,
oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a aei aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue o iicaeeani?e ? e?a?ciaa/?e ?iaio?.

?icaeyae oeeo i?iaeai a aniaeo? oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
o/i?a noaiiaeoue aaaeeeaee iai?yi iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia oaio:
“Oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o/i?a aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o i?ioean? iicaeeanii? ?iaioe”. Aea?? oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth ae??oaiiy
iaei??? c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? — i?aeianaiiy
??aiy aeiiii?/ii? i?aeaioiaee o/i?a noa?oiai oe?eueiiai a?eo, iioeaaoe??
oa yeino? ?o aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue ye /eiiee?a ?icaeoeo aeooiaii? noa?e .

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie, ieaiaie, i?ia?aiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoiaeeoue aei eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue
??aiainueeiai aeiiii?ei-aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo “Nenoaia aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? oa nooaeaionueei? iieiae? o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio
i?ioean? oeiee ? aoco”.

Aeoiaey/e c aeooaeueiino? cacia/aii? oaie, ?? noni?eueii? cia/ouino?
aecia/ai? ia’?eo, i?aaeiao ? iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iicaiaa/aeueia ae?yeuei?noue noa?oieeaniee?a
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy: iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, caniae ? iaoiaee oi?ioaaiiy
o noa?oieeaniee?a i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o
iicaeeani?e ?iaio?.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ie aeoiaeeee ?c ianooiii? a?iioace: aenoiooa
iaie ia?aaeaa/aiiy i?i oa, ui oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o noa?oeo oeiey??a caniaaie iicaeeanii? ?iaioe
i?ioiaeeoue oni?oii ca oaei? i?aai?caoe??, eiee o/iyi noathoue
aeinooiieie ? c?icoi?eeie i?iaeaie aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ae?iaie/a iaoa,
i?ioean ? ?acoeueoao i?aoe?, aca?iia?aeiineie a o?oaeiaiio eieaeoea?,
eiee aiie a?ae/oaathoue ii?aeueia caaeiaieaiiy a?ae noai?aiiy
iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae aeey noni?euenoaa.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: ia iniia? anaa?/iiai aiae?co oai?aoe/ieo aeaea?ae ?
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee iaa?oiooaaoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oa ?ic?iaeoe
aoaeoeaio iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a aei aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue noa?oieeaniee?a o iicaeeani?e ?iaio?.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe noai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o ineoieia?/i?e oa iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ?
i?aeoeoe?.

2. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai
?ioa?ano noa?oieeaniee?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o i?ioean? iicaeeanii?
?iaioe.

3. Aecia/eoe iniiai? oeyoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iaoiaeeeo
oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o/i?a noa?oiai oe?eueiiai a?eo aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o i?ioean? iicaiaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

4. Iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? e?eoa??? noi?iiaaiino? i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano
noa?oieeaniee?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o iicaeeani?e ?iaio?.

5. I?aeaiooaaoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo
?ioa?an?a noa?oieeaniee?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue iaie canoiniaoaaeeny oae? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy: iaoiae ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iiai ? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co;
iaoiae aea/aiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iiia?aaeiueiai e no/aniiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo; nenoaiaoecaoe?y ? eeaneo?eaoe?y ?noi?e/iiai
iaoa??aeo, a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie; aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, iaoa??ae?a, iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue; iaoiae niinoa?aaeaiiy, nioe?ieia?/i? iaoiaee
(aieaooaaiiy, ?ioa?a’th, ni?aaan?aea); aenia?oia ioe?iea.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeueiiiaoeia? i?eioeeie
nenoaiiino?, ?noi?e/iino?, ui cinoiniaothoueny aei iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy
i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy; ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?eioeeie oe?e?niino?,
no?oeoo?iino?, aeeiai?/iino?; iniiai? iieiaeaiiy caaaeueii? oai???
nenoai ? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei oe?e?nieo iaaeaaia?/ieo i?ioean?a ?
yaeu; aiae?c aii??e/ieo oaeo?a aeey noai?aiiy oai??? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe
a?aeiia?aeii aei ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee oa aoae?aieoeoaa
aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ?iaio? acyee
o/anoue o eiinoaooth/iio aenia?eiaio? 980 ?aniiiaeaio?a (o/i? 8-11
eean?a) oa o oi?ioth/iio — 930 noa?oieeaniee?a i?nueeeo oe?e ? 11, 12,
23 i. ??aiiai, na?aaei?o oe?e ? 2, 3, 5, 7, 9
i.Iiaia?aaea-Aieeinueeiai, ? 3, 7, 9, 14, 17, 20 i. AEeoiie?a,
na?aaei?o oa iaiiaieo na?aaei?o caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e
Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai ?aeiio AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?, ? 2 i. Aeoiaaiai
Ee?anueei? iaeano?, naeeua I?ci/ Caeieaoi?anueeiai ?aeiio, ? 5, 6 i.
Einoii?eue, ? 1 i. Ino?iaa ??aiainueei? iaeano?. O i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?eiaioo acyee o/anoue a?ey 100 a/eoae?a oa 135 aaouee?a.

I?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny i?ioyaii
1992-1998 ?ie?a o?ueiia aoaiaie.

· Ia?oee aoai (1992-1993 ??.) — oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c
i?iaeaie, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaioo.

