Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie

Iia/ai Ieaenaiae? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 669.15’26’295.017.3 (043)

OACIA? OA NO?OEOO?I? IA?AOIAeE I?E

IAAOAEAOeTHAAII? NIEAA?A CAE?CA C

O?IIII OA OEOAIII

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.01

“Iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a”

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaai?e iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieo. oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani? Aeieaeaieia ?aai ?ai?iae/, caa. eaoaae?ith
oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaoae?a Aea?aeaaii? iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aieueoaeia Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/, aeieo. oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani?,
I?eaei?i?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e,
?aeoi?

Nooiieei Aai?a?e Aeieo?iae/, eaiae. oaoi. iaoe, n.i.n., Aea?aeaaiee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee oa eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo o?oaii?
i?iieneiaino?, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 2 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 12-30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.084.02, Aea?aeaaia
iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, i?iniaeo Aaaa??ia 4, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, Oe?a?ia, 620635

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaii?
iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie, i?iniaeo Aaaa??ia, 4, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, Oe?a?ia, 620635

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 1 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ______________________Eiia?ia I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Iniiaieie caniaaie oi?iiooai?aiiy a ??ciiiai?oieo ae?iaie/eo i?ioeanao ?
ia?iaea ??caiiyi aai oeneii. Oiio i?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino?
?ino?oiaioo aeey ?oiueiai cae?eniaiiy ua aeiaai aoaea aeooaeueiith.
Noai?aiiy iiaeo iaoa??ae?a c iniaeeaeie aeanoeainoyie noaaeoue caaea/o
noai?aiiy ?ino?oiaioo aeey eiai ia?iaee. E??i oiai, canoinoaaiiy
?ino?oiaioaeueieo noaeae, aiane?aeie ?oiuei? aeniei? oaa?aeino? ?
ciinino?eeino?, ia iaiaaeo?oueny i?ioeanaie oi?iiooai?aiiy. ?o
aeei?enoathoue aeey ae?iaieoeoaa i?aeoeiiee?a ei/aiiy, oanoa?aiue,
/a?a’ye?a oa ?i.

Iaei?i c cania?a iiaa?oiaaiai ci?oeiaiiy ?ino?oiaioo ? oeaiaioaoe?y.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui oeaiaioaoe?y a?aeiia aeoaea aeaaii, ana ua
iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeai? ieoaiiy, ca’ycai? c oaciaeie ia?aoai?aiiyie,
ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?ae /an oeaiaioaoe?? eaaiaaieo noaeae, a /anoeiaino?
?ino?oiaioaeueieo: aeae?eaiiy niaoe?aeueieo ea?a?ae?a ? eaaiaaiiai
oeaiaioeoo, yeui noaeue eaaiaaia ea?a?aeiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie;
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?y i?e eaaoaaii? -noaa?e?caoi?aie, ui aeeeeiththoue
aonoai?oio iaeanoue ia ae?aa?ai? noaio cae?ci — eaaoth/ee aeaiaio;
iiaeeeai i?io?eaiiy iaio ?aaeoe?e a ia’?i?, ui iane/o?oueny, yeui
eaaoth/ee aeaiaio ? aiaeii/an ? ea?a?aeiooai?thth/ei, ? -noaa?e?caoi?ii.
No?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy, ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?e oeueiio, iaaeoi
??ciiiai?oi? ? caeaaeaoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?eii-oaiia?aoo?ieo ia?aiao??a
i?ioeano. Iniaeeaee iaoeiaee ? i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an ia? ia?aoai?aiiy, eiee
ia?ane/aiee aoaeaoeai oa?eo ?iciaaea?oueny c iaeii/aniei ooai?aiiyi
aeaio oac — aonoai?oo ? ea?a?aeo. A ?acoeueoao? ooai?ththoueny
iai?aaeai? aaoaeoi?aeiiiae?ai? eieii??, ui iiaeathoue niaith i?e?iaeiee
eiiiiceo.

A iaaaaeai?e aeena?oaoe?? iniiaiei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue ? nieaa
Fe-Ti, i?e iaaoaeaoethaaii? yeiai oi?iothoueny eieii?? aonoai?o (i?ney
aa?oo — ia?oaineo) — ea?a?ae TiC. Ea?a?ae TiC ? iaeiei c naieo oaa?aeeo
ea?a?ae?a, oiio a?ioaaiiy ?i iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o iaaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy oaa?aeino? oa ciinino?eeino? ? ?iaeoue io?eiaiee iaoa??ae
ia?niaeoeaiei aeey canoinoaaiiy a yeino? ?ino?oiaioaeueiiai. Oiio oaia
?iaioe oyaey?oueny aeooaeueiith.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie ? ieaiaie

Ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? a ianooiieo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?iaioao oaiaoeee Aea?aeaaii? iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie: A103020002 «?ic?iaea aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo noaeae aeniei?
oaa?aeino?, ciinino?eeino? oa ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?, ci?oeiaieo
ea?a?aeieie aieieiaie a i?ioean? aeeooc?eiiai iaaoaeaoethaaiiy”;
A103F40008 «?ic?iaea oai??? ? i?aeoeee aeaioiaeaiiy neeaaeiieaaiaaieo
iaoa??ae?a c eiiiiceoiith no?oeoo?ith iiaa?oi?».

Iaoa ? caaea/? ?iaioe

Iaoa aeaii? ?iaioe — ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano oeaiaioaoe?? oa
inoaoi/ii? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ?ino?oiaioo ??ciiiai?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy c
nieaa?a Fe-Ti aeiaeaoeiai eaaiaaieo o?iiii.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaee ianooii? caaea/?:

§ Aeine?aeaeoaaee caeiiii??iino? oaciaeo ? no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoiae?a i?e
iaaoaeaoethaaii? iiaea?eieo nieaa?a Fe-Ti, e?enoaeiaaiiao?e/i?
iniaeeaino? aoaeiae aonoai?oi-ea?a?aeieo (A-E) eieii?e, ui ooai?eeeny a
?acoeueoao? oaciaiai ia?aoai?aiiy +TiC oa?eoo, ui iaaoaeaoeueiaoaaany,
iaoai?ci c?inoaiiy A-E eieii?e, aieea oaeaeeino? i?inoaaiiy o?iioo
ia?aoai?aiiy ia aeeoa?aioe??iaeo oac a eieii?yo.

§ Aeine?aeaeoaaee aieea aeiaeaoeiaiai eaaoaaiiy nieaa?a Fe-Ti o?iiii,
e?aii??i ? iie?aaeaiii ia no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?e iaaoaeaoethaaii?.

§ Aeine?aeaeoaaee oaa?ae?noue ? oaieino?ee?noue iaaoaeaoeueiaaieo
nieaa?a Fe-Ti-Cr c ??ciith eiioeaio?aoe??th o?iio.

§ Aeine?aeaeoaaee oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue A-E eieii?e i?e oaiia?aoo??
oeaiaioaoe??, a oaeiae i?e a?aeioneo i?ney aa?oo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia

q Anoaiiaeaii, ui aonoai?oia iao?eoey i?e?iaeiiai eiiiiceoo, ui
iaea?aeo?oueny oeaiaioaoe??th nieaa?a cae?ca c oeoaiii, iiiie?enoae?/ia
? ca’ycaia c aieieiaie, ui a?iothoue TiC, i???ioaoe?eiei
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi (IN) 100100TiC; 010010TiC; 001001TiC.

q Iieacaii, ui a?ioth/e aieieia ea?a?aeo oeoaio iiiie?enoae?/i? oa ia
i?noyoue aeaeieo i?ae aeaeo?iiiei i?e?ineiiii aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii?
aoaeiae, o. ?. iiaeooue aooe a?aeianai? aei ieoeiaeaeieo e?enoae?a.

q Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaa?oonieie ieiueiaie iaaeoacieo iiaa?oiiue aonoai?o —
ea?a?ae ? ieiueie 111 oa 100, a iai?aaeaiiyi c?inoaiiy ea?a?aeiiai
aieieia – 110.

q Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoai?ci c?inoaiiy aonoai?oi-ea?a?aeieo eieii?e iiaea
aooe iienaiee a?aeiieie ??aiyiiyie aeey aaoaeoe/iiai aai aaoaeoi?aeiiai
ia?aoai?aiue oeyoii cai?ie ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy iaoa?einueei? oace ia
o?iio? ia?aoai?aiiy ia ia?ane/aiiy aoaeaoeai.

q Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeiaeaoeiaiio eaaoaaii? nieaa?a Fe-Ti o?iiii
??aiee o?iio +TiC o?ainoi?io?oueny a /a?oieiaee, a iaeiiiai?aaeai?
aieieia TiC – a ?icaaeoaeai? aeaiae?eoe ? ia?aiai? /anoee. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ?nioaaiiy aoaeoo eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai ia?ane/aiiy,
a?aeiiiai aeey iaeiioacii? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? Fe-Si nieaa?a, ui
iaaoaeaoeueiaothoueny.

