2

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

E?ANI?EIAA Ienaia Ieeiea?aia

OAeE 336.47(477)»18″

O?IAINE OA E?AAeEO O N?EUeNUeEIIO AINIIAeA?NOA? E?AIAA?AAEII? OE?A?IE
AIIOE A?EUeIIAI I?AeI?E?IIEOeOAA

(1861 — 1917 ??.)

08.01.04 — aeiiii?/ia ?noi??y oa ?noi??y

aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? o?iain?a ? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Iieoaanueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
iie?o-aeiiii?? Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo
?i.A.A.Ei?ieaiea

AEO*AIEI Aieiaeeie? Naiaiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa.eaoaae?ith
aeiiii?/ii? oai???, ?noi??? ? iaiaaeaeiaioo Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e

EI?O?EssI A?ino Eueaiae/

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee,
caa.a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie

AeA?AA`ssIE?I Oeiio?e ?aaiiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ?noi??? IAI Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «__4_»/a?aiy 1999 ?. i «14-00» aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.13 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e o
Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252022,
i.Ee?a — 22, aoe.Aaneeuee?anueea, 90 a, aeiiii?/iee oaeoeueoao, aoae.
704.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (i.Ee?a, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «23_» ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

Eaiiaiei I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?? ianya noaiiaeoue 176 noi??iie. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?
e?oa?aoo?e (21 noi??iea, 276 iaca), 18 aeiaeaoe?a.

Anooi. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. No?aoaa?/iee eo?n Oe?a?ie ia
ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ye iaeiiai c iaeaaaeeea?oeo /eiiee?a
?ioaineo?eaoe?? aoaeoeaiino? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, coiiaeth?
i?aeaeuaiee ?ioa?an ia eeoa aei ca?oa?aeiiai, aea ? a?aeiia?aeiiai
a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo, ui iaa i?noea a Oe?a?i? i?ney neanoaaiiy o 1861
?. e??iiniiai i?aaa. Aa?o/e aei oaaae oa, ui ?eiie oiaa??a, ye
na?oeaaeia ?eieiai? nenoaie, iiaea aoaeoeaii ooieoe?iioaaoe o
aca?iica’yceo c ?ioeie ?eieaie, cie?aia, ?eieaie eai?oae?a oa ?iai/i?
neee, a?ae??cie /ano c 1861 ?. ii 1917 ?. aoa ia /ei ?ioei, ye aiioith
a?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. A oiae? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? i?aaiaiai noaiiaeua eieeoi?o iii?ueoeueeeo ?
aea?aeaaieo naeyi, ui iaei i?noea o 60-80-o ?ieao XIX no., ae??ai?
oiaa?iae?iaieee iaea?aeaee iiaeeea?noue naiino?eii aecia/aoe niin?a
iaea?aeaiiy iaiao?aeieo cania?a aei ?nioaaiiy, caeiaoeny oi?a?aeath,
eonoa?ieie aai a?aeoiaeeie i?iieneaie. Iaeii/anii nooo?ai ci?ieeeny ?
oiiae ainiiaea?thaaiiy eieeoi?o iii?uee?a, ye? aieiae?ee aaee/acieie
ianeaaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue. C?inoaiiy ieoiii? aaae
a?eueiiiaeiaii? i?aoe? a on?o noa?ao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa iaeii/anii c iineeaiiyi ?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a o na?oia?e
aeiiii?oe? noaaeei ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii?
e?aaeeoii? nenoaie – iaeiiai c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aa?o?nieo oaeoi??a
?icaeoeo ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Ca?aene c?icoi?ei, iane?eueee aeooaeueiei ?
o iao /an ieoaiiy aea/aiiy oeyo?a ? iaoiae?a noaiiaeaiiy e?aaeeoo
acaaae? ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai cie?aia. Caaaeath/e ia iaai?
aiaeia?? c no/ani?noth, aea/aiiy i?aai?caoe?? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii?
nenoaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? i?ney
neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai i?aaa ? aaaeeeaei ? aa?oei oaaae ia eeoa
aeine?aeiee?a, a e a?aeiia?aeieo aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?, iniaeeai
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie. Oea aeiiiiiaea e?aua
c?icoi?oe nooi?noue oaiaeaioe?e iei?oiueiai noaio ?aoi?ioaaiiy aa?a?ieo
oa o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo a?aeiinei, aeicaieeoue oieeiooe iiaoi?o
iiia?aaei?o i?i?aooie?a, aeei?enoaaoe iiceoeaiee aeina?ae ia oaeiai aaea
? aeaeaeiai ieioeiai.

Aeoiaey/e c ie?aneaii? i?iaeaiaoeee, ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoi? a?aeiineie a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie
1861-1917 ??. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea i?aai?caoe?y o?iainiaiai
caaacia/aiiy aeeoio naeyi c e??iinii? caeaaeiino?, ae?yeuei?noue
Aeai?yinueeiai ? Naeyinueeiai aea?aeaaieo oa aeoe?iia?ieo caiaeueieo
aaie?a, iice/eiai-iuaaeieo oa e?aaeeoieo oiaa?enoa, aieinieo ean ?
n?euenueeeo aaie?a. Ia?aeaeueii c aea/aiiyi ooieoe?iioaaiiy cacia/aieo
e?aaeeoieo onoaiia, c’yniaoaaeinue oaeiae ? cia/aiiy cainueeiai oa
o?yaeiaiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo, aieea noieei?inueeiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ia ?icaeoie oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei, nenoaio oe?i ?
oe?iiooai?aiiy, athaeaeao naeyinueeiai oa iii?ueoeueeiai ainiiaea?noa.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae neanoaaiiy
e??iiniiai i?aaa o 1861 ?. aei a?aeiieo nioe?aeueieo iio?yn?iue 1917 ?.,
ui i?eaaee a?aoo?-?aoo aei ci?ie noni?eueiiai ono?ith, e?ea?aeaoe??
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? ooaa?aeaeaiiy eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaaeai? E?aiaa?aaeiith Oe?a?iith.
O aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae a aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiio
a?aeiioaii? oeae ?aa?ii neeaaeaany c Iieoaanueei?, Oa?e?anueei? oa
*a?i?a?anueei? aoaa?i?e. sse a aeiiii?/iiio, oae ? o
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iiio a?aeiioaiiyo oeae ?aa?ii nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aoaa?i?e I?aaiaa?aaeii? ? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie. Oea
aoa /enoi caiea?ianueeee ?aa?ii c yne?aai ae?aaeaiei aa?a?iei
ia?aianaeaiiyi, cia/iith ieoiiith aaaith eicaoeoaa, yea i?eiee ia ciaei
e??iiniiai i?aaa, aaaaoiaaeocaaith niaoe?ae?caoe??th
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, /eneaiiei ae??aiiiii?niei
aeai?yinoaii.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oi?aa?naeuei?
i?eioeeie iaoeiaino?, ?noi?ecio oa ia’?eoeaiino?. Aaoi? nie?aeany ye ia
nooi ?noi?e/i?, oae ? ia caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee. Na?aae ?noi?e/ieo
i?ia?aeieie aoee: neio?iiiee, o?iiieia?/iee, iaoiae aeooae?caoe?? oa
ii??aiyiiy. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?aaaaeii
aeiiii?/ia i?iaeaiaoeea, aeei?enoaii oaeiae ieceo caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo
iaoiae?a, ye io: iaoiae eia?/iiai aiae?co, eeaneo?eaoe?y oa
nenoaiaoecaoe?y, ocaaaeueiaiiy, noaoenoe/iee oa aeiiiiao?e/iee iaoiaee.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, uia ia iniia? iioae?eiaaieo oa
a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iiia?aaeiee?a,
?aeiino?othaaoe i?aai?caoe?th n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo,
c’ynoaaaoe eiai i?noea a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie i?ney neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai i?aaa.