· Ae?oaee aoai (1994-1996 ??.) — i?iaaaeaiiy eiinoaooth/iai
aenia?eiaioo, i?ae /an yeiai aoei iieoaii 980 ?aniiiaeaio?a (o/i?a 9-11
eean?a) oa aecia/aii caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? na?oiaeyaeieo aeiiii?/ieo
i???ioaoe?e o/i?a ca ?oi?ie ?ioa?anaie. Aeniiaee, ui aoee io?eiai?,
noaee a?aei?aaieie i?e ?ic?iaoe? oa ei?aeooaaii? aenia?eiaioaeueii?
iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie “Anooi aei aeiiii?ee, 8-10 eeane”.

· O?ao?e aoai (1997-1998 ??.) — i?iaaaeaiiy oi?ioth/iai iaaeaaia?/iiai
aenia?eiaioo ia aac? na?aaei?o caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e Aieeinueei?,
AEeoiie?nueei?, Ee?anueei? oa ??aiainueei? iaeanoae, caaa?oaiiy
ioi?ieaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioethaaiiy e?ioeaaeo
aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy:

· ?ac?iaeaii oa oai?aoe/ii ocaaaeueiaii iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie noa?oieeaniee?a caniaaie
iicaeeanii? ?iaioe;

· ?ic?iaeaii iiaeei ci?no aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a
aeey ?icaeoeo ?o noni?eueii? aeoeaiino?, aa?aaeeeaino?, ae?eiaeoino?,
?i?oe?aoeaiino?;

· iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii ? ai?iaiaaii oai??th ? iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy
i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o/i?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue ia iniia?
aoiai?caoe?? o iicaeeani?e ?iaio?;

· i?aeaioiaeaii aaoi?nueeo eiioeaioe?th oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo
?ioa?an?a o/i?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o i?ioean? iicaeeanii? ?iaioe;

· ?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??? noi?iiaaiino? i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue noa?oieeaniee?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— iaa?oiooaaii iaoiaeeeo aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a o
i?ioean? iicaeeanii? ?iaioe;

— ?ic?iaeaii ?iaeea?aeoaeueio ea?oinoaio a/eoaey c ieoaiue aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oiai a?eo;

— iaa?oioiaaii caaaeaiiy ? iaoiaeeeo aea/aiiy iniaenoino? noa?oieeanieea
oa ?icaeoeo eiai aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy o i?ioean? iicaiaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe
o oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? o aecia/aii? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, o
?ic?iaoe? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, ui caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue
oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o
iicaeeani?e ?iaio?.

A??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/o?oueny iaoiaeieia?/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth eiai aeo?aeieo
iieiaeaiue, anaa?/iei oai?aoe/iei aiae?cii i?iaeaie, aeei?enoaiiyi
aeinoia??ieo aeaieo, ?acoeueoaoaie, iaea?aeaieie o i?ioean? ?iaioe ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ae?iaeaieo aaoi?ii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y aenoiooeo o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a
cae?enithaaeanue o oiae? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo ??aiainueeiai aeiiii?ei-aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo, ia
?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo, ui i?ioiaeeee a i.??aiiio (1996, 1997,
1998) oa i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaa/aeueii
aeoiaiee i?ioean o aoc? ? oeie? oa oeyoe eiai ?icaeoeo ?
oaeineiiaeaiiy”, ui i?ioiaeeea o i.Aa?aee/aa? AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?
(14-17 o?aaiy 1999?)

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o 12
ioae?eaoe?yo caeiaoaa/a (1 iaoiaee/ia ?aeiiaiaeaoe?y, 3 noaoo? o
i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 8 noaooae o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa
aeo?iaeao).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a aei ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae (239 iaeiaioaaiue), aeiaeaoe?a (10). Caaaeueiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? — 182 n.(iniiaia /anoeia — 155 n.). O ?iaio? iiaeaii 18
oaaeeoeue, 2 noaie, 1 iaethiie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, i?inoaaeo?oueny
caycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie, aecia/a?oueny
ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao, oi?ioeththoueny eiai iaoa ? caaaeaiiy,
aeeeaaeathoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aoaie eiai cae?eniaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny iiaecia ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a, a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
iaoeiai-iiooeiai? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai??y ? i?aeoeea oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a
i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o i?ioean? iicaeeanii?
?iaioe” ia iniia? aiae?co o?einionueei?, ineoieia?/ii? oa iaoiaee/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeina?aeo c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy
i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano noa?oieeaniee?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o
iicaeeani?e ?iaio? ? neeaaeiei aeeiai?/iei i?ioeanii, yeee ia?aaeaa/a?
i?aeaioiaeo oeiey?a ye iaeaooiueiai iiaiioe?iiiai ? nioe?aeueii
aeoeaiiai a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?c iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ? iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue na?ae/eoue, ui oea ieoaiiy iiee ui aena?oeaii ?
?ic?iaeaii iaaeinoaoiuei.

I?aeoeea ?iaioe iei?oi?o oe?e ia?aeiio?, ui aoaeoeai?noue aeiiii?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee c?inoa?, yeui iaeaooi? oao?aoe? a aeinooii?e oi?i?
io?eiothoue ciaiiy iniia aeiiii?ee, iathoue oyao i?i aini?ic?aooiie,
iaiaaeaeiaio, ae?iaie/o i?ia?aio, oaeoi?e i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe? oa ?i. Iniaeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ia’?aeiaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a,
o/anoue a yeeo iia’ycaia c ?aoe?iiae?caoi?noaii oa aeine?aeieoeueeith
ae?yeuei?noth, ?aaeueieie aeiiii?/ieie a?aeiineiaie, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue
i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy a?ioae, aa?oa?i? ca’ycee, i?eaooie ? o.ae.

Oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o
noa?oieeaniee?a ia iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny o ?aieao ie?aiiai i?aaeiaoa /e
aeoiaiiai caeeaaeo, oiio iaiao?aeii, uia ci?no aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe
?icaeyaeaany o no?oeoo?? an?o iniiaieo i?aaeiao?a caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
oeiee, a i?ioean? aeoiaii? ?iaioe iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo oa n?i’?.

Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo c eieeoi?ie aeioneieeaie oe?e
??aiainueei?, Aieeinueei?, AEeoiie?nueei? oa Ee?anueei? iaeanoae, ie
aiae?coaaee iia? iaoiaee ainiiaea?thaaiiy, aieea iiaiiai aini?ic?aooieo
ia aeiiii?/io na?aeii?noue aeioneiee?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiie?aoieo
oiia, a yeeo aiie i?aoeththoue. Ii?aoeueiaoth/e iaea?aeai? aeai?,
c?iaeee aeniiaie, ui iecueeee ??aaiue aeiiii?/ii? a?aiioiino?
i?aoe?aiee?a ae?iaieoeoaa, yeei aiie aaciina?aaeiuei caeiathoueny,
aieeaa? ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? oa iaoa??aeueio caoe?eaaeai?noue
iniaenoino?. Iae?ath/e i?iaeaio aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie aeyaeee a ??
no?oeoo?? iaai? i?ioe??//y: c iaeiiai aieo i?aeaeueany ??aaiue aeiia aei
aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe noa?oieeaniee?a a ca’yceo c ia?aoiaeii Oe?a?ie ia
iia? oiiae ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a c ae?oaiai — iaa?aeiia?aei?noue
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, ai?iue ? iaae/ie aeioneiee?a oeiee aeiiaai no/anii?
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, ?aae?caoe?? nai?o oai?/eo coneeue a oiiaao
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ie caa?ioee oaaao ia ieoaiiy, ui
noinothoueny oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano oeiey??a aei aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue oa aeiiii?/ii? eoeueoo?e, i?aeaeuaiiy caoe?eaaeaiino? ?o a
io?eiaii? ?eieiai-aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue oa naii? iaoiaeeee oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? oeiey?a, yeee ? oeaio?aeueiith iinoaooth
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano no/anii? oeiee, ?? iicaeeanii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe.

Iicaeeania aeoiaia ?iaioa c aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a ia? nai?
iniaeeaino?, ui a?ae??ciythoue ?? a?ae iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe ia o?ieao.
Iaa/aeuei?e ?iaio? i?eoaiaiia iaia’yceia?noue aeey o/i?a, a oie /an, ye
o/anoue oeiey??a a iicaeeanieo caoiaeao aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o ia?
aeia?ia?eueiee oa?aeoa?. O/aiue aeyaey? aeoeai?noue i?e i?iaaaeaii? oiai
/e ?ioiai caoiaeo, a ?iaio? ao?oea, eeoao aei oiai /ano, iiee oe?
caiyooy /e ?iaioa ao?oea oe?eaaeyoue ? caaeiaieueiythoue eiai caieoe.

Iicaeeania ?iaioa c aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a ia iiaeiia aooe
iaeiiiai?oiith i? ca nai?i ci?noii, i? ca oi?iith oa i?aai?caoe??th
i?iaaaeaiiy. Aaaaonoai ci?noo ? ??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i iicaeeanii? ?iaioe
?iaeyoue ?? oe?eaaith ? caoiiethth/ith.

Iaoa aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a — caaacia/eoe canai?iiy oeiey?aie
nioe?aeueiiai aeina?aeo noa?oeo iieie?iue, oi?ioaaiiy a ieo
a?iiaaenueei? na?aeiiino?, ?icoi?iiy caeii?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo,
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, iio?aae a?aoe o/anoue o aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo? oeiee,
iaeano?, e?a?ie caaaeii.

I?ae ci?noii aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a ie ?icoi??ii nenoaio
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, iaaieo iaae/ie ? ai?iue, ni?yiiaaieo ia oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo o/i?a, ?oi?o iiaeyae?a ? ia?aeiiaiue, ui ni?eythoue
i?aeaioiaoe? iieiaeiai iieie?iiy aei o/ano? a aoae?aieoeoa? iacaeaaeii?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae Oe?a?ie.

Ci?no aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a caeaaeeoue ianaiia?aae a?ae oaeeo
oaeoi??a:

· iaoe ? caaaeaiue aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy caaaeii;

· aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae ? caaaeaiue, ui noiyoue ia?aae
noni?euenoaii ia aeaiee ?noi?e/iee iiiaio;

· nenoaie aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a;

· /ano, ui a?aeaiaeeoueny ia i?iaaaeaiiy c o/iyie ??ciiiai?oieo
iicaeeanieo caoiae?a c aeiiii?ee;

· iayaiino? ? yeino? iaoa??aeueii? aace aeaii? oeiee, ?? iaeaaeiaiiy ?
iniauaiiy;

· a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae ae?oae, ?o ?ioa?an?a ? iaoee?a;

· oai?aoe/iiai ??aiy i?aeaioiaeaiino? iaaeaaiaa, yeee i?iaiaeeoue
iicaeeanio ?iaioo c o/iyie a aaeoc? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei;

· ca’yceo aeoiaiiai i?ioeano oeiee c aeeooyi noni?euenoaa.