q Anoaiiaeaii, ui a nieaa? Fe-Ti-9,75%Cr i?e a?aeioneo a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? 550-650N a i?noe? ia?ane/aiiy aoaeaoeai niinoa??aa?oueny
aaoaeoi?aeiee ?iciaae caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo. Ea?a?aeiith oacith a
yaoaeoi?ae? iiaea aooe oeaiaioeo, ea?a?ae I7N3 ? ia?aeaioeo?eiaaiee
ea?a?ae, iiaeeeai ?ciii?oiee I7N3, aea ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iueiai
ia?aiao?aie a?aoee.

q Iieacaia, ui i?e inoaoi/i?e oa?i?/i?e ia?iaoe? ?ino?oiaioo c
eiiiiceoe?eiith no?oeoo?ith iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o ne?aeo? oieeaoe aenieiai
a?aeioneo, o. u. i?e oeueiio aieieia ,ui a?iothoue TiC oaeaeei
noa?i?aeecothoueny.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/i?
i?ioeane oeaiaioaoe?? ? inoaoi/ii? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ?ino?oiaioo aeaio
eean?a – iieooaieino?eeiai aenieio?iienoiai ?c ci?oeiaiiyi ??aiiinieie
ea?a?aeaie oeoaio ? iaoaieino?eeiai aeiiiiiieaaiaaiiai c eiiiiceoe?eiith
no?oeoo?ith iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o.

Ii ?ic?iaeaiiio ?aaeeio aoea ia?iaeaia aeine?aeia ia?o?y ??aeo/eo
anoaaie aeey ca??ieo aea?aaiia?iaieo o?ac, ui aoee aei?iaoaai? ia
noaiae? Eaiaiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiai caaiaeo aea?aai??aeo/iai ?ino?oiaioo.
No?ee?noue aeine?aeieo anoaaie aeyaeeany a 1,5-2 ?aco aeua na??eieo c
noaee O6AO.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

An? aeei?enoai? a aeena?oaoe?? iaoa??aee, ui iioae?eoaaeeny a
ni?aaaoi?noa?, io?eiai? caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi. A aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy
?ia?o ?ioeo aaoi??a a ?iaio? ? a?aeiia?aei? caneaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a iioae?eiaai? a ni?aaaoi?noa? ?iaioe (a
ii?yaeeo iaaaaeaiiai nieneo iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o):

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? noaoo? 1 aeieaaeai? ni?iai? nieaae, i?iaaaeai?
aenia?eiaioe ii oeaiaioaoe?? ? aa?oo, aeeiiaiee i?e?ino?oeoo?iee aiae?c,
i?iaiae?ciaai? caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi cania?a
aaiiao?e/ii? oa?iiaeeiai?ee, i?aeaioiaai? c?acee aeey
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaia ?icoeo?iaea
aeaeo?iiia?ai, cai?iiiiiaaiee iiaeeeaee iaoai?ci aieeao eaaoaaiiy o?iiii
ia no?oeoo?i? ia?aoiaee i?e iaaoaeaoethaaii?.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? noaoo? 2 aeeiiaia oa?iiia?iaea aeine?aeieo nieaa?a,
aeine?aeaeaia oaa?ae?noue ? oaieino?ee?noue iaaoaeaoeueiaaieo oa??a,
aecia/aia caeaaei?noue i?aenoa?aeiaai? a?aenoai? a aonoai?oi-ea?a?aeieo
eieii?yo a?ae oaeaeeino? i?inoaaiiy o?iioo +TiC eiiia?aoeaiiai
ia?aoai?aiiy.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? noaoo? 3 ? aeiiia?ae? 4 aeieaaeai? ni?iai? nieaae,
i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe ii oeaiaioaoe?? oa aa?oo, aeeiiai?
i?e?ino?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeiiia?ae? 5 i?iaaaeai? aei?iaoaaiiy oeaiaioiaaieo
aeine?aeieo nieaa?a ia oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue, aeeiiai? iaoaeia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aeaioiaai? c?acee aeey aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaiae?ciaai? ?acoeueoaoe ? iaa?oioiaaiee iaoai?ci
i?enei?aii? noa?i?aeecaoe?? A-E eieii?e i?e a?aeioneo.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeiiia?ae? 6 i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe ii aa?oo ni?iaiiai
nieaao ia caeeoeiaee aonoai?o, i?aeaioiaai? c?acee ? aeeiiai?
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icoeo?iaai? aeaeo?iiia?aie,
aecia/ai? e?enoaeia?ao?/i? ?iaeaene aaa?oonieo ieiuei iaaeoacieo
iiaa?oiiue aonoai?o – ea?a?ae TiC ? iai?yiee c?inoaiiy ea?a?aeieo
noa?aei?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeai? oa iaaiai?ai? ia eiioa?aioe??
«No?oeoo?a e iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey eaae?iaaiiuo noaeae», 17-21 ethoiai
1991 a., i. Ee?a, ia i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? «I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey», 18-20 ea?oiy 1995 a., i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 1-ie noaoo? a iaoeiaiio
aeo?iae?, a 2-o noaooyo a ?anioae?eainuee?e i?aea?aeii/ee
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e ca??oe?, a 3-o ca??eao oac aeiiia?aeae iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c aaaaeaiiy, 6 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, 1
aeiaeaoeo. Iiaiee ia’?i aeena?oaoe?? 152 noi?. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeth/a? 61
iaethiie, 3 oaaeeoe?, nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c 120
iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

IAEssAe E?OA?AOO?E II OAI? ? AEA??

IAI?ssIE?A AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aiae?c iayaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui oeaiaioaoe?y ? aeia?a
a?aeiiei caniaii i?aeaeuaiiy no?ee?noieo aeanoeainoae ?ino?oiaioo
??ciiiai?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy. I?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aoaeaoeth ia 0.2%
a oaeaeei??aeo/eo noaeyo i?aeaeuo? oaa?ae?noue, ciinino?ee?noue,
oaieino?ee?noue. Oeaiaioaoe?y iecueeiaoaeaoeaaeo iao?e/ieo nieaa?a
aeicaiey? oieeiooe ea?a?aeii? iaiaeii??aeiino?. Iiaeeeai oaeiae
iaea?aeaiiy a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiai iaoa??aeo no?oeoo?e
i?e?iaeiiai eiiiiceoo. Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao? oaciaiai
ia?aoiaeo +ea?a?ae, eiee ci?ithth/eeny ca eiioeaio?aoe??th aoaeaoeth
neeaae oa?eoo ieia? /a?ac oa?eoiee eoo eiiiaeiiai o?eeooieea, ui
iaiaaeo? o?ueiooacio iaeanoue oa?eo – aonoai?o – ea?a?ae ia
?cioa?i?/iiio ia?a??c? ae?aa?aie noaio cae?ci – aoaeaoeue – eaaoth/ee
aeaiaio i?e oaiia?aoo?? oeaiaioaoe??. No?oeoo?a eiiiiceoa iiaea? niaith
aonoai?oio (i?ney aa?oo ia?oaineoio) iao?eoeth, a?iiaaio aieieiaie aai
ieanoeiaie niaoe?aeueiiai ea?a?aeo, i???ioiaaiiai caeaa?eueoa a iai?yieo
iioieo aoaeaoeth. Ine?eueee aeaia no?oeoo?a iaea?aeo?oueny a ?acoeueoao?
aeeooc?eiiai ?iciaaeo iaoa?einueei? oace ia aea? aei/??i?, oi iaea?eueo
aeecueeeie ii i?e?iae? i?e?iaeieie eiiiiceoaie ? aaoaeoe/iee aai
aaoaeoi?aeiee.

A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaai? aeai? ii iaoai?ciai noaoe?iia?iiai c?inoaiiy
aaoaeoee, e?enoaeia?ao?/i?e aoaeia? aaoaeoe/ieeo eiiiiceo?a, aieeao
aeii?oie ia no?oeoo?o aaoaeoee, ?oiuei? oa?i?/ii? noaa?eueiino?.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ii i?e?iaeiei eiiiiceoai, ui ooai?eeeny i?e
iaaoaeaoethaaii?, iieacaa, ui eiiiiceo ia aac? oeaiaioiaaiiai nieaao
Fe-1,17%Ti ii ciinino?eeino? a 3 ?ace ia?aaeuo? noaeue O12I ?
iiaea?oueny ia?niaeoeaiei a yeino? ?ino?oiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo. Iaeiae
oeaiaioiaaiee ?ino?oiaio c nieaao Fe-Ti ia ia? caaeia?eueiiai ??aiy
oaieino?eeino?. Oaieino?ee?noue iiaeia i?aeaeueoe aeiaeaoeiaei
eaaoaaiiyi, aieea yeiai ia no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?e iaaoaeaoethaaii? a
e?oa?aoo?? ina?oeaia iaaeinoaoiuei.

