EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO EOEUeOO?E ? IENOAOeOA

NAA?ETHE ss?ineaa Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 378.147.

OI?IOAAIIss AIOIAIINO? NOOAeAIO?A AOC?A EOEUeOO?E AeI ?IAIOE C AeEOss*EI
AeOOIAEI I?EANO?II

13.00.02 –oai??y oa iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy ioceee

? ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa, I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EAI*AIEI Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao
eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aaiaeo?e oa eiaca?nueeiai
ienoaoeoaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? UIEIEIAA Ieueaa
Ieeei?aia, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e a?e ia ioce/ieo ?ino?oiaioao;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? CAAAAeA?*OE Aaeeia Ieeiea?aia,
Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y ea??aieo eaae??a eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oai??? ? i?aeoeee eoeueoo?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee, eaoaae?a ioce/ii-oai?aoe/ieo aeenoeeie?i, i.Eooeuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.807.01 o Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio
oi?aa?neoao? eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa (01133 i.Ee?a, aoe. Ui?na, 36, aoae.
209).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa (01133, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Ui?na, 36).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E?aoa? O.?.

14

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa
a iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao coiiaea ieceo i?iaeai o aeoiaaii? anaa?/ii
?icaeiaii? iniaenoino?. Oiio ia?aae iaaeaaia?/iith iaoeith iinoa?
caaaeaiiy, iia’ycaia ?c ?ica’ycaiiyi i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy anoaoe/ii? oa
ooaeiaeiuei? eoeueoo?e iieiae?, ?icaeoeo oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo
iniaenoino?.

Iaeiei ?c ae??aeo cania?a aeoiaiiai aieeao ia i?aee?oe?a ? aeooia?
i?eano?e, a yeeo aiie aa?ooue aaciina?aaeith o/anoue. Iaeiae o aaaaoueio
aeeoy/eo i?eano?ao ua ia caaacia/aii iaeaaeieo oiia aeey iiaiioe?iiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. Oea iaaiith i??ith
coiiaeaii iaaeinoaoiueith aioiai?noth cia/ii? /anoeie ea??aiee?a
aeeoy/eo aeooiaeo i?eano??a aei i?iaeoeoeaii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, ine?eueee aiie ci???ioiaai?, ia?aaeon?i ia aeeiiaanueeee
aniaeo ? ia iaaeathoue aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/iei
oa ineoieia?/iei /eiieeai.

O oeueiio ca’yceo ia?aae aocaie eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa aenoaa?oueny
caaaeaiiy uiaei i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a — iaeaooi?o ea??aiee?a aeeoy/eo
aeooiaeo i?eano??a, ni?iiiaeieo cae?enithaaoe iie?ooieoe?iiaeueio oai?/o
ae?yeuei?noue.

O?aaeeoe?eia i?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a o aocao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa
ia?aae-aa/a? oaeineiiaeaiiy aeeiiaanueei? iaenoa?iino? oa aea/aiiy
caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae ?iaioe c aeooiaei i?eano?ii. A?aeo?, aieiaiei
/eiii, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii? iaoiaeeee, yea a /a?ac i?aei?aaeiaoi?
ca’ycee aena?oethaaea niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ?iaioe ea??aieea aeeoy/iai
aeooiaiai i?eano?o. Oiio aeieeea iio?aaa i?iaiae?coaaoe iaa/aeueiee
i?ioean ? neeanoe iaoiaeeeo, ni?yiiaaio ia oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino?
nooaeaio?a i?aoethaaoe naia c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii.

Aiae?c ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aea? oyaeaiiy i?i no/aniee
??aaiue ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie a oe?eiio oa ie?aieo ?? aniaeo?a.

?noioiei aianeii o ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc?
ioce/ii-aeeiiaanueei? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a noaee aeine?aeaeaiiy c
ineoieia?? /E.Aeaionueeee, I.Aaeueia??i, I.Einothe, N.?oa?iooaei,
A.Oaieia/.

No/ania ioce/ia iaaeaaia?ea ia? cia/i? caeiaooee, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei /e
iiina?aaeeiaaii noinothoueny ieoaiue ?icaeoeo ooaeiaeiuei-oai?/iai
iioaioe?aeo nooaeaio?a /E.A?/aaeieeiaa, I.Ai?aen?ia, E.Eiaaeue,
I.Ieaenthe, A.Iaaeaeea, I.?oaeieoeueea, I.Uieieiaa oa ?i./. Aeine?aeieee
cina?aaeaeothoue naith oaaao ia i?iaeaiao oaoiai? ina?oe, iaaeaaia?/ii?
eoeueoo?e, i?aai?caoe?? eoeueoo?ii-aeica?ee?ai? ae?yeueiino? oa
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a aei anoaoe/ii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe a oeie?.

I?aoe? AE.Aa?auaa?ii?, I.Ea?a?ia, I.I?ioa, A.*aaaiiiai cana?ae/eee, ui
i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea ea??aieea aiaoi?nueeiai eieaeoeao ?
aaaaoia?aiiith ? aeeth/a? nenoaio ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie, a oaeiae
iniaeno? yeino? oa cae?aiino?.

Ie?ai? iai?yie iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? ea??aieea aiaoi?nueeiai
oai?/iai eieaeoeao a?aeia?aaeaii a aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.?eue/aiea,
I.Ieaenthe, I.Ieai?ia, A.Eai/aiea, ?.Ia?ei?ia. A ieo cia/io oaaao
i?eae?eaii oaeei aeooaeueiei ieoaiiyi ye ?ioaineo?eaoe?y ?icaeoeo
ioce/iiai ieneaiiy nooaeaio?a, oi?ioaaiiy ?oiuei? i?ciaaaeueii?
aeoeaiino? caniaaie ioceee, i?eioeeie ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Aeaye? aniaeoe, ui aena?oeththoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeooiai? ioceee,
/anoeiai ?ice?eoi a aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, iiiia?ao?yo,
iaoiaee/ieo iin?aieeao. Oae, ieoaiiy iniaeeainoae neeaaeaiiy ?aia?ooa?o
aeey aeooiaiai i?eano?o oa niaoeeo?ee i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-?aiaoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano aeine?aeaeoaaee ?.Aenueiiia,
I.O?oaieeia, Ae.Nae/eia. Iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iaioe ?c
nooaeaionueeei aeooiaei i?eano?ii aena?oeaii a i?aoe? N.Iaeueeiaa.
I?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy ea??aieoeoaa aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii, ui
a?oioo?oueny ia iniaeeainoyo eieaeoeaiiai aeeiiaanoaa, ?icaeyaeaa
A.Iiaeeiia?a. Ia ??ai? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e I.I?aeeinueeei aoei
?icaeyiooi oe?ieee ae?aiacii ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c ae?yeuei?noth
aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o.

?acii c oei i?iaeaia aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?
a ?ie? ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o ia noaea i?aaeiaoii
naiino?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e aaaeeea?noue no/anii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a o aocao
eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? c aeeoy/ei
aeooiaei i?eano?ii, iaaeinoaoith ?? aeine?aeaeai?noue oa aena?oeai?noue
o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??, oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aoei ia?aii “Oi?ioaaiiy
aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aoc?a eoeueoo?e aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii”.