Uia aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy noa?oeo oeiey??a iineei oe?eani?yiiaaiee,
nenoaiaoe/iee oa?aeoa? ? ni?eyei oi?ioaaiith a o/i?a aeeaieeo
ia?aeiiaiue, noaiiaeaiith ?o iniaenoino?, iaie (i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?io.
Aeai’yi/oea A.N.) aoea ii?aoeueiaaia i???ioiaaia i?ia?aia ci?noo
aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a, yea o?nii iia’ycaia c
iaa/aeueiith i?ia?aiith c aeiiii?/ieo iaoe. Ca neeaaeaiith iaie
i???ioiaiith i?ia?aiith ie i?iaaee aenia?eiaioaeueio ?iaioo a 30 oeieao
??aiainueei?, AEeoiie?nueei?, Aieeinueei? oa Ee?anueei? iaeanoae.

Aeiiii?/i? ciaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a aa?oi oi?ioaaoe ia o?ueio ??aiyo:
caaaeueiiiaoeiaiio, aaeocaaiio ? i?ioan?eiiio. Caaaeueiiiaoeiaee ??aaiue
aeicaieeoue iciaeiieoe oeiey??a c aeiiii?ei-i?aai?caoe?eieie iniiaaie
no/aniiai ae?iaieoeoaa a ii?yaeeo aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue iie?oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe. Aaeocaaee ??aaiue aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny ?c caaaeaiiyi
i?ioi???ioaoe?? ? iniaeeainoyie ?ic?iaee i?ia?aie o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy.
I?ioan?eiee ??aaiue aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue iaiao?aeiee aeey ii?aeiaiiy
iaa/aiiy c ae?iaie/ith i?aoeath. Aeineoue aaaeeeaith ? iicaeeania
aeoiaia ?iaioa c ?? iao?aaeeoe?eieie oi?iaie. Iathoueny ia oaac?
aeiiii?/i? ?a?e, aeeniooe ia aeiiii?/i? oaie, oai?/? eaai?aoi???, ioca?
? eeoae, oe?euei? ? o?oaeia? eieaeoeae. Uia aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy iaaoei
ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o, iio??aii caaacia/eoe iaaeaaia?a iaoiaee/iith
e?oa?aoo?ith ? i?ae?o/ieeaie. Iiee ui oaeeo iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a ia
aenoa/a?. C oe??? i?e/eie ei?enii ?icaeyiooe ?ic?iaeai? iaie iaoiaee/i?
aniaeoe i?iaaaeaiiy aeae?eueeio iiioey?ieo ? a oie aea /an neeaaeieo
oi?i aeiiii?/iiai iaa/aiiy a oeie?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe a oeieao ie
c?iaeee aeniiaie, ui iicaeeania ?iaioa c aeiiii?ee a?ae?a?a? cia/io
?ieue o oi?ioaaii? i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue,
iie?ioo? aeiiii?/i? ciaiiy oeiey??a, aeiiiiaaa? iaaeaaiaai
caoe?eaaethaaoe ae?oae iiiyooyie i?i ?eieia? a?aeiineie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? iai?yie oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a
i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue” aena?oeaii ieoaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? oa iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo, eiai
iniiai? iai?yiee, ci?no, i?aeaeo? i?aenoiee aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe,
cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy o
noa?oieeaniee?a ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o iicaeeani?e ?iaio?.

C iaoith ioe?iee ci?noo oe?eueii? ina?oe aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a, oi?ioaaiiy ?o i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue ie i?iaiae?coaaee iiaeeeaino? ie?aieo oe?eueieo
i?ia?ai, aeae?eyth/e c ieo oaie, ieoaiiy, i?e aea/aii? yeeo o
noa?oieeaniee?a oi?iothoueny aeiiii?/i? ciaiiy ? ai?iiy.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ci?noo oe?eueii? ina?oe oa iicaeeanii? ?iaioe c
ie?aieo i?aaeiao?a iieaco?, ui a ieo caeeaaeaii cia/iee iioaioe?ae
iiaeeeainoae aeey i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a,
oi?ioaaiiy a ieo i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue.
Caaaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia a ?aieao oe?eueiiai iaa/aeueiiai ieaio,
nie?ath/enue ia nenoaio iicaeeanii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe a oeieao,
oii?yaeeoaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe aeiiii?/i? ciaiiy ? ai?iiy, ?icoe?eoe
iiea aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a, caeo/eoe ?o aei iiaeo
oi?i ?iaioe.

O nenoai? oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a ?ioa?ano aei i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? aaaeeeaa i?noea iin?aea? ?o naiiianeoaiaoaaiiy, yea ? ia
o?eueee ii/aoeiaith noaae??th aeoiaaiiy o ae?oae ? iieiae? iaea?eueo
iioe?aieo o?oaeiaeo iaae/ie, iaiao?aeieo a aeeoo? ethaeeie, a e
i?euaiethaaiiy a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoi?nueeeo ai?iue, aeiiii?? a?ioae,
aaaeaiiy ?icoe?aiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue a oe?eueieo
eieaeoeaao.