Oaeei /eiii, aoei iaiao?aeii aea/eoe iniaeeaino? oaciaeo ? no?oeoo?ieo
ia?aoiae?a i?e iaaoaeaoethaaii? iiaea?eieo nieaa?a Fe-Ti, aieea
aeiaeaoeiaiai eaaoaaiiy ia no?oeoo?o ? aeanoeaino? iaaoaeaoeueiaaieo
iaoa??ae?a, aieea iiaeeeaeo ?aaeei?a oa?iiia?iaee ia no?oeoo?o eiiiiceoa
c iaoith ?ic?iaee ia oe?e iniia? iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a oeaiaioaoe?? oa
inoaoi/ii? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ?ino?oiaioo c nieaao Fe-Ti-Cr.

IAOA??AE ? IAOIAeEEA AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Ni?iai? nieaae ae?iaeyee ia iniia? a?iei-cae?ca, oeoaiiai? aoaee,
iaoaeaaeo o?iio, iie?aaeaio ? e?aii?th a ia/? iii?o c a?ao?oiaei
iaa??aa/ai a na?aaeiaeu? i/euaiiai a?aiio. Nieaa 9 aeey i?iieneiaeo
aei?iaoaaiue (ceeaie ianith a?ey 10 ea) ae?iaeyee a ?iaeoeoe?ei?e ia/?.
O?i?/iee neeaae io?eiaieo nieaa?a iaaaaeaiee a oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey 1 — O?i?/iee neeaae aeine?aeieo nieaa?a

Nieaa ?O?i?/iee neeaae, % ii ian?CTiCrMoSi10,04 –
0,061,70—21,04—31,272,70—41,454,85—51,489,75—61,14-1,39-71,41—1,
318-9,677,92-91,352,37-0,7% Mn

I?ney aeieaaee ceeaee aeine?aeieo nieaa?a (ie??i ?9) eoaaee ia i?ooee
eaaae?aoiiai ia?aoeio ?ici??ii 15wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
``???&??yyyy?????Ay ? l ???&? ?MathType??
????u?th??????Oeaiaioaoe?th cae?enithaaee a oaa?aeiio ea?ath?ecaoi??,
a aaeooii?e ia/? NOAE 0.6. 2/16E2 ? a ia/? c eeiey/ith aa?noaith. A
aaeooii?e ia/? ? a ia/? c eeiey/ith aa?noaith a yeino? ea?ath?ecaoi?a
aeei?enoaee i?e?iaeiee aac.

Iaoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia i?e?ineii? “Neophot 21”.
Iaoaeia?ao?/i? oe?oe o?aaeee a 4%-ii nie?oiaiio ?ic/ei? acioii? eeneioe,
a oe?oe nieaao 5 c aenieith eiioeaio?aoe??th o?iio o ?aaeoea? Ia?aey (20
ie HCl, 4 a CuSO4, 20 ie H2O).

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e iaaoaeaoeueiaaieo oa??a ia ?ano?iaiio
aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? JSM-35 oe?oe i?aeaeaaaee aeaeo?ie?oe/iiio
aeeaieiio o?aaeaiith a ?aaeoea? ianooiiiai neeaaeo: 50 ie HCl, 25 a
eae?th-iao??th aeiiieeneiai, 1000 ie H2O. Aeiaeaia iai?oaa neeaaeaea
5-10A.

Eieaeueiee i?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiee aiae?c i?iaiaeeee c aeiiiiiaith
i?e?iciiaea MS-46 “Cameka”.

?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee aiae?c i?iaiaeeee ia aeeo?aeoiiao?ao Ae?II 2 ? Ae?II
3 a iiiio?iiaoe/iiio Ii K- aei?ii?ithaaii?.

Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia i?e?ineii? YI-125
i?e i?enei?thth/ee iai?oc? 100 ? 125 eA, ae?aiao? naeaeoi?ii? ae?ao?aaie
1 iei. Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee oiie? oieueae, aeaioiaeai? c
iaaoaeaoeueiaaieo c?ace?a ii noaiaea?oi?e iaoiaeeoe? Aieeiaia.
Aeei?enoiaoaaee o?iiiai-ioeaoiaee aeaeo?ie?o ianooiiiai neeaaeo: 133 ie
e?eaeaii? CH3COOH, 25 a CrO3, 7 ie H2O. Ia?iaeo aeaeo?iiia?ai i?iaiaeeee
c aeei?enoaiiyi iao?eoeue i?e?ioaoe?eiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy.

Oaa?ae?noue c?ace?a aei??thaaee ii Aeea?no c iaaaioaaeaiiyi 5 ea,
i?e?ioaa?ae?noue aei??thaaee ia i?eeaae? IIO-3 c iaaaioaaeaiiyi 50-200
a.

NO?OEOO?IOOAI?AIIss I?E IAAOAEAOeTHAAII?

OA?EOIEO NIEAA?A Fe-Ti

A nieaaao Fe-Ti i?e aeei?enoiaoaaieo oaiia?aoo?ao oeaiaioaoe??
(1000-1100N), oa?eo ia? aocueeee ?ioa?aae aiiiaaiiino? ii aoaeaoeth —
aeae?eueea oeny/ieo /anoie a?aenioea ii ian?. Ine?eueee a aeai?e ?iaio?
aeine?aeaeoaaee ni?iai? nieaae c eiioeaio?aoe??th aoaeaoeth 0,04-0,06%,
aeey ia?aoai?aiiy oa?eoo ii eiiia?aoeaiiio iaoai?cio c ooai?aiiyi A-E
eieii?e, a nieaa? 1 aoea aea?aia oaiia?aoo?a oeaiaioaoe??, i?e ye?e
ii/aoeiaee neeaae nieaao ciaoiaeeany iiaeeco noi?iie — TiC eiiiaeiiai
o?eeooieeo TiC, a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo — 1100N. I?e iiaeaeueoiio
iaaoaeaoethaaii? oa?eo ia?ane/oaaany aoaeaoeai ? caciaaaa eiiia?aoeaiiai
oaciaiai ia?aoai?aiiy, ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaany c?inoaiiyi A-E eieii?e.
O?iio ia?aoai?aiiy ??aiee, ea?a?aeia oaca ia?aaaaeii i???ioiaaia
acaeiaae iioieo aoaeaoeth, iaeiae niinoa??aathoueny a?aeoeeaiiy inae
ea?a?aeieo noa?aei?a ia eoo aei 30-35. Niinoa??aa?oueny ia?oa?iiy
aeeooa?aioe??iaee eieii?e, ca’ycaia c oiia?eueiaiiyi i?inoaaiiy o?iioo
ia?aoai?aiiy. Iaaeiei iaaeeeoeiaeo ea?a?ae?a niinoa??aa?oueny
aaii?iaeueiee ?iciaae oa?eoo.

Iiia?a/iee ia?aoei ea?a?aeii? oace iiaea aooe ?aaiiiniei (noa?aei?) aai
ia?aaiiiniei (no??/ee). Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
anoaiiaeaii, ui iao?eoey neeaaea?oueny c /anoeiai aea?eieeiaaiiai
ia?oaineoo, a ea?a?aei? noa?aei? aai no??/ee iathoue ia?aieo. No??/ee
iathoue iaeiaeiao i???ioaoe?th a iaaeao ca?ia.

Cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e oeaiaioaoe?? aei 1000N iaaiaeeoue aei aeae?eaiiy
iaaeeeoeiaeo ea?a?ae?a oeoaio a aeaeyae? ?aaiiinieo /anoie aai n?oee ii
iaaeai ca?ai.

Nieaa 2 i?e 1000N aoa o?ueiooaciei oa?eoi-aonoai?oi-ea?a?aeiei. I?e
iaaoaeaoethaaii? aeaiiai nieaao oa?eo ?iciaaeaany c ooai?aiiyi A-E
eieii?e, a a aonoai?o?, ii i??? eiai iane/aiiy aoaeaoeai, aeae?eyeeny
aeenia?ni? /anoee ea?a?aeo oeoaio. I?e cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e
oeaiaioaoe?? aei 960N no?oeoo?a iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiiai oa?o aoea iiai?noth
eieii?aeueiith.

