*A?IIAAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OIIAA?NEOAO

iiaii TH. Oaaeueeiae/a

THcaae/ Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 539.2:537.222:536.7

AIA?AAOE*II OA?AEOA?ENOEEE IIAA?OIAAEO OA?IA

I OICEEI–IAOAII*II AEANOEAINOI OAA?AeEO OIE

01.04.07 – oiceea oaa?aeiai oiea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oiceei–iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

*a?i?aoe? – 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oiceei–iaoaii/iiio iinoeoooi

ii. A.A. Ea?iaiea Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nii?oithe Iao?i Ia?eiyiiae/,

Oiceei-iaoaii/iee iinoeooo

ii. A.A. Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie,

caaiaeoaa/ aiaeaeieo

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oiae/oe Iai? Ieoaeeiae/, *a?iiaaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao

ii. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea

aeieoi? oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

sse?a/oe Iao?i Ieeieaeiae/, Eueaianueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao

ii. I. ss. O?aiea, caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?aioaaiiiaoaeio?ceee

aeieoi? oiceei–iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee

niia?iaioiee Iie?iieaiee Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/ ,

Iinoeooo i?iaeai iaoa?iaeiciaanoaa ii. I.I. O?aioeaae/a

IAI Oe?a?ie, i?iaiaeiee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: Iinoeooo iaoaeioiceee IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e oai??? oaa?aeiai o?ea,
i. Ee?a.

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny <<24>> aa?aniy 1999 ?.

i 15 aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae
76.051.01 i?e *a?iiaaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi ii. TH.
Oaaeueeiae/a ca aae?anith:

274012, i. *a?iiaoei, aoe. Eioethaeinueeiai, 2.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aiaeiioaoei
*a?iiaaoeueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo (i. *a?iiaoei, aoe. E. Oe?a?iee,
23)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaii <<20>> na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.A.Eo?aaiaoeueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Aaaeeeaith aeey aeii?thaaeueii? i eaca?ii?
oaoiiee ? i?iaeaia ?ano?no /ooeeaeo aeaiaioia eaca?ia, oa?iiia?,
aeaeo?e/ieo ciiaeia. A ieo iiae aei?th ?aaeiaoeieiiai ii?iiiiaiiy
aeieea? aaeeea eieueeinoue oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia (oeio “aaeainiy –
iiaeaoceiaee aoii”). sse iieacaee aenia?eiaioe, ?ano?n oaeeo aeaiaioia
i?eeaaeia caeaaeeoue aiae ianooiieo iniiaieo oaeoi?ia: a) ?icii?ia
i oi?ie c?aceia, a) eiioeaio?aoei? oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia,
a) iaoaii/iiai noaio iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia. A ?yaei aeiaaeeia, ioeiithth/e
oice/ii ia?aiao?e caaaeaieo aeua aeaiaioia i?eeaaeia ia iniiai
o?aaeeoeieieo iiaeoiaeia oiceee oaa?aeiai oiea i oiceee iiaa?oii,
niinoa?iaa?ii aaeeei aiaeoeeaiiy aiae aenia?eiaioo. Oiio iio?iaii
noai?thaaoe iiai oai?aoe/ii iiaeaei, yei a a?aoiaoaaee aeacaii o?e
oaeoi?e (a), (a), (a) a noeoiiino?.

?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ?ano?no aeaiaioia i?eeaaeia caeaaeeoue aiae
aeai?o iaaeieieo iioeieo iaoa?iaeia oaa?aeeo oie. Aeioeieueiinoue
canoinoaaiiy iaoa?iaeia o eiie?aoieo i?eno?iyo aei??thaaeueii? oaoi?ee
i?eeiyoi ioeiithaaoe ia iniiai oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii? oa?iiaeeiaii/ii?
iiaeaei i e?eoa?ith iioeiinoi.

?ice?eaath/e nooue i?iaeaie i ?? noai, aiaecia/eii, ui aiaeic
ia?aiao?ia, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniaeeainoi ?icii?iiai aoaeoo
iioeiinoi a oaa?aeeo oieao, aoa aaaeaiei, aea ?aaeicaoe?y eiai
a?aeaoaaeanue oieueee /anoeiai ia iniiai eiiai?iiniiai iiaeoiaeo aai
aiii?e/ii, ia aaiaey/e a ?icaeyae oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oii. Aiae
oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oii iayaii caeaaeaoue aiii?e/ii eiinoaioe, aea
iaoiaeeeo aiaeiiaiaeieo oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooieia, yei a oea i?eiouaiiy
aeinoiai?ii iethno?oaaee, ia ?ic?iaeaii. C aeiiiiiaith aiii?e/ieo
eiinoaio iiaeia aoei iiynieoe ?acoeueoaoe oieueee aeayeeo
aenia?eiaioia, iai?eeeaae, caeaaeiinoue a?aieoei iioeiinoi ia ?icoya
aiae ?icii?ia: a) aaiiao?e/ii iiaeiaieo c?aceia; a) c?aceia c ?icieie
iiia?a/ieie e?oaiaeie ia?a?icaie ?iaieo aeiaaeei; a) c?aceia ?icii?
oe?eie. A ?ioeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeey iieno ?ici??iiai aoaeoo i?oeiino?
aoei aaaaeaii aac?ici??i? ia?aiao?e, caeaaei? a?ae oi?ie ? ?ici???a o?e,
cie?aia a aia?aaoe/iiio e?eoa?i? A?iooiona–I?iaaia, yeee i?noeoue
iiaa?oiaao aia?aith i aoaeoeaio iiaa?oiaao aia?aith. *a?aiaiia A.I.
e??i aac?ici??ii? eiinoaioe aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ianooaaiiai aoaeoo
iioeiinoi o c?aceao c o?iueiaie aaia ooieoeith, yea aeicaieeea
iaa?oiooaaoe ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo aeey c?aceia noaei 22E o iaaiiio
aeiaiaciii ?icii?ia. Iieieia A.I. aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy ianooaaiiai aoaeoo
a c?aceao ?icii? aeiaaeeie noi?ioethaaa aia?aaoe/iee e?eoa?ie
?oeioaaiiy, aaiaoe a ?icaeyae oa?aeoa?enoeeo iiaa?oii, yea ca
oice/iei ciinoii, ?icii?iinoth i eieueeinii aiaeiiaiaea? aoaeoeaiie
iiaa?oiaaie aia?ai? A?iooiona–I?iaaia.