Aeoiaey/e c icia/aiiai, iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

— aecia/eoe a?aeiia?aei? aeiiii?/i? oa ?io? /eiieee, ui coiiaeee
aeiei??iio ia?aaoaeiao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo i?ney 1861
?.;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe caeiiiaeaa/o aaco oa iniiai? oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
no?oeoo?e ?iioa/iiai oa ae??aiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX – ia ii/aoeo XX no.;

— a?aeoai?eoe iaoai?ci ooieoe?iioaaiiy caiaeueieo aaie?a,
iice/eiai-iuaaeieo oa n?euenueeeo e?aaeeoieo oiaa?enoa;

— aecia/eoe ?ieue a?o/eciyiiai i?eaaoiiai eai?oaeo, i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee oa cainoa a i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo;

— c’ynoaaoe aieea noieei?inueei? aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie ia o?iainiaee noai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, aaiethoe?th nenoaie oe?i ?
oe?iiooai?aiiy ia ii/aoeo XX no.;

— noi?ioethaaoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith aeina?aeo
ooieoe?iioaaiiy caiaeueieo aaie?a aiioe a?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a
no/anieo oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny oei, ui o i?e ?icaeyaea?oueny
eiiieaen ieoaiue, ye? a oaeiio aniaeo?, o?iiieia?/ieo ?aieao ?
oa?eoi??aeueieo iaaeao ua ia aena?oethaaeeny:

— aia?oa a?aeoai?aii caaaeueio noaio i?aai?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo, a yeiio naith, /?oei icia/aio
ooieoe?th, aeeiioaaee aea?aeaai? oa aeoe?iia?i? caiaeuei? aaiee, aieini?
oa cainuee? eane, iice/eiai-iuaaei? ? e?aaeeoi? oiaa?enoaa, a oaeiae
n?euenuee? aaiee;

— ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei c’ynoaaiiy oeyo?a ? iaoiae?a
noaiiaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo a aoaa?i?yo
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie i?ney neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai i?aaa cae?eniaii ieceo
naiino?eieo i?ae?aooie?a, o oiio /ene? ? aeiiiiao?e/iee aiae?c
a?aeiia?aeieo iieaciee?a c aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?iiii? oaaeeoe? Exel 97;

— aianai? nooo?a? ei?aeoeae a ?nioth/a oyaeaiiy i?i cia/aiiy e?aaeeoieo
iia?aoe?e ??cieo aaie?a o o?iainoaaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, ae??aiiai, cainueeiai ? o?yaeiaiai e?aaeeoo,
ia?niaeoeae ?o ?icaeoeo a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Iiaecio aeena?oaoe?? oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaeiae oe?iea eiei a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo aia?oa aaaaeaia aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao,
cai?iiiiiaai? aaoi?ii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai
aeina?aeo ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?aaeeoieo onoaiia a no/anieo oiiaao
?aoi?ioaaiiy aa?a?ii-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??,
noi?ioeueiaai? o i?e aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?:

— o iiaeaeueoiio ?aoi?ioaaii? aaie?anueei? nenoaie, noaiiaeaii?
?iioa/iiai e?aaeeoo, ui ? iaieio/ei o ca’yceo c ?aae?caoe??th
cao?eniaaiiai o no. 14 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie i?aaa aeaniino? ia caieth ye
th?eaee/ieo, oae ? o?ce/ieo in?a;

— i?aeaioiaoe? ? i?eeiyoo? Caeiio “I?i eiiia?aoeai? oiaa?enoaa” oa
aaaaeaii? a caeiiiaeaa/a iiea Oe?a?ie iiaiai th?eaee/iiai oa?i?io
“eiiia?aoeaia oiaa?enoai”, ui aeicaieeei a ia o?eueee /?oei aecia/eoe
noaoon e?aaeeoii? ni?eee, a e noai?eoe oiiae aeey a?ae?iaeaeaiiy anueiai
?icia?ooy oi?i eiiia?aoeaieo i?aai?caoe?e, yeeo oae iio?aao? aa?a?iee
naeoi? aeiiii?ee no/anii? Oe?a?ie;

— i?e ?ic?iaoe? oe?ieiai eiea i?iaeai c ?noi??? o?iainiaiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo, /eoaii? eaeoe?eieo oa niaoe?aeueieo aoc?anueeeo eo?n?a,
oeeaaeaii? iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a, i?ae?o/iee?a, ocaaaeueithth/eo oa
iiioey?ieo i?aoeue ye ?noi?e/iiai, oae ? aeiiii?/iiai oeeee?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Oaeno aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaany ia
?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? o?iain?a, aeiiii?/ii? oai??? oa
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
?inoeoooo. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaio ii?eethaeiea ia
aeaio ?aa?iiaeueieo (“Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o/eciyii?
?noi??? oa iaoiaeeee ?? iaa/aiiy”, Iieoaaa, 19 o?aaiy 1997 ?.; 50-oa
iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y i?ioani??a, aeeeaaea/?a, iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a,
ani??aio?a oa nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoaoo, Iieoaaa, 15 aa?aciy 1998 ?.) oa
aeaio i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo (“Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a ?in??”,
Iineaa, 18-20 na?iiy 1997 ?.; “Aeiiii?/ia ?noi??y ?in?? XIX-XX no.:
no/aniee iiaeyae”, Iineaa, 18-19 eenoiiaaea 1997 ?.).

O ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa aeo?iaeao iioae?eiaaii 5 noaoae. O
iaoa??aeao aeaio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e iaae?oeiaaii oace
aeiiia?aeae. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?
i?aoeyo neeaaea? 50 a?aenioe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ? oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae?,
iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe ?c cacia/aiiyi iaoeiai?
iiaecie oa i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy, a oaeiae aeaco?oueny ia ai?iaaoe?th ?
ioae?eaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie oa aeaea?aeueia aaca” —
?icaeyaea?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie aeena?oaoe??. Ia?o?
ocaaaeueithth/? i?aoe? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie
iiaa/eee na?o iaaaeiac? i?ney neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai i?aaa ? cae?eniaiiy
o ca’yceo c oeei oae caaii? aeeoiii? iia?aoe??. Oea ianaiia?aae i?aoe?
aeiiii?no?a I. Aaneeue/eeiaa, ?. A?eueniia, TH. ssiniia, E. Oiaenueeiai,
I. Ieaoe?ia, I. Eiaaiueea Aaneeue/eeia A.E. Caieaaeaaeaiea e caieaaeaeea
a ?innee e ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noaao. O.2. – NIa., 1876. – 1008
n.; ssinii TH. Iiuo noaoenoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey i e?anoueyineeo
iaaeaeao e ieaoaaeao. – NIa., 1877. – 160 n.; Aeeuenii E. Aueoiiua ia
caiee ieaoaaee e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia auaoeo iiiaue/ueeo. 1862-1876.
Aueoiiua ia caiee ieaoaaee auaoeo oaeaeueiuo e?anoueyi. 1871-1876.
Noaoenoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea. – NIa., 1878. – 116 n.; Oiaeneee E.A.
Caiey e caieaaeaaeaeaoe. Yeiiiie/aneia e noaoenoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea.
O.2. – NIa., 1892. – 314 n.; Ieaoeei I.I. Aueoiiua ieaoaaee. E aii?ino
ia eo iiieaeaiee. – Oa?ueeia, 1904. – 59 n. oa ?yaeo ?ioeo aaoi??a, ui
iinoaaeee ia?aae niaith caaaeaiiy aena?oeeoe oiiae (o oiio /ene? ?
o?iainia?) ia?aoiaeo iii?uee?a ? naeyi aei ?eieiaeo iaoiae?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. A?aei?/ai? i?aoe? ia??aiioe?ii? oi/a a c iaeyaeo ia
oa, ui aiooaaeeny ia ??cieo noaae?yo cae?eniaiiy aeeoiii? iia?aoe??.
Ie?ai? i?aoe? (?. A?eueniia) i?aeoe/ii ia iathoue iaoeiaeo aeniiae?a,
oi/a ca ianyaii ? aeineoue cia/ieie. A eiioeaio?iaai?e, /?oe?e ?
c?icoi?e?e oe?ieiio eieo a?iiaaenueeino? oi?i? o?iainia? ?acoeueoaoe
?aoi?ie 1861 ?. i?aaenoaaeai? a iacia/i?e ca ianyaii i?aoe? I.
Eineoeueeiai Eineoeeee A. Aueoiiay iia?aoeey. – NIa., 1906. – 56 n.,
yeiai ia aeiaaeeiai oeeoothoue iaiaei no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a.