Oiieo no?oeoo?o ? e?enoaeiaaiiao??th A-E eieii?e a aonoai?oiiio noai?
aea/aee ia c?aceao nieaao 1, iaaoaeaoeueiaaieo i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1100N aei
iaae? ?ic/eiiino? ? caaa?oiaaieo a aiae? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oeaiaioaoe??.
Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie aoei anoaiiaeaia, ui
ea?a?aeia ? aonoai?oia oace a eieii?yo ca’ycai? ianooiiei
e?enoaeia?ao?/iei IN: [100] [100] TiC, [010] [010] TiC, [001] [001] TiC.
Aonoai?oia iao?eoey iiiie?enoae?/ia a iaaeao iaeiiai A-E ca?ia, oi ? A-E
eieii?y iiaea? niaith ?aeeiee a?e?enoae?/iee aa?aaao. A aonoai?o? ia
i?aeoacieo iaaeao c ea?a?aeii niinoa??aathoueny aeeneieaoe??, aeieeiaiiy
yeeo coiiaeaia, i/aaeaeii, ?ici??iith iaa?aeiia?aei?noth ia??iae?a
e?enoae?/ieo a?aoie ea?a?aeo TiC ? aonoai?oo.

Ea?a?aeia oaca eieii?e ia i?noeoue aeaeieo aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii?
aoaeiae ? ii aeanoeainoyi iiaeiia iaaeeaeaoeny aei ieoeiaeaeieo
e?enoae?a («aon?a»). Iaeiae aeai? ieoeiaeaei? e?enoaee iaea?aeothoueny
i?e?iaeiei ia?acii a i?ioean? oaciaiai ia?aoai?aiiy, a a?aeciaeo a?ae
neeaaeieo ? eiooiaieo i?ioean?a ?oiueiai ooo/iiai ae?iuoaaiiy.

Ea?a?aei? noa?aei? ia?aiai? o?ueiia ieiueiaie. Aaa?oonieie ieiueiaie ?
ieiueie 111 oa 001. Ieoiia i?aeoacia aia?a?y iiaa?oi? ?icae?eo oeio 111
iaio iiaa?oi? oeio 100. Iai?aaeaiiy c?inoaiiy A-E eieii?? oeio 110.
Ci?oaia no??/eiai-noa?aeiaaa ii?oieia?y eieii?e oi?io?oueny a aeiaaeeo,
eiee iio?e aoaeaoeth iaia?aeaeueiee iai?aaeaiith 110, ? ea?a?aei?
noa?aei? ?inoooue aiaeii/an a aeaio iai?yieao oeio 110 c ni?eueiith
aaa?ooniith ieiueiith oeio 111.

I?e eiiia?aoeaiiio c?inoaii? A-E eieii?e ia?a?iciiae?e oeoaio
caaacia/o?oueny a?aae??ioii eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? a oa?eo? ia?aae o?iioii
ia?aoai?aiiy. Canoiniaoth/e i?aeo?ae, i?eeiyoee aeey aecia/aiiy oeueiai
a?aae??ioo i?e e?enoae?caoe?? aaoaeoee, iaea?aeo?ii

wmetafile8? ??A???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
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`A???&??yyyy?????oeyyy·yyy¶???? ???&? ?MathType??`?
???u?????????»????-?????I?th???(·???u?th??????aeawmetafil
e8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `????&??yyyy?????ayyy·yyya???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u y??????Aieea nee iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao ia aaee/eio
i?eei?aeiiieo eiioeaio?aoe?e aecia/aee c aeiiiiiaith nenoaie ??aiyiue
Aeaana-Aethaaia aeey oa?eoo a ??aiiaac? c ea?a?aeii

wmetafile8? ??Y???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyya???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??a???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `@

???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy?

???? ???&? ?MathType??`????u?th??????aea wmetafile8?
??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy@???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u y??????Aiaeia?/io nenoaio ??aiyiue iiaeia neeanoe
aeey oa?eoo a ??aiiaac? c aonoai?oii. Ine?eueee ?ic?aoiaoaaee cia/aiiy
i?eei?aeiiieo eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e aecia/aiiio ia?ane/aii? oa?eoo
aoaeaoeai wmetafile8? ??oe????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyyA???? ???&? ?MathType??`????u
y??????wmetafile8? ??3???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
????&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyy@??Y?? ???&? ?MathType??A?
???u?????????»????-?????@@????@oe???u?th??????aea
wmetafile8? ??Oe????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ??·?? ???&? ?MathType??0????u
y??????Oaeei /eiii, noaoe?iia?ia c?inoaiiy A-E eieii?e iiaea aooe
iienaia a?aeiieie ??aiyiiyie aeey aaoaeoe/iiai aai aaoaeoi?aeiiai
ia?aoai?aiue oeyoii cai?ie ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ia o?iio? ia?aoai?aiiy ia
ia?ane/aiiy aoaeaoeai.

??aiyiiy ianiaiai aaeaino i?e c?inoaii? noa?aeiaaiai eiiiiceoo
ae??ooaaee a i?yiieooi?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao, o. u. a oaeiio aeiaaeeo
io?eiaia iiaeaeue eaaei ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia eieii?th no??/eiai?
ii?oieia??:

wmetafile8? ??O???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ``

???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy

???? ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????@@????@E???@a???@0
???@?
???@m???@U???@????@???@l???@????@…?
??u?th??????aea v oaeaee?noue i?inoaaiiy o?iioo ia?aoai?aiiy; D —
eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? oeoaio a oa?eo?.

??oaiiy aeaiiai ??aiyiiy iiaeia iiaeaoe a aeaeyae? ?yaeo

wmetafile8? ??2???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A
`-???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy -??~ ?? ???&? ?MathType??@
???u?????????»????-?????aI???a» ???u?th??????aea
wmetafile8? ??oe????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????aeyyy·yyy???? ???&? ?MathType??`????u
y??????Caeaaei?noue i?aenoa?aeiaai? a?aenoai? a?ae oaeaeeino? i?inoaaiiy
o?iioo ia?aoai?aiiy ciaoiaeeee aeei?enoiaoth/e e?eoa??e c?inoaiiy ia
aeno?aioi?. Io?eiai? cia/aiiy aiaeia?/i? oaeei aeey aaoaeoee aai
aaoaeoi?ae?a: wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ??
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy@ ??·?? ???&? ?MathType??0????u
y??????Ciaeaeaiee aenia?eiaioaeueii iieaciee nooiaith aeey A-E eieii?e
neeaa 0,400,01, ui aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui ia?a?iciiae?e eiiiiiaio?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny ii ci?oaiiio iaoai?cio.

AIEEA O?IIO IA NO?OEOO?O ? AEANOEAINO?

IAAOAEAOeUeIAAIIAI OA?O

Aeine?aei? nieaae oeaiaiooaaee i?e 1100N i?ioyaii 1 aiaeeie ? o?enoaaee
no?oeoo?o aa?oii a aiae? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oeaiaioaoe??. No?oeoo?a
iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiai oa?o nieaao 3 ?noioii ia a?ae??ciyeany a?ae no?oeoo?e
nieaao 1.

A-E eieii?? a iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiio oa?? nieaao 4 caa??aaee ?aaoey?i?noue,
iaeiae ca?eueooaaeany /anoea a?yeiiiae?aii? no?oeoo?e. O?iiowmetafile8?
??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A ???&??yyyy?????Ay ?`I ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????A nieaa? 5 i?ney oeaiaioaoe?? i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 1100N ia?aae o?iioii ia?aoai?aiiy niinoa??aaee oe?ieo ciio
iaaeeeoeiaeo ea?a?ae?a, ui ca’ycaia c? noaa?e?coth/ei aieeaii o?iio ia
oa?eo. Uia oieeiooe aeae?eaiiy iaaeeeoeiaeo ea?a?ae?a, oaiia?aoo?a
oeaiaioaoe?? aoea i?aeaeuaia aei 1200N. Eiiiiceoia no?oeoo?a a nieaa? 5
a cia/iiio nooiai? ae?iaeaeaia. Ea?a?aeia oaca oi?io?oueny a aeaeyae?
ia?aiaieo /anoie ? ?icaaeoaeaieo aeaiae?eo?a neeaaeii? ii?oieia??.
Niinoa??aa?oueny ia?oa?iiy aeeoa?aioe??iaee eieii?e. O?iiowmetafile8?
??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A ???&??yyyy?????Ay ?`I ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????C? ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio a
nieaa? o?ueiooaciee ia’?i oa?eo — aonoai?o — ea?a?ae TiC c iaeiiai aieo
iaiaaeaiee eiiiaeiei o?eeooieeii, a c ?ioiai — iaei??th c a?aiae
eiiiaeiiai oao?aaae?o, a yeiio /aoaa?oith aa?oeiith ? ea?a?ae I23N6.
Iaoee a?aiae eiiiaeiiai oao?aaae?o aei ieiueie Fe-Ti-C aecia/a?oueny
??aiiaaaeieie eiioeaio?aoe?yie o?iio a oa?eo?, aonoai?o? ? ea?a?ae? TiC
a iaeano? /ioe?ueiooacii? ??aiiaaae. Naia aaeeea eiai eiioeaio?aoe?y a
oa?eo?, iaioa — a aonoai?o? ? naia iaioa — a ea?a?ae? TiC. ?c-ca ??ciiai
iaoeeo eiiiae oa?eo – ea?a?ae ? oa?eo – aonoai?o aei in? eiioeaio?aoe??
eaaoth/iai aeaiaioa, i?e aeno?aiieyoe?? eiiiae a iaeanoue ia?ane/aiiai
aoaeaoeai oa?eoo, a inoaiiueiio ia o?iio? ia?aoai?aiiy, ie??i a?aae??ioo
eiioeaio?aoe?? oeoaio, aeieea? a?aae??io eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio, ?
cae?enith?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e aeaieo aeaiaio?a i?ae c?inoath/eie
aonoai?oii ? ea?a?aeii, ye oea a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e iaaoaeaoethaaii?
nieaa?a 3 ? 4.