A eioa?aoo?i ? cia/ia eieueeinoue aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, aeey
iiyniaiiy yeeo aiaeiieo e?eoa?i?a iioeiinoi iaaeinoaoiuei. Cie?aia, oea
noino?oueny iaeaeo?e/ieo ciiaeia, aeaoaeae iieia?aoi/ieo iaoei).
Aeoiaeio iioi?iaoeith aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy e?eoa?i?a iioeiinoi
caaaeaieo aeua aeaiaioia i?eeaaeia iiaeia aea?aoe, aiaeicoth/e aiaeiii
e?eoa?i? iioeiinoi c iiceoeie aeinyaiaiue oiceee iiaa?oiaaeo yaeu.

Aiaeiii e?eoa?i? iioeiinoi iathoue /anoeiaee oa?aeoa?, oiaoi
iienothoue ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioia aeey ie?aieo c?aceia. Aiie ia
aeicaieythoue aeinoaoiuei oi/ii aiaeicoaaoe ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ioeiiee iioeiinoi oaa?aeeo oie c oi/eiaeie
aeaoaeoaie, i?e aeaoi?ioaaiii yeeo iiaea nooo?ai ciiithaaoenue
iiaa?oiaaee iaoya i i?iyaeyoenue ?icii?iee aoaeo. O?aaeeoeieii e?eoa?i?
canoiniaothoueny aei aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo aeaiaioia eiino?oeoeie i ia
a?aoiaothoue o eiiieaeni iiaa?oiaaee iaoya, iiaa?oiaao aia?aith,
aia?aaoe/ii ia?aiao?e, ca’ycaii c ?icii?iei aoaeoii, i ciiio
ia?aei/aieo aaee/ei i?e ciaiioiio aieeaao. Oiio ?icaeoie iiaeaeae
oiceee oaa?aeiai oiea, yei oe?oa, iiae aiaeiii iiaeaei, a?aoothoue
iiaa?oiaai yaeua, i iiaoaeiaa oa aaeineiiaeaiiy ia oeie iniiai iiaeo
e?eoa?i?a iioeiinoi ? aeooaeueiei i aeioeieueiei. Cie?aia,
aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo yaeu o /ooeeaeo aeaiaioao i aea/aiiy
iaiaaeaiue, yei iaeeaaeathoueny ia ciaiioii oaeoi?e, ? aeooaeueieie i
aaaeeeaeie o aeii?thaaeueiie oa eaca?iie oaoiioei, ineieueee aiae noaio
iiaa?oii a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao caeaaeaoue ?ano?n i ciiie iieacia
i?eeaaeia.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoeieia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue o OII IAI Oe?a?ie a ?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
oai: 1) athaeaeaoii? oaie: “Aeii?thaaiiy ia?aiao?ia aeaeo?e/ieo i
iaaiioieo iieia noiniaii caaea/ aeiaaiinoeee aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo
na?aaeiaeu” (?A–30/400, 1991–1993); 2) iiaeaea?aeaaieo iaoeiai–oaoii/ieo
i?ia?ai – “Ia?n–94” (1992–1993), “Ia?n–96” (1994–1995); 3) aea?aeaaiiai
i?iaeoo “Ii?nueea i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy” (1988–1996); 4) athaeaeaoii?
oaie “?ic?iaea i?eioeei?a iiaoaeiae oa noai?aiiy aeniei/ooeeaeo
aei??thaaeueieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a aeaeo?e/iiai iiey “ (1994–1996) (? ae/?
0195U004340); 5) athaeaeaoii? oaie “?ic?iaea i?eioeeiia iiaoaeiae
aeniei/ooeeaeo iioi?iaoeieii–aeii?thaaeueieo nenoai aeni?an
eiio?ieth i?iaiaeieo na?aaeiaeu” (?A–26/182, 1997–1999) (? ae/?
0198U004615); .

Iaoith ?iaioe ?: noai?aiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? oai?i? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??
oaa?aeeo o?e, yea e??i aeaeo?e/ii? a?aoiao? ? iaoai?/io neeaaeiao.

Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a? ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo caaea/:

– iiaoaeiaa ocaaaeueiaii? oa?iiaeeiaii/ii? iae?ineiii/ii? iiaeaei i
canoinoaaiiy ?? aeey eieueeiniiai iieno oiceei-iaoaii/ieo i?ioeania o
iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao oaa?aeeo (aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo /e aeiaeaeo?e/ieo) oie c
a?aooaaiiyi aeaeo?e/ii? i iaoaii/ii? neeaaeiaeo iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai?;

– aecia/aiiy iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??:

a) a aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oaa?aeeo o?eao c o?aooaaiiyi ia?a?iciiae?eo
aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a, ?aae?aoe?eiiai ii?ii?iaiiy oa aaiiao???
iiaa?oiiue;

a) a aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oaa?aeeo o?eao c o?aooaaiiyi iane/aiiy
aeii?oeith oa iaa??ao;

a) a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oaa?aeeo o?eao c o?aooaaiiyi ia?a?iciiae?eo
ca’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a ? ?aae?aoe?eiiai ii?ii?iaiiy;

a) a aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oa ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oaa?aeeo o?eao, noai yeeo
aeecueeee aei a?aieoeue oaeo/ino? ? i?oeiino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia:

1) C o?aooaaiiyi iioieia /anoeiie, iaa?iao i iaoai?/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaio oa?iiaeeiaii/io iiaeaeue ? ia ??
iniia? oai??th i?aeoacieo aoaeo?a aeey aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo ?
ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oaa?aeeo oie, ui aeicaiey? iienaoe ca’ycie ia?aiao?ia
noaio ic ciiiaie iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? Ws.