?noi??ia?ao?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo ?in?enueei? ?iia???
i?aaenoaaeaia a iniiaiiio iiiia?ao?yie A. Na?aeiiae/a, ?. Eaooiaia, O.
O?onaae/a, I. Ao?’?aa, ?. Oienoiai, I. Aaneeue/eeiaa, A. sseiaeaaa
Na?aeiiae/ A.ss. Iicaiaeueiue e?aaeeo, aai i?ioeia, ianoiyuaa e
aoaeouaa. – NIa., 1887. – 186 n.; Eaooiai E.E. I caaeieaeaiiinoe
caieaaeaaeaiey a nayce ni noaoenoe/aneeie aeaiiuie i i?eoiea eaieoaeia e
iiianoiiio caieaaeaaeaieth ni a?aiaie inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi. – NIa.,
1888. – 171 n.; O?onaae/ O. Ii aii?ino i aeai?yineii
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii e?aaeeoa. – NIa., 1892. – 16 n.; Ao?ueaa A.I.
I/a?e ?acaeoey e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee a ?innee. – NIa., 1904. – 439 n.;
Oienoie E.A. Ianoiyuaa ninoiyiea iicaiaeueiiai e?aaeeoa a ?innee e
i?iaiue i?iaeo i aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaoue ainoaea?noaaiiue iicaiaeueiue
e?aaeeo. – NIa., 1883. – 121 n.; Aaneeue/eeia A., sseiaeaa A. Iaeeee
caiaeueiue e?aaeeo a ?innee. – NIa., 1911. – 131 n. oa eieaeoeaieie
i?aoeyie caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai Naeueneioicyenoaaiiue e?aaeeo a ?innee.
Ecae-a AOC e C. – NIa., 1910. – 191 n. ? ?aa?iiaeueiiai ianooaa?a
Nai?iee naaaeaiee, ioiinyueony e aeaeo ono?ienoaa nnoaei-naa?aaaoaeueiuo
oiaa?euanoa a Iieoaaneie aoaa?iee . – Iieoaaa, 1872. – 160 n.. Aaoi?e,
ui aiae?coaaee i?aeoeeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeooaaiiy a
?in?enuee?e ?iia???, /eiaei oaaae i?eae?eyee ? oe?a?inueeei aoaa?i?yi,
cie?aia ?? E?aiaa?aaeaeth. ? ana ae /a?ac ?icii?ioai?noue oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo ca ??cieie ?icae?eaie ? ia?aa?aoaie, a oaeiae a?aenooi?noue c
oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei a?aeiia?aeieo aeaieo, oe?e?nii? ea?oeie ?icaeoeo
e?aaeeooaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie o aeuacaaaeaieo i?aoeyo iaia?. C ?ioiai aieo, eieaeoeai? i?aoe?,
ui aiooaaeenue i?noeaaeie cainueeeie noaoenoeeaie ii aoaa?i?yo
ioiiethaaee, ye i?aaeei, eeoa ie?ai? nthaeaoe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
e?aaeeoo. Iae/ano?oa iiaa eoea i?i ae??aiee e?aaeeo, a i?aai?caoe??
yeiai a?aei o/anoue aaciina?aaeiuei naeyinoai, ?ai?nieee, aea?aeaai?
neoaeaiaoe? oa ae??ai? oi?a?aoe?. Oaeei /eiii, iica oaaaith caeeoaany
e?aaeeo, ui iaa iac??aiyiii a?eueoa cia/aiiy a ainiiaea?nuee?e
ae?yeueiino? i?ea?eaeiaaieo (aeai?yi, eoioe?a, ii/anieo a?iiaaeyi) oa
iai?ea?eaeiaaieo (naeyi, i?uai, ?ai?niee?a ? ae??aieo neoaeaiaoe?a)
noai?a. Iiaa eaea i?i ae?yeuei?noue ?iioa/ieo aaie?a, ?noi??ia?ao?y yeeo
i?aaenoaaeaia /eneaiieie i?aoeyie oai?aoee?a ? i?aeoee?a aaie?anueei?
ni?aae. A aeiaeiaoiaaee ia??iae ocaaaeueithth/? i?aoe? c ?noi???
Naeyinueeiai iicaiaeueiiai aaieo i?aeaiooaaee I. E?anee oa I. Cae E?anee
A.A. E?anoueyineee aaie e aai aeayoaeueiinoue n 1883 ii 1905 a. –
TH?ueaa, 1910. – 331 n.; Cae A.E. E?anoueyineee iicaiaeueiue aaie.
1883-1910. – I., 1911. – 607 n., ye? oi/ ? ia ioiieththoue oaanue
ia??iae eiai ae?yeueiino?, iaeiae aeathoue aeineoue iiaia oyaeaiiy i?i
ae?yeuei?noue aaieo oi?iaeiaae ia?oiai aeaaaeoeyoei’yoee?ooy ia
oa?eoi??? oeo aoaa?i?e, aea aoee a?aee?eo? eiai a?aeae?eaiiy
(aeeth/ath/e Iieoaanueeo, Oa?e?anueeo oa *a?i?a?anueeo). Aeoe?iia?i?
caiaeuei? aaiee aei 1917 ?. ia aoee i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ie?ai? a?aeiiino? i?i ?o ae?yeuei?noue iiaeathoue aaoi?e
ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? i?eaaoiiai eai?oaeo Eaooiai E.E.
Noaoenoeea ?onneeo aaieia. *anoue 1. – NIa., 1872. – 355 n. *anoue 2. –
NIa., 1875. – 545 n.; ?aoaeiae/ E.A. Aeoeeiia?iua eiiia?/aneea aaiee, eo
aaeainu e eo iia?aoeee. – NIa., 1887. – 127 n.; Ieaoeei I.I. Iaoa
aaieiaay iieeoeea (1729-1903). Oa?ueeia, 1904. – 439 n.; Iaea?ia A.O.
Aaiee e e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey. – NIa., 1914. – 223 n.; Eaaei E.E.
Aeoeeiia?iua eiiia?/aneea aaiee a ?innee. O.1. – Ia., 1917. – 301 n. .
Oa ae naia iiaeia neacaoe ? i?i e?aaeeooaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aea?aeaaith. Eeoa c 1909 ?. a “Aaeaaiaeieea caiaeueiuo
oeo/oaiee”, ui ii/aa aeoiaeeoe i?e Aieiaiiio oi?aae?ii?
caieaaii?yaeeoaaiiy ? caiaeueieo ni?aa, noaee ioae?eoaaoe
?noi?eei-aeiiii?/i? noaoo? i?i ae?yeuei?noue oeueiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai a?aeiinoaa Aeea., iai?.: Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea
caieaono?ienoaa e caieaaeaeey. Ioaeae caiaeueiuo oeo/oaiee. 1909.
Aaeaaiaeiee ioaeaea caiaeueiuo oeo/oaiee. Aiae ia?aue. – NIa., 1910. –
407 n..

Ei??ii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa iie?oe/i? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoeeny ia
oa?eoi??? eieeoiuei? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a 1917-1920 ??., coiiaeee
noaiiaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai ?ioi? ?aeaieia?/ii? ia?aaeeaie. sseui ia?aaaaeia
/anoeia aeiaeiaoiaaeo aeine?aeiee?a i?aaioea a?eueo-iaio ia’?eoeaii
aena?oethaaoe noni?euei? i?ioeane (a onyeiio ?ac? aeey oeueiai ?nioaaee
iaai? ia’?eoeai? oiiae), oi ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?ney caaa?oaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie aeeeoaoo?e iaei??? ia?o?? iicaaaeea aeine?aeiee?a
iiaeeeaino? a?eueii aeneiaethaaoe nai? aeoiee o oi?i? a?aeiia?aeieo
iaoeiaeo aeniiae?a. O 20-o? ?iee, eiee ?aeaieia?/iee i?an ua ia aoa
oaeei aei?noeei, yeei a?i noaa c inoaoi/iei ooaa?aeaeaiiyi o 30-o? ?iee
noae?inueei? aeaniio??, iiaa/eee na?o e?eueea ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c
?noi??? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo. A oeueiio eiioaeno?
aeae?ey?oueny oe?eaaa i?aoey Ae.Aaoo?einueeiai i?i ae?yeuei?noue
Naeyinueeiai iicaiaeueiiai aaieo oi?iaeiaae on??? eiai ?noi???
(1883-1917 ??.) Aaoo?eineee Ae.A. Aa?a?iay iieeoeea oea?neiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e E?anoueyineee iicaiaeueiue aaie. – I.: “Iiaay
aea?aaiy”, 1925. – 144 n.. A i?e ?, cae/aeii, a?aeiia?aei? a?aeiiino? ?
i?i ?aa?ii, ui ian oe?eaaeoue. Iaeiae aaoi? aaaea iiao ia eeoa i?i
aaie?anuee? iia?aoe?? c ia?ooii?noth. Aeecueei iieiaeie ai?uaii? ooo
?ioi?iaoe?? noino?oueny a?eueo oe?ieiai ieoaiiy – aa?a?ii? iie?oeee
oea?ecio.