O?ainoi?iaoe?th ieineiai o?iioo ia?aoai?aiiy a /a?oieiaee iiaeia
iiynieoe aoaeoii eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai ia?ane/aiiy, noiaeiai c aoaeoii
eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy i?e e?enoae?caoe?? nieaa?a. I?e
noaoe?iia?iiio i?ioean? eiioeaio?aoe?y o?iio a oa?eo? ia o?iio?
ia?aoai?aiiy aeua, i?ae ia iane?i/aiiiio aeeo/aii? a?ae iueiai.
A?aae??io eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio noai?th? a?aae??io eiioeaio?aoe??
aoaeaoeth, a?aeiia?aeii? +TiC ia?aoai?aiith. Ine?eueee eiao?oe??io
aeeooc?? o?iio a oa?eo? ia aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a iaioee, i?ae aoaeaoeth,
oi a?aae??io ??aiiaaaeii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aoaeaoeth a oa?eo? ia o?iio?
ia?aoai?aiiy aaaaoi aeua, i?ae ?noeiiee. Ia?aae o?iioii ia?aoai?aiiy
aeieea? ciia eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai ia?ane/aiiy oa?eoo aoaeaoeai, aiaeia?/ia
cii? eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio oi?io?oueny
/a?oieiaee o?iio ia?aoai?aiiy, aea o?ii a?aeoenith?oueny a caiaaeeie
i?ae aenooiaie ia o?iio?.

Aeaiae?eoia aaeoaeaiiy ea?a?aeieo noa?aei?a iiynith?oueny oei, ui a
oa?eo? ia?aae ea?a?aeii eieaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y eaaoth/iai aeaiaioa
aeua, i?ae ia?aae aonoai?oii. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai ia?ane/aiiy
oa?eoo ia?aae iaei??th c oac iiaea iaaiaeeoe aei aeaiae?eoiiai
?icaaeoaeaiiy oe??? oace. Iiaeeeaei iaoai?ciii aeaiae?eoiiai
?icaaeoaeaiiy eiiiiceoiie no?oeoo?e iiaea aooe oaeiae ii?ooaiiy
noaoeeiia?iinoe i?ioeano c?inoaiiy aeeooc?eiiai oa?o.

Caaaeueiee oa?aeoa? caeiiii??iinoae o?ainoi?iaoe?? no?oeoo?e A-E eieii?e
a iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiio oa?? i?e eaaoaaii? wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ay,?@? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? c?ace?a nieaa?a 1, 3–5
aeine?aeaeoaaee i?ney oeaiaioaoe?? a oaa?aeiio ea?ath?ecaoi?? i?ioyaii
45 oa. ? aa?oo a aiae? a?ae oaiia?aoo? oeaiaioaoe??. Oaiia?aoo?a
iaaoaeaoethaaiiy nieaa?a 1, 3, 4 neeaaeaea 1100N, nieaao 5 — 1200N.
*anoeio c?ace?a nieaao 1 i?aeaeaaaee iiaoi?iiio aa?oo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e
1200N. C ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio a aeo?aeiiio nieaa?, a oaeiae
c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aa?oo oaa?ae?noue cieaeo?oueny, ui ca’ycaia c
ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo a no?oeoo??, iaeiae
oaeaee?noue ciai?oeiaiiy cieaeo?oueny, a a nieaa? 5 niinoa??aa?oueny iee
aoi?eiii? oaa?aeino? i?e 550N. O ii??aiyii? c iieooaieino?eeeie noaeyie
oeio O12I, iee aoi?eiii? oaa?aeino? ci?uaiee a iaeanoue a?eueo aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?, ui, ii an?e ?iia??iino?, ca’ycaia c a?eueo aeniei?
eaaiaai?noth oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio.

Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ney
a?aeioneo ia iaeneioi aoi?eii?e oaa?aeino? (550N) ia?oaineo caa??aa?
aenieo u?euei?noue aeaoaeo?a ? iiaea?eieee. ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iei aiae?cii
ea?a?aeiiai inaaeeo anoaiiaeaia, ui aeenia?niei ea?a?aeii, ui aeae?eeany
i?e a?aeioneo, ? ea?a?ae, ?ciii?oiee ea?a?aeo Cr3C2.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth no?oeoo?e iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiai, caaa?oiaaiiai ?
a?aeiouaiiai a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 550-650N nieaao 5 ? aaoaeoi?aeiee
?iciaae caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo i?ae /an ?cioa?i?/ii? aeaea?aeee i?e
a?aeioneo.

Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?ney a?aeioneo
anoaiiaeaii, ui ea?a?aeia oaca aaoaeoi?aeo iiaeaia o?ueiia oeiaie
ea?a?ae?a – oeaiaioeoii, ea?a?aeii I7N3 (aeyaeaiee o?eueee i?ney
a?aeioneo i?e 550N) ? ia ?aeaioeo?eiaaiei ea?a?aeii, iiaeeeai ?ciii?oiei
I7N3 c ia?aiao?aie a?aoee a=13,23A, n=5,67A.

Noa?i?aeecaoe?y ea?a?aeii? oace a A-E eieii?yo

Iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiai oa?o nieaa?a Fa-Ti ? Fe-Ti-Cr

I?e aenieiio a?aeioneo

Oa?i?/ia noaa?euei?noue eieii?e -TiC i?e oaiia?aoo?ao oeaiaioaoe??
(1100N) aeinoaoiuei aeniea. I?ney oeaiaioaoe?? o?eaae?noth 9 aiaeei i?e
1100N nieaao 1 ea?a?aei? aieieia ia caciathoue iii?oieo no?oeoo?ieo
ci?i. Nieaa 1 i?aeaeaaaee oaeiae aaeooiii? oeaiaioaoe?? i?e 1100N
i?ioyaii 3-o aiaeei, a i?ney oeueiai aeo?eioaaee 4 aiaeeie i?e o?e aea
oaiia?aoo?? aac iiaea/? iaaoaeaoethth/iai aaco. Anoaiiaeaia, ui i?ney
aeaii? ia?iaee no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue oaeiae ia a?aeaoaa?oueny.

Aeine?aeaeoaaee oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue ea?a?aeii? oace a
iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiio oa?? i?ae /an a?aeioneo, yeee iiaea aoiaeeoe a
oaoiieia?th inoaoi/ii? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee oeaiaioiaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo.
Anoaiiaeaia, ui i?ney a?aeioneo i?e 650N i?ioyaii 4-o aiaeei ea?a?aeia
oaca a A-E eieii?yo a cia/iiio nooiai? noa?i?aeeciaaeany. Nooi?iue
noa?i?aeecaoe?? ciaioo?oueny ii i??? aeeo/aiiy a?ae iiaa?oi? c?acea
?c-ca ia?oa?iiy aeeooa?aioe??iaee eieii?e. A iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiio oa??
nieaao 4, ia?iaeaiiai ii oiio ae ?aaeeio, oaeiae niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia
noa?i?aeecaoe?y ea?a?aeii? oace. A?aeione i?e 450N i?ioyaii 4-o aiaeei
ia iaaiaeeoue aei ci?ie ii?oieia?? ea?a?aeii? oace a eieii?yo.
Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie oiieeo oieuea c?acea nieaao
1 i?ney a?aeioneo i?e 650N i?ioyaii 4-o aiaeei anoaiiaeaii, ui a
aeiaaeeo, eiee aieieii ea?a?aeo TiN iaaeo? c aeaiia oa?eoieie ca?iaie,
iaeia c yeeo a?eueoa, a ?ioa iaioa, a ??aiiaaaei? i?eei?aeiii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ia iaaeoaci?e iiaa?oi? ea?a?ae – iao?eoey aiineoueny
cao?aiiy, aeeeeeaia ??ciei eai?ey?iei oeneii a iaioiio ? a?eueoiio
oa?eoieo ca?iao. Oaeei /eiii, anoaiiaeth?oueny aeeooc?eiee iio?e oeoaio
? aoaeaoeth a?ae a?eueoiai noaca?ia aei iaioiai ? a ea?a?ae?, ? a
iao?eoe?.

