-25-

iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe oe?a?ie

?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee

E?niaae/ Ea?ena Ieaen??aia

OAeE 581.134.14.15:633.41

o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oa ooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue caianieo
a?ee?a ao?ye?a

03.00.12 – o?c?ieia?y ?ineei

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? o?c?ieia?? ? a?io?i?? ?inoeoooo oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a OAAI oa ?inoeooo? o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

EINOEOEI Noaiai Noaiaiiae/

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a,
caa.eaoaae?ith

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

EINAE?ANUeEA ??eia Aanee?aia

?inoeooo aioai?ee ?i.I.A.Oieiaeiiai

IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AeIEO???A Ieaenaiae? Iao?iae/

?inoeooo ee?oeiii? a?ieia?? ? aaiaoe/ii? ?iaeaia??? IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa.eaai?aoi???th.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa :Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 14 “ aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.212.01. a ?inoeooo? o?c?ieia??
?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith : 252022, Ee?a-22,
aoe.Aaneeuee?anueea, 31/17.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?c?ieia??
?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 8 “ aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
O?ooaiia A.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie I?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a,
ye aaaeeeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?, ia?aaeaa/a?
noai?aiiy iiaeo ni?o?a ? a?a?eae?a c aenieei iaooi-oioineioacii,
iioeiaeueiei ?iciiae?eii anei?eyo?a, ?ioaineaiei aiaeiiai?iii,
aoaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ia iniia? aaiaoe/ii
??ciiiai?oiiai aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo (Aieaeiaa, 1986; Bosemark 1979;
Eo?naiia 1976). Aoaeoeai?noue aeiai?o oe?iieo aeey naeaeoe?? oi?i
caeaaeeoue a?ae iayaiino? oi/ieo iaoiae?a ?o ioe?iee, na?aae yeeo
iniaeeaa i?noea caeia? iaoiae a?eeiaeo ia?ea??a, ui aaco?oueny ia
a?ieia?/i?e niaoeeo?/iino? a?ee?a, yea aeyaey?oueny aeaeo?ioi?acii oa
?iioiio?i?/ii (Eiia?ea, 1989). I?e oeueiio iaea?eueo aeineiiaeeie
ia?ea?aie aaaaeathoueny caiani? a?eee, yeei aeanoeaa aaoa?iaaii?noue,
i?ieea?noue a iioiaaiac?, noaa?euei?noue neeaaeo a ??cieo oiiaao
ae?iuoaaiiy ? iie?ii?o?ci.

Iaoiaee a?eeiaeo ia?ea??a aeaoaeueii ?ic?iaeai? ia ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?ao
(Eiia?aa, 1983; Niceiia, 1985; Iiia?aey, 1986; Eoe, 1987). Aea/aiiy
caianieo a?ee?a oa ?ic?iaea oeeo iaoiae?a aeey ia?ao?aniicaieethaaeueieo
eoeueoo?, ye aeeoi, eoeo?oaeca, niiyoiee, aaaiaiee ii/aeinue a?aeiinii
iaaeaaii ? iio?aao? ?noioieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e.

Aeioe?euei?noue ?ic?iaee oaeeo iaoiae?a aeey oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a
i/aaeaeia. I?e oeueiio a?eeia? ia?ea?e iiaeooue aooe caeo/ai? ia o?eueee
aei ?ice?eooy an??? ?iaeiai? ? aeaeiai? ??ciiiai?oiino? ao?ye?a, ?o
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa ianii?oecaoe??, aea e aei aeyaeaiiy iiaeo aeaea?ae
caaaa/aiiy oa icaei?iaeaiiy ni?oiaiai aaiioiiaeo.

A?eee ian?iiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a i?aeoe/ii ia aea/aeenue. A e?oa?aoo??
a?aeiia iaeia ?iaioa I.Aeai?aeueniia (1949), a ye?e i?aaenoaaeai?
o?ea/ano? aeai? i?i aeiaoe?i B.vulgaris. Aeaui a?eueoa oaaae
i?eae?eyeinue a?eeai aaaaoaoeaieo i?aai?a oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a. I?e oeueiio
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ?o e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, oiia ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei, ni?oiaeo ? aeaeiaeo
a?aei?iiinoae, yeino? ian?iiy oiui (Aocaiia, Ai?enthe ? ae?., 1981;
Ai?enthe, Naiieeiaa, 1984). A?aenooi?noue ?ioa?ano aeine?aeiee?a aei
a?ee?a ian?iiy ao?ye?a, iiaeeeai, iia’ycaia c a?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie
oe??? eoeueoo?e, oiaoi aoaeaaiaeiei oeiii iai?io, iaaaeeeei ?ici??ii
ian?ieie oa iacia/iei ai?noii a?eea a i?e.

Aeiaoe?ie, ye a?aeiii, ? caianieie a?eeaie aeaiaeieueieo ?ineei, aea o
??cieo aeae?a aiie ??ci?. Oae, o aiaiaeo – oea 11S oa 7S aeiaoe?ie;
niiyoieea, aa?aoca – 11S aeiaoe?i; ?aina, a?ao?na – 12S aeiaoe?i, a?a/ee
– 13S aeiaoe?i (Niaieaa, 1975; Aaa?eethe, 1975; Aaeica?nueeee, 1975;
?yae/eeia, 1978). Aeey oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ia a?aeiii ye? a?eee
aeeiiothoue caianio ooieoe?th ? ye? ?o o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino?.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Aieiaiith iaoith ?iaioe aoei
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeoe caiani? a?eee oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, aeine?aeeoe
?o ooieoe?iiaeueio ?ieue, aeaye? aeanoeaino?, i?ieea?noue a iioiaaiac?
oa ??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei, a oaeiae iie?ii?o?ci ia
??ciiiai?oiiio aeo?aeiiio iaoa??ae? aeey aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeaino? ioe?iee
aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a ii eiiiiiaioai caianieo a?ee?a. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai
iinoaaeai? ne?aeoth/? caaaeaiiy:

q aea/eoe neeaae noaiaeeieoeue oa iie?iaioeae?a 11S aeiaoe?io a
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iiio oa ?iioiio?i?/iiio aiae?cao;

q aeine?aeeoe i?ieea?noue 11S aeiaoe?io a iioiaaiac?, oiaoi a
ooieoe?iiaeueii ??cieo i?aaiao ? oeaieiao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a;

q aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaanoe caianio ooieoe?th 11S aeiaoe?io i?e
ii??aiyii? eiai neeaaeo ? ai?noo a i?ioean? aeic??aaiiy oa i?i?inoaiiy
ian?iiy, a aiae?c? ?iciiae?eo ai?iieeneio oa e??iaeanoeainoae;

q aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? neeaaeo aeine?aeaeaiiai aeiaoe?io a ??cieo oiiaao
ae?iuoaaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a;

q aeaoaeueii aea/eoe iie?ii?o?ci caianiiai aeiaoe?io o ni?o?a ii
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ian?ieiao oa iiaeeea?noue a?io?i?/ii? ianii?oecaoe?? ?
?a?no?aoe?? ni?oiiiioeyoe?e ii aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao;

q aeine?aeeoe iie?ii?o?ci aeiaoe?io ??cieo ?ia?aaeieo e?i?e oa iieacaoe
aieea ?ia?eaeeiao ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iooaaaiaco ia caiani? a?eee;

q i?iaiae?coaaoe iie?ii?o?ci 11S aeiaoe?io aeeeeo aeae?a Beta oa
iniaeeaino? ?o ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ii aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo ? aioeaaiieo
niaeo?ao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiue. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy
a?ee?a ian?iiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aiae?c? i?e
canoinoaaii? iaoiae?a aeaeo?ioi?aco oa ?iioiio?i?? ia ??ciiiai?oiiio
aeo?aeiiio iaoa??ae?: ?aeiiiaaieo ? noa?iaeaai?o ni?oao, aeeeeo ?
eoeueoo?ieo aeaeao, ?ia?aaeieo oa /n-e?i?yo, I-oeiao, eiiiiiaioao ni?o?a
? a?a?eae?a, /n-a?a?eaeao, ?iaeoeiaaieo iooaioao.

Aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeaii caianiee a?eie oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a – 11S
aeiaoe?i, yeee ?iceeaaea?oueny ia aeae?eueea noaiaeeieoeue, a i?e
aeaeo?ioi?ac? c aeiaeaoeeenoeueoaoii iao??th oa ia?eaioiaoaiieii
ooai?th? aea? a?oie iie?iaioeae?a c iieaeoey?iith ianith 20 oa 40 eAe.
Aea/aia eiai aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ia oa ?iioiio?i?/ia aaoa?iaaii?noue,
e??iaeanoeaino? oa ?iciiae?e ai?iieeneio, aa??aaaeuei?noue neeaaeo a
iioiaaiac? oa ??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy, a oaeiae iie?ii?o?ci. Aeaii
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy 11S
aeiaoe?io ye ia?ea?a aeey ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a. Iieacaii, ui
aeaeo?ioi?ac a aeenioe?thth/?e nenoai? iie?ae??eai?aeiiai aaeth,
canoiniaaiee aeey aiae?co 11S aeiaoe?io ie?aieo ian?iei, ni?iiiaeiee
aeyaeoe aioo??oiueiaeaeiao, ni?oiao oa e?i?eio i?ieea?noue oeueiai
aeiaoe?io.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaeo?ioi?aoe/i? niaeo?e 11S aeiaoe?io oa
/anoioa, c yeith aiie cono??/athoueny a iiioeyoe?yo iiaeooue
?icaeyaeaoenue ye ia?ea?ia iciaea a ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aeae?a, ni?o?a,
e?i?e ao?ye?a, ui noaei aeo?aeiei iieiaeaiiyi i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeo
ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a ii niaeo?ao 11S aeiaoe?io. A?io?i?/ia
ianii?oecaoe?y oa noi?iiaaiee ia iniia? oeeo aeaieo eaoaeia a?o/eciyieo
ni?o?a ? e?i?e ii a?eeiaeo oi?ioeao aeiaoe?io aeicaieeee ii??aiyoe
no?oeoo?o ?o iiioeyoe?e a iaei?e nenoai?, aeyaeoe ??ciiiai?oi?noue
aaiioiiaeo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, aecia/eoe i?ea?iaeuei? oa iiae?ai? oi?ie,
iioiaeaeaiiy oa ?o a?aei?ii?noue a?ae iaoa??ae?a ca?oa?aeieo o??i.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui iecueeee iie?ii?o?ci aeiaoe?i?a ?ia?aaeieo e?i?e iiaea
aooe e?eoa???i ioe?iee ?o aaiaoe/ii? /enoioe.

Aia?oa aeyaeaii aca?iica’ycie aeayeeo eiiiiiaio?a caianieo a?ee?a c
o?c?ieia?/iei i?ioeanii iaeiie/aiiy iane ei?aiaieiaeo, yeo caienaii o
aeaeyae? oi?ioee.

Aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue ioe?iee ian?iiy a?ae i?aeaeaeiaeo no?auoaaiue ia
a?a?eaei?noue ii aioeaaiieo eiiiiiaioao 11S aeiaoe?io.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue. A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii oa aeaii o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaiai aeey oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a iaoiaeo ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo
ii aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao 11S aeiaoe?io (aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai N?N?
?1433190 oa iaoaio Oe?a?ie ?8546). Nooue eiai a ?a?no?aoe??
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo??a 11S aeiaoe?io ie?aieo ian?iei, i?ae?aooaaii?
/anoioe, c yeith aiie cono??/athoueny o anoaiiaeai?e aea??oe? ian?iiy oa
ii??aiyii? oeeo iieaciee?a ii 2 . Iaoiae iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee a

1) o?c?ieia?? ?ineei aeey :

— aea/aiiy iaeiie/aiiy iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a ian?ii? oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy a
i?ioean? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo iieiaei? ?ineeie;

— aeyaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo eiiiiiaio?a caianieo a?ee?a c aaaeeeaeie
o?c?iei-a?/ieie i?ioeanaie;

— aecia/aiiy yeino? oa aeeoo?caeaoiino? ian?iiy;

2) a aaiaoeoe? oa naeaeoe?? aeey :

— ne?ei?iao aaiaoe/ieo eieaeoe?e;

— ianii?oecaoe?? ni?o?a ? e?i?e, ioe?iee ??ciiiai?oiino? ?o aaiioiiaeo;

— aecia/aiiy aaiaoe/ii? /enoioe ?ia?aaeieo e?i?e;

— ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aeae?a Beta, i?iaiicoaaiiy ?o noi?niino? i?e
i?aeaeaeia?e a?a?eaeecaoe??.

Ianii?oecaoe?y aeo?aeieo naeaeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ii aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo
niaeo?ao 11S aeiaoe?io oa ciaiiy aca?iica’yceo eiiiiiaio?a caianieo
a?ee?a c ainiiaea?nueei-oe?iieie iciaeaie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
aeiai?o ia? i?e noai?aii? iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo a?a?eae?a c aaaeaieie
iciaeaie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

1. Caianiei a?eeii oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ? 11S aeiaoe?i, yeee ii
iieaeoey?i?e ian?, neeaaeo noaiaeeieoeue, iie?iaioeae?a, ai?iieeneio oa
a?aeiioaiith aei e??ii?aoeei?oaoe?? iiae?aiee caianiei a?eeai ?ioeo
aeaiaeieueieo ?ineei. Oeae aeiaoe?i iaeiie/o?oueny a ian?ii? i?e
aeic??aaii? ? ia?oei aeei?enoiao?oueny a i?ioean? i?i?inoaiiy.