Ca’ycie ?c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y ?
neeaaeiaith i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a o
aaeoc? ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei
?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaea oa
aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea iaoiaeeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aoc?a eoeueoo?e aei ?iaioe c
aeeoy/ei i?eano?ii.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe aeine?aeaeai?noue i?iaeaie aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei
?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ? ia
i?aeoeoe?;

— aeyaeoe niaoeeo?eo ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ea??aieea
aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o;

— aecia/eoe e?eoa??? oa ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? aioiaiino? aei ?iaioe c
aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii nooaeaio?a aoc?a eoeueoo?e;

— ?ic?iaeoe oa ai?iaaaeeoe a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean iaoiaeeeo
aaeineiiaeaiiy ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie nooaeaio?a i?eano?iai?
niaoe?ae?caoe?? uiaei iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ? iaoiae?a oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei
?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeee iaoeia? i?aoe? ?c caaaeueii?
ineoieia?? i?i aca?iicaeaaeiee ?icaeoie ineo?ee, na?aeiiino? oa
ae?yeueiino? iniaenoino? /E.Aeaionueeee, I.Eaaai, I.Eaiioue?a,
I.?oa?iooaei, A.Oaieia/, oai??y iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e
/I.Aaeueia??i/, oai??y ioce/iiai ? aee?eaaionueeiai aeeiiaanoaa
/E.Aioiai, A.Eiaai, A.Iaeaaoc, A.Aei?o???anueeee, A.??aeainueeee,
E.Iaoaea?a, ?.Ion?i/; no/ani? iaaeaaia?/i? eiioeaioe??
ooaeiaeiuei-anoaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? /?.Cycthi, I.Ieaenthe,
A.Iaaeaeea, I.Uieieiaa/, oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy uiaei i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee ea??aiee?a aiaoi?nueeeo eieaeoea?a /AE.Aa?auaa?ia, I.Ea?a?i,
?.Ia?ei?i, I.I?io, A.*aaaiiee/, iaoiaee/i? canaaee aaeineiiaeaiiy
oai?/iai i?ioeano a aeooiaiio i?eano?? /N.Iaeueeia, I.I?aeeinueeee,
A.Iiaeeiia?a, Ae.Nae/eia, I.O?oaieeia/.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy:

oai?aoe/i?: aiae?c ? neioac, aano?aaoaaiiy e ?aeaae?caoe?y,
iiaeaethaaiiy ? eiie?aoecaoe?y oai?aoe/iiai ciaiiy;

aii??e/i?: aiae?c iaa/aeueii? aeieoiaioaoe??, iieooaaiiy, aan?aee,
aieaooaaiiy, niinoa?aaeaiiy, oai?/? caaaeaiiy, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio
/eiinoaooth/ee, oi?ioth/ee/, iaoiaee noaoenoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

I?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue o o?e
aoaie:

Ia?oee aoai /1990-1991 ??./ aecia/aany aea/aiiyi oa ocaaaeueiaiiyi
iaoeiai? ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca i?aeaioiaeith nooaeaio?a aei ea??aieoeoaa
aiaoi?nueeeie eieaeoeaaie a oiiaao ?aaeueiiai iaa/aiiy, a oaeiae ?oiuei?
i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee.

Ae?oaee aoai /1992-1997 ??./ oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iaa?oiooaaiiyi
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ? iaoiae?a i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii. Aoei
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ae?aaiinoeee noi?iiaaiino? iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue,
aecia/aii ??ai? ciaiue oa oi?iue nooaeaio?a noiniaii i?aai?caoe?? ?
i?iaaaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a aeeoy/iio aeooiaiio
i?eano??, cae?eniaii eiinoaooth/ee ? oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaioe.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? /1997-1998 ??./ aoei c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, ?oi? ocaaaeueiaiiy.
I?iaaaeaii ai?iaaoe?th iniiaieo iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
ai?iaaaeaeaii ?o o i?aeoeeo.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aecia/aii Ee?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa oa ??aiainueeee
aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo eoeueoo?e /iei? ??aiainueeee aea?aeaaiee
aoiai?oa?iee oi?aa?neoao/ oa aace i?aeoeee /aeeoy/? aeooia? i?eano?e
??aiaiueie/.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa
cae?eniaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iiiyooy “aioiai?noue aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei
aeooiaei i?eano?ii”, ?ic?iaeaii no?oeoo?o oa e?eoa??? noi?iiaaiino?,
“aioiaiino?”; ?ice?eoi iaoiaee/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino?
nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii o nenoai? iaa/aiiy o
aoc? eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa; aecia/aii e aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii
iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, ui caaacia/othoue oai?/o ni?yiiaai?noue oai?aoe/ii?
? i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui noi?ioeueiaai? a
iueiio oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeai? iaee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy a iaa/aeueieo eo?nao “Aea/aiiy
i?eano?iaeo ?ino?oiaio?a”, “Oai??y oa ?noi??y ioce/ii? iaaeaaia?ee”.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?e aeeeaaeaii? aeenoeeie?i
“Iaoiaeeea ?iaioe c aeooiaei i?eano?ii”, “Iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy a?e ia
aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaioao” o ??aiainueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aoiai?oa?iiio
oi?aa?neoao?, ?o oaeiae aoei aeei?enoaii aeey i?aai?caoe?? i?aeoeee
nooaeaio?a iacaaiiai aoco o aaciaeo i?eano?ao ??aiaiueie. Oai?aoe/i? ?
iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eaeaoi? aeey
aoc?anueeeo eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a ? niaoeeo?n?a, noai?aiiy oeiiaeo i?ia?ai,
iaa/aeueieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a ?c i?iaeai i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei i?eano?iaei eieaeoeaii, a oaeiae i?e iaoeiaiio
?ic?iaeaii? ieoaiue caaaeueii? oa ioce/ii? iaaeaaia?ee.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa?: o oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie; ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaee/ieo canaae
oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii; i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe;
?ic?iaeaii? iaa/aeueiiai eo?no “Iaoiaeeea ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii”, a oaeiae i?ia?ai i?aeoeee nooaeaio?a o aeeoy/eo aeooiaeo
i?eano?ao ??aiaiueie.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny oai?aoe/iei
iaa?oiooaaiiyi eiai aeo?aeieo iiceoe?e, eiiieaenii aeei?enoaieo
iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo i?aaeiaoo, iao? oa caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ee, ii?aeiaiiyi e?euee?niiai ? ye?niiai aiae?co
caeiaooeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny e iaaiai?thaaeeny ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? aeooiaii-oai?/iai
iioaioe?aeo iieiae?: iiooee, ia?niaeoeae” /??aia, 1996/, ia
i?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoe?iiaeueia
aeoiaaiiy: oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo ? aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae o
nooaeaionueei? iieiae?” /??aia, 1996/, ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aeooiai? ioceee o
No?aei?e ?a?ii?” /??aia, 1998/.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o 8-ie iaeiiin?aieo oa 2-o o ni?aaaoi?noa?
ioae?eaoe?yo: /ioe?ueio noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, aeaio noaooyo o
ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, o?ueio ioae?eaoe?yo o ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a
i?aeaoc?anueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e, a iaei?e iaoiaee/i?e
?ic?iaoe?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae /206
iaeiaioaaiue, c ieo /ioe?e ?iicaiiith iiaith/. ?? caaaeueiee ianya
noaiiaeoue 160 noi??iie, aeena?oaoe?y ia? 18 oaaeeoeue, 1 ?enoiie, 3
aeiaeaoee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii i?aaeiao, iaoo oa
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii i?aai?caoe?th, aoaie, iaoiaee
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio,
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iaaaaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a,
a??ia?aei?noue, ai?iaaoe?th aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioae?eaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oa noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie”
aiae?cothoueny iaoeia? i?aoe? c i?iaeai i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei
aiaoi?nueei? oai?/ino?; c’yniao?oueny nooi?noue, no?oeoo?a, iaaeaaia?/i?
oiiae oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii. Iaaeaaiae ? ineoieiae /A.Ai?/aeiaa, E.Eiiae?aoiaa,
A.E?ooaoeueeee, I.Eaa?oia, E.Aeo?ae-Iiaaeiaa, Ae.Ociaaeca, E.Oiainueeee
oa ?i./ aaaaeathoue, ui “aioiai?noue” — ineo?/iee noai iniaenoino?
/ei?ioei/aniee aai o?eaaeee/, i?ioan?eia ni?yiiaai?noue, ainaiaeue,
neioac aeanoeainoae iniaenoino?, a oaeiae iaaiee oiiae ciaiue, oi?iue ?
iaae/ie, ui aecia/athoue ?? caeaoi?noue aei ae?yeueiino?.

Iaeiae eiaeai aeae ae?yeueiino? ia? iaaio niaoeeo?eo oa iniaeeaino?.
Oiio cai?iiiiiaaio aeao?i?oe?th iiiyooy “aioiaiino?” ie ?icaeyaeaee
ca?aeii ?c niaoeeo?eith ?iaioe ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o.
Aeey a?eueo iiaiiai ?ice?eooy oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia oeueiai oaiiiaia
aeena?oaioii aoei aecia/aii ciaiiy, oi?iiy ? iaae/ee nooaeaio?a, ye?
noai?ththoue no?oeoo?o aioiaiino? aei oaei? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?. ?o iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i?,
niaoe?aeuei? /ioce/i?/, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oa
ae?aaiinoeei-i?iaiinoe/i?.