C ooaa?aeaeaiiyi oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie, ye?e aoea i?eoaiaiia
aaniethoecaoe?y eeaniai? ai?ioueae, ?ie? i?ieaoa??aoo oa ?aeaieia??
ia?enecio-eai?i?cio a ?noi?e/iiio i?ioean?, aeine?aeieeai ?aaeyinueeiai
ia??iaeo iaaecae/aeii aaaeei aoei noi?ioethaaoe aeania a?aeiioaiiy aei
aaaaoueio i?iaeai oae caaii? eai?oae?noe/ii? aiioe. Ia aeeaii, ui on?
aac aeiyoeo i?aoe? ?aaeyinueeeo aeine?aeiee?a oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
??ceith, ia??aeei aacaeoiiith e?eoeeith anueiai oiai, /ei caeiaany
oea?nueeee o?yae. Oea ? o?iainiaa iie?oeea caaaeii ? aaie?anueea
cie?aia, athaeaeao cainueeeo onoaiia oa a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, ui a
o?e /e ?io?e i??? eiio?iethaaeenue I?i?noa?noaii o?iain?a Aeea., iai?.:
Aeiaeei E.O. ?onneea eiiia?/aneea aaiee. Ec enoi?ee oeiainiaiai eaieoaea
a ?innee. – I., 1948. – 271 n.; Iia?aaeineee A.I. I/a?ee enoi?ee
oeiainia aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee. – I., 1954. – 301 n.; Aaeiaei A.A.
E?anoueyineee iicaiaeueiue aaie (1882-1895). – I., Ecae-ai “Nioeyeaec”,
1959. – 311 n.. Eiee ae ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aeaaaa i?aenoaa aeey
e?eoeee oea?ecio, oaia aaaaeaeanue iaaeooaeueiith ? ia
aeine?aeaeoaaeanue acaaae?, i?i ui na?ae/eoue, cie?aia, i?aoey
eieeoiueiai aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo ?noi??? AI O?N? ?.I. Ao?ae?y i?i
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? i?ney neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai
i?aaa Ao?ae?e ?.I. Oe?a?ia a nenoai? ana?in?enueeiai ?eieo 60-90-o ?ie?a
XIX no. – E.: “Iaoeiaa aeoiea”, 1968. – 189 n.. Ia aeiaaeeiai ae ? o
aeaioiii?e i?aoe? c ?noi??? naeyinoaa, i?aeaioiaeai?e o 1967 ?.
?inoeoooii ?noi??? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe, i?i Naeyinueeee aaie eeoa
caaaeo?oueny, ia eaaeo/e aaea i?i aiae?c eiai ?iaioe ?noi??y naeyinoaa
Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. O aeaio oiiao. O.1.-E.: “Iaoeiaa aeoiea”,1967.-388n.
  . A ?io?e o?eoiii?e ocaaaeueithth/?e i?aoe? c ?noi??? ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa aaoi?e iaiaaeeeenue eeoa caaaeueieie caoaaaeaiiyie uiaei
ae?yeueiino? aaie?a oa e?aaeeoieo oiaa?enoa a Oe?a?i? i?ney 1861 ?
?noi??y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. O o?ueio oiiao,
/ioe?ueio eieaao. O.1.: Aeiiii?ea aeinioe?ae?noe/ieo oi?iaoe?e. – E.:
“Iaoeiaa aeoiea”, 1983. – N. 357-358.. Caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
ae?yeueiino? aaie?a Oe?a?ie aeaee ? aaoi?e ainueieoiiii? ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, aeiionoeaoe i?e oeueiio ?yae iaoi/iinoae ?noi??y Oe?a?inueei?
?N?. O ainueie oiiao, aeanyoe eieaao. O.3.: Oe?a?ia a ia??iae ?iceeaaeo
? e?ece oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeueei? nenoaie. Neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai i?aaa
? ?icaeoie eai?oae?cio (XIX no.). – E.: “Iaoeiaa aeoiea”, 1978 – N.
327-331.. O ?ic??c? iaoi? oaie cia/iee ?ioa?an aeeeeeathoue
aeine?aeaeaiiy A.?. Ia?i/ea, A.I. Iieiaoey oa A.I. Aeanaiea, ui iiaa/eee
na?o aaea i?ney ?iciaaeo N?N? Ia?i/ei A.?. Oe?a?inueea naeyinueea
eiiia?aoe?y. ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee aniaeo (1861-1929). – E., 1995. – 217
n.; Iieiaaoeue A.I. Eiiia?aoeaiee ?oo ia E?aiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?
(1861-1917 ??.). – *a?i?a?a, 1996. – 137 n.; Aeanaiei A.?. E?aaeeoia
eiiia?aoe?y E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. Aaoi?aoa?ao …
eaiae. ?no. iaoe. 07.00.01. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. –
Oa?e?a, 1998. – 17 n.. sseui ia?oee c ieo cae?eniea ?noi?eei-aeiiii?/iee
aiae?c oe?a?inueei? naeyinueei? eiiia?aoe?? a?ae ?? ca?iaeaeaiiy o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX no. aei e?ea?aeaoe?? o 30-o ?ieao XX no.
noae?inueeei ?aaeeiii, oi aeey ?ioeo iniiaio oaaao cina?aaeeee ia
e?aaeeoi?e eiiia?aoe??. I?e oeueiio A.I. Aeanaiei ia iniia? iiaeo
aeaea?ae oe?eeii iaa?oioiaaii, ia iaoo aeoieo , a?aeeeioa onoaeaio oi/eo
ci?o uiaei nioe?aeueiiai neeaaeo e?aaeeoieo oiaa?enoa. Ca?aeii eiai
aeaieo, iniiaiee eiioeiaaio /eai?a oeeo oiaa?enoa neeaaeaee ia caiiaei?
aeiiiainiiaea??, a na?aaei? ? aeecuee? aei ieo nioe?aeuei? a?oie naea c
iaae?eii o 3-5 aeanyoei caie? Aeanaiei A.?. Iaca. i?aoey. – N. 14..

?noi??ia?ao?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???
1861-1917 ??. ia iaiaaeo?oueny, cae/aeii, ?iaiaie iaeieo eeoa
a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a aeiaeiaoiaai? ? ?aaeyinueei? aiioe. A?aeii?
nioe?aeuei? iio?yn?iiy 1917-1920 ??. ia iiaee ia aeeeeeaoe ieeueii?
oaaae cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oa i?ai?/iiaia?eeainueeeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
oeaio??a, oei a?eueoa, ui aeeneon?y i?i ?o i?e/eie i?eiee ia
i?eieiyeanue, iaa?aaoe iniaeeai? aino?ioe a ia??iae oae caaii?
“oieiaeii? a?eie” (40-80-o? ?iee XX no.). Naia ?aeaieia?/ia ai?ioueaa
iaaeiei i?eioeeiiaeo ieoaiue uiaei caeiiii??iinoae aeuacaaaeaieo iiae?e
coiiaeea, i/aaeaeii, i?aeaioiaeo cia/ii? e?eueeino? ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeue, a yeeo iaaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue ? o?iainai oa e?aaeeoo Blum J.
Lord and Peasant in Russia from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Centery.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961. – 261 pp.; Von Lane, T.
Russian Peasants in Factory // Journal of Economic History. – 1961. — ?
21. – pp. 61-80.. Ie?aii a oeueiio ?yae? noi?oue ca??iee noaoae c
?noi??? cainoaa, yea ii?yae c ina?oith oa ioi?iiith caei?ia’y caeiaeinue
? ainiiaea?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth, cie?aia, e?aaeeooaaiiyi ae??aieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a The zemstvo in Russia: An
experiment in local self-government. – Cambridge University Press, 1982.
– 452 pp.. Cao?aei? aaoi?e i?yii aeacoaaee ia “iacaeaoi?noue
?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio o?aeooaaoe nai? aeania ieioea”, a cia/io
e?euee?noue aeaeaii? a N?N? ?noi?eei-aeiiii?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e
eaae?o?eoaaee ye “iaiio??aio iaia?iao iano”. Oi/ a aeaiiio o?aeooaaii? ?
i?noeoueny aeaiaio ia?aa?eueoaiiy, ana ae aaaeei caia?a/oaaoe oaeo, ui a
oiiaao ?aaeyinueei? ae?eniino? “i?ooi ia i?a ienaoe i?i e?e/ou?
i?ioe??//y i?ae aa?i?/ieie i?aaiaiiyie ? aeaoeeaith ae?eni?noth”
Treadgold Donald W. Rec. od op.: Wolefe, Bertram D. Revolution a
Reality: Essans on the Origin and Fate of the Soviet System. Chapel
Hill: University of Nort Carolina Press, 1981. – P. 220.. Aaoi?e
caaaeaiiai ca??ieea, cie?aia, ?iaa?o Aeaeiinii a noaoo? “E?aa?aeuei?
i?ioan?iiaee oa i?ioan?ei? e?aa?aee: cainoai ye ai?oeaio? noaoenoe/ii?
iaoee” Jonhson Robert E. Liberal professionals and professional
liberals: the zemstvo statisticians and their work // The zemstvo in
Russian: An experiment in local self-government. – Cambridge University
Press, 1982. – PP. 343-363. ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui ?aaeyinueea
?noi??ia?ao?y yaii ia?aa?eueooaaea iaaaoeaia cia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee oea?y Ieaenaiae?a II, i?ae /an i?aae?iiy yeiai o?yae i?eeiya
i?eioeeiia? ??oaiiy uiaei ia?aoiaeo aei iaia’yceiaiai “aeeoio eieeoi?ie
iii?ueoeueeeie naeyiaie iaae?eueii? caie? c iaeii/aniei cieaeaiiyi noie
aeeoiieo ieaoaae?a, neanoaaiiy iiaeooiiai iiaeaoeo, canioaaiiy
Naeyinueeiai oa Aeai?yinueeiai iicaiaeueiiai aaie?a, ui ni?eyei
icaei?iaeaiith o?iainiaiai noaio ?iia??? Op. cit. – P. 346..
Iaoia?aaeaeaia ii??aiyiiy ??aiy ? aeeaeie ?ic?iaee o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii?
iie?oeee oea?ecio ?aaeyinueeith ? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeith oa
i?ai?/iiaia?eeainueeith ?noi??ia?ao??th aea? i?aenoaae aiai?eoe, ui
ca?oa?aei? aeine?aeieee a ?yae? aeiaaee?a aaeaeenue aei i?ioeeaaeieo
?aaeyinueeei ?noi?eeai e?aeiiu?a. A iaeieo aeiaaeeao i?ae aieeaii
aino?i? ?aeaieia?/ii? ai?ioueae, a ?ioeo – /a?ac a?aenooi?noue aeinooio
aei a?o?aieo onoaiia N?N?, aeaye? aaoi?e yaii ia?aa?eueooaaee oni?oe
oea?nueeiai o?yaeo a iiaea?i?caoe?? aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio ?
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie cie?aia.