Ia iniiai iiai? iiaeaei ? a?aeiia?aeieo ?e e?eoa??aeueieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue:

2) i?iaaaeaii ioeiieo iiaeo oice/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa?iaeo
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo oaa?aeeo oie, cie?aia aeey iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a;

3) cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo i aia?oa aeineiaeaeaii caeiiii??iino? ciii
iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? Ws aeey aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo oie, iia’ycaieo ic
iaiaeii??aeiei ?iciiae?eii aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a ? iai?oaeaiue o
iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao, ye? eiioaeoothoue c iaaeaeo?ii?iaiaeiei aaciaei
na?aaeiaeuai;

4) aia?oa aeineiaeaeaii ciiie iiaa?oiaai? Ws i iiaeoacii? Wi
aia?aie o c?aceao iaoaeia oa aeiaeaeo?eeia, ui eiioaeoothoue c iiaio?yi
i aeoeaiei na?aaeiaeuai, c o?aooaaiiyi oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a,
iiaeaieiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o ia iiaeoaciie a?aieoei, ?icii?iiai oa
ianooaaiiai aoaeo?a;

5) ?ic?iaeaii iia? iaoiaeeee aeey aea/aiiy caeiiiii?iinoae
?icii?iiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi a oieao eaiiii/ii? oi?ie, noai yeeo
aeecueeee aei a?aieoeue oaeo/inoi oa iioeiinoi;

6) aeyaeaii iiai caeiiiii?iinoi ciiie oa?iiaeeiaii/ieo
ia?aiao?ia noaio, aeeeeeaii iniaeeainoyie aeaeo?e/ieo i iaoaii/ieo
aeanoeainoae iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia, c a?aooaaiiyi oi?ie oa ?icii?ia
c?aceia ? oa?aeoa?o ciaiioiio oaeoi?ia;

7) anoaiiaeaii oa i?iaiaeiciaaii caeaaei?noue iiaa?oiaai? oa aoaeoeaii?
iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?e a?ae iai?oaeaiue ? ia iniia? oeueiai aaeineiiaeaii
e?eoa?i? iioeiinoi oaa?aeeo oie, i?e aeaoi?ioaaiii yeeo o i?oaeiie
iaeanoi iiaea nooo?ai ciiithaaoenue iiaa?oiaaee iaoya ss, a a
iai?oaeiie – niinoa?iaa?oueny aieea ?icii?iiai oaeoi?a ia iioeiinoue
oa ?oeioaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
iiaoaeiae a?aie/ieo ? e?eoa??aeueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue aea? iiaeeea?noue
oi?ioaaoe oa?iiaeeiai?/i? iiaeae? aeey oaa?aeeo o?e, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao aiane?aeie aieeao ciai?oi?o
o?ceei–iaoai?/ieo iie?a.

Ia i?eeeaaei aiaeico ?acoeueoaoia aiaeiieo aenia?eiaioia o eiie?aoieo
caaea/ao iaa?oioiaaii aeinoia??i?noue oai??? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??.
?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ? aacith aeey ?ic?iaee aiaeiiaiaeiiai
aeai?eoii/iiai oa i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aeey AII. Ia iniiai
eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeineiaeaeaii ca’ycie ciii iiaa?oiaai?
aia?ai? c ia?aiao?aie iioeiinoi oaa?aeeo oie (aeey aeaiaioia eaca?ia,
oa?iiia?, aeaeo?e/ieo ciiaeia, iieio?aoaiiaeo aeaoaeae iieia?aoi/ieo
iaoei, neeyieo iaieiiie aeaeo?iiii–i?iiaiaaeo i?eeaaeia, eiioaeoieo
ii?nueeeo aeaeo?iaeia oiui), yei iiaeaeathoueny aieeao iaoaii/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu, iioieia /anoeiie i oioiiia oa
iaa?iao. Cie?aia, ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue caeiiiii?iinoae
?icii?iiai aoaeoo o ieiaeao Zr02, Hf02 aeei?enoaii ia AI “Iiey?ii”
(i. Eueaia) aeey ?ic?iaee oaoiieiai? aiaeiaeo eaca?ieo o?oaie, ui
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii aiaeiiaiaeiei aeoii. A?aooaaiiy ?icii?iiai aoaeoo
aeicaieeei oieeiooe e?eoe/ieo neooaoeie, i?e yeeo iiaea ae aooe
ii?ooaia iioeiinoue ? noaa?euei?noue no?oeoo?e ieiaie eaca?ieo
aeca?eae a oiiaao aiaeiaeo, a oaeiae i?e aenieoaoaoe??.

Cai?iiiiiaai? i?aeoiaee, iiaeaeue, e?eoa???, aeai?eoie iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey noai?aiiy iiaiai iieie?iiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii–aei??thaaeueieo i?eno?i?a ? ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o ?o /ooeeaeo aeaiaioao, ye?
eiioaeoothoue c ieaciith ? aa?aneaieie na?aaeiaeua-ie i?e ae??
oioii?a oa iioie?a /anoeiie.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy oa ie?aii ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiiaiaeaeenue aieueoa iiae ia 40 iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo i
neiiicioiao:

1) Ae?oa?e Ananithciie eiioa?aioei? c oa?iiaeeiaiiee iacai?ioiio
i?ioeania (*a?iiaoei, 1984); 2) Ae?oa?e Ananithciie eiioa?aioei? c
oiceei-iaoaii/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoa?iaeia i eiino?oeoeie i?e
iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao (Ee?a, 1986); 3) 3 Ananithciiio naiiia?i
“Aeae?iaeeiaieea aieueoeo nei?inoae” (E?aniiy?ne, 1987); 4) 6
Ananithciie eiioa?aioei? ic caniaia aeii?thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
(Eooeuee, 1988); 5) I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Eioi?iaoeea–89” (Ieine,
1989); 6) 1 I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioei? “Eioa?i?eai?–90” (Iineaa,
1990); 7) Ae?oa?e iiaeia?iaeiie eiioa?aioei? “Iao?ieiaiy a
aeaeo?iiioei” (Oa?eia, 1997); 8) Iaoeiaie eiioa?aioei? “Aeeaaiic
ninoiyiey yeinenoai *a?iiai ii?y e ciiu nii?yaeaiey nooe e
ii?y” (Naaanoiiieue, 1997) i o. ae.

Ioaeieaoei?. Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii a 38
noaooyo i 1 aaoi?nueeiio naiaeioeoai ia aeiaoiae (a oiio /enei 20
noaoae iaeiiiniaieo). Ia?ae?e iniiaieo 32 ioae?eaoe?e iaaaaeaii a
e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo.