I?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? ciaiiy, oi?iiy ? iaae/ee iio??ai? iaeaooiueiio
ea??aieeia? aeey caeo/aiiy ae?oae aei i?eano?iaiai eieaeoeao,
i?iaaaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?, noai?aiiy i?aai?a
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Aiie iieeeeai? aeeiioaaoe ye aeoiai? ooieoe??
oi?ioaaiiy na?aeiii? aeenoeeie?ie, oae ? ooieoe??, ui ni?eythoue
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy. Oe? ciaiiy aeayeith i??ith aeoioeththoue ioce/i?
oa iaaeaaia?/i?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo ieaiothoue caaaeaiiy ? ?aiaoeoe?ei?
caiyooy, neeaaeathoue ?aia?ooa?. Aiie iaoe?eththoue ia iaeaaeio
i???ioaoe?th o oai?/?e ?iaio?, ?ice?eaathoue ci?no aiaoi?nueei?
oai?/ino?, niiioeathoue aei iaaeaaia?/iiai ae??oaiiy oai?/eo caaaeaiue.

Niaoe?aeuei? /ioce/i?/ ciaiiy, oi?iiy, iaae/ee noaiiaeyoue iniiao, ia
ye?e ae??oothoueny oai?/? caaaeaiiy eieaeoeao. Aiie aeeth/athoue
iaa/aiiy o/aniee?a i?eano?o ioce/ii? a?aiioe, ii/aoe?a aeeiiaanueei?
iaenoa?iino?, ?iaioo iaae ooaeiaei?i oai?ii, oiui.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy ioce/ieo ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie caaacia/o?oueny
caaaeyee iaieiae?iith nooaeaioaie oaeeie aeenoeeie?i, ye niaoe?aeueiee
?ino?oiaio, aee?eaoaaiiy, aea/aiiy i?eano?iaeo ?ino?oiaio?a, ine?eueee
aiie aeathoue ianya iaiao?aeieo ciaiue aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ?aiaoeoe?eieo
caiyoue ? eiioea?oieo aenooi?a aeeoy/iai eieaeoeao.

Ia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiiyo a?oioothoueny noinoiee i?ae
ea??aieeii oa o/anieeaie, aiie ni?eythoue ae??oaiith oai?/eo caaaeaiue.
Ca ?oiueith aeiiiiiaith ea??aiee aeyaey? ioce/i? cae?aiino?, aea/a?
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/i? ? a?eia? iniaeeaino? o/aniee?a, oi?io?
no?eeee ?ioa?an aei eieaeoeaiiai ioceeoaaiiy, noai?th? oai?/o aoiinoa?o
oa aeia?ice/eea? aca?ieie a eieaeoea?, i?aeo?eio? a?aeiia?aeiee
aiioe?eiee noai.

Iaa?ae’?iiei eiiiiiaioii no?oeoo?e aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii ?
ae?aaiinoeei-i?iaiinoe/i? ciaiiy. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue: aecia/aiiy iaoe ?
caaaeaiiy eieaeoeao, aiae?c iaia?aaeaa/oaaieo neooaoe?e oa aeyaeaiiy
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a. Aea/eaoe a?eia? ?ioa?ane, ii/aoeiaee
??aaiue i?aeaioiaee o/aniee?a, ea??aiee aecia/a? iioeiaeuei? oeyoe ?
iaoiaee aeoiaiiai aieeao, ieaio? ci?no ?aiaoeoe?e oa oai?/o ?iaioo a
oe?eiio. Ia iniia? ae?aaiinoeei-i?iaiinoe/ieo ciaiue ea??aiee,
cacaeaeaa?aeue aecia/eaoe iaoo ae?yeueiino? eieaeoeao, ieaio? aoaie oa
iine?aeiai?noue iaaeaaia?/ieo ae?e.

?ice?eooy no?oeoo?e aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei ea?oaaiiy aeeoy/eie
aeooiaeie i?eano?aie aea? iai ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui “aioiai?noue” ?
neioacii ?icoiiaeo, iioeaaoe?eieo, aiioe?eieo, aieueiaeo oa ?ioeo ?en
iniaenoino?, ii?aeiaieo ?c iaaeaaia?/ieie ? niaoe?aeueieie i?ioan?eieie
ciaiiyie oa iaaooeie iaae/eaie, ui oi?iothoue o nooaeaio?a a?aeiia?aei?
yeino? ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o oa iaaeeaeothoue ?o aei
i?aai?caoi?nueei? ? oai?/i? i?aoe?.

I?iaeaia i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a o aocao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa aei
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, iia’ycaii? c aeeoy/ei ioceeoaaiiyi,
?icaeyaeaeany iaie o aaaaoiieaiia?e ieiuei?, ine?eueee niaoeeo?ea
i?aeaioiaee aei ea?oaaiiy aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii iieyaa? a oiio, ui
nooaeaio i?ney cae?i/aiiy aoco noa? naiino?eiei i?aai?caoi?ii
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a i?eano??, aeeiioth/e ooieoe?? iaaeaaiaa.
A?aeoae i?ae /an caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaioe iathoue
iiaioaaoe ci?noiaii-i?ioeanoaeuei?, i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? oa iaoeia?
aniaeoe iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

O aeine?aeaeaii? iaaieioo?oueny, ui cia/ia e?euee?noue iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e i?enay/o?oueny i?aeaioiaoe? i?ioan?eieo ioceeaio?a,
aee?eaaio?a, ?iaio? c i?ioan?eieie eieaeoeaaie. I?ioa a?aeiiinoae i?i
ae?yeuei?noue ea??aiee?a aeeoy/eo aeooiaeo i?eano??a aeoaea iaei. Oiio,
nie?ath/enue ia a?aeii? o?aaeeoe??, iiiyooy e onoaiiaee a aaeoc?
i?ioan?eii? oai?/ino?, aeioe?eueii c’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? ?iaioe
ea??aiee?a oaeeo eieaeoea?a.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui aeeoy/ee aeooiaee i?eano? caniaaie ienoaoeoaa
aeoiao? naieo o/aniee?a, iaaea? ?i oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?aae?caoe??
oai?/eo ieai?a. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?
ea??aieea aeeoy/iai i?eano?iaiai eieaeoeao ? oa, ui aiia ia?aaoaa? a
o?niiio ca’yceo ?c nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iith ae?yeuei?noth, ?
noai?th?oueny ia canaaeao aeia?ia?eueiino? oa caoe?eaaeaiino?. O
ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie aiaoi?nueeeie eieaeoeaaie ?nio? ?noioia
a?aei?ii?noue i?e a?aeai?? o/aniee?a. Aiia iieyaa? o a?aooaaii? (e??i
cae?aiinoae oa ?ioa?ano) oaeiae o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo oa o?c?ieia?/ii?
aeineiiaeino? o/aniee?a. Aaeaea caoeiaeaeiaoaaiiy ia aeooiaiio i?eano??
ni?e/eiy? o?ce/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy iaeaea ia aanue ethaenueeee i?aai?ci. O
oeueiio ca’yceo ?iaioa ea??aieea iaoiiaeth?oueny ua e oi?iiyi
cina?aaeaeoaaoe oaaao o/aniee?a iaeii/anii ia aee?eaaionueeeo aeanoao,
iioiiio oaeno?, a oaeiae aeeoaii?, aiaooth??, eii?aeeiaoe?? ?oo?a
iaeueoe?a, oiui.

Ia?ae?/ai? aeua niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? oaei? ae?yeueiino? ia?aeiiothoue
o aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiino? i?ioan?eii? ?iaioe ea??aieea aeeoy/iai
aeooiaiai i?eano?o. sse aa/eii, iaaeaaia?/iiio ea?oaaiith
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? iniiai? aeaee ?iaioe c eieaeoeaii. Iniiaith i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a — iaeaooi?o ea??aiee?a aeeoy/eo aeooiaeo i?eano??a — ?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia ? ia-oiaee/ia. Aiia iio??aia ? ea??aieeia?
i?ioan?eiiai eieaeoeao, aea aeey oiai, ooi i?aoeth? c aeeoy/ei
i?eano?ii, ia? a?eueo aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy. O oeueiio ?ac? ea??aiee
aenooia?, ianaiia?aae, iaaeaaiaii, aaiaey/e ae?oae o neeaaeiee na?o
ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa.