Oaeei /eiii, iaa?oue ei?ioeee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae aeiaeiaoiaai?,
?aaeyinueei? oa ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e aea? i?aenoaae aiai?eoe i?i iaaio
oaaao aeine?aeiee?a aei o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee oea?nueeiai o?yaeo
aiioe noaiiaeaiiy iiaiioe?iii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai
oeio. ?acii c oei i/aaeaeiei ? ? oa, ui, ie??i e?eueeio aeiaeiaoiaaeo
aaoi??a, i?ooi c ?aaeyinueeeo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a ia noaaea
ia?aae niaith iaoo i?iaiae?coaaoe i?aai?caoe?th
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? acaaae? ? ia
Oe?a?i? cie?aia. Oei /anii iayai?noue a?aeiia?aeieo aeaea?ae aeicaiey?
cae?enieoe aeineoue aeaoaeueiee aiae?c oe??? i?iaeaie ia o?eueee ii
?iia??? a oe?eiio, aea e ii ie?aieo ?aa?iiao, a oiio /ene? ? oaeiio
niaoeeo?/iiio a aaaaoueio a?aeiioaiiyo, ye E?aiaa?aaeia Oe?a?ia.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?iea ? ??ciiiai?oia, ui aeiaaa? ??
aiae?co ca aeaeaie (iioae?eiaai? ? iaiioae?eiaai?), oa?aeoa?ii
(caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, io?oe?ei? ca?oe, aeiiia?aei? caienee, ?ino?oeoe?? ?
?icii?yaeaeaiiy), a oaeiae ca iioiaeaeaiiyi (aeieoiaioe o?yaeiaeo
onoaiia, aaie?anueeeo ?inoeoooe?e, eiiia?aoea?a ? i?eaaoieo in?a).

Aeineoue iiaii a iioae?eiaaieo aeaea?aeao i?aaenoaaeaia ae?yeuei?noue
Naeyinueeiai ? Aeai?yinueeiai caiaeueieo aaie?a. I?aai?ciaai? o 80-o?
?iee XIX no. ye onoaiiae aea?aeaaiiai ?iioa/iiai e?aaeeoo, oe? aaiee
ioae?eoaaee ui??/i? ca?oe, a yeeo aeineoue aeaoaeueii iieacaia ?o
ae?yeuei?noue, o oiio /ene? ? o ?ic??c? ie?aieo aoaa?i?e Io/aou
E?anoueyineiai iicaiaeueiiai aaiea ca 1883-1916 aa. – NIa., 1884-1917;
Io/aou Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Aeai?yineiai caiaeueiiai aaiea ca 1886-1915 aa.
– NIa., 1887-1916.. A?aeiiino? i?i iieoioe?a caie?, ?o ainiiaea?nueeiai
noaio o?enoaaeeny a iiaea??ieo nieneao (iiene) aeiiiainiiaea??a, ui
caa?oaeeny ca iice/eith. Aaie iaea?aeoaaa oe? iiene c aieinieo i?aae?iue
? ia?aa??ya oi/i?noue caianaieo aei ieo a?aeiiinoae c aeiiiiiaith
niaoe?aeueieo ?iniaeoi??a. Ioaea, aaie aoa caoe?eaaeaiee a iaea?aeaii?
aeinoia??ieo aeaieo, ui ? caaacia/o? aenieo ye?noue oeueiai aeaea?aea.

??ciiieaiia?noue ?ioi?iaoe??, ianiaee oa?aeoa? ? noaoenoe/ia oi?ia
aeaieo Aeai?yinueeiai (ye ? Naeyinueeiai) caiaeueiiai aaieo ?iaeyoue ?o
oi?eaeueiei aeaea?aeii. Iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee ca?o?a Aeai?yinueeiai
aaieo yaeythoue niaith nenoaio oaaeeoeue, ui ianooue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
ii/aoeia? ? aeiaeaoeia? iice/ee, ia?acanoaae, a?aeno?i/ee, aeino?ieia?
aeieaoe, iiai? ? /anoeia? ?ici??e canoaae, niiniae ia?aoiaeo caie? aei
?ioeo aeaniee?a, i?i aeicaiee ia no?aooaaiiy ? i?aiaeo caeeaaeaieo
ia?oe?a, ioae?eaoe?? i?i oi?ae, a?aeiiino? i?i ia?oee, ui caeeoeeenue ca
aaieii ? eoieaieo aaieii a ?ic??c? ie?aieo aoaa?i?e ? e?a?ie a oe?eiio.

Iiae?aii aei aea?aeaaieo aaie?anueeeo no?oeoo?, ioae?eoaaee nai? ca?oe e
aeoe?iia?i? caiaeuei? aaiee oa onoaiiae ae??aiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo. Iaeiae oe? ioae?eaoe?? iaee
nii?aaee/iee, oiaoi ianenoaiaoe/iee, aeiaaeeiaee oa?aeoa?. Aeeeth/aiiy
o?aa ui neeaaeathoue ca?oe i?aae?iue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oiaa?enoa, ye? oi/ ? aoee a?iiaaenueeith i?aai?caoe??th, iaeiae /a?ac
aei?noeee eiio?ieue nai?o /eai?a ui??/ii ioae?eoaaee a?aeiiino? i?i
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee ?iaioe oiaa?enoa.