2. I?ieea?noue 11S aeiaoe?io a iioiaaiac?, noaa?euei?noue neeaaeo a
??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei, oa?aeoa?iee ?iciiae?e ai?iieeneio,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?iaioeae?a a aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao, aeathoue
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy 11S
aeiaoe?i?a ye a?eeiaeo ia?ea??a.

3. Iie?ii?o?ci 11S aeiaoe?io i?iyaey?oueny i?e aeaeo?ioi?ac? aeno?aeo?a
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ian?iei a aeenioe?thth/?e nenoai? iie?ae??eai?aeiiai
aaeth, ui aeaei ciiao aeyaeoe ??ciiiai?oi? oeie niaeo??a oeueiai
aeiaoe?io. Oeie niaeo??a, ?o /enei oa /anoioa, c yeith aiie
cono??/athoueny a?ae??ciy?oueny o ??cieo ni?o?a, aeae?a ? e?i?e ao?ye?a,
ui noaei aeo?aeiei iieiaeaiiyi i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeo ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo
ii caianieo a?eeao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeeaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia I?aeia?iaeieo
eii?aeeiaoe?eieo ia?aaeao ii o?c?ieia??, a?io?i?? oa a?ioaoiieia??
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a (Ee?a, 1983,1990), V Oe?a?inueeiio a?io?i?/iiio
c’?cae? (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1987), Ananithciiio nai?ia?? A?? “A?eeia?
ia?ea?e a ni?oia?e ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa ?a?no?aoe?? aaiaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a
eoeueoo?ieo ?ineei” (Eai?ia?aae, 1983), ??? I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiiceoi?
ISTA “A?io?i?/ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ni?o?a ? e?i?e” (Eai?ia?aae, 1987), ??
c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa o?c?ieia?a ?ineei (Ee?a,1992), V, VI
c’?caeao OOA?N (Oiaiue, 1986; Iieoaaa, 1992), Ananithciiio neiiiceoi?
“Iieaeoey?i? iaoai?cie aaiaoe/ieo i?ioean?a” (Iineaa, 1993),
I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Iieaeoey?ii-aaiaoe/i? ia?ea?e a naeaeoe??
?ineei” (sseoa, 1992; Ee?a, 1995) ia 15 i?aeia?iaeieo, ananithcieo,
?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ? c’?caeao ii o?c?ieia??,
a?io?i??, iieaeoey?i?e a?ieia?? oa aaiaoeoe? oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

Ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe??
iioae?eiaaii 45 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, c ieo iaeia aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai oa
iaeei iaoaio Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a, iniiaieo aeniiae?a, aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aei yeiai
aoiaeeoue 343 ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a, aeiaeaoe?a.
Aeena?oaoe?y ia? ia’?i 290 noi??iie, i?i?ethno?iaaia 78 oaaeeoeyie ?
?enoieaie.

Aeaeea?aoe?y iniaenoi? o/ano?. Aeena?oaioii noi?ioeueiaaii iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio oa iaoiaeeeo aenia?eiaioo,
?ioa?i?aoiaaii io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe, noi?ioeueiaai? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue
naiino?eii aai ni?eueii ?c ni?a?ia?oieeaie eaai?aoi??? o?c?ieia?? ?
a?io?i?? ?OeA OAAI oa a?aeae?eo iieaeoey?ii? a?ieia?? A?? ?i. I.?.
Aaaeeiaa. Aeiey iniaenoi? o/ano? a iaea?aeaii? ?acoeueoao?a oa
i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??ae?a aei ae?oeo neeaaea? 85%.

Nooi?iue iaa?oioiaaiiino? oa aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.
Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee a?oioothoueny ia aeaniiio
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaoa??ae? c o?aooaaiiyi ?nioth/eo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaieo. Aiie iaa?oioiaai?, a?aeiia?aeathoue ci?noo aeena?oaoe??,
ia?iaeai? noaoenoe/ii, iathoue aenieee nooi?iue aeinoia??iino?.

Ia’?eoe ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

Aea/aiiy caianieo a?ee?a ao?ye?a i?iaiaeeee: 1) a iioiaaiac?; ia ??cieo
aoaiao ?icaeoeo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a; 2) a ian?ii? ni?o?a, ?ai?iaeoeiaaieo
a ??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aiae?c?; 3) a
ian?ii? ??cieo ni?o?a, e?i?e ? aeae?a ii ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei aaiioeiai.

Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo aoee 132 i?aaenoaaieea
10-e aeae?a ?iaeo Beta, na?aae yeeo a?o/eciyi? ni?oe, a?a?eaee ? e?i??
?c noa?eeueiith oeeoiieaciith, ?ia?aaei? e?i??, eiiiiiaioe ni?o?a ?
a?a?eae?a, ?iaeoeiaai? iooaioe, aeee? aeaee oa i?aeaeaeia? a?a?eaee.
Iaea?eueo aeaoaeueii aea/aeenue i?aaenoaaieee i?aeaeaeo B.vulgaris L.
saccharifera Alef., ian?iiy yeeo iaea?aeaii a?ae ?OeA OAAI,
O?inoyiaoeueeiai ian?iiaaiai caaiaeo, sseoooe?anueei? AeNN, o?e?aeo ?OeA
i.Oiaiue, A?? ?i. I.?.Aaaeeiaa, o??i Hilleshog, KWS. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy
ian?iiy ??cieo aeae?a iaie aoea noai?aia eieaeoe?y aeeeeo aeae?a Beta ia
?E? ?OeA OAAI.

Aea/aiiy 11S aeiaoe?io a iioiaaiac? i?iaiaeeee a ian?iiaaeo ca/aoeao,
c??eiio ian?ii?, iaa?yeeiio o aiae? ian?ii?, oanoeaeaiieo i?i?inoeao,
eenoeiaeo ieanoeieao, /a?aoeao oa ei?aiaieiaeao ia aeaio ni?oao
A?eioea?e?anueea iaeiiian?iia 45 oa A?eioea?e?anueea iaeiiian?iia 34 a
oiiaao aaaaoaoe?eiiai aeine?aeo.

Iniaeeaino? neeaaeo aeiaoe?io i?e ??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a aea/aee a ian?ii? aeaio ni?o?a (A?eioea?e?anueea iaeiiian?iia
45, Aanaeiiiaeieyinueea iaeiiian?iia 29) oa a?a?eaeo THa?eaeiee,
?ai?iaeoeiaaieo a ??cieo ciiao ao?yein?yiiy oa a ??ci? ?iee.

A on?o aiae?cao c a?eeaie ian?iiy aeei?enoiaoaaee aeania ian?iiy, yea
ca?eueiyee a?ae iieiaeiy ca aeiiiiiaith neaeueiaey oa i?eia?oaaeueii?
aieee.

11S aeiaoe?i aeey aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iiai oa ?ioiio?i?/iiai aiae?c?a
aeae?eyee ?c noia?ii? niea?ic/eiii? o?aeoe?? a?ee?a ian?iiy iaoiaeii
e??ii?aoeei?oaoe??, oiaoi inaaeaeaiiyi aeenoeeueiaaiith aiaeith i?e 40N.

Iniiaiei ?iai/ei iaoiaeii aiae?co iie?iaioeaeiiai neeaaeo aeiaoe?i?a aoa
aeaeo?ioi?ac a aa?oeeaeueieo ieanoeiao a aeenioe?thth/?e nenoai? 12,5%
iie?ae??eai?aeiiai aaeth a i?enooiino? aeiaeaoeeenoeueoaoo iao??th oa
ia?eaioiaoaiieo ii Laemlli (1970). Iaeiae, aeey iie?auaiiy ?icae?eaiiy
iie?iaioeae?a 11S aeiaoe?io ao?ye?a a aaeue aeiaeaaaee ea?aai?ae,
naoa?ico, ci?ithaaee eiioeaio?aoe?th aeiaeaoeeenoeueoaoo iao??th,
aeei?enoiaoaaee eei’y/?iiy c ia?eaioiaoaiieii oa ?ioa.

Neeaae noaiaeeieoeue 11S aeiaoe?io aiae?coaaee a 12,5%
iie?ae??eai?aeiiio aae? c aeiaeaoeeenoeueoaoii iao?eth. Aeaeo?ioi?ac
i?iaiaeeee a aa?oeeaeueieo ieanoeiao aia?aoo ABAE (Anoii?y).

Iieaeoey?io iano iie?iaioeae?a aecia/aee i?e aeaeo?ioi?ac? a
aeenioeethth/?e nenoai? aaeth. sse i?o/eee iieaeoey?ieo ian aoee
oeeoio?ii N (12,3 eAe), i?iaeia?i (17,2 eAe), ea?aiaia?ae?aca (32 eAe),
iaio?ainoa??i (78 eAe).

?ioiio?i?/iee aiae?c i?iaiaeeee ii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yi ?.I. Aaa?eethe (1986)
o?ueiia iaoiaeaie: iiaea?eiith ?ioiiaeeooc??th a 1%-iiio aaa?iciiio aae?
ia o?en-AAeOA ai?aoiiio aooa?? ?I8,3; ?ioiiaeaeo?ioi?acii a 1,5%-i?e
aaa?ic? ia 0,05I iaaeeiaeoeeo?aoiiio aooa?? ?I8,6; ?aeaoiei
?ioiiaeaeo?ioi?acii a 10%-i?e aaa?ic? ia 0,05I iaaeeiaeoeeo?aoiiio
aooa?? ?I8,6. ?ioiiaeaeo?ioi?ac cae?enithaaee a aia?ao? Multifir
(Pharmacia) ia i?ioyc? 1 aiaeeie. ?aeaoiee ?ioiiaeaeo?ioi?ac
canoiniaoaaee ye aa??aio e?euee?niiai ?ioiiaeaeo?ioi?aco, aea ooai?aiee
i?aoeei?oao i?iyaey?oueny o oi?i? i?e?a (?aeao), ieiua yeeo i?iii?oe?eia
ai?noo a?eea-aioeaaia (Aaae, Aaa?eethe, 1987). Ai?no 11S aeiaoe?io
aecia/aee ii niaoe?aeueii iiaoaeiaai?e eae?a?iai/i?e e?ea?e.

?ioii? ne?iaaoee iaea?aeoaaee ?ioi?caoe??th e?ie?a 11S aeiaoe?iii
ao?ye?a c aae’thaaioii O?aeaea. A aiae?cao aeei?enoiaoaaee ne?iaaoeo ia
aeiaoe?ie ni?o?a A?eioea?e?anueea iaeiiian?iia 34, ?aiiinueea 06, aeae?a
B.trigyna, B.maritima, B.corolliflora.

Ai?iieeneioiee neeaae 11S aeiaoe?io aea/aee i?ney a?ae?ie?co 6N HCl i?e
o?iiaoia?ao?/iiio ?icae?eaii? ia ai?iieeneioiiio aiae?caoi?? AAA-339
(*ao?y).

Aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ee?a i?iaiaeeee aeni?an-iaoiaeii a ?aaeoe??
Eio?? (Lowry, 1970) oa i?e ca’ycoaaii? a?eea c eoiann?-nei?i (Neioin,
1985).

?ic?iaeaiee iaie iaoiae ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a ii aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo
niaeo?ao 11S aeiaoe?io ca?a?no?iaaiee A.N.?1433190 oa iaoaioii Oe?a?ie
?8546 ? neeaaea?oueny c 5-e iniiaieo aoai?a:

1. Aeia?? na?aaeiuei? i?iae ian?iiy — 100 oo. aeey ni?o?a, 50 oo. aeey
?ia?aaeieo e?i?e.

2. Aeae?eaiiy 11S aeiaoe?io ?c eiaeii? a?ae?a?aii? ian?ieie.

3. Aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ia o?aeoe?iioaaiiy aeiaoe?io ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ian?iei.

4. ?a?no?aoe?y aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo??a ii a?eeiaeo oi?ioeao oa
/anoio?, ye iienaii a ?iaioao A.A. Eiia??aa (1993).

5. Iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea aeaieo ii 2 .

Aaaaoaoe?eiee aeine?ae i?iaiaeeee ia aaaaoaoe?eiiio iaeaeai/eeo ?OeA
OAAI, iieueiaee aeine?ae – ia aeine?aeiiio iie? sseoooe?anueei? AeNN ii
caaaeueiii?eeiyoei iaoiaeeeai. Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aeaieo cae?enithaaee
iaoiaeii aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co (Aeiniaoia, 1985).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

1.Aaoa?iaaii?noue ? a?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino? 11S aeiaoe?io.

A ian?ii? oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a i?noeoueny 7,4% a?ee?a a?ae nooi? ?a/iaeie
eeoai/ea (Iaeneiiae/, 1940). Iiae?aii ?ioei aeaiaeieueiei ?ineeiai
a?eueoa /anoeia oeeo a?ee?a i?aaenoaaeaia aeiaoe?iaie (Eaniaae/, 1982).
sseui ?c noia?iiai niea?ic/eiiiai aeno?aeoo a?ee?a ian?iiy ao?ye?a
inaaeaeoaaoe aeiaoe?i iaoiaeii e??ii?aoeei?oaoe??, oiaoi i?e iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?ao, oi a?i aeiaaea? a inaae ?c /enoioith aeinoaoiueith aeey
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iiai oa ?iioiio?i?/iiai aiae?c?a.