Ea?oaaiiy iacaaiei eieaeoeaii aeiaaa? a?ae nooaeaio?a — iaeaooi?o
ea??aiee?a — oe?ieii?io?eueii? i?aeaioiaee, yea ioiieth?: ciaiiy
iaoiaeeee a?e ia aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaioao oa ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii; ciaiiy c ?noi??? ioceee; ciaiiy e oi?iiy i?eano?iaiai
aee?eaoaaiiy; oi?iiy canoiniaoaaoe ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ciaiiy ?c
o?aooaaiiyi a?eiaeo
iniaeeainoae o/aniee?a; aieiae?iiy i?eioeeiaie ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy a?e
ia aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaioao; oi?iiy caaacia/eoe aeaniee i?ioan?eiee ?
ii?aeueiee aaoi?eoao.

Ia iaoa ia?aeiiaiiy, i?aai?caoe?y aaaaoia?aiii? ? neeaaeii? ae?yeueiino?
aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o, a oaeiae caaacia/aiiy eiai ?icaeoeo ?
ia?niaeoeae caeaa?eueoiai caeaaeeoue a?ae iniaenoeo
ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo ? i?ioan?eieo yeinoae ea??aieea, ??aiy eiai
a?oaeeoe?? ? oaoiai? eaae?o?eaoe??. Iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui noai?aiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o, eiai oai?/? oni?oe o?nii
iia’ycai? c ?iaiai eiie?aoii? iniaenoino?, c ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/iith ?
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueith i?aeaioiaeith ea??aieea.

Nie?ath/enue ia i?iaaaeai? i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?oi? ?acoeueoaoe, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i iaai?
iiceoeai? caeiaooee o i?aeaioiaoe? ea??aiee?a aiaoi?nueeeo eieaeoea?a.
Iaeiae i?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii
(ca?aeii c iaoei aiae?cii noaio “aioiaiino?”) iio?aao? aeieeaaei?oiai
aea/aiiy oe??? aaaeeeai? i?iaeaie.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaeoaaii? iaie i?iaeaie aoei aea/aii oa
i?iaiae?ciaaii noai i?ioan?eii? aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aoc?a eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa — iaeaooi?o ea??aiee?a aeeoy/eo aeooiaeo i?eano??a. C oe??th
iaoith iaie aoei ?ic?iaeaii oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii o?ae eiinoaooth/iai
aenia?eiaioo. Iaoa eiai iieyaaea a oiio, uia aea/eoe i???ioaoe?th
nooaeaio?a ia i?ioan?th ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o,
aecia/eoe ianya ciaiue oa oi?iue, a oaeiae aeyaeoe ?icoi?iiy aaaeeeaeo
yeinoae, ye? iaiao?aei? aeey oni?oiiai ea?oaaiiy oaeei eieaeoeaii.

sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy, iaeaaaeeea?oeie yeinoyie
iniaenoino? ea??aieea nooaeaioe aaaaeathoue “aenie? ioce/i? cae?aiino?
oa ciaiiy”, “i?aaiaiiy aei aeeiiaanueeiai aaeineiiaeaiiy”, “?ioa?an aei
i?ioan??”. Aiaeii/an eeoa 44,8 a?aenioea nooaeaio?a iaaeathoue iaaiiai
cia/aiiy “iaaeaaia?/iiio ia?aaeaa/aiith canoiniaoaaieo iaoiae?a
iaa/aiiy”.

Nooaeaioe iaaeiioe?ithaaee oae? yeino?, ye “i?aaiaiiy aei
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?”, “niinoa?aaeeea?noue”. Oea, ia
aeoieo aeena?oaioa, na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeinoaoi? ?icoi?iiy ieie niaoeeo?ee
?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ciaiue oa oi?iue nooaeaioai i?iiiioaaeeny caieoaiiy, ui
noinothoueny ie?aieo aeaiaio?a i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
ea??aieea aeeoy/iai i?eano?o. Iaee?au? ciaiiy aeyaeaii c oaeeo aeae?a
ae?yeueiino?: “iaa/aiiy o/aniee?a a?e ia aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaioao”,
“i?aeaioiaea ? i?iaaaeaiiy ?aiaoeoe?e, eiioea?oieo aenooi?a”,
“aieiae?iiy iniiaaie aee?eaoaaiiy”. C iieaciee?a “caeo/aiiy ae?oae aei
oai?/i? ae?yeueiino?”, “oi?ioaaiiy no?eeiai ?ioa?ano a o/aniee?a aei
eieaeoeaiiai ioceeoaaiiy” nooaeaioe iieacaee aeineoue iecuee? ciaiiy oa
oi?iiy. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i caeaaei?noue ioe?iie a?ae
iaaeaaia?/ii? i???ioaoe?? aaaaoueio nooaeaio?a ia iaeaooith aeeiiaanueeo
?iaioo.

Aiae?c noaio aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aoc?a eoeueoo?e aei
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii aeyaea
?yae iaaeie?e?a o i?ioan?ei?e i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?ae?no?a oe???
i???ioaoe??. Cie?aia, a?aenooi?noue iaeaaeiiai ni?yioaaiiy ia
iaaeaaia?/io ?iaioo, iiaa?oia?noue ciaiue oa oi?iue nooaeaio?a ?c
a?aeiia?aeieo aeenoeeie?i. Nooaeaioe /anoi ia ona?aeiiethaaee ?noioieo
a?aei?iiinoae o ?iaio? i?ioan?eiiai oa aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano??a.

Aea/aiiy ca’yceo oai?aoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee ?c i?aeoeeith oaeiae iieacaei,
ui oaeee noai ia a?aeiia?aeaa aeiiaai i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aei aeacaii?
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Oae, o eean? aee?eaoaaiiy nooaeaioe io?eioaaee
??oioiaio oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io i?aeaioiaeo, iiaiiaoaaee i?eeiie
aee?eaaionueei? oaoi?ee, aea/ath/e ??ciiiai?oiee ? aeineoue neeaaeiee
aeey aee?eaoaaiiy ?aia?ooa?, a oaeiae iaa/aeeny ooaeiaeiuei
?ioa?i?aooaaoe ioce/i? oai?e. I?ioa a ieo iaaeinoaoiueith i??ith
oi?ioaaeeny i?aeoe/i? iaae/ee oa oi?iiy, iaiao?aei? aeey oiai, uia
i?aoethaaoe c aiaoi?nueeei aeooiaei i?eano?ii, iniaeeai aeeoy/ei.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cana?ae/eei, ui oea coiiaeaii aaaaoueia ia’?eoeaieie
i?e/eiaie, na?aae yeeo iniiaieie ?: iaaeineiiae?noue iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a; iaa?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae ?iaioe
ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o i?e neeaaeaii? eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a
oa i?ia?ai /aiie aeaaaee a eiiieaen iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue aeey ?iaioe c
ae?oueie/; a?aenooi?noue i?aeoeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia iaaoooy oi?iue ?
iaae/ie; iaaeinoaoiy ni?yiiaai?noue aoco ia i?aeaioiaeo oaeeo oao?aoe?a.

Ioaea, ae??oeoe caaaeaiiy c oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe
c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii iaiiaeeeai aac aea/aiiy i?ioan?eiiai
ni?yioaaiiy iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a ua ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? iaa/aiiy.

C oe??th iaoith aeena?oaioii aoei aea/aii ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?oieo?niee?a. ?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy iieacaee, ui
a?eueo?noue ia?oieo?niee?a /aeecueei 86 a?aenioe?a/ aaaaeaee iniiaieie
iioeaaie anooio aei aoco ethaia aei ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa, aaeineiiaeaiiy
aeeiiaanueeeo iaae/ie, iiaeeea?noue caeiaoeny iaaeaaia?/iith
ae?yeuei?noth. Eeoa iacia/ia /anoeia ?aniiiaeaio?a iia’yco? iaeaooith
i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue c aeeoy/ei i?eano?ii.

Iaaeie?ee a i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeooiaei i?eano?ii
coiiaeai? iaaeinoaoi?i ?ice?eooyi o iaa/aeueieo i?ia?aiao i?iaeai,
iia’ycaieo ?c niaoeeo?eith naia aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o. Oiio
ia??aeei nooaeaioe — iaeaooi? ea??aieee aeooiaeo i?eano??a —
aaaaeathoue, ui ciaiiy caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe??
aiaoi?nueeiai eieaeoeao ? iaiaia’yceiaeie, iaoii?noue aeineoue eeoa
iiaioaaoe iaoiaeeeo ?iaioe c eieaeoeaii.

Aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ea??aieea
aeeoy/iai i?eano?o, a oaeiae iaiao?aeieo aeey ia? ciaiue oa oi?iue aea?
ciiao ae??ooaaoe aeaye? iaaeaaia?/i? caaaeaiiy: ie?aneeoe aeiiae uiaei
oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii, ni?yioaaoe i?ioean iaa/aiiy aeania ia i?aeaioiaeo
niaoe?ae?no?a aei oaei? i???ioaoe??.

Ia iaoa ia?aeiiaiiy, iniiaiith oi?iith aaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a ioce/ieo niaoe?ae?caoe?e aoc?a eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa iiaea aooe i?ia?aia, a ye?e ae ii?aeioaaeeny
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?, i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i?, ioce/ii-oai?aoe/i? oa
?io? ciaiiy, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeai? aeiiae aei i?aeoeee, a i?ioean? yei?
?ioaineo?eo?oueny iaaoooy eiiieaeno iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue ? oi?iue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa c
oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei ea??aieoeoaa aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii” ?ice?eaa?oueny ci?no ? o?ae oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo. Ia
i?aenoaa? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, aeaieo eiinoaooth/iai
aenia?eiaioo ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo, ni?yiiaaio ia oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino?
nooaeaio?a aei iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a aeeoy/iio aeooiaiio
i?eano??.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aoei noai?aii
aenia?eiaioaeueio ? eiio?ieueio a?oie nooaeaio?a /iaeiaeiaeo ca a?eii,
ina?oith oa ??aiai i???ioaoe?? ia i?ioan?th ea??aieea aeeoy/iai
i?eano?iaiai eieaeoeao/. Aei aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie aoei caeo/aii 19
nooaeaio?a i?eano?iai? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ??aiainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
?inoeoooo eoeueoo?e iaai?o 1992 ?ieo. O oe?e a?oi? i?ioyaii i’yoe ?ie?a
iaa/aiiy ai?iaiaoaaeany i?ia?aia aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a —
iaeaooi?o ea??aiee?a aeeoy/eo aeooiaeo i?eano??a. Eiio?ieueio a?oio
noaiiaeee 18 nooaeaio?a oe??? eaoaae?e iiia?aaeiueiai iaai?o 1991 ?ieo.
A i?e i?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a cae?enithaaeany ca o?aaeeoe?eiith
i?ia?aiith, aac a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o. I?ia?aia i?aeoeee
ia?aaeaa/aea iaaoooy iaae/ie ?iaioe c aeooiaei i?eano?ii aac /?oei?
i???ioaoe?? ia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia aea/aiiy a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae
o/aniee?a oa ?oi?o ?ioa?an?a.

Iao aenia?eiaio aoei iiae?eaii ia aoaie c o?aooaaiiyi i?eioeei?a ?
niaoeeo?ee i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii ca?aeii ?c caaaeaiiyi aenia?eiaioo: ia?oee aoai — ? eo?n;
ae?oaee — II — III eo?ne; o?ao?e aoai — ?V — V eo?ne.

Iaoa ia?oiai aoaio aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe iieyaaea a iciaeiieaii?
nooaeaio?a ?c niaoeeo?eith ?iaioe ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai
i?eano?o. Aeey oeueiai neoaoaaa oeeee niaoe?aeueieo aeenoeeie?i:
“Aea/aiiy aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a”, “Aee?eaoaaiiy”, “Niaoe?aeueiee
?ino?oiaio”, iniiaith iaa/aiiy aoea iciaeii/a i?aeoeea.

Eo?n “Aea/aiiy aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a” ie aoaeoaaee oaeei /eiii, uia
iciaeiieoe nooaeaio?a c ye?niei neeaaeii ?ino?oiaio?a, ?oi?ie oaoi?/ieie
iiaeeeainoyie, ae?aiaciiii oiui. Iniaeeao oaaao i?e aea/aii? caaaeaii?
aeenoeeie?ie aoei cina?aaeaeaii ia i?eioeeiao ?iciiae?eo o/aniee?a ii
?ino?oiaioao c o?aooaaiiyi ?oi?o a?eiaeo ? o?c?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae.
Aea/aiiy oeueiai eo?no caaaaoeei nooaeaio?a ciaiiyie i?i ?ieue eiaeiiai
?ino?oiaioo a aeeoy/iio i?eano??, ?icoe?eei ?oi? ciaiiy i?i ii/aoeiaee
aoai iaa/aiiy a?e.

I?ae /an aenia?eiaioo eo?n “Aee?eaoaaiiy” ni?yiiaoaaany ia ?icaeoie
oaoi?ee aee?eaoaaiiy, ?ice?eooy ?? i?e?iaee oa aecia/aiiy i?noey o
caaaeueiiio i?ioean? ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei i?eano?ii.

O aeenoeeie?i? “Niaoe?aeueiee ?ino?oiaio” aaeeea cia/aiiy iaaeaaaeinue
oaeineiiaeaiith aeeiiaanueeeo iaae/ie. Aea/ath/e ioce/i? oai?e,
nooaeaioe aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie aiaeii/an iciaeiiethaaeeny ?c
aaaeeeaeie i?iaeaiaie iinoaiiaee aeeoaiiy, aiaooth?o oiui, oiaoi c
ia?oiiniiaith ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy a?e ia aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaioao.

E??i aea/aiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeenoeeie?i, nooaeaioe aenia?eiaioaeueii?
a?oie oaeineiiaethaaee naith ineoieia?/io i?aeaioiaeo ca aeiiiiiaith
aeiiiaiaieo oai aei aeenoeeie?ie “Ineoieia?y”, ye? aoee ni?yiiaai? ia
?ice?eooy ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae aeeoy/i? oai?/ino?.

Aeey aeeaoiai canai?iiy i?i/eoaieo oai aeena?oaioii ni?eueii c
aeeeaaea/aie eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? ??aiainueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?inoeoooo eoeueoo?e aoei ?ic?iaeaii oaiaoeeo ?aoa?ao?a c
ineoieia?? ioce/ii? oai?/ino?.

I?iaeiaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe a?aeaoaaeiny a oiiaao iciaeii/i?
i?aeoeee. ?? aoei ni?yiiaaii ia iciaeiieaiiy nooaeaio?a c? niaoeeo?eith
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeoy/iai i?eano?iaiai eieaeoeao, yea iieyaaea a oi?ii?
ea??aieea ciaoiaeeoe iioeiaeuei? oi?ie ? iaoiaee caoe?eaaeaiiy o/aniee?a
o eieaeoeaiiio ioceeoaaii?, a?aoiaoth/e ?oi? a?eia? ?ioa?ane oa
cae?aiino?. Nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie ie iciaeiieee c aoaiii
i?aai?caoe?? eieaeoeao /caeo/aiiy ae?oae aei eieaeoeaiiai ioceeoaaiiy,
oi?ioaaiiy a ieo no?eeiai ?ioa?ano aei ioce/ii-oai?/i? ae?yeueiino?/ oa
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai
i?eano?o /i?iaaaeaiiy ?aiaoeoe?e oa eiioea?oieo aenooi?a, iaoiaee
iaa/aiiy o/aniee?a a?e ia aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaioao, i?eioeeie neeaaeaiiy
?aia?ooa?o/, ui ? neeaaeiaith no?oeoo?e ae?yeueiino? ea??aieea oaeiai
eieaeoeao.

Ae?oaee aoai aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe ioiiethaaa aeaa ?iee
aoc?anueeiai iaa/aiiy /?? ? ??? eo?ne/, i?ioyaii yeeo caeeaaeaeeny
oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? iniiae ciaiue ? oi?iue, iieeeeaieo ni?eyoe
aeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eieo yeinoae. Ia oeueiio aoai? aoei
iinoaaeaii iaoo noi?ioaaoe iaaeaaia?/i? ciaiiy ? oi?iiy a ianyc? eo?n?a
“Iaaeaaia?ea”, “Iaoiaeeea ?iaioe c aeooiaei i?eano?ii” oa “Iaoiaeeea
iaa/aiiy a?e ia aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaioao”.