Ie?ai? nthaeaoe c ?noi??? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo a?aeiinei ia oa?eoi???
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aeyaeai? aaoi?ii oeeo ?yaee?a ia noi??ieao
oiai/anieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, a?eueo?noue c yeeo caa??aathoueny o
a?ae?ioaoe? Iieoaanueei? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeine?aeii? noaioe??.
Iaiaei oe?eaai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aoei ai?uaii, iai?eeeaae, ia noi??ieao
oeaeiaaeea Oa?e?anueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai oiaa?enoaa,
aeo?iae?a: “Oooi?yiei”, “Oicyenoai”, “Aanoiee oeiainia, i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
oi?aiaee”, “Naeyiei”, “Oe?ai?ia”, “Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai” oa ?yae? ?ioeo
aeaeaiue.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue iioae?eiaaieo aeaea?ae, a oiae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie aoea aeyaeaia a?aenooi?noue ie?aieo
aeaiaio?a, ui ia aea? iiaeeeaino? cae?enieoe ?aeiino?oeoe?th oiai/anieo
i?ioean?a o a?eueo-iaio iiaiiio ianyc?. Noaoenoe/i? ?yaee oa ?ioa
?ioi?iaoe?y nai? ii nia? ia ?ice?eaathoue aeeiai?ee oiai /e ?ioiai
i?ioeano aaiethoe?? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo a?aeiinei o noa??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. A?o?ai? ae iaoa??aee
aeicaieythoue i?ine?aeeoaaoe iaoai?ci ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
i?aai?a, oi?aae?iiy o??th /e ?ioith o?iainiai-e?aaeeoiith onoaiiaith,
oeyoe ? iaoiaee ?ica’ycaiiy iac??eeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai, a
a ?yae? aeiaaee?a ? ?o ?acoeueoaoe. Aaoi?ii oeeo ?yaee?a aea/aii noai
aeaea?ae iaeanieo a?o?a?a Iieoaae, Oa?eiaa, Noi oa *a?i?aiaa, a oaeiae
I?aeeinueeiai oa I?eeooeueeiai o?e?ae?a *a?i?a?anueeiai iaeaniiai
aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ia aeaeue, eiinoaooaaoe, ui a oiae?
ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie a?eueo?noue oiiae?a, a yeeo o?eaaeee /an
caa??aaeeny a?aeiiino? i?i ae?yeuei?noue i?noeaaeo a?aeae?eaiue
?iioa/ieo aaie?a, aoee cieuai?. Ciaeaeaii eeoa ?icii?ioai? ii ?ioeo
oiiaeao iaoa??aee i?i ae?yeuei?noue aieiaiei /eiii Naeyinueeiai
iicaiaeueiiai aaieo. Aeaye? a?aeiiino? i?i o?iainiaee noai naeyinueeeo
ainiiaea?noa i?ney 1861 ?. caa?aaeeny o oiiae? ? 840 (Ie?iaee
iina?aaeiee 1-? ae?eueieoe? Ie?yoeinueeiai iia?oo) Iieoaanueeiai
iaeaniiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao. Aeao?oeeo iio??aii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia
i?noeyo cionea aaoi?a caa?iooeny aei ?in?enueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao o i. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?, aea caa??aathoueny nioi? oeny/
ni?aa ??cieo a?aeiinoa, ui iaee i?yia aai iiina?aaeeiaaia a?aeiioaiiy
aei n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo a Oe?a?i?. Oea, ianaiia?aae,
oiiae ? 582 (Oi?aae?iiy o ni?aaao ae??aiiai e?aaeeoo i?e Aea?aeaaiiio
aaieo), oiiae ? 583 (Iniaeeaa eaioeaey??y ii e?aaeeoi?e /anoei?
I?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a), oiiae ? 587 (Aea?aeaaiee aaie I?i?noa?noaa
o?iain?a), oiiae ? 592 (Naeyinueeee iicaiaeueiee aaie), oiiae ? 593
(Aea?aeaaiee Aeai?yinueeee caiaeueiee aaie), oiiae ? 1403 (Ae?oeiaai?
caienee o ni?aaao naiaoo oa I?i?noa?noaa thnoeoe??), oiiae ? 1405
(I?i?noa?noaa thnoeoe??) oa ?yae ?ioeo. Iiaiioa a?aeiiinoae, ui
caa??aathoueny a oeueiio a?o?a?, a?aaeathoue ianyaii ? ??ciia?/i?noth
cina?aaeaeaiiai oai iaoa??aeo. Onueiai a ?iaio? aeei?enoaii 65 oiiae?a
aeaa’yoe a?o?a?a. Cacia/ai? a?oie aeaea?ae, aeiiiaithth/e iaeia iaeio,
aeicaieeee anaa?/ii aena?oeeoe i?iaeaio noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo a aoaa?i?yo E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie
aiioe a?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “E?aaeeoia iie?oeea oea?ecio a oiiaao aa?a?ieo ?
o?iainiaeo ?aoi?i ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no.” – i?inoaaeothoueny o?iainiaa
caaacia/aiiy aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i 60-o ?ie?a XIX no., oeyoe, iaoiaee oa
iniiai? aoaie noaiiaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai e?aaeeoo aeey
aeai?yinoaa oa iai?ea?eaeiaaieo noai?a. Oi?iaeiaae ia?oiai ii?aoi?iaiiai
aeanyoe??//y iniiaia iana eieeoi?o e??iinieo naeyi E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie
aoea ia?aaaaeaia ia aeeoi, ca?aeii yeiai aiie ciaia’ycoaaeeny aeieaoeoe
iii?ueeia? 170,5 iei. e?a. C o?aooaaiiyi oeo, ui aoee ia?aaaaeai? ia
aeeoi o 70-o ?ieao, caaaeueia noia aeeoiieo ieaoaae?a, ui aaee/aciei
oyaa?ai eyaaea ia ceeaeaiiee athaeaeao naeyinueei? ?iaeeie, neeaea 184
231 900 e?a.

C?oeioaoenue i?ney 1861 ?. c i?eioeeiiai iiaeie oiiaaie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ye iii?ueee, oae ? naeyie a?ae/oee aino?o iio?aao o
e?aaeeoao, ui ca nai?th oi?iith ? ia?a?iciiae?eii a?ioiaeo cania?a ia
oiiaao ianooiiiai iiaa?iaiiy. I?ae oeneii ia’?eoeaieo iio?aa
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oiai/aniee o?yae naieoe?iioaaa noai?aiiy o 80-o
?ieao XIX no. caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo Naeyinueeiai ? Aeai?yinueeiai
caiaeueieo aaie?a. Iaeii/anii c oeei noai?thaaeeny ? aeoe?iia?i?
?iioa/i? aaiee, ye? aiane?aeie ?o a?eueo?e a?aeiia?aeiino? ?eieiaei
a?aeiineiai ia eeoa oni?oii eiieo?oaaee c a?aeiia?aeieie aea?aeaaieie
aaieaie, aea e iinooiiai aeo?niyee ?o c a?ioiaiai ?eieo. Noaiii ia 1
n?/iy 1909 ?. a aeoe?iia?ieo aaieao E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aoei
canoaaeaii 933,6 oen. aean. caie?, a noia aeaeaiiai e?aaeeoo neeaea 50
255,9 oen. e?a., oiae? ye o a?aeae?eaiiyo Naeyinueeiai aaieo ia?aaoaaei
o canoaa? 586,1 oen. aean. caie?, oiaoi ia 47,2% iaioa. Iaioith ia 1
245,5 oen. e?a. aoea ? noia aeaeaiiai e?aaeeoo (49 010,5 oen. e?a.)
I?ae?aoiaaii ia iniia? aeaieo: Noaoenoe/aneee ni?aai/iee ii THao ?innee.
– Iieoaaa, 1910. – N. 16-18..

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Ae??aiee e?aaeeo oa eiai i?noea o o?iainoaaii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa” – aeine?aeaeothoueny aioo??oi?
? ciai?oi? /eiieee aeieeiaiiy iice/eiai-iuaaeieo oa e?aaeeoieo
oiaa?enoa, aieinieo ean oa n?euenueeeo aaie?a, c’yniao?oueny ?ieue
cainoaa oa o?yaeo a i?yiiio oa iia?/iiio e?aaeeooaaii? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Aieiaiith a?aei?ii?noth iice/eiai-iuaaeiiai a?ae
e?aaeeoiiai oiaa?enoaa aoea iayai?noue o eiaeiiai /eaia
iice/eiai-iuaaeiiai oiaa?enoaa iaaiiai iath (ia a?eueoa 100 e?a.), oiae?
ye e?aaeeoia iiaeiii aoei iaoe ia iaioa 1 oen. e?a. noaoooiiai eai?oaeo,
iioiaeaeaiiy yeiai iiaei aooe iae??ciiiai?oi?oei. Aieini? ae eane,
noai?ai? ua o 1840?. ca?aeii aei a?aeiia?aeiiai ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
I?i?noa?noaa aea?aeaaieo ia?oiinoae, ooieoe?iioaaee eeoa caaaeyee
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio ao?o/aiith aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, ui ? coiiaeei
a?aoo?-?aoo ia ii/aoeo XX no. oaeoe/ia i?eieiaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?.
Cia/ii a?eueoith aeeoo?caeaoi?noth a?aecia/aeeny no?oeoo?e, iieeeeai?
aei aeeooy caaaeyee ?i?oe?aoea? iia?oiaeo ? aoaa?inueeeo cainoa
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, na?aae yeeo iniaeeaa i?noea iin?aeaee cainuee?
eane, niaoe?aeuei? oiiaee aeey e?aaeeooaaiiy n?euenueei? a?aeiioe ?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oiaa?enoaa. Inoaii?, iai?eeeaae, caaacia/oaaee
caeoi?aeth aaeineiiaeaieo cia?yaeue i?aoe?, e?au? ni?oe ian?iiy,
aenieii?iaeoeoeaio ooaeiao, iaeaaiaeaeoth/e iaeii/anii
iaoeiai-aeine?aeio ? i?ina?oieoeueeo ?iaioo o iaeaeoo?oeo iia?oao
aoaa?i?e E?aiaa?aaeaey. Iaeyne?aa?oee i?eeeaae – canioaaiiy o 1884 ?.
Iieoaanueeiai aeine?aeiiai iiey, yea caaaeyee caeiaooeai ?yaeo ??
i?aoe?aiee?a, cie?aia I.?. Aaaeeiao, noaei anana?oiuei a?aeiiei iaoeiaei
oeaio?ii.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Aieea noieei?inueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ia
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoio nenoaio n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa” – eaeaoueny i?i
noai?aiiy iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. A oeueiio ieai?
i?ia?aeio ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaee caieaaii?yaei? eii?n??, ui cina?aaeeee o
nai?o ?oeao ia eeoa aaei?i?no?aoeai? ooieoe?? ni?eyiiy noai?aiith
ooo??nueeeo oa a?ae?oaieo ainiiaea?noa, aea e iaai? o?iainia? caniae
aieeao ia aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th a oe?a?inueeiio nae?. Aiae?c
noaoenoe/ieo oaaeeoeue uiaei iia?e?caoe?? naeyinueeeo iaae?eueieo
caiaeue aea? i?aenoaae nooo?ai ooi/ieoe aeineoue iioe?aio a ?noi?e/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? oaco, ca?aeii yei? iniiaiith i?e/eiith i?iaeaaeo ae??aii?
caiaeueii? aeaniino? aoei ?ici?aiiy naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa. sse
na?ae/aoue a?aeiia?aei? i?ae?aooiee, iaea?eueoa (19,6%) ae??aieo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a i?iaeaaaei naith caieth c iaoith ia?anaeaiiy ia ?io?,
a?eueo? ? e?au? o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio a?aeiioaii? ae?eyiee. ?acii
c oeie, ooi aeacaa i?e/eiith i?iaeaaeo eoi?aeth caie? aac ia?anaeaiiy
(15,6%), oey eaoaai??y i?iaeaaoe?a neeaaeaea caaaeii iiiaae o?aoeio on?o
i?iaeaaoe?a (35,3%).