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui e?eoe/ia oaiia?aoo?a e??ii?aoeei?oaoe?? oeueiai
aeiaoe?io aei??aith? i?i?iaeuei?e oaiia?aoo?? i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ? noaiiaeoue 4iN.

I?e aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iiio o?aeoe?iioaaii? inaaeaeaiiai aeiaoe?io c
aeiaeaoeeenoeueoaoii iao??th, oiaoi i?e ?oeioaaii? aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a a
eiai iieaeoe?, ia aeaeo?ioi?aa?aiao aeyaeaii 6 noaiaeeieoeue c
iieaeoey?iith ianith 60-70 eAe. E?euee?noue ? ?iciiae?e oeeo
noaiaeeieoeue ia a?ae??ciy?oueny o ??cieo ni?o?a oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

I?e aeaeo?ioi?ac? a aeenioe?thth/?e nenoai? iie?ae??eai?aeiiai aaeth c
aeiaeaoeeenoeueoaoii iao??th oa ia?eaioiaoaiieii aeiaoe?i oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a ?iceeaaea?oueny ia 7 – 11 iie?iaioeae?a, ooai?thth/e aea?
iniiai? a?oie – eene? oa iniiai? iie?iaioeaee c iieaeoey?iith ianith 40
? 20 eAe, a?aeiia?aeii (?en. 1). Iecueeiiieaeoey?i? iie?iaioeaee
i?aaenoaaeai? a oaeiio niaeo?? ia?icae?eaiith a?oiith, aea i?e ci?i?
o?eaaeino? aeaeo?ioi?aco, aiie iathoue 3-5 eiiiiiaio?a.

A aioeaaiiiio neeaae? aeiaoe?io ao?ye?a aeyaeaii iaeei iniiaiee aioeaai
(?en. 2).

A ?ioiiaeaeo?ioi?ac? a?i i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? iaei??? aeoae
i?aoeei?oaoe?? (?en. 2a). A ?aeaoiiio ?ioiiaeaeo?ioi?ac? oeae aeiaoe?i
oi?io? iaeei iniiaiee i?e (?aeaoo), aenioa yeiai a?ae??ciy?oueny o
??cieo ni?o?a oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a (?en. 2a). A iiaea?ei?e ?ioiiaeeooc??
a?i iieaco? 1-3 aioeaaiieo eiiiiiaioe a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo aai ni?oo
(?en. 2a).

I?e ii??aiyii? aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo oa aioeaaiieo niaeo??a aeiaoe?io
ao?ye?a c oaeeie ae niaeo?aie ?ioeo aeaiaeieueieo ?ineei aeyaeeinue, ui
aeine?aeaeaiee niea?ic/eiiee e??ia?eie ao?ye?a ii iieaeoey?i?e ian?,
neeaaeo noaiaeeieoeue oa iie?iaioeae?a iiae?aiee 11S aeiaoe?io ?ioeo
aeaiaeieueieo ?ineei.

Aea/aiiy ?iciiae?eo ai?iieeneio a 11S aeiaoe?i? ao?ye?a iieacaei, ui a?i
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iacaaeainiaaiei neeaaeii (Oaae. 1). Oae, 11S aeiaoe?i
ao?ye?a ia? iecueeee ai?no iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio, oaeeo ye e?cei,
o?aii?i, aae?i, oai?eaeai?i, ?cieaeoeei (1,35-3,54 ia a 100 ia a?eea)
i?e i?aeoe/i?e a?aenooiino? iaoeii?io, oeenoeio ? o?eioioaio. A aeaui
a?eueo?e e?eueeino? i?noeoueny eaeoeei (4,0–5,74 ia a 100 ia a?eea).
?acii c oei a aeiaoe?i? ao?ye?a a?aei?/aii aenieee ai?no aeooai?iiai?
(10,57-15,79 ia), ania?aa?iiai? eeneio (5,43–7,55 ia) oa a?a?i?io
(5,89–9,29 ia).

I?aeaeuaiee ai?no oeeo ai?iieeneio iiynith?oueny ?o iniaeeaei cia/aiiyi
o ?icai?oaii? iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a i?e i?i?inoaii? ian?iiy
(I?yi?oi?eia, 1945; Niaieaa, 1985). A?aeiinii iecueeee ai?no i?ie?io
(2,2 – 6,5 ia a 100 ia a?eea) iiaeia iiynieoe iaoaaie?/iith
nii??aeiaii?noth i?ie?io ? a?a?i?io, ye? ia aeoieo I.I. Niaie?aa (1985),
a caianieo a?eeao ciaoiaeyoueny a cai?ioi?e caeaaeiino?.

Oaeei /eiii aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui 11S aeiaoe?i ao?ye?a ii iieaeoey?i?e
ian?, neeaaeo noaiaeeieoeue, iie?iaioeae?a, ai?iieeneio oa a?aeiioaiith
aei e??ii?aoeei?oaoe?? iiae?aiee caianiei a?eeai ?ioeo aeaiaeieueieo
?ineei ?, iiaeeeai, ? caianiei a?eeii oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

Oaaeeoey 1

Ai?no oa?aeoa?ieo ai?iieeneio a 11S aeiaoe?iao ian?iiy ao?ye?a, ia/100ia
a?eea

?Ai?iieeneioaAeae, ni?o, e?i?y% a?ae na?aaeiueiaiB.trigynasseo. iaei.
30Oeaae. /n 5?ia?. e?i?y ?88-1031.Ania?aa?iiaa
eeneioa7,550,146,030,125,430,137,470,149,22.O?aii?i2,550,311,830,241,710
,092,230,182,94.Aeooai?iiaa
eeneioa15,790,2511,530,2710,570,2313,620,2817,95.I?ie?i2,410,162,010,121
,980,112,130,162,810.Eaeoeei5,740,144,420,154,000,205,690,146,915.A?a?i?
i9,290,226,560,125,890,188,170,2110,4Noia an?o
ai?iieeneio72,8455,5349,6267,24

2. Aa??aaaeuei?noue 11S aeiaoe?io a iioiaaiac? oa a ??cieo oiiaao
ae?iuoaaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

Aea/aiiy aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iiai neeaaeo 11S aeiaoe?io a iioiaaiac? oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a aeicaieeei niinoa??aaoe iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?eeiaeo
nenoai a i?ioean? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei, a oaeiae caeiiii??iino?
iaeiie/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai aeiaoe?io i?e aeic??aaii? oa
i?i?inoaii? ian?iiy. Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo??a
(Oaae. 2) iieacaa, ui eiaeiee aoai iioiaaiaco oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaiei
iaai?ii 11S aeiaoe?io, na?aae yeeo aeyaeaii i?aaiiniaoeeo?/i?
iie?iaioeaee: a ian?ii? – Rf 0.46, 0.54, 0.56; oanoeaeaiieo i?i?inoeao –
Rf 0.54, 0.55, 0.60; eenoeiaeo ieanoeieao – Rf 0.28, 0.30, 0.41;
/a?aoeao – Rf 0.46; ei?aiaieiaeao – Rf 0.65. Anoaiiaeai? iie?iaioeaee,
ui neioacothoueny de novo, aai aeoeao?oueny ?o neioac, ii??aithth/e c
iiia?aaei?i aoaiii – Rf 0.07, 0.09, 0.14, 0.16, 0.18, 0.28, 0.30, 0.36,
0.41, 0.65, 0.67, 0.70, 0.80; a oaeiae iie?iaioeaee, ui ?iceeaaeathoueny
aei ai?iieeneio – Rf 0.20, 0.46, 0.54, 0.60, 0.74.

Aeic??aaiiy ian?iiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iinooiiaei iaeiie/aiiyi
iie?iaioeae?a oa ai?noo a ieo a?ee?a a cii? aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iiai niaeo?o
Rf 0.46 – 0.74. A oeae ia??iae aeine?aeieee niinoa??aaee cia/ia
i?aeaeuaiiy e?eueeino? ?eainii a oeeoiieaci? oa ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueiiai
ai?noo ?IE (Beevers, Paulson, 1972; Aoieeaaneay e ae?., 1995). Ii iaoei
aeaiei c ?aeaoiiai ?iioiiaeaeo?ioi?aco ai?no 11S aeiaoe?io iinooiiai
ca?eueoo?oueny a ian?iieo ca/aoeao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ii/eiath/e c 10-ai
aei 26-ai aeiy i?ney caieeaiiy, aeinyaath/e iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy a
c??eiio ian?ii?. Iaeiae, c ia?oeo aea aei?a i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy ai?no
aeiaoe?io iaaea? ? ciaioo?oueny c eiaeiei aeiai (?en. 3).
Aeaeo?ioi?aoe/i? eiiiiiaioe aeiaoe?io ian?iiy Rf 0.46, 0.54, 0.56, 0.74
noathoue aoae/eie, iaio ?ooeeaeie aai cieeathoue cian?i a i?i?inoeao, ui
aiai?eoue i?i aeei?enoaiiy oeeo a?ee?a ia ??no ? ?icaeoie iieiaei?
?ineeie.

A.I. Aaii?eiaa (1970), Ae. Aaoeoa? (1970), I.I. Niaie?a (1985)
aaaaeathoue, ui a?eee, ye? iaeiie/othoueny i?e aeic??aaii? oa ia?oeie
aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?ioean? i?i?inoaiiy ? caianieie a?eeaie.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeai? iaie a aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo oa
?iioiio?i?/ieo aiae?cao 11S aeiaoe?io ao?ye?a i?e aeic??aaii? oa
i?i?inoaii? ian?iiy, o aea/aii? ai?iieeneioiiai, iie?iaioeaeiiai oa
noaiaeeie/iiai neeaaeo aenia?aiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeeee aeniiaie, ui 11S
aeiaoe?i ? caianiei a?eeii oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

Oaaeeoey 2

A?aeiinia aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ia ?ooeea?noue (Rf) iie?iaioeae?a 11S aeiaoe?io
ian?iiy ? aaaaoaoeaieo i?aai?a oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a a iioiaaiac? ia
i?eeeaae? ni?oo Aoe.iaei.45.

Iiia? eiiiiiaiooIan?ii? ca/aoeeAeic??ea ian?iiyIan?iiy, ui iaa?yeaei o
aiae?Oanoeaeaii? i?i?inoeeEenoeia?
ieanoeiee*a?aoeeEi?aiaieiaee60.200.040.200.050.200.05—-70.280.060.280.
080.280.080.280.100.280.040.280.040.280.0880.300.040.300.120.300.120.300
.120.300.070.300.060.300.109—-0.360.060.360.040.360.0610—0.410.080.4
10.060.430.080.430.07110.460.070.460.080.460.100.450.060.460.030.460.060
.460.0312—-0.480.040.480.040.480.04130.540.030.540.040.540.040.540.04-
—140.560.060.560.040.560.040.550.040.550.080.550.060.550.0815-0.610.090
.610.090.600.080.600.080.600.04-16—-0.650.100.650.040.650.0417—0.670
.080.670.080.670.060.670.0418——0.700.0319-0.740.100.740.10-0.740.060
.740.040.740.0620-0.780.080.780.080.780.060.780.040.780.040.780.0821—-
—0.800.0822-0.850.040.850.040.850.030.850.030.880.080.850.0923-0.900.03
0.900.030.900.030.900.090.900.090.900.0424-0.960.08——Caaaeueia /en-ei
eii-iiiai-o?a6131214191920 I?ei?oea: cia/aiiy Rf, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
?ioaineaiicaaa?aeaiei eiiiiiaioai aeae?eai? aee?iei o?eooii.

Aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ia o?aeoe?iioaaiiy 11S aeiaoe?io ie?aieo ian?iei aeaio
ni?o?a oa iaeiiai a?a?eaeo, ?ai?iaeoeiaaieo a ??cieo ciiao, oiaoi a
??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei oa a ??ci? ?iee iieacaei, ui eiai
neeaae aeinoia??ii ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a aeine?aeaeaieo aa??aioao (Oaae.
3). O?eueee a iaeiiio aeiaaeeo o a?a?eaeo THa?eaeiee ?507A ?iia??i?noue
a?aei?iiino? a?ae iiioeyoe?? ?28A iaea e?eoe/ia cia/aiiy, ui iiaeeeai,
iia’ycaii c iniaeeainoyie ian?iieoeoaa a?a?eaeo a 1992 ?ioe?. Oiaoi,
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iee neeaae 11S aeiaoe?io oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a aeaoa?i?iiaaiee
aaiioeiii ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei.

Oaaeeoey 3

?iia??i?noue a?aei?iiino? i?ae iiioeyoe?yie oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a,
?ai?iaeoeiaaieo a ??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy ia iniia? ?iciiae?eo /anoio
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo??a 11S aeiaoe?io, ?ic?aoiaaia ii 2 .