Iniaenoee aianie. On? ?acoeueoaoe, ui neeaaeathoue iniiaiee ci?no
aea-ii? ?iaioe, io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii ? a i?ioean?
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaea-ie iei noi?iiaaii iine?aeiaiee oeeee
aeineiaeaeaiue. O i?aoeyo, aeeiiaieo c iioeie aaoi?aie
[9–11,17,18,20–22,24–27], aeena?oaioo iaeaaeaoue: oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue;
iaoiaeeee ioeiiee oice/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa?iaeo c?aceia;
iaoiaeeee?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/; aeai?eoii/ia caaacia/aiiy i /eneiai
?ic?aooiee c aeiiiiiaith AII; ocaaaeueiaiiy iniiaieo caeiiiii?iinoae;
?aeiiaiaeaoei? uiaei aenieoaoaoei? oa?iiia?, eaca?ia, aeaeo?e/ieo
ciiaeia, aeaoaeae iieia?aoi/ieo iaoei o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao.

O [29] ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo a?aooaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a o
aa?ici-eyo oa aeine?aeaeaii aieea iiaa?oiaaeo ?iciiae?e?a aeaeo?e/ieo
ca?yae?a ia iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
c aeaeo?ii?ia?ae-ieie oaa?aeeie /anoeieaie ieeo. Iiaoaeiaaii
aeai?eoi ?ica’yceo ?ioaa?aeueiiai ??aiyiiy aa?icieueiiai
na?oei?icn?thaaiiy.

O [32] aeei?enoaii ?ic?iaeaio a i?aoeyo [26,27] oai??th
?ici??iiai aoaeoo o c?aceao iie?o?aoaio aeey ?ic?aooie?a ?aaeei?a
iaoyao iie?o?aoa-iiaeo aeaiaio?a ? aaeineiiaeaiiy i?eno?ith
ae?oea?nueei? iaoeie.

C ?iaio, iaienaieo o niiaaaoi?noai, a aeena?oaoeith aeeth/aii
?acoeueoaoe, io?eiaii aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny
ic anooio, i’yoe ?icaeieia, aeniiaeia, /ioe?ueio aeiaeaoeia i nieneo
eioa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 360 noi?iiie, a oiio
/enei 285 noi?iiie iniiaiiai oaenoo, 38 ?enoieia i 12 oaaeeoeue ia
35 noi?iieao, 15 noi?iiie aeiaeaoeia. Aiaeiia?aoiy aeeth/a? 235
aeaea?ae i aeeeaaeaia ia 25 noi?iieao.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooii iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeueiinoue oa aaaeeeainoue i?iaeaie,
?ica’ycaiith yei? i?enay/aia aeena?oaoeiy, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo
?iaioe, a oaeiae iiai iaoeiai ?acoeueoaoe, yei aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno, i ?o iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei iaaaaeaii iaeyae eioa?aoo?e ca oaiith i
iaa?oioiaa-ii aeai? iai?yieo aeineiaeaeaiiy. Noi?ioeueiaaii aiaeioe/ii
niiaaiaeiioaiiy iiai? oa?iiaeeiaii/ii? iiaeaei iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o
oaa?aeiai oiea, cie?aia ocaaaeueiaii a?aie/ii oiiae i ocaaaeueiaii
e?eoa?iaeueii niiaaiaeiioaiiy, c a?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui a i?ioeani
aeaoi?ioaaiiy noai oie iaaeeaea?oueny aei a?aieoeue oaeo/inoi i
iioeiinoi. ?icaeyiooi aeaeo?ii?iaiaeii i aeiaeaeo?e/ii iaoa?iaee.
Iiaeaeue iieno? aeaeo?e/ii, oaieiai, aeeoocieii i iaoaii/ii
i?ioea-ne, aieea ?icii?iiai oaeoi?a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oii i
a?aoiao? i?e oeueiio iniaeeainoi aeaeo?e/ieo aca?iiaeie o
iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao, a oaeiae iiaa?oiaai aia?aith Ws oa iaoya ss .

?icaeyiooi aaaaoieiiiiiaioia oaa?aea oiei (oa?), oiaueiith cia/ii
aieue-oith ca aoaeoeaiee ?icii? iiaa?oiaai? iaeanoi, a yeie
cina?aaeaeaii iiaa?oia-aee /e iiaeoaciee iaoya. Oa? iiaeaeth?ii
iaeii?iaeiei o?eaeii?iei oieii i iiaa?oiaaei (aai iiaeoaciei) i?ioa?eii,
yeee caiiith?ii aeaiaeii?iithoice/iith iiaa?oiath ic caaeaieie
iiaa?oiaaeie iaoyaii oa aia?ai?th.

A caaea/ao ?ic?aooieo oa?iiaeeiaii/ieo ia?aiao??a ei?enoo?iinue
eiiieieie a?aie/ieie oiiaaie ia iiaa?oiyo oa?o. Aaaaea?ii, ui iaoa?iae
c?aceia ? icio?iiiei i iaeii?iaeiei o ii/aoeiaiio ??aiiaaaeiiio
noai?. Iaooo?ii iia?oeieiei /eaiii o ?iaiyiii ?ooo.

?icaeyaeath/e eiioaeooth/i oiea oeio “ieiaea – iiaeeeaaeea”,
i?eionea?ii, ui iaia? ionoio ia a?aieoei iiae oa?ii (ieiaeith) i
iiaeeeaaeeith. Aaaaea?ii, ui eiaeia oiei – iaeiioaciee
oaa?aeee ?ic/ei (noiio), neeaaeiaeie /anoeia-ie yeiai ? iiie
e?enoaei/ii? a?aoee, aeaeo?iie i?iaiaeiinoi, a oaeiae oi/eiai aeaoaeoe
(aaeaini?, iiaeaoceiai i caiiuaii aoiie). Eiioaeooth/i oiea iiaeooue
ciaoiaeeoenue a oiiaao aei? iaoaii/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, iaa?iao,
aeeoocieiiai iane/aiiy aeiiioeith, iioaineaiiai ?aaeiaoeieiiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy.