Ie iinoaaeee ia?aae niaith caaaeaiiy ?ice?eoe i?aai?caoe?ei? canaaee,
iaoiaeeeo naiiianeoaiaoaaiiy a oeie?, aeine?aeeoe eiai aeiiii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue, iieacaoe aieea eiai ia oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a ?ioa?ano aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ie caa?ioee oaaao ia aioiai?noue noa?oieeanieea
aei eiie?aoii? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? o oeie?. Aeey oeueiai a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao cai?iiiioaaee iaaio i?ia?aio aeiiii?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee. A i?ioean? ?? ?aae?caoe?? noa?oieeanieee i?iaiaeeee ae?eia?
?a?e, o?aaiaioe i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, aeaooiaoaaee
“ss?ia?ee”. Oaea i?aeaioiaea iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a aeicaieeea iai
i?ine?aeeoaaoe ca i?ioeanii oi?ioaaiiy ?o aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino? oa
ia?aa??eoe iaoiaee/i? ii?aaee ca ?acoeueoaoaie iaoi? ?iaioe.

Aiae?c i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue iieaco?, ui o ae?eia?e a??, a
eiie?aoi?e ae?iaie/?e ae?yeueiino?, eiee o/i? aeaioiaeythoue o?noa/ea,
oi?oe ? i?aai?ciaoaaoue ?o i?iaeaae, aiie i?aaiooue ?aoe?iiaeueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino?, a oaeiae caeo/athoueny aei
aecia/aiiy e?eoa???a iieaoe i?aoe?, eaeueeoeyoe?? aeaioiaeaii?
i?iaeoeoe?? oa ?? ye?niiai ?aeeaioaaiiy.

Oey aeeaeaeoe/ia ciao?aeea aeicaiey? ni?yiiaoaaoe iaoiaee/io i?aeaioiaeo
oeiey?a ia eiie?aoio aeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue, uia i?aeaiooaaoe eiai aei
?aaeueii? ?iaioe i?ney cae?i/aiiy oeiee.

O oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe? /eiaei ??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i
iicaeeanii? ?iaioe. Aeey c?o/iino? ie aeae?eeee oae? a?oie: oai?aoe/ia
?iaioa (oaeoeueoaoeae, ao?oee, oiaa?enoaa); aeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
(aeneo?n??, eiioa?aioe??, aa/i?e ? o.i.); a?iiaaenueei-ei?eni? ?iaioe
(o/anoue a iaeaaeiaii? aeiiii?/iiai eaa?iaoo, o i?iaaaeaii? caoiae?a c
ioi?iie i?e?iaee, oaonueea aeiiiiiaa); oai?/a naiiae?yeuei?noue (o/anoue
o i?aeaioiaoe? ae?eiaeo aeiiii?/ieo ?ai?, aeiiii?/ieo aa/i??a,
i?iaaaeaii? oeaei?a aeiiii?ee oiui).

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioo oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii oa
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/i? ii?aaee uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo
caoiae?a c oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o noa?oieeaniee?a a
iicaeeani?e ?iaio?. Iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaeeeo aeei?enoaiiy e?eoa???a
ioe?iee i?iaaaeaieo caoiae?a c aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a o
iicaeeani?e ?iaio?.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iaaeaaia?/iei i?ioeanii ? i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano o/i?a o
i?ioean? e?a?ciaa/i? iicaeeanii? ?iaioe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui
i?aaeeueii i?aai?ciaaia e?a?ciaa/a ?iaioa o iicao?i/iee /an noai?th?
aaeee? iiaeeeaino? aeey ci?oeiaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o/i?a noa?oeo
eean?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue, i?i ui na?ae/aoue aeai? oaaeeoe? 1, 2.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? a?oieA?oieE?euee?noue I?aaeiaoOni?oi?noue (o %)?ia?o5
? 432 ? 1?22Iniiae aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue4753-??25—”—63361???24—”—7228-71

Oaaeeoey 2

Eiio?ieuei? a?oieA?oieE?euee?noue I?aaeiaoOni?oi?noue (o %)?ia?o5 ? 432
? 1?22Iniiae aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue176617??25—”—216217???24—”—27621171

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeieoeueei-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe iieacaee, ui
i?e??no aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao aeyaeany cia/ii
aeuei, i?ae o eiio?ieueieo. A?eueo aeaoaeueiee aiae?c i?e?inoo ciaiue
iieacaa oaiaeaioe?th nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino? a?aenoath/eo o
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao. Cia/ii ca?eueoeeanue e?euee?noue o/i?a, ye?
iaa/aeenue ia “4” ? “5”. Oae, a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao e?euee?noue
a?aei?iieo ? aeia?eo ioe?iie neeaea 60,6 % i?ioe 21,6 % o eeanao
eiio?ieueieo.

A oe?eiio aenia?eiaio iaa iciaee:

· aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue o ?aieao i?aaeiao?a
i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/iiai oeeeeo;

· aenia?eiaio ia?aaeaa/aa, ui oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o/i?a
aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue iiaea aooe oni?oiei eeoa oiae?, eiee aiii aoaea
iioeiaeueii ?ioaa?iaaii c ?ioeie caniaaie ? oiiaaie;

· aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany o 8-9 oa 10-11 eeanao; o eiinoaooth/iio
aenia?eiaio? acyei o/anoue 980 o/i?a noa?oiai oe?eueiiai a?eo, a o
oi?ioth/iio — 930; c ieo aenia?eiaioaeueii — 465 ? eiio?ieueii — 465
Aoee aeo?eiai? ia?aiao?e a?aeai?o ye?niiai neeaaeo o/i?a. Aiie iaee
a?aeiinii ??ai? oni?oe a iaa/aii? c iniia aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue;