A?eioea?e?anueea iaeiiian?iia 45

Ia?o?y ian?iiyIacai. ian?i. ain-ai 1989?.Aoe AeNN, 1992?.Aoe. AeNN,
1989?.?5O?554A?64A?5O-0,0350,546?554A0,034-0,630?64A0,5360,541-F1
THa?eaeiee

Ia?o?y ian?iiyOiainueeee o?e?ae ?OeA1990?. ?25O1989?. ?275A1992?.
?507A1989?.
?28A?25O-0,1610,3340,592?275A0,151-0,6690,325?507A0,2600,625-0,901?28A0,
5850,3060,951-Aea? iiioeyoe?? aaaaeathoueny a?aei?iieie, yeui
?iia??i?noue a?aei?iiino? i?ae ieie ia?aaeuo? cia/aiiy 0.95.

3. O?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy 11S
aeiaoe?i?a ye ia?ea??a aeey ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a.

Caiani? a?eee (11S aeiaoe?ie), ye iieacaii a iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
neioacothoueny a ian?iieo ca/aoeao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ia i?ci?o aoaiao
iioiaaiaco, eiee ?ineeiiee i?aai?ci iiai?noth noi?iiaaiee ? eaea
aeic??aaiiy ian?iiy. I?e oeueiio a?eee iaeiie/othoueny iinooiiai.
Nii/aoeo c’yaeythoueny eene? iie?iaioeaee, a iio?i iniiai?.
Iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy ai?no ? /enei iie?iaioeae?a aeiaoe?io aeinyaa? a
c??eiio ian?ii?.

Oiiae, ca yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny neioac caianieo a?ee?a, aeoaea nai???aei?.
Aiie, ye a?aeiii c e?oa?aoo?e, iia’ycai? c a?aeoieii a?ee?a c on???
?ineeie ? ?aooee?caoe??th i?iaeoeo?a ?ineeaaeo aeic??aath/ith
ian?ieiith. Iaoa??ae aeey neioaco oeeo a?ee?a iaaeoiaeeoue o oi?i?
ai?iieeneio ?c iieiaeeo eenoe?a a?ae neioaoe/ieo i?ioean?a aai ?c
noa??th/eo eenoeiaeo ieanoeiie a?ae ?iceeaaeo ?nioth/eo oai a?ee?a. E??i
oiai, o?ainii?oi? oi?ie acioo o aeaeyae? aeayeeo ai?iieeneio
iaaeoiaeyoue ?c ei?aiaieiaea (Bonner, Huang, 1963; Aaii?eiaa, 1970;
E?aaa?o, 1976; Niaieaa, 1985).

Oiaoi, any ?ineeia i?eeia? o/anoue o neioac? oa iaeiie/aii? caianieo
a?ee?a, ia?aianaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aei ieo. I?e oeueiio e?euee?noue a?ee?a
a ian?ii? caeeoa?oueny iino?eiith ia i?ioyc? aeiaaiai /ano – ia??iaeo
niieith. Aeine?aeaeai? iaie aeanoeaino? caianieo a?ee?a oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a, cie?aia, neeaae noaiaeeieoeue, iie?iaioeae?a oa ai?iieeneio,
caeaoi?noue aei e??ii?aoeei?oaoe?? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue caa??aaoe
iaooeiaeaeaiith no?oeoo?o oeeo a?ee?a, iacaaaeath/e ia iaacaiaeiaiiy
oeeoiieacie, ca?aeiaiiy ?? aeoeaieie i?aaii?aeaie. Aea a ?ac?
iaiao?aeiino?, i?e i?i?inoaii? aiie iiaeooue noaoe iiaeeaiei iaoa??aeii
aeey iieiaeiai i?i?inoea.

Iaie aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui i? eenoy, i? ei??iiy, i? i?i?inoee ia caeaoi?
neioacoaaoe aeiaoe?i ?c oaeei neeaaeii. 11S aeiaoe?i, ye caianiee a?eie,
oa?aeoa?iee o?eueee aeey ian?iiy, oiaoi eiio aeanoeaa oeaieiia
niaoeeo?/i?noue.

I?e oeueiio aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iee neeaae 11S aeiaoe?io ian?iiy ao?ye?a
aeyaeany iano?eueee noaa?eueiei, ui ia ci?ithaaany a ??cieo oiiaao
ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei, oiaoi a?i iaoiiaeaiee aaiioeiii. Oea aeoaea aaaeeeaa
iniaeea?noue, ui aeicaiey? ii??aithaaoe iie?iaioeaee aeiaoe?io ??cieo
aaiioei?a, ia caaaeath/e ia oa, a ye?e cii? ? i?e yeeo oiiaao aoei
?ai?iaeoeiaaia aeine?aeaeaia ian?iiy.

Ia ?aii?o aoaiao i?i?inoaiiy iieiaeee i?i?inoie ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
aeciaaiieo aeaea?ae acioo. A?i ?inoa ? ?icaeaa?oueny aeeeth/ii ?c
iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, ? caianieo a?ee?a a oiio /ene?, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a
ia??nia?i?. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i ciaioaiiy ai?noo 11S
aeiaoe?io a ian?ii? ao?ye?a c eiaeiei aeiai i?i?inoaiiy. A ia?o? aei?
i??inoaiiy ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue a?ee?a ? no?oeoo?a eeneeo oa
iniiaieo iie?iaioeae?a – Rf 0.46-0.74. A?aeaoaa?oueny aeacai?aeoaaiiy
a?ee?a, “noa??” oa?iaioe oa caiani? a?eee a?ae?ie?cothoueny ?
?iceeaaeathoueny aei ai?iieeneio. Iaoaaie?/i? oiiaee ai?iieeneio
aeei?enoiaothony oaia? aeey neioaco iiaeo a?ee?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey ?inoo
? oi?ioaaiiy iieiaeiai i?i?inoea (Aoieeaaneay, *oieeeia, 1995;
Wohlfarth, Braun et all., 1998).

Ian?iiy iicaaaeaia caianieo a?ee?a aeyaey?oueny iaaeeoo?caeaoiei.
Iniaeeai iai/ii oea i?iyaey?oueny a a?a?eaeiiio ian?ii? a?ae
i?aeaeaeiaeo no?auoaaiue aai a i?eioniaiio naiicaieeaii?, eiee
ii?ooo?oueny aai acaaae? ia a?aeaoaa?oueny neioac iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o
noi?iiaaiiio ian?ii?.

?nio? aeoiea (Aaa?eethe, 1986), ui i?e/eio ii?ooaiiy neioaco caianieo
aeiaoe?i?a ne?ae ooeaoe a no?oeoo?ieo a?aei?iiinoyo a?ee?a aeo?aeieo
oi?i, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei aaeueioaaiiy i?ioean?a a?aeeeaaeaiiy caianieo
a?ee?a a a?a?eaeiiio ian?ii? aai aei oneeaaeiaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?o
ca?iaeeii i?e i?i?inoaii?. Oiaoi, no?oeoo?a iieaeoee caianieo aeiaoe?i?a
neoaeeoue aeaiaioii ?ici?ciaaaiiy “naiai-/oaeiai” i?e no?auoaaii? oa
caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue neioaco ? aeei?enoaiiy caianieo a?ee?a i?e
aioo??oiueiaeaeiaeo no?auoaaiiyo, ia?aoeiaeaeath/e ?i i?e a?aeaeaeai?e
a?a?eaeecaoe?? oa i?eioniaiio naiicaieeaii?.

O?eueee oaea o?c?ieiai – a?io?i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aea? iai i?aenoaao
ia?aeoe aei aiae?co iie?ii?o?cio 11S aeiaoe?io ? ?ic?iaee iaoiaeo
ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a ii caianieo a?eeao.

4. Iie?ii?o?ci 11S aeiaoe?io ye e?eoa??e ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a.

O oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, ye ia?ao?aniicaieethaaeueii? eoeueoo?e, ni?oe – oea
neeaaei? iiioeyoe?? c aenieei ??aiai aaiaoe/ii? oa a?io?i?/ii?
i?ieeaino?. Ca?aeii c O. Aeaea (1984) nooi?iue oe??? i?ieeaino? iiaeia
ioe?ieoe, yeui aecia/eoe /enei aa??aioieo oi?i a?ee?a oa /anoioo, c
yeith aiie cono??/athoueny a iiioeyoe?yo. Oeae i?aeo?ae aoa canoiniaaiee
iaie aeey aiae?co iie?ii?o?cio 11S aeiaoe?io o ni?o?a, e?i?e ? aeae?a
ao?ye?a. I?e oeueiio eiaeiee ni?o aiae?coaaee o aea??oe? 100 ian?iei,
e?i?? oa aeaee – 50 ian?iei. ?ici?? aea??ee, iaiao?aeii? aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee ni?o?a anoaiiaeaii o niaoe?aeueii iinoaaeaiiio
aenia?eiaio?.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iiai aiae?co aeyaeaii
aioo??oiueini?oiaee oa e?i?eiee iie?ii?o?ci 11S aeiaoe?io, a oaeiae
iie?ii?o?ci o aeeeeo aeae?a Beta.

Aioo??oiueini?oiaee iie?ii?o?ci. Aiae?c 22 a?o/eciyieo ni?o?a oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a oa 5-oe a?a?eae?a ?c noa?eeueiith oeeoiieaciith ii
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao ie?aieo ian?iei aeyaea 47 oaiioeiiaeo eeane
(oeie niaeo??a) 11S aeiaoe?io, ye? i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en.4 o aeaeyae?
noai. Eiaeiee noiaa/ee oe??? noaie a?aeiia?aea? oeio niaeo?o aeiaoe?io ?
a?ae??ciy?oueny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai i?eiaeii? iaeiei eiiiiiaioii.
Inoaii?e noiaa/ee oe??? noaie – oea noia?iee niaeo? aeiaoe?io, a yeiio
i?aaenoaaeai? an? iie?iaioeaee, ye? ?niothoue o a?o/eciyieo ni?oao ?
a?ae??ciythoueny ii aeaeo?ioi?aoe/i?e ?ooeeaino?.

Ii??aithth/e c ?ioeie eoeueoo?aie iie?ii?o?ci oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ia
aenieee. Oae o 66-oe ni?o?a, oi?i ? e?i?e aeeoa aeyaeaii 315 niaeo??a
aaai?io (Iaiaaa, Ia?ouiaiei, Eiia?aa, 1989), iaeia iiioeyoe?y eoeo?oaece
iieacaea 26 oei?a niaeo?o ca?io (Eiia?aa, Neaei?iaa, 1993), iaeei ni?o
niiyoieea – 45 oei?a niaeo??a aae?aioei?io (Aieneiiaa, 1993).

Eiaeiee aeine?aeaeaiee ni?o caienoaaee o aeaeyae? oaaeeoe?, aea
oa?aeoa?ecoaaee eiai ii:

— caaaeueiiio /eneo niaeo??a, ui a?aeia?aaea? iie?ii?o?ci iiioeyoe??;

— a?eeia?e oi?ioe?, caienai?e ii eiie?aoiiio oeio niaeo?o;

— /anoio?, c yeith oe? niaeo?e cono??/athoueny o aea??oe? 100 ian?iei.

Oaaeeoey 4

Oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaio ni?o?a A?eioea?e?anueei? naeaeoe?? ii
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao 11S aeiaoe?io.

Oeie niaeo??aA?eeiaa oi?ioea*anoioa niaeo??a,
%12567101112131415161718Aoe.iaei.34Aoe.iaei.4512233339.014.022231333-4.0
3223231332.04.04223131332.01.052231231332.02.07233325.01.01312322-3.0142
3238.019.015331232.0-16233234.02.018232231233.0-25233139.07.0262333-1.02
723331-4.032233323.014.03313331.0-34233132.05.0352233311.02.036233131-2.
03722132321.01.03923332.05.04022313134.01.04222313131-6.0Caaaeueia /enei
niaeo??a1720I?ei?oea. A a?eeia?e oi?ioe? ?ioaineai?noue eiaeiiai
iie?iaioeaeo iicia/aia a aaeao: ?ioaineaiee iie?iaioeae – 2 aaee, aeoaea
?ioaineaiee iie?iaioeae – 3 aaee, neaaeee – 1 aae.

A oaae. 4 i?aaenoaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaio ni?o?a – A?eioea?e?anueei?
iaeiiian?iii? 34 oa A?eioea?e?anueei? iaeiiian?iii? 45 ii
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao 11S aeiaoe?io. Ii oeei o?ueii iieacieeai an?
aeine?aeaeai? ni?oe a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith.

Ii caaaeueiiio /eneo niaeo??a iaea?eueo iie?ii?oiei aeyaeany ni?o
?aiiinueea iaeiiian?iia 47, yeee ia? 24 oeie niaeo??a; iaeiaio
iie?ii?oiei -ni?o A?eioea?e?anueea iaeiiian?iia 34 (17 oei?a niaeo??a).
O ?aiiinueei? 06, sseoooe?anueei? iaeiiian?iii? 30, Aanaeiiiaeieyinueei?
iaeiiian?iii? 29, Oeaae?anueei? iaeiiian?iii? 35 – 23, 22, 21, 19 oei?a
niaeo??a a?aeiia?aeii. A?a?eaee ?c noa?eeueiith oeeoiieaciith iaio
iie?ii?oi? (16-19 oei?a niaeo??a), ui iia’ycaii c iniaeeainoyie ?o
naeaeoe?eiiai eiino?othaaiiy ?c e?i?e – eiiiiiaio?a, iie?ii?o?ci yeeo
cia/ii ieae/ee. ?iicaii? a?a?eaee ua iaio iie?ii?oi? (15-16 oei?a
niaeo??a).