Eiioaeooth/i oiea iiaeaeth?ii nooeieueieie na?aaeiaeuaie, i?eienoth/e
aiaeiiaiaeiei cia/aiiyi ia?aiao?ia eiaeii? c /anoei nenoaie
iiaeaene “iethn” (+) i “iiion” (–), a oiieo ia?aoiaeio iaeanoue iiae
ieie a iaeiiio aeiaaeeo aaaaea-?ii o?eaeii?iei oieii, oiaueiith hi =
2H , o ae?oaiio – caiiith?ii nooeieueiith aeaiaeii?iith iiaa?oiath Sa
. Iinooeth?ii eieaeueio oa?iiaeeiaii/io ?iaiiaaao a eiaeiiio iaeiio
aeaiaioi ia’?io non?aei?o oac V+ , V– i o eiaeiiio iaeiio aeaiaioi
oice/ii? iiaa?oii Sa (ia?aiao?ai iiaa?oii aiaeiiaiaea? iiaeaen
“s”).

Aaaaeaii a?aeii? a iiaeaeyo oa?iiaeeiai?ee ia??aiiaaaeieo i?ioean?a
ia?aiao?e noaio: oaici?e aeaoi?iaoeie Te i iaoaii/ieo
iai?oaeaiue Ts (aeey oice/ii? iiaa?oii aeaiaeii?iee oaici?
iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao Ts ); oaiia-?aoo?o T , ieoiio aio?iiith Ss ,
eiioeaio?aoeith Ck i oiii/iee iioaioeiae Mk eiiiiiaioe k
(k = 3,4, … , n–2; n – caaaeueia /enei oiii/ieo eiiiiiaio,
aeeth/ath/e aeaeo?iie i?iaiaeiinoi, aaeaini? (iiaeaen k = 1),
iiaeaoceiai aoiie (iiaeaen k = 2); oiii/ii iioaioeiaee aaeainie
M1 i iiaeaoceiaeo aoiiia M2 ; eiioeaio?aoeith (eieueeinoue)
aaeainie N1 i iiaeaoceiaeo aoiiia N2 o ?ic?aooieo ia
iaeeieoeth iane oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio.

Aeey aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo oie aaaaeaii aonoeio aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia
w i iiaeeoieiaaiee oiii/iee iioaioeiae aeaeo?iiia
i?iaiaeiinoi (nei?i/aii IOIAI)

O = (Mn–1 – Mn)/(zn–1 – zn). (1)

Ooo O aiae?aoiaaiee aiaeiinii oiii/iiai iioaioeiaeo iiiia
e?enoae?/ii? a?ao-ee Mn ;

zn , zn–1 – aeaeo?e/ii ca?yaee iaeeieoei iane eiaeii? eiiiiiaioe;

iiaeaene n , n–1 aiaeiiaiaeathoue iiiai iniiaii? ?a/iaeie, yei
noai?ththoue ea?ean (a?aoeo) oiea, i aeaeo?iiai i?iaiaeiinoi.

Oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaii iiai ia?aiao?e oice/ii? iiaa?oii a
iaaeaoaeaiaeii?iiai iiaeoiaeo (aeey aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiiai o?ea):

a) iiaeeoieiaaiee oiii/iee iioaioeiae iiaa?oii Os (aecia/a?oueny
aiaeia?/ii ye IOIAI O);

a) aeaeo?e/iee ca?yae iiaa?oiaai? oace Qs (ca?yae iaeeaaeee oyaiiai
eiiaeainaoi?a, noai?aiiai ia?a?iciiaeieaieie o iiaa?oiaaiio oa?i
aeaeo?e/ieie ca?yaeaie)

Qs =; Z = (3/(4kf))(p/2 + (Ef/Ev – 1)arctg(Ev/Ef)1/2 – (Ef/Ev)1/2
). (2)

Ooo Z – oe?eia iiaea?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o ia iiaa?oi? o?ea
(aiaei-oe/iee ae?ac aeey Z io?eiaii Sugiyama A.);

“x < 0” – aeaea?oiaa eii?aeeiaoa, yea aiaeiiaiaea? oaa?aeiio oieo V– ; “x > 0” – ciaiioi? na?aaeiaeua V+ (iai?eeeaae, aaeooi, iiaio?y,
?iaeeia, oaa?aea oiei (ae?aeaeo?ee));

Ev – ?iaioa aeoiaeo aeaeo?iia c iaoaeo;

Ef – aia?a?y Oa?i?;

kf – oaeeueiaee aaeoi? Oa?i?.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui yeui ia a?aoiaoaaoe ci?uaiiy iiaea?eiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o ia Z o ae?ac? aeey iioaioe?aeo Oo ia a?aieoe?
o?ea

Oo = wv(2 – exp(– CeZ))/(2(Ce)2eo) = rw(2 – exp(– CeZ))/(2(Ce)2eo),
(3)

aea wv , w – i?inoi?iaa ? ianiaa aonoeie aeaeo?e/iiai ca?yaeo
a?aeiia?aeii,

Ce – o?ce/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa??aeo o ??aiyii? noaio,

r – aonoeia iaoa??aeo,

eo = 8,85*10–12 O/i – aeaeo?e/ia iino?eia,

oi o iiaeaeueoeo ?ic?aooieao aeey nenoaie eiioaeooth/eo oaa?aeeo
o?e “i?aeue –n??aei” io?eia?ii /eneiaa cia/aiiy
i?aeoaciiai iaoyao ss iaeaea ia ii?yaeie iaioa ca
aenia?eiaioaeueia.

Iniiaii ia?aaaae ia?aiao?a Qs ii?iaiyii c aiaeiai/ieie
iioaa?aeue-ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o:

a) a?aoiaaii ciiuaiiy iiaeaieiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o ia Z ;

a) aaee/eia Qs i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue aiae oiaueie
iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o hi = H (aeey i?aeoaciiai oa?o aiaeia?/i?
ia?aiao?e Qi ? hi = 2H );

a) c aeiiiiiaith ia?aiao?a Qs iiaeia a?aooaaoe ?iciiaeie
aeaeo?e/ii-ai ca?yaeo o ciaiioiueiio na?aaeiaeui ca iaaeaie
aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiiai oiea, yeui ciaiioi? na?aaeiaeua –
iaaeaeo?ii?iaiaeia aai “aaeooi”.