Aeey aiae?co e?iaoeee ae?eaiiy ea?a?aeieo aieieii a aonoai?o? ca iniiao
a?aee iiaeaeue Eeaeia. Ioe?ieo e?iaoeee ae?eaiiy aieieia i?ae /an
a?aeioneo i?iaiaeeee oeyoii aianaiiy a iiaeaeue Eeaeia ci?i, ui
aeeeeeathoueny aieeaii ca?aiii? no?oeoo?e iao?eoe?. Ae?eaiiy aieieia ia
/anoei? a ia?oiio ? ae?oaiio aeiaaeeao iieno?oueny ianooiieie
aeeoa?aioe?eieie ??aiyiiyie

wmetafile8? ??E???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??ss?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????A@????Aa???u™ya?????wmetafile8?
????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ` a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ?? ?? ???&?
?MathType??
???u?????????»????-?????a@????aae???u™ya?????aea r0 –
?aae?on iacao?aiiai aieieia; b – oe?eia iaae?; a – ia?ae?eiaee
eiao?oe??io; r – aiie?ooaea cao?aiiy; wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aA???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?????? ???&? ?MathType??A?
???u?????????»????-???????????j???u?th??????I?ney
i?aenoaiiaee iino?eieo ia?aiao??a ??aiyiiy ae??ooaaee /enaeueii,
aeei?enoiaoth/e i?ia?aio Mathnad 7.0.

??oaiiy ??aiyiiy (2) iieaco?, ui i?e i?i?iaeueii iiaeeea?e aiie?ooae?
cao?aiiy (1A) ea?a?aeia aieieii ae?eeoueny ia /anoei? i?ioyaii i?ii?aeeo
/ano iaio iaei??? aiaeeie, ui ia a?aeiia?aea? ?acoeueoaoai aenia?eiaioo.
Iaaii, aeniea no?ee?noue A-E eieii?e coiiaeaia oei, ui eiaa?aioia
iaaeoacia iaaea aonoai?o – ea?a?ae ia? iecueeo aia?a?th. C ciaioaiiyi
aia?a?? iaaeoacii? iaae? o?eaae?noue ?iciiae?eo ?inoa aeniiiaioe?aeueii
? i?ioean noa?i?aeecaoe?? ?noioii aaeueio?oueny.

??oaiiy ??aiyiiy (3) iieaco?, ui i?e ci?i? r0 a?ae 0,8 aei 1,0 iei
o?eaae?noue aeaea?aeee aei ?iciiae?eo aieieia ia /anoei? i?iy?oueny a?ae
7,5.103 aei 1,83.104 n. A?aeiia?aei?noue io?eiaieo aeaieo aenia?eiaioo
aiai?eoue i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue iaaaaeaii? iiaeae?.

Iayai?noue a iao?eoe? /anoie oeaiaioeoo, ui aeae?eeeeny i?e a?aeioneo,
oaeiae iiaea aieeaaoe ia i?ioean noa?i?aeeoeaoe?? ea?a?aeieo eieii?e.
I?ae aieeaii iaoyao i?aeoacieo iaae eiioeaio?aoe?y oeoaio a oa?eo? ia
iaaeoaci?e iaae? c ea?a?aeii TiC aoaea a?eueoa i?ae c oeaiaioeoii. Oaeei
/eiii, noai?th?oueny eiioeaio?aoe?eia iiea oeoaio, ui ii?ooo? eiai
aeeooc?eiee iio?e ? noai?th? aeiaeaoeia? cao?aiiy ia iiaa?oi? aieieia.

OAOIIEIA?*I? I?IOeANE OeAIAIOAOe?? ?

Ianooiii? INOAOI*II? OA?I?*II?

IA?IAEE ?INO?OIAIOO ??CIIAI I?ECIA*AIIss

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii? ? inoaoi/ii? oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee iieooaieino?eeiai ? iaoaieino?eeiai iecueeieaaiaaiiai
?ino?oiaioo.

Aeey aenieieaaiaaiiai aoi?eiiioaa?ae?th/iai nieaao 5 i?e i?iaaaeaii?
oeaiaioaoe?? iaiao?aeia oiiea ?aaoethaaiiy aoaeaoeaaiai iioaioe?aeo
na?aaeiaeua, ui iane/o?, ine?eueee i?e a?aeioneo aeaiiai nieaao ia
aoi?eiio oaa?ae?noue (550N) i?e ia?ane/aii? aoaeaoeai a?aeaoaa?oueny
aaoaeoi?aeiee ?iciaae caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo, a aa?o a?ae oaiia?aoo?e
1200N iiaea iaaiaeeoe aei iieaaeaiiy iiaa?oi?.

A?aei?aoethaaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ?aaoeueiaaii? aaeooiii?
oeaiaioaoe?? nieaao 5 cae?enithaaee ii oeeee?/i?e noai? «a?aeea/ea –
iaione aaco – aeaea?aeea – a?aeea/ea». Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e oaeiio
i?ioean? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiai oa?o caeaaeaoue a?ae ?ici??o
naaeee, ui ia?iaethaaeany, oiio aoa c?iaeaiee ?ic?aooiie aeeooc?eii?
e?iaoeee iaaoaeaoethaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici??o naaeee.

Aeoeai?noue aoaeaoeth, ?ic/eiaiiai a aonoai?o?, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny a
??aiiaac? c aaciaei na?aaeiaeuai, aecia/a?oueny ii oi?ioe?

wmetafile8? ??¤???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya????? ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????@????@a???@A???@O???u?
y??????aea K – eiinoaioa ??aiiaaae;wmetafile8? ??Y????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u@y??????Aeey iiaoaeiae eiioeaio?aoe?eieo i?io?e?a
aoaeaoeth a aeeooc?eiiio oa?? a iaaiee iiiaio /ano iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe
aeeoa?aioe?eia ??aiyiiy aeeooc?? i?e ii/aoeiaeo ? a?aie/ieo oiiaao,
a?aeiia?aeieo aeoeai?e ? ianeai?e oacai oeeeeo. Aeey ianeaii? oace
oeeeeo canoiniaaii ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy aeeooc?? c iai?iieeiith ciai?oiueith
iaaeath.

Iien aeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a i?ae /an aeoeaii? oace oeeeeo iienothoueny
??oaiiyi ??aiyiiy c a?aie/ieie oiiaaie 3-ai ?iaeo. sse ne?aeo? c oi?ioee
(4), ??aiiaaaeia eiioeaio?aoe?y wmetafile8? ??Y????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy???0?? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?y??????Oaeei /eiii, aeey iiaoaeiae
eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai i?io?eth aoaeaoeth a i?ioean? aaeooiii? oeaiaioaoe??
a oeeee?/iiio ?aaeei? iaiao?aeii iine?aeiaii ae??ooaaoe ??aiyiiy
aeeooc?? aeey eiaeiiai oeeeeo c a?aie/ieie oiiaaie

wmetafile8? ??aea DC – eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? aoaeaoeth; NN (z, t) –
eiioeaio?aoe?y aoaeaoeth a iiaa?oiaaiio oa??; t – /an; z – eii?aeeiaoa;
— eiinoaioa oaciai-a?aie/ii? ?aaeoe??; — iino?eiee eiao?oe??io, ui
caeaaeeoue a?ae eiinoaioe ??aiiaaae ?aaeoe?? (4) ? eiao?oe??ioo
aeoeaiino? aoaeaoeth a aonoai?o?; NCH4 ? NH2 – /enei iieae iaoaio ?
aiaeith a?aeiia?aeii a na?aaeiaeu?, ui iane/o?; S – ieiua iiaa?oi?
naaeee.

A?aoiaoth/e aaeeeo e?euee?noue oeeee?a, oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean
oeaiaioaoe?? aeey ??cieo ia’?i?a naaeee a?aei?aoeueiaoaaee
iieoaii??e/ii. Eiioeaio?aoe?ei? i?io?e? aoaeaoeth aeey ??cieo ia’?i?a
naaeee aoaeooue ?aeaioe/ieie i?e oaeeo aea a?aie/ieo oiiaao. Oaeei
/eiii, ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeano oeaiaioaoe?? aeey naaeie ??ciiai ?ici??o
caiaeeoueny aei ci?ie ii/aoeiaiai oeneo iaoaio a ia/?, a iaa?aeii?
iino?ei? ia?aiao?e aecia/athoueny aii??e/ii aeey eiaeii? iiaeae?
iaeaaeiaiiy.