Ii /anoio?, c yeith cono??/athoueny oe? oeie niaeo??a ni?oe oaeiae
a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith. A?eueo?noue ni?o?a iathoue 2-3 oa?aeoa?ieo
niaeo?e, /anoioa yeeo noaiiaeoue 45-66% a?ae on?o /anoio. Ii??aiyiiy
/anoio niaeo??a aeine?aeaeaieo iiioeyoe?e aeicaiey? aeyaeyoe oa?aeoa?i?
oa oi?eaeuei? a?ioeie, aiae?coaaoe ?o iiioeyoe?eiee neeaae, aea/aoe
ci?ie a i?ioean? aaiethoe?? ? naeaeoe??, aecia/aoe ni?oiao /enoioo
ia?o?e ian?iiy.

Aiae?c ni?o?a ii aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao 11S aeiaoe?io i?ney
iaoaiaoeiaoe/ii? ia?iaee ii 2 aeyaea i?ea?iaeuei? oa iiae?ai? ni?oe,
iieacaa ?o ?noioio a?aei?ii?noue a?ae ?ia?aaeieo e?i?e oa ae?enio
??ciiiai?oi?noue a?o/eciyiiai aaiioiiaeo (Oaae. 5).

Oae, anoaiiaeaii, ui ni?oe ?aiiinueea 06, A?eioea?e?anueea iaeiiian?iia
34, Aanaeiiiaeieyinueea iaeiiian?iia 29, A?enueea iaeiiian?iia 12,
sseoooe?anueea

iaeiiian?iia 30, Iaaeioiainueea 104, Aa?oiy/nueea 103, Oeaae?anueea 752
iie?auaia aeinoia??ii a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith oa a?ae ?ioeo
iiioeyoe?e. Oea i?ea?iaeuei? ni?oe, ui aoee noai?ai? ia iniia?
aai?eaaiieo iaoa??ae?a a aeai?e aeieia?/i?e ieo? iaeiei aai a?oiith
naeaeoe?iia??a. Acaaae? aiae?c aeinoia??ii? a?aei?iiino? i?ae ni?oaie ii
2 a?aeia?aaea? iniaeeaino? iiioeyoe?eiiai neeaaeo ni?o?a, iia’ycai? c ?o
iioiaeaeaiiyi.

A?aoiaoth/e aeua iaaaaeai? aeai?, aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aaiioiiae
a?o/eciyieo ni?o?a – iiioeyoe?e ? oi?eaeueiei ? ia ia? aiaeia?a a ?ioeo
ao?yein?th/eo e?a?iao.

Oaeei /eiii, canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai iaie iaoiaeo aiae?co 11S
aeiaoe?io oa iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee ii 2 aeicaieeei iai i?iaanoe
a?io?i?/io ianii?oecaoe?th oa noi?ioaaoe Eaoaeia a?o/eciyieo ni?o?a
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ii a?eeiaeo oi?ioeao.

Oaaeeoey 5

Aeinoia??i?noue a?aei?iiinoae ii e?eoa??th 2 i?e iiia?iiio ii??aiyii?
?iciiae?eo /anoio niaeo??a 11S aeiaoe?io o ni?o?a oa e?i?e oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a

?

i/iNi?o, eiiii-iaio, e?i?y23456789101112131415?ia?aaeia e?i?y
ssAeNN1A?eioea?e?anueea
iaei.3415.520.914.428.764.546.937.311.353.212.117.019.437.6113.8107.32A?
eioea?e?anueea
iaei.4510.228.35.729.216.823.719.438.19.78.211.132.9108.098.23A?eioea?e?
anueea
iaei.6082.64.957.436.053.212.635.310.49.825.821.198.104.34?aiiinueea
0629.875.760.814.564.224.634.821.856.925.5105.4115.15?aiiinueea
iaei.4734.716.336.120.126.99.510.821.316.880.1141.26Aanaeiiiaeieyinueea
iaei.2913.849.556.741.147.841.533.488.7117.150.97?iaeono??aeueiee15.222.
557.515.023.425.217.4111.254.98sseoooe?anueea
iaei.3018.262.411.022.316.413.8188.259.79sseoooe?anueea
iaei.6431.318.18.717.015.0203.178.210Oeaae?anueea 752
iie?.45.924.935.363.8200.587.311Eueaianueea
iaei.528.911.912.7130.1116.712I?ai?/iieaaeacueea
iaei.426.930.2110.8188.313Iaaeioiainueea 10412.9186.193.714Eiiiiiaio
sse.iaei.30 ?740573.198.515*N-e?i?y Oiaiue70.4I?ei?oea. A?aei?ii?noue
aeinoia??ia i?e ?=99,9% (2 18.5), i?e ?=99% (2 13.3), i?e ?=95% (2
9.5); a?aei?ii?noue iaaeinoia??ia i?e ?=95% (2 9,5).

Iaoaiaoe/iee ?ic?aooiie aeaieo, i?iaaaeaiee ?c canoinoaaiiyi iiiaeeiiiai
e?i?eiiai ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co ii /anoio? aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo??a 11S
aeiaoe?io a ni?oao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a c iaeiiai aieo oa iieacieeaie iane
ei?aiaieiae?a ? a?iaeaeiino? c ae?oaiai aieo aeicaieea iai aeyaeoe
aca?iica’ycie aeayeeo iie?iaioeae?a aeiaoe?io c o?c?ieia?/iei i?ioeanii
iaeiie/aiy iane ei?aiaiaeeiaeo, yeo caienoaaee o aeaeyae? oi?ioee.

Oae, na?aaeiy iana ei?aiaieiaeo I aeey eiaeiiai ni?oo i?e aeaieo oiiaao
ae?iuoaaiiy aei??aith?:

I=I0+Nama+Nama+Nnmn

aea I0 – iana ei?aiaieiaea i?e a?aenooiino? eiiiiiaio?a a, a, n;

ma, ma, mn – i?eaaaee iane ei?aiaieiaea, iia’ycai? c i?enooi?noth a
niaeo?? eiiiiiaio?a a, a, n a?aeiia?aeii.

Na, Na , Nn — /anoioe, c yeeie cono??/athoueny eiiiiiaioe a, a, n
a?aeiia?aeii.

sseui A – aonoioa ianaaeaeaiiy, oi a?iaeaei?noue ni?oo iiaeia caienaoe
oae:

A?=IA=(Ii+ Nama+Nama+Nnmn)A.

Iie?ii?o?ci 11S aeiaoe?io o ?ia?aaeieo e?i?e. ?ia?eaeeia o oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a ?noioii aieeaa? ia iie?iaioeaeiee neeaae 11S aeiaoe?io, ciaioo?
eiai iie?ii?o?ci oa i?aeaeuo? /anoioo iaeiiai-aeaio oei?a niaeo??a.

Aiae?c iiioeyoe?e oa e?i?e sseoooe?anueei? AeNN, oiaoi ni?oo
sseoooe?anueea iaeiiian?iia 30, eiai eiiiiiaio?a, noaeiiiiiaio?a oa
??cieo e?i?e iieacaa, ui nooi?iue aiiiceaioiino? oeeo iaoa??ae?a
iia’ycaiee ?c iie?ii?o?ciii ii aeiaoe?iai. ?ia?aaei? e?i?? ii??aithth/e
?c ni?oiiiioeyoe?yie iaio iie?ii?oi? (2-9 oei?a niaeo??a) ? iathoue
cia/ii a?eueoo /anoioo iaeiiai aeaio niaeo??a. Eiaeia e?i?y
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioi? iayai?noth iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iiai oeio
niaeo?o, yeee cono??/a?oueny ?c /anoioith 61-95%. I?e oeueiio

iae/ano?oa cono??/athoueny niaeo?e c iaeiei eeneei iie?iaioeaeii (?32,
?25). Oiaoi, iecueeee ??aaiue iie?ii?o?cio aeiaoe?io iiaea aooe
iieacieeii aaiaoe/ii? /enoioe ?ia?aaeieo e?i?e oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.
Ciaioaiiy /enea iie?iaioeae?a a aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao oa
caaaeueiiai iie?ii?o?cio ii a?eeao a ?ia?aaeieo e?i?yo iienaii ia ?ioeo
eoeueoo?ao. Oea yaeua iiynith?oueny ?ai?an??th aai?a, ui eiio?ieththoue
neioac oeeo a?ee?a ? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeia ?c i?e/ei ?ia?aaeii?
aeai?an?? e?i?eieo iaoa??ae?a (Aeaea, 1984). C e?oa?aoo?e a?aeiii, ui i?
iaeia ?c aeine?aeaeaieo e?i?e aeeoa ia aoea iaeii??aeiith ii neeaaeo
caianieo a?ee?a (Iaiaaa, Ia?ouiaiei, Eiia?aa, 1989). Ae??aiyi? ?ia?aaei?
e?i?? niiyoieea iathoue iaeei oei niaeo?o aae?aioei?io. Iaeiae ?c 70
ca?a?no?iaaieo e?i?e o?eueee 13 iaee /?oe? ia?ea?i? iciaee (Aieneiiaa,
1993). ?ia?eaeeia o eoeo?oaece i?ioiaeeoue c iaea?eueoei oni?oii.
A?aeiia cia/ia e?euee?noue ?ia?aaeieo e?i?e c i?ea?iaeueiei neeaaeii
ca?io. Oea ia o?eueee e?i?? ca?oa?aeieo o??i, aea e ?ia?aaei? oa
iooaioi? e?i?? a?o/eciyii? naeaeoe?? (Iiia?aey, Anuea, 1989; Ii?aoi,
Ai?aeei ? ae?., 1977; Eiia?aa, Neaei?iaa, 1993).

A aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iiio aiae?c? 11S aeiaoe?io e?i?e ?c noa?eeueiith
oeeoiieaciith anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoa??aee ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy aeinoia??ii
a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith ii cia/aiiyo 2. I?e oeueiio iaea?eueo
?noioi? a?aei?iiino? a?ae oiiaiiai noaiaea?oo (/n-e?i?y i. Oiaiue)
niinoa??aaeenue o e?i?e ?iicaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy (Oaae. 6).

Aenia?eiaioaeueiee iooaaaiac ci?ith? /anoioo oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oei?a
niaeo??a o iooaioieo e?i?e, ii??aithth/e c aeo?aeieie oa aeeeeea? iiyao
11S aeiaoe?i?a c i?ea?iaeueiei iie?iaioeaeiei neeaaeii, yeee
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae 47 oei?a niaeo??a ca?a?no?iaaieo aeey ni?o?a.

Oaaeeoey 6

??ciiiai?oi?noue aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo??a 11S aeiaoe?io oa ?o /anoioa
a e?i?yo ?c noa?eeueiith oeeoiieaciith ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy

*n-e?i?y

iioiaeaeaiiy niaeo??aOeie niaeo??a oa ?o /anoioaAeinoia??. a?aei?i. ii
2178121425323539Oiaiue?22196—10.06.010.010.060.0-4.0noaiae.?22312—-6.
0-94.0—40.0?OeA
OAAI?7594-6.0—14.0-70.010.0-47.5?88876.010.0—22.050.08.04.048.5Hilles
hog/n-8420.010.0—60.010.0—145.6/n-12210.0——90.0—56.0

Iie?ii?o?ci 11S aeiaoe?io o aeeeeo aeae?a Beta. ?ice?eooy aaiaoe/iiai
iioaioe?aeo aai an??? aeaeiai? ??ciiiai?oiino? ?iaeo Beta iaiao?aeia
oiiaa aoaeoeaii? naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe c oeoe?iaei ao?yeii.

Oea iio?aao? /?oei? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aeae?a oa aecia/aiiy i?noey eiaeii?
oaeniiii?/ii? iaeeieoe? a aaiethoe?eiiio oeeee? ?iaeo. Oei a?eueoa, ui
aeee? aeaee – oea aeiii?e oe?iieo iciae, ui ao?a/ai? eoeueoo?ieie
oi?iaie a i?ioean? aaiethoe?? ? naeaeoe??.

Ia?o? aeai? a oeueiio iai?yieo iaea?aeai? iaie oa ?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie
?ai?oa i?e aea/aii? noia?ieo a?ee?a a caaaeuei?e i?ia? ian?iiy (Ao?aiei,
Aaa?eethe e ae?., 1981; Eaniaae/, 1983). Iaeiae, ia aeoieo ?. Eaaiioeia
(1978) /?oe? a?aei?iiino? i?ae aeaeaie iiaeia anoaiiaeoe o?eueee ii
/anoio? aa??aioieo oi?i a?ee?a o iaai?e aea??oe?.