Aeey aeiaeaeo?e/ieo oie caiinoue ia?aiao?ia w , O aaaaeaii
aonoeioa’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia wn i oa?iiaeeiaii/iee
iioaioeiae ca’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia Zn. ?icaeyiooi iaei
aiaeoeeaiiy ia?aiao?ia noaio eiae-ii? /anoeie eiioaeooth/eo oie
(aeey oac V+ , V– , Sa) aiae ii/aoeiaiai ?iaiiaaaeiiai noaio. C
aeiiiiiaith ?iaiyiiy Aiaana aeey aioo?ioiuei? aia?ai? U caienaii
eiiieii ?iaiyiiy noaio aeey oac V+ , V– i eaaae?aoe/ii aeey oace Sa
. Iaa?oiooaaiiy oaeiai aeai?o aaco?oueny ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo.

Aeey ioe?iee ia?aiao?a Qs , a oaeiae oice/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iaoa?iaeo Ce , b o ?iaiyiiyo noaio, caienaieo aeey ia’?iieo
iaeanoae (a ?aieao o?eaeii?iiai iiaeoiaeo),

sij = E(ne/(1 + n) – bj/3)dij/(1 – 2n) + Eeij/(1 + n),
(4)

wv = rw = eoj(Ce)2 + bEe/(3(1 + n)),
(5)

aeei?enoaii /eneia? cia/aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iaoyao ss ? aia?a?? Ws
, ye? aecia/athoue aenia?eiaioaeueii aai oai?aoe/ii, ? a?aie/i?
oiiae

j = – Fi , sx = – (ei/2)(¶Y/¶x)2 i?e x = 0.
(6)

Ooo sij , eij – eiiiiiaioe oaici??a iai?oaeaiue Ts ? aeaoi?iaoe?e
Te a?aeiia?aeii

(i,j = 1,2,3) (s11 = sx; s22 = sy ; e11 = ex; e22 = ey) ;

E, n – i?oaei? noae? (iiaeoe? THiaa ? Ioanniia);

e – ia?oee ?iaa??aio oaici?a aeaoi?iaoe?e (e = (e11 + e22 + e33)/3);

b , Ce – o?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeo a ??aiyiiyo noaio;

j = F – F* – a?aeoeeaiiy iiaeeo?eiaaiiai iioaioe?aeo (IOIAI) F
a?ae ei-ai ??aiiaaaeiiai cia/aiiy F* a ia’?i? o?ea aeaeaei a?ae
iiaa?oi? (F* = wv/((Ce)2 eo));

dij – neiaiee E?iiaea?a;

Y – neaey?iee iioaioe?ae iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

Iioi eiiieii oa iaeiiieii ?iaiyiiy noaio aeey aio?iii?,
?iioeueno, oiii/ieo iioaioe?ae?a aeii?oie ? o. ae. aiaeiai/i?
aei niiaaiaeiioaiue (4), (5).

Aaaaeaii icia/aiiy aia?ai? iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o Ws

Ws = W1 + x •W2 , W1 = w1 dx , W2 = w2
dx , (7)

aea W1 , W2 – aeaeo?e/ia ? iaoai?/ia neeaaeia? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??
a?aeiia?aeii; w1 = (eo/2) •(¶Y/¶x)2 – aonoeia aia?a?? aeaeo?e/iiai
iiey;

w2 = sx(sx – 4nsy)/(2E) + (1 – n)(sy)2/E – aonoeia aia?a?? i?oaeieo
iai?oaeaiuea’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia wn i oa?iiaeeiaii/iee
iioaioeiae ca’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia Zn. ?icaeyiooi iaei
aiaeoeeaiiy ia?aiao?ia noaio eiae-ii? /anoeie eiioaeooth/eo oie
(aeey oac V+ , V– , Sa) aiae ii/aoeiaiai ?ia-iiaaaeiiai noaio. C
aeiiiiiaith ?iaiyiiy Aiaana aeey aioo?ioiuei? aia?ai? U caienaii
eiiieii ?iaiyiiy noaio aeey oac V+ , V– i eaaae?aoe/ii aeey oace Sa
. Iaa?oiooaaiiy oaeiai aeai?o aaco?oueny ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo.

Aeey ioe?iee ia?aiao?a Qs , a oaeiae oice/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iaoa?iaeo Ce , b o ?iaiyiiyo noaio, caienaieo aeey ia’?iieo
iaeanoae (a ?aieao o?eaeii?iiai iiaeoiaeo),

sij = E(ne/(1 + n) – bj/3)dij/(1 – 2n) + Eeij/(1 + n),
(4)

wv = rw = eoj(Ce)2 + bEe/(3(1 + n)),
(5)

aeei?enoaii /eneia? cia/aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iaoyao ss ? aia?a?? Ws
, ye? aecia/athoue aenia?eiaioaeueii aai oai?aoe/ii, ? a?aie/i?
oiiae

j = – Fi , sx = – (ei/2)(¶Y/¶x)2 i?e x = 0.
(6)

Ooo sij , eij – eiiiiiaioe oaici??a iai?oaeaiue Ts ? aeaoi?iaoe?e
Te a?aeiia?aeii

(i,j = 1,2,3) (s11 = sx; s22 = sy ; e11 = ex; e22 = ey) ;

E, n – i?oaei? noae? (iiaeoe? THiaa ? Ioanniia);

e – ia?oee ?iaa??aio oaici?a aeaoi?iaoe?e (e = (e11 + e22 + e33)/3);

b , Ce – o?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeo a ??aiyiiyo noaio;

j = F – F* – a?aeoeeaiiy iiaeeo?eiaaiiai iioaioe?aeo (IOIAI) F
a?ae ei-ai ??aiiaaaeiiai cia/aiiy F* a ia’?i? o?ea aeaeaei a?ae
iiaa?oi? (F* = wv/((Ce)2 eo));

dij – neiaiee E?iiaea?a;

Y – neaey?iee iioaioe?ae iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

Iioi eiiieii oa iaeiiieii ?iaiyiiy noaio aeey aio?iii?,
?iioeueno, oiii/ieo iioaioe?ae?a aeii?oie ? o. ae. aiaeiai/i?
aei niiaaiaeiioaiue (4), (5).