Oeaiaioaoe?th iaoaieino?eeiai ?ino?oiaioo ae?iaeyee aac ?aaoethaaiiy
aoaeaoeaaiai iioaioe?aeo, ine?eueee aeey iaea?aeaiiy eiiiiceoii?
no?oeoo?e a iecueeieaaiaaieo nieaaao Fe-Ti-Cr c o?i?/iei neeaaeii oeio
1, 3, 4 oaiia?aoo?a iane/aiiy neeaaea? 1000-1100N, ui ieae/a oaiia?aoo?e
e?ea?aeon, ? iaaaciaea iieaaeaiiy aoea a?aenooiy. Aeey onoiaiiy
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo iaiao?aeia inoaoi/ia oa?i?/ia
ia?iaea ii ?aaeeio: aa?o c oeaiaioaoe?eiiai iaa??ao, i?ii?aeiee
na?aaei?e a?aeione, iiaoi?iee aa?o c a?eueo iecueei? oaiia?aoo?e,
iecueeee a?aeione. I?e oeueiio aeinyaa?oueny aeiaeaoeiaa ci?oeiaiiy
/anoeaie oeaiaioeoo.

Oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean oeaiaioaoe?? ? inoaoi/ii? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
a?aei?aoeueiaoaaee ia aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?e ia?o?? ??aeo/eo anoaaie
ca??ieo aea?aaiia?iaieo o?ac, aeaioiaeaieo c aeine?aeiiai nieaao 9
acai?i noaee O6AO. Oeaiaioaoe?th ? inoaoi/io oa?i?/io ia?iaeo ae?iaeyee
a aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?e ia/? c eeiey/ith aa?noaith eiino?oeoe??
AeIaoAO. Oaiia?aoo?a oeaiaioaoe?? neeaaeaea 1000N, o?eaae?noue 8 a. Ii
cae?i/aiith aeaea?aeee caaioiaee aa?ooaaee a iane?. I?ii?aeiee a?aeione
ae?iaeyee i?e oaiia?aoo?? 450N i?ioyaii 1 aiaeeie.

Oeaiaioaoe?th oa inoaoi/iee aa?o ae?iaeyee a?ae oaiia?aoo?e 820N,
oaiia?aoo?a caeeth/iiai a?aeioneo neeaaeaea 250N.

Ia Eaiaiaoe-Iiae?euenueeiio caaiae? aea?aai??aeo/iai ?ino?oiaioo ??aeo/?
anoaaee aeey ca??ieo o?ac i?aeaeaaaee noaiaeiaei aei?iaoaaiiyi.
Aeine?aei? anoaaee iieacaee, ui no?ee?noue a 1,5-2 ?ace ia?aaeuo?
no?ee?noue na??eieo anoaaie c noaee O6AO.

AENIIAEE

1. Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a i?e
iaaoaeaoethaaii? nieaa?a cae?ca c o?iiii oa oeoaiii ?ic?iaeai? aeaa
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeane oeaiaioaoe?? ? inoaoi/ii? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
??cieo eean?a ?ino?oiaioo – aenieieaaiaaiiai iieooaieino?eeiai ?
iecueeieaaiaaiiai iaoaieino?eeiai.

2. I?e iaaoaeaoethaaii? nieaa?a cae?ca c oeoaiii i?e eiioeaio?aoe??
oeoaio 1,04-1,70% a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 950-1100N iiaeeeaa c?inoaiiy
A-E eieii?e noa?aeiaaith ii?oieia??, a ?acoeueoao? /iai e?ioeaaa
no?oeoo?a iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiai oa?o iiaea? niaith i?e?iaeiee eiiiiceo.

3. ?c-ca aocueeiai ?ioa?aaeo aiiiaaiiino? oa?eoo ii aoaeaoeth i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao oeaiaioaoe?? (aeae?eueea oeny/ieo a?aenioea), i?e
iaaoaeaoethaaii? nieaa?a Fe-Ti c aeo?aeiith eiioeaio?aoe??th aoaeaoeth
0,04-0,06%, iaiiaeeeaa ?aae?caoe?y wmetafile8? ??°????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 `???&??yyyy?????Ayyy&??? ??AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????4. Oiiea no?oeoo?a A-E eieii?e i?e
oaiia?aoo?? oeaiaioaoe?? a?ae??ciy?oueny iecueeith u?euei?noth aeaoaeo?a
e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae. Aieieia ea?a?aeo TiC acaaae? ia i?noyoue aeaeeieo
aeaoaeo?a ? iiaeooue aooe a?aeianai? aei ieoeiaeaeieo e?enoae?a.
Aonoai?oia iao?eoey i?noeoue iaeeie/i? aeeneieaoe?? ia i?aeoacieo iaaeao
c ea?a?aeii. I?ae aonoai?oii ? ea?a?aeii TiC ?nio? i???ioaoe?eia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 100100TiC; 010010TiC; 001001TiC. Ia?aaaaeiei
iai?aaeaiiyi c?inoaiiy aonoai?oi-ea?a?aeieo a?e?enoae?o?a ? iai?aaeaiiy
110, aaa?oonieie ieiueiaie i?aeoacieo iaae – ieiueie 111 oa 100.

5. Iaoai?ci eiiia?aoeaiiai c?inoaiiy A-E eieii?e iiaea aooe iienaiee
a?aeiieie ??aiyiiyie aeey aaoaeoe/iiiai aai aaoaeoi?aeiiai ia?aoai?aiue
oeyoii cai?ie ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ia o?iio? ia?aoai?aiiy ia ia?ane/aiy
oa?eoo aoaeaoeai. Ca?aeii aeaiiio iaoai?cio, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
i?aenoa?aeiaaith a?aenoaiith ? oaeaee?noth c?inoaiiy A-E eieii?e iiaeia
noi?ioethaaoe ye S=const. v-0,5 a aeiaaeeo, yeui ia?a?iciiae?e
eiiiiiaio?a nieaao ia?aae o?iioii ia?aoai?aiiy cae?enith?oueny ii
iaoai?cio ia’?iii? aeeooc??, S=const.v-0,33 a aeiaaeeo i?eei?aeiiii?
aeeooc??. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue a eieii?yo -TiC
neeaea S=const.v-0,400,01 ui aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui ia?a?iciiae?e
eiiiiiaio?a cae?enith?oueny ii ci?oaiiio iaoai?cio.

6. Eaaoaaiiy o?iiii aei 4,85% ia aeyaey? iii?oiiai aieeao ia no?oeoo?o
iaaoaeaoeueiaaiiai oa?o. Iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy eiai eiioeaio?aoe??
iaaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy ia?aae o?iioii ia?aoai?aiiy ciie
eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai ia?ane/aiiy ? ae?iaeaeaiith eiiiiceoe?eii? no?oeoo?e.
A nieaa?, eaaiaaiiio 9,75% Cr, ea?a?aeia oaca iaea ci?oaio ii?oieia?th
a?aeie?aieaieo ia?aiaieo ?aaiiinieo ? ia?aaiiinieo /anoie ?
?icaaeoaeaieo aeaiae?eo?a.

7. I?e noaoe?iia?iiio c?inoaii?-TiC eieii?e a nieaaao, aeiaeaoeiai
eaaiaaieo o?iiii, a oa?eo? ia?aae o?iioii ia?aoai?aiiy, ie??i a?aae??ioo
eiioeaio?aoe?? oeoaio, ?nio? a?aae??io eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio, iaoiiaeaiee
??ciiiai?oiei iaoeeii eiiiae aei in? eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? ia ae?aa?ai?
noaio Fe-Ti-Cr-C. Oaeei /eiii, a i?ioean? noaoe?iia?iiai c?inoaiiy
ia?aae o?iioii ia?aoai?aiiy ia?a?iciiae?eythoueny ? iniiai? eiiiiiaioe,
? eaaoth/ee aeaiaio.

8. A?aie/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y eaaoth/iai -noaa?e?caoi?o, i?e ye?e iiaeeeai
iaea?aeaiiy a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? eiiiiceoe?eii? no?oeoo?e, caeaaeeoue
a?ae nooiaith noaa?e?caoe?? oa?eoo ? nooiaith eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai
ia?ane/aiiy, ui oeae aeaiaio aeeeeea?, o. ?. a?ae eiai oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae.

9. C ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? o?iio a iaaoaeaoeueiaaieo nieaaao
Fe-Ti-Cr ciaioo?oueny oaeaee?noue ?oiueiai ciai?oeiaiiy i?e a?aeioneo ?
a nieaa?, ui i?noeoue 9.75% Cr, niinoa??aa?oueny iee aoi?eiii?
oaa?aeino? i?e 550N.

10. A nieaa? Fe-Ti-9,75%Cr i?e a?aeioneo a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 550-650N
a i?noe? ia?ane/aiiy aoaeaoeai niinoa??aa?oueny ?aoaeoi?aeiee ?iciaae
caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo. Ea?a?aeii? oacith a aaoaeoi?ae? iiaea aooe
oeaiaioeo, ea?a?ae I7N3 ? ia?aeaioeo?eiaaiee ea?a?ae, iiaeeeai
?ciii?oiee I7N3, aea ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iueiai ia?aiao?aie
e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee.