Aea/aiiy aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iiai neeaaeo 11S aeiaoe?io aeeeeo aeae?a a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aiae?c? (aea??ea 50 ian?iei) iieacaei, ui aeaee
a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith iayai?noth oa e?euee?noth oei?a niaeo??a c
??ciei iie?iaioeaeiei neeaaeii oa /anoioith, c yeith aiie
cono??/athoueny. Ia ?en. 5 aeaeii i?ea?iaeueiee neeaae aeiaoe?io
eiaeiiai aeaeo, yeee a naith /a?ao ia iiaoi?th? neeaae aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo
niaeo??a eoeueoo?ieo ao?ye?a, ui i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en. 4. O 8-e aeeeeo
aeae?a aeyaeaii 23 iiaeo oei?a niaeo??a aeiaoe?io. A oaae. 7 oeie
niaeo??a aeeeeo aeae?a ioia?othoueny a?ae ?48 aei ?70, ?53-?58
a?aeiia?aeathoue aeaeai, ia i?aaenoaaeaiei a oaaeeoe?. sse aeaeii ?c
oe??? oaaeeoe? eiaeiee aeae ia? ??ci? oeie niaeo??a, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny oaeiae /anoioith. Aeaee naeoe?? Patellares Or. iaeiaio
iie?ii?oi? (1 oei niaeo?o), o aeae?a naeoe?? Corollinae Or. – 3 oeie
niaeo??a, o aeeeeo aeae?a Vulgares Or. aeyaeaii 4-5 oei?a niaeo??a
aeiaoe?io.

Oaeee aeaoaeueiee aiae?c aeicaieea /?oei ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe eiaeio
oaeniiii?/io iaeeieoeth ? anoaiiaeoe. ui aeaee naeoe?? Patellares ,
iniaeeai aeae B.patellaris Moq. iaea?eueo aeaai?e na?aae aeae?a ?iaeo.
Aeaee naeoe?? Corollinae aeieeee aeaui i?ci?oa. I?e oeueiio aeae
B.macrorhiza Stev. naiee aeaai?e a oe?e naeoe??, a B.intermedia Bunge
i?ii?aeiee i?ae B.trigona W. et K. oa B.lomatogona F et I., ui
i?aeoaa?aeeei oyaeaiiy A.I.Cineiiae/a (1940) i?i iioiaeaeaiiy oeeo
aeae?a. Iaea?eueo iieiaeeie ? aeaee naeoe?? Vulgares . Anoaiiaeaii, ui
neeaae aeiaoe?i?a oa /anoioa oei?a niaeo??a B.maritima L. iaea?eueo
iiae?ai? aei eoeueoo?ieo oi?i oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, ui aea? i?aenoaao,
ca?aeii c ?nioth/eie a e?oa?aoo?? oyaeaiiyie (Aeaaiaauaineee e ae?.,
1974; Eiia?aa, 1983) ia?aaeaa/aoe iaee?auo noi?ni?noue oeeo aeae?a i?e
a?a?eaeecaoe??. Noi?ni?noue, a naith /a?ao, caaacia/o? iiai?oo
?io?ia?an?th ei?enieo iciae a?ae aeeeeo oi?i o eoeueoo?i? (Szota,
Jassen, 1967). Oe? aeai? i?aeoaa?aeeee aeniiaee, iaea?aeai? iaie ?ai?oa.

Oiaoi, iiia?aaei?e aeia?? ia? aeey no?auoaaiiy ia iniia?
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo aeanoeainoae caianieo a?ee?a ian?iiy iiaea cia/ii
iieaaoeoe caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy a?aeaeaeaieo a?a?eae?a. I?aeaeaeia?
a?a?eaee a?ae a?a?eaeecaoe?? eoeueoo?ieo oi?i c aeaeaie naeoe??
Patellares ? Corollinae /anoi aeyaeythoueny iaaeeoo?caeaoieie aai
noa?eeueieie (Ao?aiei,1984). Aeey iiaeieaiiy i?aeaeaeiai? ianoi?niino? o
ao?ye?a canoiniaothoue iaoiae uaieaiue (Jonson, 1956), oaiia?aoo?iee
aieea (Savitsky, 1978) oa o?c?ieia?/ii-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie oeio eaeoei?a
(Aieaeiaa, Iao?ooeia e ae?., 1984). A?aeii? iiiaeeiie? aeiaaeee
iaea?aeaiiy oaeeo i?aeaeaeiaeo a?a?eae?a. Iaea?eueo aaeaeith aoea ?iaioa
A.Naaeoeueei? (1978, 1983) ii ia?aiino a eoeueoo?i? ?ineeie aaia
no?eeino? aei iaiaoiaee a?ae aeaeo B.patellaris .

Oaaeeoey 7

Oeie niaeo??a 11S aeiaoe?io oa ?o /anoioa o aeayeeo aeeeeo aeae?a
ao?ye?a.

Oeie niaeo??a*anoioa oei?a niaeo??a o aeeeeo aeae?a
ao?ye?a,%B.patellarisMoq.B.procum-bensNhr.Sm.B.trigyna W. et
KB.macro-rhizaStev.B.maritima L.B.cicla
L.4810049100508451125245990608612622263146416651066386712681069467032

Iayai?noue i?aeaeaeiai? ianoi?niino? oneeaaeith? a?a?eaeecaoe?th
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a c aeeeeie aeaeaie, ui iio?aao? aeiaeaoeiai?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? a?a?eaeieo oi?i. A iao?e ?iaio? iieacaii, ui aioeaaiiee
niaeo? aeiaoe?io i?aeaeaeiaeo a?a?eae?a ii?aeio? a nai?io neeaae?
iie?iaioeaee aeeeiai ? eoeueoo?iiai aeae?a. A?a?eaei?noue ian?iiy a?ae
i?aeaeaeiaeo no?auoaaiue iiaeia aecia/eoe ii iayaiino? a niaeo??
a?a?eaeo aeaeiniaoeeo?/iiai aioeaaio B.vulgaris.

I?aenoiiaoth/e iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?nioth/?
e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? ii caianieo a?eeao ??cieo ?ineei, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe,
ui ciaiiy i?i o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a?ee?a ao?ye?a
ia?anoathoue aooe a?eith ieyiith a oe?e aaeoc?. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui
caianiei a?eeii oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ? 11S aeiaoe?i. Aea/aii eiai
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino?, cie?aia aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iee,
?iioiio?i?/iee oa ai?iieeneioiee neeaae, a?aeiioaiiy aei
e??ii?aoeei?oaoe??, iniaeeaino? iaeiie/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy a
iioiaaiac?, oeaieiio niaoeeo?/i?noue, a?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? a?ae
oiia ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaia ooieoe?iiaeueia
?ieue 11S aeiaoe?io, ye caianiiai a?eea. Aeaii o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? eiai canoinoaaiiy ye ia?ea?a aeey ioe?iee
aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a. Cae?eniaii aeaoaeueiee aiae?c iie?ii?o?cio 11S
aeiaoe?io o ni?o?a, a?a?eae?a, e?i?e ? aeeeeo aeae?a, ui aeaei ciiao
?ic?iaeoe iaoiae ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a ii eiiiiiaioao caianieo
a?ee?a. Oea, a naith /a?ao, aeicaieeei cae?enieoe a?io?i?/io
ianii?oecaoe?th oa ?a?no?aoe?th ni?o?a ? e?i?e a ?aeeiiio eaoaeic?,
aeyaeoe ?o ??ciiiai?oi?noue oa i?ea?iaeuei? oi?ie, aecia/eoe e?eoa??e
ioe?iee aaiaoe/ii? /enoioe e?i?e, ooi/ieoe o?eiaaiaoe/i?
aca?iia?aeiineie a iaaeao ?iaeo.

AENIIAEE

Aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ia oa ?iioiio?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaoe?i?a oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a a iioiaaiac?, ??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei oa a aaiioeiao
aeae?a, ni?o?a, a?a?eae?a ? e?i?e aeicaieeei aia?oa aeyaeoe caiani?
a?eee oe??? eoeueoo?e oa aeine?aeeoe ?o o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i?
aeanoeaino?, ooieoe?iiaeueio ?ieue, i?ieea?noue a iioiaaiac?,
noaa?euei?noue a ??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy oa iie?ii?o?ci.

1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui caianiei a?eeii oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ? 11S aeiaoe?i –
niea?ic/eiiee a?eie, yeee i?e ?oeioaaii? aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a
?iceeaaea?oueny ia aeae?eueea noaiaeeieoeue c iieaeoey?iith ianith 60-70
eAe, a i?e aeenioe?aoe?? aeenoeueo?aeieo ca’yce?a ooai?th? eene? oa
iniiai? iie?iaioeaee c iieaeoey?iith ianith 40 oa 20 eAe, a?aeiia?aeii.
A eiai aioeaaiiiio niaeo?? aeyaeaii iaeio iniiaio e?i?th i?aoeei?oaoe??.

2. Aeiaaaeaii, ui 11S aeiaoe?i ao?ye?a – e??ia?eie. E?eoe/ia oaiia?aoo?a
eiai e??ii?aoeei?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aea? i?i?iaeuei?e oaiia?aoo??
i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ? noaiiaeoue 40N.

3. Ooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue 11S aeiaoe?io, ye caianiiai a?eea,
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaia iniaeeainoyie eiai iaeiie/aiiy oa
aeei?enoaiiy i?e aeic??aaii? oa i?i?inoaii? ian?iiy, oa?aeoa?iei
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ai?iieeneio, oeaieiiith niaoeeo?/i?noth, noaa?euei?noth
neeaaeo a ??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy.

4. Eene? iie?iaioeaee 11S aeiaoe?io a?eueo aaoa?iaaii?, aaiethoe?eii oa
aaiioeiiai i?ieea?, i?ae iniiai? iie?iaioeaee. A i?ioean? aaiethoe??
a?ae aeaeo B.patellaris Moq. aei eoeueoo?ieo oi?i ao?ye?a iinooiiai
ca?eueoo?oueny ?o /enei oa e?euee?noue i?aaenoaaeaiiai a ieo a?eea.
Iiyaa iiaeo iie?iaioeae?a a aaiethoe?? aeae?a Beta ni?aiaaea? c
oi?ioaaiiyi iiaeo aeaeiaeo eaoaai??e ? iia’ycaia c ?noioiith ci?iith
no?oeoo?e iieaeoee aeiaoe?io. A?io?i?/ia caaaa/aii?noue aeiaoe?io
aeayeeie eeneeie iie?iaioeaeaie o ni?o?a oa a?a?eae?a ii??aithth/e c
?ia?aaeieie e?i?yie iaoiiaeth? aeanoeaee ?i aiiainoac oa caaacia/o?
a?eueoo ?ioaineai?noue iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui, iiaeeeai, iia’ycaii c
aaoa?icenii.

5. A i?ioean? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a iinooiiai ci?ith?oueny
ai?no, a oaeiae aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iee oa ?iioiio?i?/iee neeaae 11S
aeiaoe?io. Aeey eiaeiiai aoaio iioiaaiaco oa?aeoa?iee iaaiee iaa?? oeeo
aeiaoe?i?a, na?aae yeeo aeyaeaii i?aaiiniaoeeo?/i? iie?iaioeaee, a
oaeiae iie?iaioeaee, ui neioacothoueny de novo aai ?iceeaaeathoueny aei
ai?iieeneio.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeic??aaii? ian?iiy a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa
iaeiie/aiiy ai?noo oa aa??aioieo oi?i 11S aeiaoe?io, ui iia’ycaii c
a?aeoieii a?ee?a ?c on??? ?ineeie oa ?aooee?caoe??th i?iaeoeo?a
?iceeaaeo aeic??aath/ei ian?iiyi. I?e oeueiio ia?oeie c’yaeythoueny
eene? iie?iaioeaee, ye? ia naiiio ii/aoeo i?i?inoaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny
iieiaeei i?i?inoeii aeey ?inoo.

7. Aeiaaaeaii, ui aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iee neeaae 11S aeiaoe?io aeaoa?i?iiaaiee
aaiioeiii ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia ae?iuoaaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a.

8. 11S aeiaoe?i ao?ye?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iacaaeainiaaiei ai?iieeneioiei
neeaaeii ? ia? iecueeee ai?no iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio, aea i?aeoe/ii
a?aenooi? iaoeii?i, oeenoei, o?eioioai. A iaea?eueo?e e?eueeino?
i?aaenoaaeai? aeooai?iiaa, ania?aa?iiaa eeneioe, a oaeiae a?a?i?i ii?yae
?c caieaeaiei ai?noii i?ie?io.

9. 11S aeiaoe?i ao?ye?a – iie?ii?oiee a?eie. O aea/aiiio aaiioiiae?, ui
aeeth/a? aeee? aeaee, ni?oe, a?a?eaee, ?ia?aaei? e?i??, iooaioe aeyaeaii
70 oaiioeiiaeo eean?a (oei?a niaeo??a) 11S aeiaoe?io. Eiaeiee oei
niaeo?o a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioiai i?eiaeii? iaeiei iie?iaioeaeii.
A?aei?ii?noue i?ae aeaeaie, ni?oaie oa e?i?yie iieyaa? a iayaiino?
??cieo oei?a niaeo??a, ui a?ae??ciythoueny neeaaeii iie?iaioeae?a, a
oaeiae ?o /anoioith.

10. Aiae?c aioo??oiueini?oiaiai iie?ii?o?cio 11S aeiaoe?io iieacaa, ui
aaiioiiae a?o/eciyieo ni?o?a-iiioeyoe?e ? oi?eaeueiei ? ia ia? aiaeia?a
a ?ioeo ao?yein?th/eo e?a?iao, a eiai neeaae? aeyaeaii 47 oei?a
niaeo??a. Ni?oe iie?ii?oi? ii neeaaeo aeiaoe?i?a (17-24 oeie niaeo??a) ?
iathoue 3-4 oa?aeoa?ieo oeie niaeo??a, ye? cono??/athoueny ?c /anoioith
41-64%. I?ea?iaeuei? ni?oe aeinoia??ii a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith oa
a?ae ?ioeo iaoa??ae?a ii cia/aiiyi 2, ?ic?aoiaaieo ia iniia? /anoio
aeyaeaieo oei?a niaeo??a.

11. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ia?eaeeia o oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ?noioii aieeaa? ia
iie?iaioeaeiee neeaae 11S aeiaoe?io, ciaioo? eiai iie?ii?o?ci oa
i?aeaeuo? /anoioo iaeiiai-aeaio oei?a niaeo??a. Iecueeee ??aaiue
iie?ii?o?cio aeiaoe?io iiaea aooe iieacieeii aaiaoe/ii? /enoioe
?ia?aaeieo e?i?e. Aiiiceaioi? e?i?? iathoue 2-3 oeie niaeo??a. E?i?? ?c
noa?eeueiith oeeoiieaciith ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy aeinoia??ii
a?ae??ciythoueny ii /anoio? aeyaeaieo oei?a niaeo??a. Aenia?eiaioaeueiee
iooaaaiac ci?ith? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oei?a niaeo??a o iooaioieo e?i?e oa
aeeeeea? iiyao iooaioieo aaiioei?a c i?ea?iaeueiei neeaaeii aeiaoe?io.

12. Aiae?c iie?ii?o?cio 11S aeiaoe?io aeeeeo aeae?a Beta aeyaea 23 oeie
niaeo??a, ye? ia cono??/athoueny o ae?iuoaaieo ni?o?a, ui aeaei ciiao
?aeaioeo?eoaaoe ?o ii oeei niaeo?ai oa ?o /anoio?, a oaeiae ooi/ieoe
o?eiaaiaoe/i? aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae aeaeaie a iaaeao ?iaeo ?, cie?aia, a
naeoe?? Corollinae Tr. Aioeaaiiee niaeo? i?aeaeaeiaeo a?a?eae?a ii?aeio?
a nai?io neeaae? iie?iaioeaee aeeeiai oa eoeueoo?iiai aeae?a,
a?a?eaei?noue ian?iiy aecia/a?oueny ii iayaiino? aeaeiniaoeeo?/iiai
aioeaaio B.vulgaris L.

13. Anoaiiaeaii aca?iica’ycie aeayeeo iie?iaioeae?a 11S aeiaoe?io c
o?c?ieia?/iei i?ioeanii iaeiie/aiiy iane ei?aiaieiaeo i?e canoinoaaii?
iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co aeaieo /anoio aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo??a a ni?oao
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a c iaeiiai aieo oa iieacieeaie iane ? a?iaeaeiino? c
ae?oaiai aieo.

14. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe ii aea/aiith o?c?ieia?/ieo oa a?io?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae 11S aeiaoe?io, eiai i?ieeaino? a iioiaaiac?, ??cieo oiiaao
ae?iuoaaiiy oa iie?ii?o?cio aeaee iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaeoe oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oiooaaoe iiaee aeey oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a iaoiae
ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo ii aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao caianieo a?ee?a,
iieacaoe iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa oeyoe ?o
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy.

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeINE?AeAEAIUe.

A ?iaio? aeaii o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino?
canoinoaaiiy caianieo a?ee?a ye ia?ea??a aeey ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae oaei? ioe?iee ii
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao 11S aeiaoe?io (A.N. N?N? ?1433190 oa iaoaio
Oe?a?ie ?8546). Nooue eiai a ?a?no?aoe?? aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo??a 11S
aeiaoe?io ie?aieo ian?iei, i?ae?aooaaii? /anoioe, c yeith aiie
cono??/athoueny o anoaiiaeai?e aea??oe? ian?iiy oa ii??aiyii? oeeo
iieaciee?a ii 2 . Iaoiae iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee a 1) o?c?ieia?? ?ineei
aeey :

— aea/aiiy iaeiie/aiiy iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a ian?ii? oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy a
i?ioean? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo iieiaei? ?ineeie;

— aeyaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo eiiiiiaio?a caianieo a?ee?a c aaaeeeaeie
o?c?ieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie;

— aecia/aiiy yeino? oa aeeoo?caeaoiino? ian?iiy;

2) a aaiaoeoe? oa naeaeoe?? aeey :

— ne?ei?iao aaiaoe/ieo eieaeoe?e;

— a?io?i?/ii? ianii?oecaoe?? ni?o?a ? e?i?e, ioe?iee ??ciiiai?oiino? ?o
aaiioiiaeo;

— aecia/aiiy aaiaoe/ii? /enoioe ?ia?aaeieo e?i?e;

— ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aeae?a Beta, i?iaiicoaaiiy ?o noi?niino? i?e
i?aeaeaeia?e a?a?eaeecaoe??, aecia/aiiy a?a?eaeiino? ian?iiy.

A?io?i?/ia ianii?oecaoe?y aeo?aeieo naeaeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ii
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo niaeo?ao 11S aeiaoe?io oa ciaiiy aca?iica’yceo
eiiiiiaio?a caianieo a?ee?a c ainiiaea?nueei-oe?iieie iciaeaie iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? aeey aeiai?o ia? i?e noai?aii? iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo
a?a?eae?a c aaaeaieie iciaeaie.

Nienie iniiaieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iioae?eiaaieo ii oai? aeena?oaoe??

1. Eaniaae/ E.A., Aieaeiaa C.A. Eco/aiea e ioeaiea aaiioiiaea naoa?iie
naaeeu ii aaeeai-ia?ea?ai // Naeueneioicyenoaaiiay aeieiaey. -–1987. —
?4. – N.58-63.

2. Aaa?eethe E.I., Eaniaae/ E.A., Caeoeaaa E.I., Eeneoeei A.I.
Eaeaioeoeeaoeey ni?oia e eeiee naoa?iie naaeeu ii ninoaao iieeiaioeaeia
11S aeiaoeeia naiyi // Aaeeiaua ia?ea?u a ni?oiaie eaeaioeoeeaoeee e
?aaeno?aoeee aaiaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. Nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia AE?. – E.: AE?, 1987. – N.126-131.

3. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Aieaeiaa C.A. Iiaua aaiaoe/aneea
ia?ea?u aeey naaeeu // Naoa?iay naaeea. – 1987. — ?7. – N.37-39.

4. Eaniaae/ E.A., Aaa?eethe E.I., Eiia?aa A.A., Caeoeaaa E.I. Caianiua
aeiaoeeiu naiyi naaeeu // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. –
1988. – o.20, ?6. – N.592-597.

5. Lesnevich L., Borisjuk V. Polymorfism 11S globulin in the
identicacion varieties and lines of sugar beet. // Biochemical
identificat. varieties. Material Intern. Simpos. ISTA. – L. USSR: VIR. –
1988. – P.236-240.

6. Aieaeiaa C.A., Oeoiiiaa A.I., Eauaiei A.A., Eaniaae/ E.A. I nicaeaiee
iiaie oi?iu naoa?iie naaeeu n iaeiieaoiei oeiii ?acaeoey //
Naeueneioicyenoaaiiay aeieiaey. – 1985. — ?7. – N.59-62.

7. Eaniaae/ E.A. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey aaiioiiaea naaeeu ii caianiui
aeiaoeeiai naiyi // Oeceieiai — aeioeie/aneea iniiau i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
naoa?iie naaeeu. – Eeaa: AIEN, 1989. – N.169-171.

8. Eaniaae/ E.A. Aaeeiaua ia?ea?u a eaeaioeoeeaoeee ni?oia e eeiee
naoa?iie naaeeu // Aeieeaaeu AANOIEE. – 1990. — ?7. N.28-32.

9. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Aaa?eethe E.I. I?eiaiaiea aaeeiauo
ia?ea?ia aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee naeaeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia naoa?iie naaeeu
// Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. – E.: AE?, 1991. – 18 n.

10. Eaniaae/ E.A., ?iee I.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Aecenue I.N. Aaiaoe/aneia
?aciiia?acea naeaeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ?acaeaeueiiieiaeiie naoa?iie
naaeeu ii aaeeai-ia?ea?ai // Aeieeaaeu AANOIEE. – 1992. — ?4. – N.2-6.

11. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Aieaeiaa C.A. Eaoaeia aaiioiiaea
naaeeu. Aui I. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ioa/anoaaiiuo ni?oia naoa?iie naaeeu ii
aaeeiaui oi?ioeai. Eeaa: AIEN, 1992.–33n.

12. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A. Iieeiaioeaeu 11S aeiaoeeia a aiaeeca
iiaeeeiiinoe ni?oia naoa?iie naaeeu // Oeceie. e aeio. eoeueo. ?anoai. –
1993. – 25,?2. – N.175-181.

13. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A. Aaeeiaua ia?ea?u a eco/aiee e
nenoaiaoecaoeee ni?oia e eeiee // Naoa?iay naaeea. – 1993. -?5. –
N.25-27.

14. Eaniaae/ E.A. Yeaeo?ioi?aoe/aneia e eiioiioeie/aneia eco/aiea
caianiuo aaeeia naiyi naaeeu // Oeceie. e aeio. eoeueo. ?ano. – 1997. –
o.29, ?3. – N.200-208.

15. Eaniaae/ E.A. Caianiua aaeee naiyi naaeeu. Eo aaoa?iaaiiinoue,
aa?eaaaeueiinoue a iioiaaiaca e iieeii?oeci // Oeceie. e aeio. eoeueo.
?ano. – 1998. – o.30, ?6. – N. 417-426.

16. E?niaae/ E.I. Aioo??oiueiaeaeiaa i?ieea?noue caianiiai aeiaoe?io
aeeeeo aeae?a ?iaeo Beta L. // Oeceie. e aeio. eoeueo. ?ano. – 1999. –
o.31, ?2. – N.129-135.

17. A.N.?1433190 NNN?, IEE A01 I1/04. Niinia eaeaioeoeeaoeee ni?oia
naoa?iie naaeeu. / Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Aieaeiaa C.A., Eiia?aa
A.A., Aaa?eethe E.I. (NNN?) – ?4125635; Cayae. 25.07.86; Iioae.
08.11.88, Athe. ?9. – 1989.

18. Iaoaio Oe?aeiu ?8546, IEE A01 I1/04. Niinia eaeaioeoeeaoeee ni?oia e
eeiee naoa?iie naaeeu / Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Aieaeiaa C.A.,
Eiia?aa A.A., Aaa?eethe E.I. – Cayae.23.12.93; Iioae.30.09.96;
Io?oe?eiee atheaoaiue I?iieneiaa aeani?noue. -?3.- 1996.

19. Aieaeiaa C.A., Eaniaae/ E.A., Iao?ooeia I.I. E aii?ino i
aeieiae/aneie niaoeeoe/iinoe ?anoai?eiuo aaeeia aeaeia ?iaea Beta a
nayce n i?aiaeieaieai iaaeaeaeiaie ianiaianoeiinoe //
Naeueneioicyenoaaiiay aeieiaey. –1984. — ?2. – N.57-60.

20. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Aieaeiaa C.A. Cia/aiea aaeeia, eae
aaiaoe/aneeo ia?ea?ia i?e eaeaioeoeeaoeee aaiiiia naaeeu //
Oeeoiaaiaoe/aneea e oeeoiyia?eieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey a naeaeoeee
naoa?iie naaeeu. – Eeaa: AIEN. – 1988. – N.88-98.

21. Aiaaeaiiaa A.I., Iiaaeeiie I.O., Eaniaae/ E.A. Na?iia ieoaiea e
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue naoa?iie naaeeu. Na?iia ieoaiea e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
?anoaiee. Na.iao/.o?. – Eeaa: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1983. – N.103-114.

22. E?niaae/ E.I., Ai?enthe A.I. Noaiaeeieoe? aeiaoe?i?a ye a?io?i?/i?
ia?ea?e o aea/aii? aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a // Oe?a?inueeee a?io?i?/iee
c’?cae. Oace aeiiia?ae?. *.??. – Ee?a: OAO, 1987. – N.56-57.

23. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A. Yeaeo?ioi?ac 11S aeiaoeeiia a
eaeaioeoeeaoeee ni?oia e eeiee naoa?iie naaeeu (Electrophoresis of
globulins 11S in identification of varieties and lines of sugar beet) //
III Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue neiiiceoi ii aeioeie/aneie eaeaioeoeeaoeee ni?oia.
Oacenu aeieeaaeia. – Eaieia?aae: AE?, 1987. – N.45-46.

24. Aieaeiaa C.A., Eaniaae/ E.A. Aeioeie/aneea ia?ea?u i?e eco/aiee
aaoa?icena e OeIN o naoa?iie naaeeu // Aaoa?icen. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea. –
Oa?ueeia: Oe? IEE ?NA, 1988. – N.19.

25. Eaniaae/ E.A. Iieeii?oeci 11S aeiaoeeiia a eco/aiee aaiiia naoa?iie
naaeeu // *anoiay aaiaoeea ?anoaiee: Oacenu aeieeaaeia ananithciie
eiioa?aioeee (23-25 iay 1989 a., Eeaa). – Eeaa: OAAI, 1989. – N.131-132.

26. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Aieaeiaa C.A. Iieeii?oeci 11S
aeiaoeeiia a eco/aiee yaiethoeeiiiuo acaeiiioiioaiee ?iaea Beta L. //
Iieaeoey?iua iaoaieciu aaiaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia. – I.: EIAaI, 1990. –
N.89.

27. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Aieaeiaa C.A. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey aaiioeia
naoa?iie naaeeu ii aaeeai-ia?ea?ai // VI nuacae Oe?aeineiai iauanoaa
aaiaoeeia e naeaeoeeiia?ia ei. I.E.Aaaeeiaa, Iieoaaa. Oacenu aeieeaaeia.
– Eeaa: AI Oe?aeiu, 1992. – N.29-30.

28. Eaniaae/ E.A., Ai?enthe A.A., Oeey? A.ss. Eciai/eainoue ninoaaa 11S
aeiaoeeiia e aaeaioeaiua aiciiaeiinoe ni?oia naoa?iie naaeeu //
Oi?aaeaiea aaiaoe/aneie eciai/eainoueth n-o ?anoaiee. – sseoa: OAAI,
1992. – N.40-41.

29. E?niaae/ E.I., Ai?enthe A.I. 11S aeiaoe?ie ye ia?ea?e a
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa aea/aii? aaiioiiaeo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a // ?? c’?cae
Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa o?c?ieia?a ?ineei. Oace aeiiia?aeae. /.?. –
Ee?a: ?O?A IAIO, 1993. – N.131-132.

30. E?niaae/ E.I. Iie?ii?o?ci caianieo a?ee?a a ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa
aea/aii? aaiioiiaeo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a // Iieaeoey?ii-aaiaoe/aneea
ia?ea?e a naeaeoeee ?anoaiee. – Eeaa: Aa?a?iay iaoea, 1994. – N.41-42.

E?niaae/ E.I. O?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oa ooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue
caianieo a?ee?a ao?ye?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.12 – o?c?ieia?y ?ineei. – ?inoeooo o?c?ieia??
?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo
aeanoeain-oae oa ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?ie? caianieo a?ee?a ao?ye?a o ca’yceo
c aeyaeaiiyi iiaeeeaino? ioe?iee aaiioiiaeo ii eiiiiiaioao oeeo a?ee?a.
Aia?oa a aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo oa ?iioiio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
anoaiiaeaii, ui caianiei a?eeii oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ? 11S aeiaoe?i, yeee
ii neeaaeo noaiaeeieoeue, iie?iaioeae?a, ai?iieeneio oa e??iaeanoeainoyi
iiae?aiee 11S aeiaoe?iai ?ioeo aeaiaeieueieo ?ineei. Ooieoe?iiaeueia
?ieue 11S aeiaoe?io ao?ye?a, ye caianiiai a?eea, aeiaaaeaia
iniaeeainoyie eiai iaeiie/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy a i?ioean? aeic??aaiiy oa
i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy, oa?aeoa?iei ?iciiae?eii ai?iieeneio, i?ieea?noth a
iioiaaiac? oa noaa?euei?noth neeaaeo a ??cieo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei.
A aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeaii o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy 11S aeiaoe?i?a ye ia?ea??a aeey ioe?iee
aaiioiiaeo ao?ye?a. ?ic?iaeaii oa caoeuaii aaoi?nueeei na?aeioeoaii N?N?
(?1433190), iaoaioii Oe?a?ie (?8546) iiaee aeey oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a iaoiae
ioe?iee aeae?a, ni?o?a ? e?i?e ca aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieie niaeo?aie
aeiaoe?io. E?eoa???i oaei? ioe?iee anoaiiaeaii oeie niaeo??a, ?o /enei
oa /anoioo, c yeith aiie cono??/athoueny o iaai?e aea??oe? ian?iiy.
?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui canoinoaaiiy
caianieo a?ee?a ao?ye?a ye ia?ea??a aea? iiaeeea?noue c aenieei nooiaiai
ae?ia?aeiino? cae?enithaaoe ianii?oecaoe?th oa ?a?noaoe?th ni?o?a ?
e?i?e, aeyaeyoe ?o ??ciiiai?oi?noue oa i?ea?iaeuei? oi?ie,
anoaiiaethaaoe aca?iica’ycie aeayeeo iie?iaioeae?a c aaaeeeaeie
o?c?ieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie, aecia/aoe ye?noue oa aeeoo?caeaoi?noue
ian?iiy, ioe?ithaaoe aaiaoe/io /enoioo oa iioiaeaeaiiy e?i?e,
ooi/ithaaoe o?eiaaiaoe/i? aca?iia?aeiineie a iaaeao ?iaeo Beta L.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: 11S aeiaoe?i, aeaeo?ioi?ac, ?iioiio?i?y, ooieoe?iiaeueia
?ieue aeiaoe?i?a, iioiaaiaoe/ia oa aaiioeiiaa i?ieea?noue, a?eeia?
ia?ea?e, ioe?iea aaiioiiaeo, ianii?oecaoe?y ni?o?a ? e?i?e,
o?eiaaiaoe/i? aca?iia?aeiineie, ao?yee (ni?oe, a?a?eaee, e?i??, aeee?
aeaee).

Eaniaae/ E.A. Oeceieiai-aeioeie/aneea naienoaa e ooieoeeiiaeueiay ?ieue
caianiuo aaeeia naaeeu. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.12 – oeceieiaey ?noaiee. – Einoeooo oeceieiaee
?anoaiee e aaiaoeee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth oeceieiai-aeioeie/aneeo naienoa e
ooieoeeiiaeueiie ?iee caianiuo aaeeia naaeeu a nayce n ii?aaeaeaieai
aiciiaeiinoe ioeaiee aaiioiiaea ii eiiiiiaioai yoeo aaeeia. Aia?aua a
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/aneeo e eiioiioeie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo onoaiiaeaii, /oi
caianiui aaeeii naoa?iie naaeeu yaeyaony 11S aeiaoeei, eioi?ue a
aeennioeee?othuae nenoaia iieeae?eeaieaeiiai aaey ia?acoao aeaa a?oiiu
iieeiaioeaeia n iieaeoey?iie iannie 40 e 20 eAe. Iieacaii, /oi ninoaa
noauaaeeieoe, iieeiaioeaeia, aieiieeneio e e?einaienoaa yoiai aeiaoeeia
iiaeiaiu 11S aeiaoeeiai ae?oaeo aeaoaeieueiuo ?anoaiee. Yoio aeiaoeei
iinoaiaiii iaeaieeaaaony i?e nic?aaaiee naiyi e ia?aui eniieuecoaony i?e
i?i?anoaiee. A i?ioeanna ?inoa e ?acaeoey naaeeiae/iiai ?anoaiey
eciaiyaony niaea?aeaiea, a oaeaea aeaeo?ioi?aoe/aneee e eiioiioeie/aneee
ninoaa 11S aeiaoeeia. Aeey eaaeaeiai yoaia iioiaaiaca oa?aeoa?ai
ii?aaeaeaiiue iaai? yoeo aaeeia, n?aaee eioi?uo auyaeaiu
i?aaiiniaoeeoe/iua iieeiaioeaeu, a oaeaea iieeiaioeaeu, eioi?ua
neioace?othony de novo eee ?aniaaeathony aei aieaa i?inouo niaaeeiaiee.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeaeo?ioi?aoe/aneee ninoaa 11S aeiaoeeia
aeaoa?ieie?iaai aaiioeiii e ia caaeneo io oneiaee au?aueaaiey ?anoaiee.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay ?ieue 11S aeiaoeeia, eae caianiiai aaeea, aeieacaia
iniaaiiinoyie aai iaeiieaiey e eniieueciaaiey a i?ioeanna nic?aaaiey e
i?i?anoaiey naiyi, oa?aeoa?iui ?ani?aaeaeaieai aieiieeneio,
eciai/eainoueth a iioiaaiaca e noaaeeueiinoueth ninoaaa a ?aciuo
oneiaeyo au?aueaaiey ?anoaiee. I?aaenoaaeaii oeceieiai-aeioeie/aneia
iainiiaaiea aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey 11S aeiaoeeiia eae ia?ea?ia aeey
ioeaiee aaiioiiaea naaeeu.

A aeenna?oaoeee onoaiiaeaii, /oi iieeii?oeci 11S aeiaoeeia i?iyaeyaony
i?e yeaeo?ioi?aca yeno?aeoia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo naiyi, /oi aeaei
aiciiaeiinoue auyaeoue ?aciiia?aciua oeiu niaeo?ia yoiai aeiaoeeia. Oeiu
niaeo?ia, eo /enei e /anoioa n eioi?ie iie ano?a/athony a onoaiiaeaiiie
auai?ea naiyi ioee/athony o ?aciuo ni?oia, eeiee e aeaeia. ?ac?aaioai e
caueuai aaoi?neei naeaeaoaeuenoaii NNN? (?1433190), iaoaioii Oe?aeiu
(?8546) iiaue aeey naoa?iie naaeeu iaoiae ioeaiee aaiioiiaea ii
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/aneei niaeo?ai 11S aeiaoeeia, aaea enneaaeoaioth ia?oeth
naiyi oa?aeoa?ecotho ii yoei iieacaoaeyi. A eco/aiii aaiioiiaea naaeeu
auyaeaii 70 oeiia niaeo?ia 11S aeiaoeeia, ec ieo 47 oeiia niaeo?ia
niioaaonoaotho ni?oai e aea?eaeai, 23 oeia niaeo?ia – aeeeei aeaeai.
Aiaeec aioo?eni?oiaiai iieeii?oecia aeiaoeeia iieacae, /oi ioa/anoaaiiua
ni?oa-iiioeyoeee oieeaeueiu e ia eiatho aiaeiaia a ae?oaeo naaeeinathueo
no?aiao. Onoaiiaeaiiue iaie i?eaeiaeueiue iieeiaioeaeiue ninoaa aeeeeo
aeaeia e eiaeooee?iaaiiuo iooaioia, iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue eo eae
cia/eoaeueiue aaiaoe/aneee ?aca?a a ?anoe?aiee ?aciiia?acey iiauo
aea?eaeia, i?eaianaiee a ieo naienoa onoie/eainoe e i?iaeoeoeaiinoe.

?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee iieacaee, /oi eniieueciaaiea
caianiuo aaeeia naaeeu eae ia?ea?ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue n aunieie
noaiaiueth aeinoiaa?iinoe inouanoaeyoue ianii?oecaoeeth e ?aaeno?aoeeth
ni?oia e eeiee, auyaeyoue eo ?aciiia?acea e i?eaeiaeueiua oi?iu,
onoaiaaeeaaoue acaeiinaycue iaeioi?uo iieeiaioeaeia n aaaeiuie
oeceieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, ii?aaeaeyoue ea/anoai e aeecianiiniaiinoue
naiyi, ioeaieaaoue aaiaoe/aneoth /enoioo e i?ienoiaeaeaiea eeiee,
ooi/iyoue oeeiaaiaoe/aneea acaeiinayce a i?aaeaeao ?iaea Beta L.,
onoaiaaeeaaoue aea?eaeiinoue naiyi.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: 11S aeiaoeei, yeaeo?ioi?ac, eiioiioeiey,
ooieoeeiiaeueiay ?ieue aeiaoeeiia, iioiaaiaoe/aneay e aaiioeie/aneay
eciai/eainoue, aaeeiaua ia?ea?u, ioeaiea aaiioiiaea, ianii?oecaoeey
ni?oia e eeiee, oeeiaaiaoe/aneea acaeiiioiioaiey, naaeea (ni?oa,
aea?eaeu, eeiee, aeeeea aeaeu).

Lisnevych L.A. Physiologo-biochemical properties and functional role of
beet storage proteins. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by specialiti 03.00.12 – plant physiology –
Institut of Plant Physiology and Genetics of the National Academy of
Scienses of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to investigating physiologo-biochemical
properties and functional role of beet storage protein in connection
with determination of the possibility to estimate genetical pool by the
components of these proteins. For the first time 11S globulin has been
found to be a storage protein for sugar beet. Electrophoretical and
immunochemical investigations show that globulin is similar to 11S
globulin of other dicotyledonous plants by their composition of
subunits, polypeptides, aminoacids and crioproperties. Functional role
of 11S globulin as a storage protein is proved by the peculiarities of
its accumulation and use in the process of seed maturing and
germinating, by a characteristic aminoacid distribution, variability in
ontogenesis and by a stability of the composition under different
conditions of plant growing. Physiologo-biochemical grounds for a
possibility of 11S globulin as markers for estimating beet genetical
pool are presented in the dissertation. A new for sugar beet method
which allows to estimate species, varieties and lines by using globulin
electrophoretical spectra, is developed (A.S. ?1433190, Patent ?8546).
Types of the spectra, their number and the frequency, they occur in a
definite set of seeds, are a criterium of such estimating. The results
of the investigations have shown that the use of beet storage proteins
as markers makes it possible with high validity to introduce a passport
system and registrate varieties and lines, to reveal their variations
and original forms, to interconnect some polypeptides with important
physiological processes, to define seed quality and viability, to
estimate genetical purity and line origine, to detail phylogenetical
interrelations in the range of Beta L.

Key words: 11S globulins, electrophoresis, immunochemistry, functional
role of globulins, ontogenetic and genotypical variability, protein
markers, estimating beet genetical pool, a passport system varieties and
lines, phylogenetical interrelations, beet (variaties, hybrids, lines,
wild species).

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