I?iaeaia aeenoeeie?ie “Iaaeaaia?ea” a?aoiaoaaea niaoeeo?eo ?iaioe c
aeeoy/ei eieaeoeaii. Aiia ni?yiiaoaaeany ia ?ica’ycaiiy aaaeeeaeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e, iiooe aoaeoeaieo oi?i aieeao ia iioeaaoe?th
ae?e o/aniee?a. O oe?e aeenoeeie?i? cia/ia /anoeia oai aena?oethaaea
oi?ie caoe?eaaeaiiy o/aniee?a oai?/ith ae?yeuei?noth. Ioaea, iacaaiee
eo?n ie i?aaioee iaeneiaeueii iaaeeceoe aei aena?oeaiiy ?aaeueieo
i?aeoe/ieo iaaeaaia?/ieo ae?e ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o.

Aeey ?ice?eooy iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ?ino?oiaioaeueiiai aeeiiaanoaa a
aeeoy/iio i?eano?? eo?n “Iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy a?e ia aeooiaeo
?ino?oiaioao” ie aoaeoaaee oae, uia ioiieoe an? aoaie iaa/aiiy
o/aniee?a. I?iiiioaaeeny ??ciiiai?oi? iaoiaee aaeineiiaeaiiy
aeeiiaanueei? iaenoa?iino? ia aeooiaeo ?ino?oiaioao. O aeenoeeie?i?
ie?ai? oaie ?ice?eaaee niaoeeo?eo i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a?e o/aniee?a o
aeeoy/iio i?eano??, cie?aia, /a?ac caeo/aiiy a?eueo aeina?ae/aieo
i?eano?aio?a aeey iaa/aiiy ii/aoe?aoe?a. Aieiaia oaaaa cina?aaeaeoaaeany
ia iinoaiia/iio aoai? iaa/aiiy /iinoaiiaea aeeoaiiy, aoaiiai aia?aoo,
?oe, iaeueoe?a/ o ii/aoeiaee ia??iae iaa/aiiy.

Caeiaoo? ciaiiy ?c iaaeaaia?ee oa iaoiaee/ieo aeenoeeie?i neioacoaaeeny
i?ae /an iaoiaee/ii? i?aeoeee, yea ia?aaeaa/aea cae??ieaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue, ui ? ?? aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi.

O oiae? aenia?eiaioo iniaeeai aaeeeiai cia/aiiy ie iaaeaaaee iaaoooth
nooaeaioaie aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie iaae/ie iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoy/ei i?eano?ii. C oe??th iaoith nooaeaioe ?acii ?c ea??aieeii
i?aeoeee aeieeaaeii iai??eiaoaaee o?ae eiaeii? ?aiaoeoe??. E??i oiai,
nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie a i?ioean? i?aeoeee ? i?ioyaii
iaa/aiiy aoei caeo/aii aei iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe c i?iaeai
aeeoy/iai i?eano?iaiai aeeiiaanoaa. Aiia iieyaaea o cae?aii? oa aiae?c?
iaoa??ae?a i?i aeeoy/? aeooia? i?eano?e /ye?niee neeaae i?eano?o,
??aaiue aioiaiino? ea??aieea, iaoiaee i?aai?caoe?? ?aiaoeoe?e,
iaa/aeueiee ? eiioea?oiee ?aia?ooa? oiui/. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
?icaeyaeaeeny ia nooaeaionueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo.

Aenia?eiaio o?eaaa ? ia ??? eo?n?. No?eaeiaaith aeenoeeie?iith a
caaacia/aii? aioiaiino? ea?oaaoe oai?/ei i?ioeanii o aeeoy/iio i?eano??
aoea “Iaoiaeeea ?iaioe c aeooiaei i?eano?ii”. I?ae /an ?icaeyaeo
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a aeenoeeie?i? aena?oethaaany oaeee
aaaeeeaee aniaeo i?aai?caoe?eii? ?iaioe ye noai?aiiy eieaeoeao,
iaeaaeiaiiy i?ei?uaiiy, iaoiaee caoe?eaaeaiiy o/aniee?a.

Cacia/eii, ui a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi? c 30-oe eaeoe?eieo aiaeei
a?eueo?noue aoei a?aeaaaeaii ia aena?oeaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae
?iaioe ea??aieea aeeoy/iai i?eano?o, oiaoi niaoeeo?oe? i?aai?caoe??
eieaeoeao, i?iaaaeaiith ?aiaoeoe?e, eiioea?oieo aenooi?a, neeaaeaiith
?aia?ooa?o, i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano oa ?i. Aei ?a/?,
iiia?aaei? i?ia?aie oaeo e?euee?noue aiaeei ia caaaeai? oaie ia
ia?aaeaa/aee.

I?iaeiaaeaiiy iaaoooy i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa
aeeoy/ei i?eano?ii iieyaaei o oi?ioaaii? oi?iue ? iaae/ie, iia’ycaieo c
oi?aae?inueeith oa oai?/ith ae?yeuei?noth ea??aieea. I?ae /an i?aeoeee
nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie ci???ioiaoaaee ia cai?iiiiiaai?
iaoiaee i?iaaaeaiiy ?aiaoeoe?e ? i?aai?caoe?th iaa/aiiy o/aniee?a,
nenoaio ?ic?a?oaaiiy i?eano?o oa ?ico/oaaiiy ?aia?ooa?o. I?aenoieii
noaea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y, a iniiao yei? aoei iieeaaeaii
iaoa??aee i?aeoeee.

Aei i?ia?aie o?aoueiai aoaio aenia?eiaioo aoiaeeei iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy
ioce/ii-oai?aoe/ieo aeenoeeie?i oa i?aai?caoe?y naiino?eii? ?iaioe
nooaeaio?a o ioce/ieo nooae?yo i?ae /an iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee, a oaeiae
o aeeoy/eo i?eano?iaeo eieaeoeaao o oiae? i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueei?
i?aeoeee. Oaea i?aai?caoe?y nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie aeaea ?i
ciiao naiino?eii canoiniaoaaoe iaaoo? ciaiiy oa oi?iiy aeey ae??oaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue, ui noiyoue ia?aae aeeoy/ei i?eano?ii.
Ioce/ii-oai?aoe/ia i?aeaioiaea ia oeueiio aoai? aenia?eiaioo iaea
oa?aeoa? oaeineiiaeaiiy aeeiiaanueei? iaenoa?iino? oa iaaoooy iaae/ie
naiino?eiiai ea??aieoeoaa oai?/ith ae?yeuei?noth oaeei eieaeoeaii ca
aeoeaii? i?aeo?eiee oa ni?yioaaiiy aeeeaaea/?a.

Cia/io oaaao ia oeueiio aoai? aenia?eiaioo aoei i?eae?eaii
aaeineiiaeaiith ainaiaeaai? i?aeaioiaee, aea/aiith i?eano?iaeo ia?oeoo?,
?ino?oiaiooaaiith, ui noaiiaeoue iniiao ioce/ii-oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue
iaeaooiueiai ea??aieea aiaoi?nueeiai i?eano?o.

O i?ioean? caiyoue nooaeaioe aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie i?ioyaii onueiai
ia??iaeo iaa/aiiy ?iaeee aeani? ia?aeeaaee ioce/ieo oai??a aeey
aeooiaiai i?eano?o, i?e/iio a?aoiaoaaany a?e oa oaoi?/i? iiaeeeaino?
o/aniee?a. Caaa?ooaaeiny aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?ie aeeiiaiiyi oeueiai oai?o
c aeeoy/ei i?eano?ii.

I?aeoe/ia caaacia/aiiy “aioiaiino?” nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie
o?eaaei i?ae /an i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueei? i?aeoeee. sseui ia
iiia?aaei?o eo?nao iiae?aia ae?yeuei?noue /anoi ?aaeaiaiooaaeany, oi ia
oeueiio aoai? aenia?eiaioo aiia iinooieeany i?noeai oai?/?e aeoeaiino?,
naiino?eiiio aeai?ia? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, ooaa?aeaeaiith
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? i?ae eiio?ieai ea??aieea oa i?e ni?eueiiio
ei?eaoaaii? ae?e.