?aae?caoe?y noieei?inueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa caaa?oeea i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie iiaiioe?iieo
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ye? c iaaiith i/aaeaei?noth i?iaeaiiino?oaaee
iacaeaoi?noue iniiaii? iane aaeeeeo iii?ueoeueeeo ainiiaea?noa
eiieo?oaaoe c ae??aiei ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei naeyinueeei ainiiaea?noaii.
I?enei?aiiy o 1906-1917 ??. i?ioeano i?iaeaaeo iii?ueeaie naiai
caieaaieiae?iiy iaei i?noea iaa?oue a oiiaao i?eueaiaiai e?aaeeooaaiiy
i?ea?eaeiaaieo noai?a. Eeoa ie?ai? ainiiaea?noaa, oeio Ea?e?anueeiai
ia?oeo Iaeeaiao?a-No?aeeoeueeeo, ciiaee ia eeoa aeo?eiaoe aei?noeo
eiieo?aioio ai?ioueao, a e i?eiiiaeeoe na?e athaeaeao.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? i?eeoia aei iecee
aeniiae?a, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy c yeeo aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— o oiae? i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ?aoi?ie 1861 ?.
iii?ueee nooo?ai ci?oeieee athaeaeao nai?o ainiiaea?noa, oiae? ye
iniiaia iana naeyinoaa ciooaia aoea a?aeaeaaaoe iaeaea oaanue na?e
i?eaooie aea?aeaa? o aeaeyae? aeeoiieo ieaoaae?a oa /eneaiieo iiaeaoe?a;

— ia?ao?ae a?ae i?eioniai? aei a?eueiiiaeiaii? i?aoe? aeyaeany
ae??oaeueiei e?ieii aei ia?aoai?aiiy on??? ?iai/i? neee o oiaa?, a
?acoeueoao? /iai nooo?ai ?icoe?eany ?eiie i?aoe? ? iineoa, ui o naith
/a?ao noeioethaaei ?icaeoie oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei o e?a?i? a
oe?eiio ? ie?aieo ?? ?aa?iiao cie?aia;

— E?aiaa?aaeia Oe?a?ia iaeaaeaea aei /enea oeo ?aa?ii?a, aea e?aaeeoi?
onoaiiae ??ciiai oeio aeieeaee o /ene? ia?oeo, ui, ie??i onueiai ?ioiai,
na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue ooo ni?eyoeeaeo ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo
oiia;

— iaeaoaeoeai?oa i?aoethaaee o? e?aaeeoi? onoaiiae, ye? iia?aoeai?oa ?,
aieiaia, aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaee ia ci?io eii’thieoo?e ?eieo;

— aeoe?iia?i? caiaeuei? aaiee a?ae?a?aaaee aeineoue iii?oio ?ieue o
e?aaeeooaaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, iinooiiai
a?aeo?niyth/e ia ae?oaee ieai aea?aeaai? caiaeuei? aaiee;

— ie??i aioo??oi?o /eiiee?a noaiiaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?aaeeoieo
onoaiia, nooo?ao ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaee ciai?oi? oaeoi?e, cie?aia oaea
aeoeaia naiia?yaeia a?iiaaenueea no?oeoo?a, ye cainoai;

— ieoiia aaaa ?iicaiieo a?iiaaeyi na?aae caieaaeaniee?a E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie neeaaeaea anueiai e?eueea a?aenioe?a, ui, ie??i onueiai ?ioiai,
ia aea? i?aenoaa aiai?eoe i?i iiaeeea?noue neoiee ?iicaioeyie on???
caie? o iao /an;

— noieei?inueea caeiiiaeaanoai i?i a?eueiee aeo?ae c iaueie caaa?oeei
i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy on??? naeyinueei? caie? ia iiaiioe?iiee oiaa?, ui
nooo?ai i?enei?eei ?icaeoie ae??aiiai naeyinueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy
oa?ia?nueeiai oeio ca ?aooiie ?ici?aiiy aaeeeeo iii?ueoeueeeo
ainiiaea?noa. I?e oeueiio oaiie c?inoaiiy ainiiaea?noa oa?ia?nueeiai
oeio c 50 ? a?eueoa aeanyoeiaie caie? iaaaaaoi i?aeaeuoaaee ye /enei
?ici?aieo, oae ? ae??aieo ainiiaea?noa c e?eueeiia aeanyoeiaie caie?.

Caaaeueiei aeniiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaca, ca?aeii yei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai iiaea ? iiaeiii iaea?aeaoe
iio??ai? eiio e?aaeeoe. Iaeiae iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ?icaeiooiai ?eieo
a?ioae, ye iieaco? a?o/eciyiee ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae, ? iayai?noue
a?aeiia?aeiiai ?eieo caie?.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo i?aoeyo:

Noaoo?:

E?ani?eiaa I., sseeiaiei I., Nae?oia Ae. I?eaaoecaoe?y naeyinueei?
iaae?eueii? caie? a Oe?a?i? 1906-1917 ??.: i?e/eie, ci?no, iane?aeee //
Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. – 1997. — ? 8. – N. 62-70 (0,8 ae?oe. a?e.).

E?ani?eiaa I.I. Noaiiaeaiiy o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i? oa ??
aieea ia cae?eniaiiy aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i 1861-1906 ?ie?a // Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie i?e?iaeie/eo ? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe / Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
iieiaeeo a/aieo /. – Iieoaaa: Aeae-ai Iieoaanueeiai aea?ae. n/a ?i-oo,
1997. – N. 234-236 (0,3 ae?oe. a?e.).

E?ani?eiaa I.I., Nae?oia Ae.A. I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii?
ae?yeueiino? Naeyinueeiai iicaiaeueiiai aaieo a Oe?a?i? ia ?oaaae? aeaio
noie?oue (XIX-XX) // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?e?iaeie/eo ? aoiai?oa?ieo
iaoe / Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo /. – Iieoaaa: Aeae-ai
Iieoaanueeiai aea?ae. n/a ?i-oo, 1997. – N. 236-249 (1,0 ae?oe. a?e.).

E?ani?eiaa I.I. O?iaine ? e?aaeeo a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aiioe a?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa (1861-1918) //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Aeiiii?ea ? 30 (97). Ea?oaiue 1998 ?.
– Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Aeae-ai “Iaoea ? ina?oa”, 1998. – N. 6 (0,4 ae?oe.
a?e.).

E?ani?eiaa I.I. ?ao?iniaeoeaa ?iioa/iiai e?aaeeoo a Oe?a?i? // Aeiiii?ea
AIE. I?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ee aeo?iae. – 1998. — ? 1. – N. 61-65
(0,4 ae?oe. a?e.).