· ci?no i?ia?aiiiai iaoa??aeo aeey o/i?a eiio?ieueieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a aoa ??aiioe?iiei: aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaei? ?
o? ae caaaeaiiy aeeaeaeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, iaoa??aee aeey ia?aa??ee
(caieoaiiy, ai?aae, i?ciaaaeuei? caaaeaiiy), iai/i? iin?aieee ?
i?ciaaaeuei? aeiiii?aei? caniae (?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? iiyniaiiy a/eoaeai
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo);

· ia ia?oiio aoai? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy (/an oi?ioaaiiy
a?iioace) ia iicaeeanieo caiyooyo ao?oe?a c aeiiii?ee
Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueei? CIO ? 5 a ?ie? aenia?eiaioaoi?a aenooiaa aaoi?
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ae /an aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee a?iioace a
oe?ieiio ieai?, o?iee i?iaiaeeeeny aeina?ae/aieie a/eoaeyie, ye?
i?aoethaaee ca aenia?eiaioaeueiith oa eiio?ieueiith iaoiaeeeaie. Anueiai
aoei ioiieaii 30 oe?e o?ueio iaeanoae Oe?a?ie;

· i?eioeeiiaa a?aei?ii?noue aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy a?ae cae/aeiiai
iieyaaea a oiio, ui aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa i?iaiaeeeany nenoaiaoe/ii
ia iniia? niaoe?aeueii neeaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a;

· iaoith aenia?eiaioo aoa anaa?/iee ?icaeoie o/i?a. Aea iaea?eueoa oaaaa
i?eae?eyeanue oi?ioaaiith i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue.

AENIIAEE

O caeeth/i?e /anoei? i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aecia/aii iiaeeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy eiai
?acoeueoao?a.

Ca iane?aeeaie i?iaaaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c?iaeaii oae? ocaaaeueiai? aeniiaee.

1. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aeiiothoue a oiio, ui iio??aii
aeoiaoaaoe iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa aeiiii?/ii a?aiioiiai, yeee
a?aecia/a?oueny aeaiie?aoe/ieie iiaeyaeaie, ai?? a?aoiaoaaoe aeoieo
?ioeo, a?aenoithaaoe nai? ia?aeiiaiiy, caeaoiee ianoaiaea?oii,
iaaeiaiaoe/ii ieneeoe oa ioe?ithaaoe ana i?ia?aneaia.

2. Aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue o noa?oieeaniee?a i?aeaeuo?oueny ca oaeeo oiia:

· noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai ee?iaoo
aca?iia?aeiinei a/eoae?a oa o/i?a;

· aeoea?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a oeyoii
aeioe?eueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a i?aai?caoe??
aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe;

· i?aai?caoe?? nenoaiii? naiino?eii? iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe noa?oieeaniee?a
c aeei?enoaiiyi caaaeaiue aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo a?aeiia?aeii aei
iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai.

3. Aoaeoeai?noue iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa i?ioeanii oi?ioaaiiy o
noa?oieeaniee?a i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue
aeinyaa?oueny ai?eei ii?aeiaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ?iaioe.

4. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii, ui i?ciaaaeueiee ?ioa?an aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue a iieiae? iiaea ?aae?ciaoaaoeny:

· aecia/aiiyi oe?eueieo i?aaeiao?a i?e ae??oaii? aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai;

· aiae?cii i?eeeaae?a aeiiii?/iiai oa aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a o iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?;

· ?icaeoeii aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy noa?oieeanieea ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiy
ae?eiaeo ?ai? oa ?ica’ycaiiy eiie?aoieo aeiiii?/ieo caaea/.

5. Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae a i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
noa?oieeaniee?a aea? iiaeeea?noue cia/ii i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue aeiiii?/ii?
aeoiaaiino? noa?oieeaniee?a, i?aeaeueoe ?o i?ciaaaeueiee ?ioa?an aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue.

6. Oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ? iiaeeea?noue
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a, oi?i oa cania?a aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy o
iicaeeani?e ?iaio?, ui ni?eyoeiooue a?eueo aoaeoeaiiio oi?ioaaiith
nenoaiaoe/ieo ciaiue oeiey??a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy ieie iniiaieo
i?aaeiao?a oe?eueii? i?ia?aie.

7. Ia?aa??aii ? aeiaaaeaii i?aeoeeith, ui ca iniiaieie
iaoiaeeei-iaaeaaia?/ieie e?eoa??yie aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaieo iaie
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a
i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o iicaeeani?e ?iaio?
cia/ii aeua o?aaeeoe?eii?.

A?aoiaoth/e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie, ia iaoo aeoieo, ne?ae
ia?aaeyiooe iaa/aeuei? i?ia?aie caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e c iaoith
aeeth/aiiy a ieo iiaeo niaoeeo?n?a, cie?aia c i?ioi???ioaoe??, ye?
ia?aaeaa/athoue aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioan??.

?ocoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? caaaeueiiina?oi?o caeeaae?a a oaeiae iaoeiaoeyie i?e
i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a.

?iaioa ia ae/a?io? an?o noi??i neeaaeii? oa aaaaoianiaeoii? i?iaeaie,
yea iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Caa?eaee A.?. Oi?ioaaiiy ia?aeiieo aeiiii?/ieo iiiyoue oeiey??a .
Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeee //Eanei e?ae, 1998.-105 n.