Nooaeaioe aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie naiino?eii i?iaiaeeee ?aiaoeoe?? oa
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? caiyooy, i?aai?ciaoaaee iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean,
aiooaaee eieaeoea aei eiioea?oieo aenooi?a. Oaea i?aai?caoe?y i?aeoeee
aeaea ciiao nooaeaioai a?oioiaii aecia/eoe an? noi?iie ae?yeueiino?
i?eano?o ? noaea iniiaith i?aeoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy ?oiuei? aioiaiino?
aei ea?oaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei i?ioeanii o iueiio.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeii? ?iaioe iai?ee?ioe? aenia?eiaioo ie aecia/aee ca
aeiiiiiaith eiio?ieueiiai iieooaaiiy. Aiii cana?ae/eei, ui i?ioiaeaeaiiy
i?aeoeee a ii?aeiaii? c aeine?aeiith ?iaioith iiceoeaii iicia/eeiny ia
oi?ioaaii? a nooaeaio?a no?eei? ni?yiiaaiino? ia iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue.

I?eiaa?aeii cacia/eii, ui i?ney caaa?oaiiy eiaeiiai aoaio aenia?eiaioo a
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ? eiio?ieuei?e a?oiao iaie aoei cae?eniaii
eiio?ieuei? aei??thaaiiy ??aiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a a?aeiia?aeii aei
?aeeieo aeiia ? e?eoa???a ioe?iie. Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie aioiaiino?
nooaeaio?a i?ney caaa?oaiiy ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai aoai?a aenia?eiaioo aoee
oae?: iayai?noue ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue; i???ioaoe?y ia
i?ioan?th ea??aieea aeeoy/iai i?eano?o; ona?aeiieaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo
iniaeeainoae oaei? ae?yeueiino?.

I?ney cae?i/aiiy aenia?eiaioo ie aecia/eee aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii?
iaoiaeeee i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei
i?eano?ii. Aeyaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo cae?enithaaeiny
aenia?oiith a?oiith aiane?aeie ?aoaeueiiai aiae?co aeei?enoaiiy
nooaeaioaie aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie caeiaooeo ciaiue o ia??iae
i?aeoeee, aea ia?aaeaa/aeiny aeeiiaiiy iniiaieo ooieoe?e ea??aieea
aeeoy/iai i?eano?o.

??aaiue aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? c aeeoy/ei
i?eano?ii a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ? eiio?ieuei?e a?oiao ie aecia/aee ca
?aeoeiaiaei iaoiaeii. Caeaaeii a?ae ??aiy ciaiue nooaeaio?a aoei
?iciiae?eaii ii a?oiao — aenieee, na?aaei?e, iecueeee ??aaiue.
Ii??aiyiiy na?aaei?o aenia?oieo aaee/ei a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ?
eiio?ieuei?e a?oiao cae?enithaaeiny ca e?eoa???i Nouethaeaioa.

Oaaeeoey

Na?aaei? aaee/eie aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a

aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii

Aeei?enoaaoe niaoe?aeueio oi?ioeo, ie ae?aooaaee aii??e/ia cia/aiiy
t=4,28. Aiii a?eueoa ca oaaee/ia cia/aiiy oeueiai e?eoa??th aeey aeaii?
aea??ee (4,28>3,707). Oiio c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeieeaa? noaoenoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaiee aeniiaie: ??aaiue iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue o nooaeaio?a
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie aeuee, i?ae o eiio?ieueii?.

?acoeueoaoe cae?eniaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaee ciiao noi?ioethaaoe oae?
aeniiaee:

1. Aiae?c iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a o aaeoc? aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa, noaa
oai?aoe/iei i?aea?oioyi aeey noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino?
nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeiaaaeaii, ui aioiai?noue nooaeaio?a aei
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii
oi?io?oueny ia iniia? aea/aiiy niaoeeo?ee ?iaioe ea??aieea oaeiai
eieaeoeao. Aiia iieyaa? a oiio, ui ii??aiyii c i?ioan?eiei aeeoy/ee
i?eano? noai?th?oueny ia caoe?eaaeaiino? o/aniee?a c o?aooaaiiyi i?e
oeueiio ?oi?o ineoieia?/ieo, a?eiaeo ? o?c?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae. O
ca’yceo c oeei ea??aiee ?acii c aeeiiaiiyi ooieoe??
ioceeaioa-aee?eaaioa, oaeiae aenooia? o ?ie? iaaeaaiaa, aeoiaaoaey,
ineoieiaa, ?aaeena?a oa i?aai?caoi?a eieaeoeao.

3. E?eoa??yie noi?iiaaii? aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei
aeooiaei i?eano?ii ? iayai?noue i???ioaoe?? ia ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue, a?eueia iia?oaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieie oa niaoe?aeueieie
ciaiiyie a i?ioean? ?aiaoeoe?eieo caiyoue, ona?aeiieaiiy niaoeeo?ee
?iaioe ea??aieea, oi?iiy ae??ooaaoe i?aai?caoe?ei? ? oai?/? caaaeaiiy.

4. Aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei
aeooiaei i?eano?ii caeaaeeoue a?ae oaeeo iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia:

— caaacia/aiiy nooaeaio?a ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieie, iaoiaee/ieie oa
niaoe?aeueieie /ioce/ieie/ ciaiiyie i?i niaoeeo?eo ?iaioe ea??aieea
aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai i?eano?o;

— caaacia/aiiy aeeaeaeoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii? iine?aeiaiino? iaa/aiiy oa
oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoy/ei oai?/ei
eieaeoeaii;

— caeo/aiiy nooaeaio?a aei iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe c i?iaeai
aeeoy/iai i?eano?iaiai aeeiiaanoaa;

— caeo/aiiy nooaeaio?a aei i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? /ii/eiath/e c ia?oiai
eo?no/.

5. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea, a iniiao yei?
iieeaaeaii aeeaeaeoe/ii iaa?oioiaaio nenoaio i?aei?aaeiaoieo ca’yce?a oa
iine?aeiai?noue o i?ia?ai? i?aeoeee, oaeineiiaeth? iaa/aeueiee i?ioean,
ni?ey? ?icaeoeia? ?ioa?ano nooaeaio?a aei iiaioaaiiy ciaiiyie, oi?iiyie
? iaae/eaie iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c
aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii coiiaeth?oueny aa?iii?eiith aca?iiae??th oa
aca?iiaeiiiaiai?noth niaoe?aeueii? /ioce/ii?/, iaoiaee/ii? oa
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a, a oaeiae
ai?iaaaeaeai?noth aacia?a?aii? i?ia?aie i?aeoeee.

7. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeiaaaeaii
aoaeoeai?noue oa ia?aaaao cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino?
nooaeaio?a aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii iaae o?aaeeoe?eiith
i?aeaioiaeith nooaeaio?a, yea ia ia?aaeaa/aea aena?oeaiiy iniaeeainoae
iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa noai?aiiy ia aacao i?aeoeee
iaeaaeieo oiia aeey iaaoooy i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie.

I?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aoc?a eoeueoo?e aei ?iaioe c
aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii ia ae/a?io?oueny oeei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, a
ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeaeueoa ?? ?ic?iaeaiiy. A?oioiaii? ?ic?iaee iio?aaothoue
ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? ?c noai?aiiyi i?ia?ai i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei
iaeaooiuei? oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? c aeeoy/ei eieaeoeaii i?e
oeieao-?ioa?iaoao, niaoe?aeueieo caeeaaeao. O ca’yceo c oeei iaiao?aeii
aea/aoe no?oeoo?o oa niaoeeo?eo ?iaioe ea??aieea oaeiai eieaeoeao.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aeena?oaioa:

1. Naa?ethe ss.A. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae iaa/aiiy a?e a aeeoy/iio
aeooiaiio i?eano?? // Iiaa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea: Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee
aeo?iae. — ??aia: ??IEIE, 1998. — N. 53 — 56.

2. Iniaeeaino? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ea??aieea oai?/iai eieaeoeao //
Iiaa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea: Iaoe. iaoiae. aeo?iae. — ??aia: ??IEI, 1998. —
N.54-57.

3. Iaianthe Ae.I., Naa?ethe ss.A. Aeoiaaiiy aoiai?noe/ieo i???ioaoe?e o
i?ioean? aiaoi?nueei? oai?/ino? // Iiaa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea: Iaoe.
iaoiae. aeo?iae. — ??aia: ??IEIE, 1999. — N. 109-111.

4. Naa?ethe ss.A. Iai?yiee iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? c aeeoy/eie
i?eano?aie // Iiaa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea: Iaoe. iaoiae. aeo?iae. — ??aia:
??IEIE, 1999. — N. 92-95.