E?ani?eiaa I.I. Iieoaanueeee caiaeueiee aaie: c ?noi??? ?iioa/iiai
e?aaeeoo (1872-1918 ??.) // *aoaa?oa Iieoaanueea iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y c
?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa. Iaoa??aee aei 825-??//y c /ano ia?oi?
e?oiienii? caaaeee i?noa Iieoaae oa 1100-??//y iiyae ia?oeo iinaeaiue ia
?? oa?eoi???.- Iieoaaa.-1998.-n.13-19 (0,4 ae?oe. a?e.).

Oace:

E?ani?eiaa I.I., Nae?oia Ae.A. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai oea?neie ?innee i
oeiainiaii iaania/aiee i?aaieciaaiiuo ia?anaeaiee caieaaeaeue/aneiai
ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu ia oa??eoi?ee thaeiuo e ainoi/iuo ie?aei eiia?ee
(1832-1917) // Enoi?eei-oeeieiae/aneee aanoiee Oe?aeineiai einoeoooa.
Oii 1. – I.: Ecae-ai Oe?aeineiai einoeoooa i?e Iineianeii ioe?uoii iaae.
oi-oa, 1997. – N. 43-45 (0,2 ae?oe. a?e.)

E?ani?eiaa I.I., Nae?oia Ae.A. E?ea?aeaoe?y caiaeueieo aaie?a ia
E?aiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? a oiae? a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeniain?? 1917-1920 ??.
// Oace aeiiia?aeae 50-? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani??a, aeeeaaea/?a,
iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a, ani??aio?a oa nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoaoo. – Iieoaaa:
Aeae-ai Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 1998. – N.
247 (0,1 ae?oe. a?e.).

AIIOAOe?ss

E?ani?eiaa I.I. O?iaine oa e?aaeeo o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aiioe a?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa (1861-1917 ??.).
– ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.04 – Aeiiii?/ia ?noi??y oa ?noi??y aeiiii?/ii?
aeoiee. – Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia noaiiaeaiith ? ?icaeoeo o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii?
nenoaie o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie i?ney
neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai i?aaa. O aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ?icaeyaeathoueny
i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy, oi?ie ae?yeueiino? oa ci?no ?iaioe i?noeaaeo
a?aeae?eaiue Aeai?yinueeiai ? Naeyinueeiai aea?aeaaieo oa aeoe?iia?ieo
caiaeueieo aaie?a, iice/eiai-iuaaeieo ? e?aaeeoieo oiaa?enoa, aieinieo
ean ? n?euenueeeo aaie?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?aoe? aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o
aeo?iaeueieo noaooyo, ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? oacao aei iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?iaine, e?aaeeo, athaeaeao, aeao?oeeo, iiaeaoee, aeeoi,
aaiee, ?iioaea, canoaaiee eeno, i?ioeaioi? iaia?e, ai?n?y, aaenaeue,
aeoe?y, iae, oiaa?enoai, eana, aeiiiiao?e/iee aiae?c, iia?e?caoe?y
caie?.

AIIIOAOeEss

E?anieeiaa I.I. Oeiainu e e?aaeeo a naeueneii oicyenoaa Eaaiaa?aaeiie
Oe?aeiu yiioe naiaiaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa (1861-1917 aa.). –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.04 – yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey e enoi?ey
yeiiiie/aneie iunee. – Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia noaiiaeaieth e ?acaeoeth oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie
nenoaiu a naeueneii oicyenoaa Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu iinea ioiaiu
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. A ioee/ea io ?yaea ae?oaeo enneaaeiaaiee a eioi?uo a
oie eee eiie noaiaie cao?aaeaathony i?iaeaiu naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
e?aaeeoa, aaoi? ia iniiaaiee iiiai/eneaiiie eeoa?aoo?u e iiauo
enoi/ieeia, iaia?oaeaiiuo ei a a?oeaa Oe?aeiu e ?innee, ?anniio?ae
aeaiiue aii?in a eiiieaena. Eco/ea oeiainiaia iaania/aiea ioiaiu
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa a aoaa?ieyo Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu, aeenna?oaio
iineaaeiaaoaeueii inaaoee aeayoaeueiinoue iniiaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e
i?aaiecaoeee, eiaaoeo i?yiia ioiioaiea e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiio
e?aaeeoo. Iniaia aieiaiea i?e yoii oaeaeaii aeayoaeueiinoe ianoiuo
ioaeaeaiee Aeai?yineiai e E?anoueyineiai caiaeueiuo aaieia eae
aaaeiaeoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee eiioa/iiai e?aaeeoa. Ioaeaeueii
aiaeece?oaony ?ieue a iaania/aiee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae iaiaoiaeeiuie iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie Oa?ueeianeiai
e Iieoaaneiai caiaeueiuo aaieia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi /anoiue eaieoae
iinoaiaiii auoaniye iiuiua ainoaea?noaaiiua aaiee n eiioa/iiai ?uiea,
oiaei i?eniinaaeeaaynue e iinoiyiiui aai eieaaaieyi.

Ia?yaeo n e?oiiui, i?iaiaeece?iaaia oaeaea i?aaiecaoeey e iniiaiua yoaiu
?acaeoey iaeeiai e?aaeeoa, ioaeaeueiua caaiuey eioi?iai aicieeee
caaeieai aei ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. Iauaeoii aiaeeca noaee
nnoaei-naa?aaaoaeueiua e e?aaeeoiua oiaa?euanoaa, aieinoiua eannu e
naeueneea aaiee. Ec ioia/aiiuo oi?i iaeeiai e?aaeeoa iaeaieaa
aeecianiiniaiuie ieacaeenue e?aaeeoiua oiaa?euanoaa, a aeayoaeueiinoue
eioi?uo aaeieieno?aoeaiua i?aaiu aiaoeaaeenue iaiueoa anaai.

O/eouaay eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneea oneiaey eiioea XIX — ia/aea OO aaeia,
aeenna?oaio iieacae oaeaea ianooaau oeaeaauo ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoia,
a oaeaea ?ieue caineeo o/?aaeaeaiee a noeioee?iaaiee ?acaeoey e?aaeeoiie
nenoaiu a oe?aeineie aea?aaia.

A iineaaeiai, /aoaa?oii ?acaeaea aeenna?oaoeee, ?anniio?aii aeeyiea
noieuieineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia ?acaeoea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo
ioiioaiee a aa?a?iii naeoi?a yeiiiieee Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu, nenoaio
oeai e oeaiiia?aciaaiey, athaeaeao e?anoueyineiai e iiiaue/ueaai
oicyenoa. Auyaeaia /aoeay oaiaeaioeey nie?auaiey e?oiiiai iiiaue/ueaai
caieaaeaaeaiey n iaeiie noi?iiu e ?inoa e?anoueyineiai caieaaeaaeaiey
oa?ia?neiai oeia n ae?oaie. Iauei auaiaeii aeenna?oaoeee anoue oacen i
cia/aiee i?aa?auaiey anae e?anoueyineie caiee a iieiioeaiiue oiaa? eae
?aoathuaai oaeoi?a noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ?aciiia?aciuo e yooaeoeaiuo
oi?i e?aaeeoiaaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeiainu, e?aaeeo, athaeaeao, aeaoeoeeo, iaeiae, aueoi,
aaiee, eiioaea, canoaaiie eeno, i?ioeaioiua aoiaae, yienney, aaenaeue,
aeoeey, iae, oiaa?euanoai, eanna, yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec, iiaeeecaoeey
caiee.

ANNOTATION

Krasnikova O.N. Finances and credit in agriculture of the left-banks
Ukraine in the free enterprineurship era (1861-1917). — Manuscript.

The dissertation on taking a scientific degree of a candidate of
economic sciences in speciality 08.01.04 – Economic history and history
of economic conception. – Kyiv University named after Taras Schevchenko,
Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis dissertation covers setting up and development of the
financial credit system in the provinces of the left-bank Ukraine after
the serfdom abolishment. This research deals with the reasons for
emergence, the forms of activities and the essence of local departments
of Nobiliary and Peasant state and joint-stock land banks, loan-saving
and crediting associations, volost banks and village banks. The author
states the main points of the work in magazine articles, collections of
scientific works and theses to scientific conferences.

Key words: finances, credit, budget, deficit, taxes, ransom, banks,
hypothec, mortgage sheet, interest-bearing securities, emission, share,
fee, association, cash-desks, econometric analyses, land mobilization.

Caeaii aei iaai?o 15.02.1999 ?. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 10.03.1999 ?.

Oi?iao 60 o 84/16. Cai. ? 40. Iai?? ionaoiee.

Aa?i?oo?a Oaein. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,25. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Oiiai. oa?a. a?aea. 1,25. Eiii”thoa?iee iaa??

Microsoft Word “ 97.

314028, i. Iieoaaa, aoe. Noaiiaiai o?iioo, 46.

AE “Oe?iae?eaeaeaa”

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