Aaaaeaii icia/aiiy aia?ai? iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o Ws

Ws = W1 + x •W2 , W1 = w1 dx , W2 = w2
dx , (7)

aea W1 , W2 – aeaeo?e/ia ? iaoai?/ia neeaaeia? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??
a?aeiia?aeii; w1 = (eo/2) •(¶Y/¶x)2 – aonoeia aia?a?? aeaeo?e/iiai
iiey;

w2 = sx(sx – 4nsy)/(2E) + (1 – n)(sy)2/E – aonoeia aia?a?? i?oaeieo
iai?oaeaiueo aeaea?oia?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao;

x – iiaa o?ce/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa??aeo.

C aeei?enoaiiyi ??aiyiiy ??aiiaaae N•Ts – rwNY = 0 iai?oaeaiiy sx
? sy o iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? o?ea ciaoiaeeii, ?icaeioaoe
iai?oaeaiiy ? aeaoi?-iaoe?? a ?yaee ii iaeiio ia?aiao?o bi = bFi,
iaiaaeeaoenue /eaiaie ae?oaiai iaaeeaeaiiy. ?ic?aooiee aeey iaoae?a
(i?ae?, n??aea, i?eaeth, cae?ca ? o.ae.) iieacaee, ui aianie
ioeueiaiai iaaeeaeaiiy neeaaea? 40 ? 50 %, ia?oiai – 50 ? 60 %,
ae?oaiai – 4 ? 6 %, o?aoueiai – iaioa 1 %.

Caieoaii oiiao i?i?ioio iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? Ws o ??aiiaaaeiiio
noai?

¶Ws/¶Ce = ¶(W1 + x •W2)/¶Ce = 0.
(8)

Aeey o?ea (iiai?inoi?o) iiaa?oiaaee iaoya ss iiaeaii oae

ss = sy·dx, sy = syo + syd , sy = sz , (syd = Cg·Og ) .
(9)

Ooo H – aoaeoeaia oiaueia iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o, yeo ioe?ieii c oiiae

sy + p = 0 ( p = 100 eIa – aoiinoa?iee oene);
(10)

syo , syd – iai?oaeaiiy iaiaaaioaaeaiiai c?acea ? iai?oaeaiiy,
aeeeeeai? cia-i?oi?i iaaaioaaeaiiyi (iai?eeeaae, ii?ii?iaiiyi)
a?aeiia?aeii;

Og , Cg – aeica aaiia-aei?ii?ithaaiiy ? eiao?oe??io
i?iii?oe?eiino?.

Aeey oiea ic caaeaieie iiaa?oiaaeie iaoyaii ss oa aia?ai?th Ws
ia iniiai nenoaie ?iaiyiue (7)–(10) ioeiiaii oice/ii
oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oia-aiai oa?o Ce, b (4), (5) , a oaeiae ciiie
aaee/ei Ws, yei aeeeeeaii aieeaii ciaiioiio oiceei-iaoaii/ieo iieia.

C aeei?enoaiiyi oi?iae?cio ocaaaeueiaieo niaoe?aeueieo ooieoe?e oa
?ioaa?aeueieo oai?ai io?eiaii caieiooo nenoaio aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue
? ocaaaeueiaieo oiia ni?yaeaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo iie?a ia
a?aieoeyo na?aaeiaeu o i?oaei?e iaeano? aeaoi?ioaaiiy (aeey
aeaiaei??iiai oa o?e-aei??iiai i?aeoiae?a). I?e oeueiio ia?aiao?e
noaio, aonoeie iane r oa aioo-??oiuei? aia?a?? U i?eeiyoi
cia?aaeaoe, iai?eeeaae, o aeaeyae?

r = r+q+ + r–q– + rsds ; U = U+q+ + U–q– + Usds ; sy = sy+q+ + sy–q– +
sysds , (11)

aea q+(f) , q–(f) – ocaaaeueiai? ooieoe?? Oaa?naeaea;

ds(f) = d(f)|grad f | – ocaaaeueiaia ooieoe?y Ae??aea;

f (x,y,z,t) = 0 – ??aiyiiy iiaa?oi? ?icae?eo na?aaeiaeu (o?ce/ii?
iiaa?oi?);

x, y, z, t – aeaea?oia? eii?aeeiaoe ? /an a?aeiia?aeii.

C aeiiiiiaith ocaaaeueiaieo niaoeiaeueieo ooieoeie q+ , q– , ds
io?eiaii aaeainiai niiaaiaeiioaiiy aeey ia?aiao?ia noaio a
iaeanoyo V+ , V– , Sa

r da/dt + divJ = z ,
(12)

rs das/dt + divJs + JN+ – JN– = zs ,
(13)

aea r , rs – aonoeie iane ?a/iaeie aeey iaeanoae V , Sa
aiaeiiaiaeii;

a , as – oiiaii iicia/aiiy ia?aiao?ia noaio aeey iaeanoae V ,
Sa ;

J , Js , JN+ , JN– – iicia/aiiy iioieia (?a/iaeie, aia?a?? ? o.
ae.) ? ?o i?iaeoe?e ia ciaiioith ii?iaeue N aei iiaa?oii
?icaeieo na?aaeiaeu;

z , zs – iicia/aiiy iioaineaiinoae aeaea?ae aeey iaeanoae V ,
Sa.

?iaiyiiy ?iaiiaaae aeey oace Sa c aeiiiiiaith oi?ioee (13)
iaaee-aeaii iiaeaii oae

(Ts)N– = (Ts)N+ + N s*T s + rs*ws*(E+ – E–),
(14)

aea E+ , E– – iai?oaeaiinoi aeaeo?e/iiai iiey;

ws – aonoeia aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a o iiaa?oiaaiio oa??;

rs*ws*(E+ – E–) – iiiaea?iiioi?ia neea aeey iiaa?oiaai? oace.

Aaeainiai niiaaiaeiioaiiy aeey ia’?iieo oac oeio (12), aeiiiaiaii
ocaaaeueiaieie a?aie/ieie oiiaaie oeio (13), (14), neeaaeathoue
iniiao caieiooi? nenoaie ?iaiyiue aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aiao?ia, ui
oa?aeoa?eco-thoue oa?iiaeeiaii/iee noai o oaa?aeeo oieao c
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao iiaa?oii.