5. Eai/aiei A.I., Naa?ethe ss.A. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae
oi?aae?iiy aeeoy/eie aeooiaeie i?eano?aie // Neiai iieiaeei
aeine?aeieeai: Iaoeiaee ca??iee. — ??aia: ?Ae?E, 1998. — N. 139 — 143.

6. Naa?ethe ss.A. Noai oa ia?niaeoeae i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o ea??aiee?a
aeeoy/eo aeooiaeo i?eano??a // Neiai iieiaeei aeine?aeieeai: Iaoeiaee
ca??iee. — ??aia: ?Ae?E, 1998. — N. 143 — 149.

7. Naa?ethe ss.A. Iaoiaeeea ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii //
Iaoiae.?aeiiaiaeaoe??. — ??aia, 1996. — 18 n.

8. Naa?ethe ss.A. AEai? aeooiai? ioceee ye can?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa
anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy // Iaoa??aee i?aeaoc?anueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. — ??aia: ?Ae?E, 1996, 1996. — N. 250 — 251.

9. Naa?ethe ss.A. No/aniee noai oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aeeoy/eo
aeooiaeo i?eano??a // Iaoa??aee anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe??. — ??aia:
??IEIE, 1996. — N. 162 — 163.

10. Naa?ethe ss.A. I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aeooiaeo i?eano??a
Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aeooiai? ioceee o No?aei?e ?a?ii?”
??aia, 1998. — N. 39 — 41.

11. Naa?ethe ss.A. Aeooiaiio i?eano?o — aooe // Ia?iaeia oai?/?noue. —
??aia, 1998. ?8. — N. 10.

Naa?ethe ss.A. Oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aoc?a eoeueoo?e aei
?iaioe c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.02 — oai??y oa iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy ioceee
? ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. — Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e
? ienoaoeoa. — Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii
iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? nooaeaio?a aoc?a eoeueoo?e aei
ioce/ii-oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? c aeeoy/ei aeooiaei i?eano?ii. ?ice?eoi
nooi?noue oa iniaeeaino? i?ioan?? ea??aieea aeeoy/iai aeooiaiai
i?eano?o, aecia/aii iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae ? aeyaeaii iai?yiee
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a. Aecia/aii no?oeoo?o
“aioiaiino?”. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a nenoai? ioce/ii-aeeiiaanueei?
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? aei ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei
aeooiaei i?eano?ii ? iaaeaaia?/ii ea?iaaiei i?ioeanii ia a?aei?io a?ae
o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaeiie/aiiy ciaiue i?i caeiiii??iino? eieaeoeaiiai
aeeiiaanoaa.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui ca a?aeiia?aeieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, i?e ni?yioaaii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo oa niaoe?aeueieo /ioce/ieo/
aeenoeeie?i ia aena?oeaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae ?iaioe c aeeoy/ei
eieaeoeaii iiaeia aoaeoeaii aiooaaoe oao?aoe?a oaei? eaae?o?eaoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aioiai?noue, aeeoy/ee aeooiaee i?eano?,
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue, iaoiaeeea, oi?ioaaiiy.

Naa?ethe ss.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea aioiaiinoe nooaeaioia aocia eoeueoo?u e
?aaioa n aeaoneei aeooiaui i?eano?ii. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.02 — oai?ey e iaoiaeeea iao/aiey iocuea e
iocueaeueiiai ainieoaiey. — Eeaaneee iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao
eoeueoo?u e eneonnoa. — Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia e i?iaa?aia a yenia?eiaioa
iaoiaeeea oi?ie?iaaiey aioiaiinoe nooaeaioia aocia eoeueoo?u e
iocueaeueii-oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe n aeaoneei aeooiaui i?eano?ii.
?ane?uou nouiinoue e iniaaiiinoe i?ioannee ?oeiaiaeeoaey aeaoneiai
aeooiaiai i?eano?a, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiu iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey e iooe
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia. Ii?aaeaeaia
no?oeoo?a “aioiaiinoe”. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a nenoaia
iocueaeueii-eniieieoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia oi?ie?iaaiea
aioiaiinoe e ?aaioa n aeaoneei aeooiaui i?eano?ii — iaaeaaiae/anee
oi?aaeyaiue i?ioeann a ioee/ee io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iaeiieaiey ciaiee ia
iaueo caeiiiia?iinoyo eieeaeoeaiiai eniieieoaeuenoaa.

Aeieacaii, /oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oneiaeyo, i?e
iai?aaeaiiinoe ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo, iaoiaee/aneeo e niaoeeaeueiuo
aeenoeeieei ia inaauaiea niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ?aaiou n aeaoneei
eieeaeoeaii iiaeii yooaeoeaii aioiaeoue niaoeeaeenoia oaeie
eaaeeoeeaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aioiaiinoue, aeaoneee aeooiaie i?eano?,
iocueaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, iaoiaeeea, oi?ie?iaaiea.

Sverliuk Ya. V. Forming of Readiness of students of High Edicational
Institutions of Culture to work with Children’s Brass Band.- Manuscript.

Thesis for Candidate’s Degree by speciality 13.00.02. –Theory and
methods of teaching music and musical education.-Kyiv National
University of Culture and Arts, — Kyiv, 1998.

In this thesis methods of forming of readiness of students of higher
educational institutions of culture to hold musical – creative
activities with children’s brass band are theoretically grounded and
experimentally approved. The essence and peculiarities of this
profession are revealed, the structure of “readiness” is defined. It is
proved that under certain pedagogical conditions, when
psychologic-pedagogical, methodical and special branches of science are
directed to exposition of specific peculiarities of work with children’s
group, specialists of such qualification can be effectively trained. The
structure of “readiness” is determined. It is established that in
musical-perfoming preparing of student bringing up readiness for work
with children’s wind orchestra is pedagogically controlled process in
contrast to spontaneous storing knowledge of general regularity of
collective performing.

It is proved that in sertain pedagogical condition while psychological,
pedagogical, methodical and special subjects are directed to studying
peculiarities of work with children’s collective it is possible to
prepare specialists of the qualification effectively. The matter and
peculiarities of such key concepts as “readiness” , “readiness” for work
with children’s wind orchestra. In the thesis research “readiness”
concept is examining trough specificity of work with children’s wind
orchestra.

Theoretical prerequisites of the phenomenon are picked out, students
knowledge and shills, which made up a structure of readiness to such
musical-pedagogical activity are determined. It consists of the most
useful basis knowledge & skills: organizational-methodical, special
musical, psychological-pedagogical, diagnostic-prognostic. Problems of
formig of shills to conduct organizational & creative work with
children’s wind orchestra are exposed. The research showed that forming
of skills to conduct classes with children’s orchestra during teaching
process without directing forward studying specific peculiarities is
carrying out with unforeseen results or is not carrying out at all. An
extent of forming of orientation to musical-pedagogical activity of
children’s wind orchestra leader is analyzing. It is established that
in the system of professional students’ training in culture high schools
the improvement of knowledge & forming of skills to conduct teaching &
educational process in children’s orchestra must become purposeful &
pedagogicaly controlled one in contrast to spontaneous storing knowledge
which is traditionally established in the system of musical education of
students. Intensity of forming skills to work with children’s wind
orchestra is providing under such conditions:

-direction of special musical, methodical, psychological & pedagogical
subjects to studying peculiarities of professional pedagogical activity
of children”s wind orchestra leader;

-joining students to practical activity (beginning with the first
year) & forming of necessary conditions on practice base;

-joining students to scientific research work with children’s
orchestra performing problems;

-availability of didactically grounded sequence of education & forming
skills of pedagogical leading of creative collective.

Methods of forming students’ readiness is worked out & tested, it is
directed forward studying of peculiarities of work of children’s wind
orchestra leader. The methodics must be based on educational-creative
process in the collective taking into account voluntariness & interest
of members to musical art.

The matter of forming students’ knowledge & skills to work with
children’s wind orchestra is in correlation of connections between
musical-performing & methodical pedagogical subjects. The stages of
transition from acquaintance with such leader’s activity to practical
application of theoretical knowledge. The research showed that if
readiness to musical pedagogical activity with children’s wind orchestra
can not be formed spontaneously it must be an object of purposeful
studying & forming. An efficiency of this process is depended on
providing of didactically purposeful knowledge & skills concerning
peculiarities of work with children’s creative group, forming skills to
work on pedagogically unforeseen situation in creative activity.

Key words: readiness, children’s wind orchestra, musical pedagogical
activity, methods, forming.

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