2. Caa?eaee A.?. Aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a. // ??aeia oeiea.
-1999-?9 N.34-35

3. Caa?eaee A.?. Ioi?oeeiaeueia ni?eyiiy aeiiii?/i?e ina?o?
noa?oieeaniee?a. // ??aeia oeiea. -1999- ? 10 N.25-26

4. Caa?eaee A.?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue ?ioa?ano o noa?oieeaniee?a aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue. // Iaoeiaa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea. ??aia: 1999.- ?3.-
N.18-19

5. Caa?eaee A.?. Oi?ioaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei? eoeueoo?e o
noa?oieeaniee?a n?euenueei? oeiee. //“Ooeinueeee — aaeeeee oe?a?inueeee
iaaeaaia”. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — ??aia: Oao?n. 1998.- N.7-9.

6. Caa?eaee A.?. Oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano oeiey??a o i?aoeyo
E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai. //“Iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean o aoc? ? oeie? oa oeyoe
eiai ?icaeoeo ? oaeineiiaeaiiy”. Ca??iee i?aoeue. — ??aia: Oao?n, 1999.-
/.3.- N.175-176.

7. Caa?eaee A.?., Aeai’yi/oe A.N. I?aei?e?iieoeueea eoeueoo?a
noa?oieeaniee?a n?euenueei? oeiee //“Iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean o aoc?
? oeie? oa oeyoe eiai ?icaeoeo ? oaeineiiaeaiiy”. Ca??iee i?aoeue. —
??aia: Oao?n, 1999.-/.2.N.-3-4.

8. Caa?eaee A.?., Aeai’yi/oe A.N. I?iaeaia ca’yceo o?oaeiaiai ?
ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? A.I. Nooiieeinueeiai.
//“Ie?ioai?/a ae?yeuei?noue oeiee ? AOCo”. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. —
??aia: Oao?n, 1997.-N.-69-71.

9. Caa?eaee A.?., Aeai’yi/oe A.N. I?ioi???ioaoe?y o/i?a ye aaaeeeaee
can?a ?o i?aeaioiaee aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. //“?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe ?
oeiee. Nooi?noue i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae”. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. —
??aia: Oao?n, 1997.-N.-3-7.

10. Caa?eaee A.?., Aeai’yi/oe A.N. O?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy o/i?a a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. //“Ie?ioai?/a ae?yeuei?noue oeiee ?
AOCo”. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — ??aia: Oao?n, 1997.-N.61-63.

11. Caa?eaee A.?., TH?/oe I.N. Aeiiii?/ia ina?oa noa?oieeaniee?a, ye
neeaaeiaa /anoeia caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee. //“Aca?iica’ycie
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ? oe?eueii? i?aeoeee ye oaeoi?
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?”. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. —
??aia: Oao?n, 1998. — N. — 52-53.

12. Caa?eaee A.?. Iaoea ainiiaea?thaaiiy. //Iaaeaaia?/ia AEeoiie?ueia,
?1, 1999, N. 16-17

AIIOAOe?ss

Caa?eaee A.?. Oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue a iicaeeani?e ?iaio?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaiaeee,
?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a
i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o iicaeeani?e ?iaio?.

O aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaothoueny
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, ca yeeo caaacia/o?oueny aeeaiea canai?iiy
noa?oieeanieeaie iniia aeiiii?ee ? cae?enith?oueny oi?ioaaiiy o ieo
i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue caniaaie iicaeeanii?
?iaioe.

Ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ? eiie?aoecaoe?th oi?ie oa iaoiaee
iicaeeanii? ?iaioe c oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeiiii?/ieo
ciaiue a o/i?a caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

Ae?iaeaii eiie?aoi? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy o/aiaeo i?ia?ai, ni?yiiaaieo ia nenoaiaoecaoe?th
aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue o noa?oieeaniee?a.

?ic?iaeaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/i? ii?aaee c ieoaiue i?iaaaeaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo caoiae?a iicaeeanii? ?iaioe c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy
i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano o noa?oieeaniee?a aei aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iicaeeania ?iaioa, i?ciaaaeueiee ?ioa?an, aeiiii?/i?
ciaiiy, nenoaiaoe/i?noue oa iine?aeiai?noue, naiiianeoaiaoaaiiy,
iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, aeiiii?/ia aeoiaaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Caa?eaue A.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea o noa?oaeeannieeia iiciaaaoaeueiiai eioa?ana
e yeiiiie/aneei ciaieyi ai aiaeeanniie ?aaioa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee,
Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aeie, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey o noa?oaeeannieeia
iiciaaaoaeueiiai eioa?ana e yeiiiie/aneei ciaieyi ai aiaeeanniie ?aaioa.

A aeenna?oaoeee oai?aoe/anee e yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeathony
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iaania/eaaaony
aeoaieia onaiaiea noa?oaeeannieeaie iniia yeiiiieee e inouanoaeyaony
oi?ie?iaaiea o ieo iiciaaaoaeueiiai eioa?ana e yeiiiie/aneei ciaieyi
iaoiaeaie aiaeeanniie ?aaiou.

Iainiiaaia iaoiaeeea yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey noa?oaeeannieeia a
i?ioeanna aiaeeanniie ?aaiou, ?ac?aaioaia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ea?oinoaia
o/eoaey ii i?iaeaiai yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiu ioaeaeueiua
caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey nenoaiu i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee
noa?oaeeannieeia, iainiiaaiu caaeaiey e iaoiaeeea eco/aiey ee/iinoe
noa?oaeeannieea e ?acaeoey aai iuoeaiey a i?ioeanna
o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee e ia?aaioee
iao/iiiaaeaaiae/aneeo enoi/ieeao enoi/ieeia ?ac?aaioaia nenoaia
eniieueciaaiey iaoiaeia oi?ie?iaaiey o noa?oaeeannieeia iiciaaaoaeueiiai
eioa?ana e yeiiiie/aneei ciaieyi, ii?aaeaeaiu oneiaey, aeaaiaea?y
eioi?ui oi?ie?oaony e iiauoaaony iiciaaaoaeueiue eioa?an
noa?oaeeannieeia e yeiiiie/aneei ciaieyi.