11. A-E eieii?? a?ae??ciythoueny aenieith oa?i?/iith noaa?euei?noth a
aonoai?oiiio noai? ? oaeaeei noa?i?aeecothoueny i?ney aa?oo ? a?aeioneo
i?e 650N. I?enei?thth/eie noa?i?aeecaoe?th oaeoi?aie ? iie?aii?caoeey ?
?ae?enoae?caoe?y iao?eoe?, ii?ooaiiy eiaa?aioiino? i?aeoacieo iaae i?e
?ae?enoae?caoe??, aca?iiae?y c /anoeaie oeaiaioeoo.

12. C aeine?aeiiai nieaao 9 (oaae. 1) aoea aeaioiaeaia ia?o?y ??aeo/eo
anoaaie aeey ca??ieo aea?aaiia?iaieo o?ac. ?acoeueoaoe noaiaeiaeo
?nieo?a iieacaee i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? 1,5-2 ?ace o ii??aiyii? c
na??eieie anoaaeaie c noaee O6AO.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Iia/ai A.E., Aeieaeaieia E.A., Iia/ai A.A. No?oeoo?a iaoaea?iaeaiiuo
Fe-Ti e Fe-Ti-Cr nieaaia // IeOII. — 1995. — ?5. — N. 4-7.

2. Iia/ai A.E., Iia/ai A.A., Aeai?yaeeei TH.N. No?oeoo?a e naienoaa
iaoaea?iaeaiiuo nieaaia Fe-Ti e Fe-Ti-Cr // I?iaeaiu iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. — Aui.110. — E.: Oaoiiea. — 1993. — N. 90-93.

3. Iia/ai A.E., Aeieaeaieia E.A., Iia/ai A.A. Aeeyiea e?aiiey ia oi?io
o?iioa +TiC eiiia?aoeaiiai i?aa?auaiey i?e iaoaea?iaeeaaiee nieaaia
Fe-Ti-Si // I?iaeaiu iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. — Aui.110. — E.:
Oaoiiea. — 1993. — N. 42-44.

4. Aeieaeaieia E.A., Iia/ai A.A. No?oeoo?iua i?aa?auaiey i?e
ecioa?ie/aneii iaoaea?iaeeaaiee nieaaia Fe-Ti-Cr // No?oeoo?a e iaoiaeu
enneaaeiaaiey eaae?iaaiiuo noaeae (oacenu aeieeaaeia eiioa?aioeee, 17-21
oaa?aey 1991 aiaea, a. Eeaa). — E.: ?AeYIOI iauanoaa «Ciaiea» Oe?aeiu,
EIE IAIO, Eeaaneia ai?iaeneia i?aaeaiea Ananithciiai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
iauanoaa iaoeiino?ieoaeae. — 1991. — N. 11-12.

5. Aeieaeaieia E.A., Iia/ai A.A., Aeai?yaeeei TH.N. Noa?ieaeecaoeey
ea?aeaeiuo aieieii a iaoaea?iaeaiiii neia nieaaa Fe-Ti i?e aunieii
ioionea // Nai?iee o?oaeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai naieia?a «I?iaeaiu
nia?aiaiiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey» (18-21 ai?aey 1995 aiaea). —
Aeiai?iiao?iane. — Ecae-ai IAANeA. — 1995. — N. 42-46.

6. Aeieaeaieia E.A., Iia/ai A.A., Aeai?yaeeei TH.N.
E?enoaeeia?aoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe no?iaiey aonoaieoi-ea?aeaeiuo eieiiee a
iaoaea?iaeaiiii neia nieaaa Fe-1,7%Ti // ?ac?aaioea, i?iecaiaenoai e
i?eiaiaiea eino?oiaioaeueiuo noaeae e nieaaia (oacenu aeieeaaeia
ainueiiai naieia?a n iaaeaeoia?iaeiui o/anoeai, 27-30 ieoya?y 1998 a.,
a. Eeaa). – E.: EII ei. O?aioeaae/a. — 1998. -N. 63.

Iia/ai I.A. Oacia? oa no?oeoo?i? ia?aoiaee i?e iaaoaeaoethaaii? nieaa?a
cae?ca c o?iiii oa oeoaiii. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.16.01 – iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea
iaoae?a. — Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui i?e icia/aieo eiioeaio?aoe?eii-oaiia?aoo?ieo
ia?aiao?ao oeaiaioaoe?? nieaa?a Fe-(1,04-1,70%Ti) iiaeeeai oi?ioaaiiy a
iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? no?oeoo?e i?e?iaeiiai eiiiiceoo. Eiiiiceo yaey? niaith
ia?oaineoio iao?eoeth, a?iiaaio aieieiaie ea?a?aeo oeoaio. Aeine?aeaeai?
no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? eiiiiceoo, cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoai?ci eiai ?inoo.
Aea/aiee aieea aeiaeaoeiaiai eaaoaaiiy nieaa?a Fe-Ti o?iiii, e?aii??i oa
iie?aaeaiii ia no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?e iaaoaeaoethaaii?. Aecia/ai?
oaa?ae?noue oa oaieino?ee?noue iaaoaeaoeueiaaieo oa??a aeine?aeieo
nieaa?a Fe-Ti oa Fe-Ti-Cr. Aeine?aeaeaia oa?i?/ia noaa?euei?noue
eiiiiceoe?eii? no?oeoo?e. Ia i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane oeaiaioaoe?? oa e?ioeaai? oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee iai?aoaieino?eeiai oa iaoaieino?eeiai ?ino?oiaioo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeaiaioaoe?y, eiiiiceo, no?oeoo?a, iaoai?ci ?inoo,
eaaoaaiiy, oaieino?ee?noue, oa?i?/ia noaa?euei?noue.

Iia/ai A.A. Oaciaua e no?oeoo?iua ia?aoiaeu i?e iaoaea?iaeeaaiee nieaaia
aeaeaca n o?iiii e oeoaiii. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.01 – iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea
iaoaeeia. — Ainoaea?noaaiiay iaoaeeo?ae/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu,
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee iieacaii, /oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
eiioeaio?aoeeiiii-oaiia?aoo?iuo ia?aiao?ao oeaiaioaoeee nieaaia
Fe-(1,04-1,70%Ti) aiciiaeii oi?ie?iaaiea a iiaa?oiinoiii neia no?oeoo?u
anoanoaaiiiai eiiiiceoa. Eiiiiceo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?oaineoioth
iao?eoeo, a?ie?iaaiioth aieieiaie ea?aeaea oeoaia. Enneaaeiaaiu
no?oeoo?iua iniaaiiinoe eiiiiceoa, i?aaeeiaeai iaoaieci aai ?inoa.
Eco/aii aeeyiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai eaae?iaaiey nieaaia Fe-Ti o?iiii,
e?aiieai, iieeaaeaiii ia no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiea i?e iaoaea?iaeeaaiee.
Ii?aaeaeaiu oaa?aeinoue e oaieinoieeinoue iaoaea?iaeaiiuo neiaa iiuoiuo
nieaaia Fe-Ti e Fe-Ti-Cr. Enneaaeiaaia oa?ie/aneay noaaeeueiinoue
eiiiiceoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u. Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia
?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu oeaiaioaoeee e ieii/aoaeueiie
oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee iieooaieinoieeiai e iaoaieinoieeiai eino?oiaioa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeaiaioaoeey, eiiiiceo, no?oeoo?a, iaoaieci ?inoa,
eaae?iaaiea, oaieinoieeinoue, oa?ie/aneay noaaeeueiinoue.

Movchan A.V. Phase and structural transitions by carburization of alloys
of iron with chromium and titanium.

Thesis for a candidate degree by specialty 05.16.01 – physical
metallurgy and heat treatment of metals. — State metallurgical academy
of Ukraine, Dniepropetrovsk, 1999.

In the dissertation it has been shown that by definite
concentration-temperature parameters of carburization possible formation
of the in situ composite structure in surface layers of
Fe-(1.04-1.70%Ti) alloys. The composite is a martensite matrix,
reinforced by titanium carbide’s rods. A stricture of composite has been
investigated, a mechanism of it growth has been proposed. An influence
of additional alloying Fe-Ti alloys by chromium, silicon, molybdenum on
structure’s formation by carburization has been studied. A hardness and
heat-resistance of carburizated layers of Fe-Ti and Fe-Ti-Cr
experimental alloys has been determinated. A thermal stability of
composite structure has been investigated. Technological processes of
carburization and final heat treatment of semiheat-resistant and not
heat-resistant tools has been developed on the base of obtained results.

Key words: carburization, composite, structure, mechanism of growth,
alloying, heat resistans, thermal stability.

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