Iainiiaaii, /oi nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai
ainieoaiey aea?o aiciiaeiinoue cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue iiciaaaoaeueiue
eioa?an noa?oaeeannieeia e yeiiiie/aneei ciaieyi.

Oai?aoe/anee e i?aeoe/anee iainiiaaiu iaiaoiaeeiinoue e aiciiaeiinoue
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeia, oi?i e n?aaenoa yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey
ai aiaeeanniie ?aaioa n oeaeueth aieaa yooaeoeaiiai oi?ie?iaaiey
nenoaiiuo ciaiee oeieueieeia a i?ioeanna eco/aiey iniiaiuo i?aaeiaoia
oeieueiie i?ia?aiiu. ?ac?aaioaiu eiie?aoiua iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth o/aaiuo i?ia?aii, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
nenoaiaoecaoeeth yeiiiie/aneeo ciaiee o noa?oaeeannieeia.

Yenia?eiaioaeueii aeieacaii, /oi ii iniiaiui iaoiaeeei-iaaeaaiae/aneei
e?eoa?eyi yooaeoeaiinoue ?ac?aaioaiiuo aaoi?ii iaoiaee/aneeo
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oi?ie?iaaieth o noa?oaeeannieeia iiciaaaoaeueiiai
eioa?ana e yeiiiie/aneei ciaieyi ai aiaeeanniie ?aaioa cia/eoaeueii auoa
o?aaeeoeeiiiie. I?iaaaeaiiay ?aaioa ii yoei ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi iieacaea,
/oi o?iaaiue yeiiiie/aneeo ciaiee o noa?oaeeannieeia oeie, aeeth/aiiuo a
yenia?eiaio, cia/eoaeueii auoa iaaeaee o eo naa?noieeia.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey
noa?oaeeannieeia aace?othony ia i?eiaiaiee ?acee/iuo aeoeaiuo oi?i e
iaoiaeia aiaeeanniie ?iaiou. A ?iaioa i?aaenoaaeaiu oi?iu e iaoiaee
oi?ie?iaaiey eioa?ana e yeiiiie/aneei ciaieyi o noa?oaeeannieeia ai
aiaeeaniie ?aaioa, eioi?ua i?aaeeiaeaiu aaoi?ii a iaoiaee/aneeo
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo, eiie?aoiuo ?ac?aaioeao i?iaaaeaiey ianniauo
ia?ii?eyoee, aeaeiauo ea?, aanaae ii yeiiiie/aneie oaiaoeea.

?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioa iieacaee, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey iiciaaaoaeueiiai eioa?ana noa?oaeeannieeia e yeiiiie/aneei
ciaieyi caaeneo io noaiaie yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaioiaee o/eoaey, i?e?iia e
iaoiaeia iiaea/e i?ia?aiiiiai iaoa?eaea e aai oai?/aneiai iiaeoiaea e
i?aaiecaoeee aiaeeanniie ?aaiou.

?acoeueoaou ?aaiou, auaiaeu, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
o/aiuie, i?aiiaeaaaoaeyie aocia, einoeoooia iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee,
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee e nooaeaioaie aeey enneaaeiaaiey
i?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee yeiiiie/aneiai ainieoaiey iieiaeaaee.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oi?ie?iaaieth o noa?oaeeannieeia iiciaaaoaeueiiai
eioa?ana e yeiiiie/aneei ciaieyi eniieueciaaiu i?e ieaie?iaaiee
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou a iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeieao
AEeoiie?neie, Eeaaneie e ?iaaineie iaeanoae Oe?aeiu.

A?aoiaioe?iaaiu ia?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
iaoiaeeee oi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ciaiee o noa?oaeeannieeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiaeeanniay ?aaioa, iiciaaaoaeueiue eioa?an,
yeiiiie/aneea ciaiey, nenoaiaoe/iinoue e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue,
naiiianeoaeeaaiea, iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey, yeiiiie/aneia ainieoaiea.

ANNOTATION

Zagryvyi V.I. Formation of Senior Pupils Cognitive Interest to Economic
Knowledge in Out-of-Class Activities. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for Candidate Degree (Pedagogy) Specialty 13.00.01. —
Theory and History of Pedagogics, Institute of Pedagogics. APN Ukraine,
Kyiv, 1999.

Dissertation is dedicate to the problem of formation of senior pupils
cognitive interest in out-of-class work.

In the dissertation for the first time phychologicaland pedagogical
conditions are confirmed theoretically and experimentally with the help
of which senior pupils are provided with deep mastering of economy
fundamentals and formation of cognitive interest to economic knowledge
is realized by methods out-of-class work.

Forms and methods of out-of-class activities in forming senior pupils
cognitive interest to economic knowledge in secondary school were given
further development and concrete expression.

Specific scientific practical recommendations on improving educational
programs directed on systematization senior pupils economic knowledge
were developed.

Methodical recommendations on question of arranging various activities
of out-of-class work in order to form senior pupils cognitive interest
to economic knowledge were developed.

Key words: out-of-class work, cognitive interest, economic knowledge,
system and consequence, self-service, pedagogical conditions, economic
education.

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