Nenoaio aecia/aeueieo ?iaiyiue iiaeaei eiioaeooth/eo oie o
i?oaeiie iaeanoi eiiaa?eciaaii c aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo ?iceeaaeo
ia?aiao?ia noaio a ?yaee ii iaeiio ia?aiao?o bi = bFi .

Iiaei aeaiaioii cai?iiiiiaaiiai iiaeoiaeo aei ioeiiee
oa?iiaeeiaii/-ieo ia?aiao?ia noaio oaa?aeeo oie c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeoia ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo eiaoioei?ioia Ce
, b i ia?aiao?a Qs , yea a?oioo?oueny ia aeei?enoaiii oice/ii?
aaee/eie Z (2). Ciiuaiiy iiaeaie-iiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o Z ia
a?aieoei aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiiai oiea o oa?iiaeeiaii/ieo iiaeaeyo oiceee
oaa?aeiai oiea ?aiioa ia ?icaeyaeaee.

Ia iniiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeey
aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo oaa?aeeo oie onoaiiaeaii, ui yeui ciiuaiiy Z ia
a?aoiaoaaoe, oi iioeaea ioeiiee ia?aiao?ia noaio iiaea aeinyaaoe
40 %.

A ianooiieo iiae?icaeieao ia?oiai ?icaeieo iiaeaii
niiaaiaeiioaiiy, caeiiiiiaith yeeo, aeei?enoiaoth/e iioaa?aeueiee
ae?ac ?iaioe oi?iiciiie, a oaeiae caeii caa?aaeaiiy aia?a??,
io?eiaii iaiaaeoth/? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ui a?aoiaothoue caeiiii??iino?
?icii?iiai aoaeoo aeey oaa?aeeo oie, noai yeeo iaaeeaea?oueny aei
a?aieoeue oaeo/ino? ? iioeiinoi. Iniaeeainoth io?eiaieo iaiaaeoth/eo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue ? iiai aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oia-aeo
oa?ia ? ?o iiaeia ioe?ieoe ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
caeaae-iino? a?aie/ieo iai?oaeaiue a?ae ?ici???a c?ace?a.

?icaeyiaii oaa?aei oiea, i?e aeaoi?ioaaiii (noeneo) yeeo
nooo?ai ciiie-any iiaa?oiaaee iaoya ss . Aeey ieo anoaiiaeaii iiaee
e?eoa?ie iioeiinoi, a yeiio a?aieoe? oaeo/inoi (/e iioeiinoi)
noaaeii o a?aeiia?aei?noue ciiie iiaa?oiaaeo aaee/ei ss i Ws ,

Dss = Kbns1 F Dss* (ss = (ss11 + ss22)/2), DWs F DWs* ,
(15)

aea ss – ia?oee iiaa?iaio oaici?a iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao Ts ;

Dss , DWs – ciiie iiaa?oiaaeo iaoyaia ss i aia?aie Ws
a?aeiia?aeii;

Kb – oice/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa?iaeo iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o;

ns1 – eiioeaio?aoeiy oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia o iiaa?oiaaiio oa?i;

Dss* , DWs* – a?aie/ii ciiie ss ? Ws , ui aiaeiiaiaeathoue
ia?aoiaeo iiaa?oia-aiai oa?o oiea a ieanoe/iee noai aai noai, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ao?aoith iioeiinoi (?oeioaaiiyi).

Oaiiiaiieiai/ii e?eoa?i? iioeiinoi aeey oie o aeaeyaei i?yiieooiiai
ia?aeaeaiiiaaea ?icii?aie (h?b?l), i?e iaeiiainiiio ?icoyao yeeo
ia?aeaeueii l aiey a?aieoeue oaeo/inoi so i iioeiinoi sp
niinoa?iaa?ii ?icii?iee aoaeo, ocaaaeueieii c a?aooaaiiyi neeaaeiaeo,
i?iii?oe?eieo ia’?io ? ieiu? iiaa?oi?,

so = soo + Ao/Vc + di/h + da(1/b + 1/l),
(16)

sp = Ap/Vc + (2E(k? + 2yp(1/b + 1/h + 1/l) +

+ gp/l + 2jp(1/b + 1/h)/l))0,5 = Ap/Vc + (Mp)0,5 .
(17)

Ooo di , da – aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o;

Vc = h?b?l, Sc = h?b – ia’?i i ieiua ia?a?ico c?acea
aiaeiiaiaeii;

Ao/Vc = Bo/Sc i Ap/Vc = Bp/Sc , yeui, iai?eeeaae, aeiaaeeia
aeineiaeaeoaaieo c?aceia ? iinoieiith aaee/eiith (l = const );

Ao , Bo , Ap , Bp – eiinoaioe iaoa?iaeo a iaaiiio aeiaiaciii ciiie
?icii?ia c?aceia (caeaaeaoue aiae iaoaiiciia ?oeioaaiiy);

k? , gp , yp – ia?aiao?e, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue ao?aoo aia?ai? a
i?ioeani ?oe-ioaaiiy ina?aey c?acea (k?), i?e noai?aiii iiai? iiaa?oii
(gp), a oaeiae i?e?icniyiii aia?ai? a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?i iiai?
iiaa?oii (yp) aiaeiiaiaeii;

jp – oice/ia aaee/eia, yea oa?aeoa?eco? ieoiio ?iaioo ?oeioaaiiy,
aiaeia-naio aei iaeeieoei aeiaaeeie ia?eiao?a, ui iaiaaeo?
iiainoai?aio a i?ioeani ?oeioaaiiy c?acea iiaa?oith.

C aeiiiiiaith iiaeo niiaaiaeiioaiue (16), (17), a yeeo iaaaaeaii
aia?aaoe-/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oii di , da , gp , yp , jp ,
iiaeia aeinoaoiuei oi/ii eieueeinii iaa?oiooaaoe ?acoeueoaoe
aiaeiieo a eioa?aoo?i aenia?eiaioia ioeiiee iioeiinoi oaa?aeeo
oie c o?aooaaiiyi ?icii?iiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi.

Aiaeiai/iee aei (16), (17) aeaeyae iathoue ae?ace aeey a?aieoeue
oaeo/inoi i iioeiinoi, yeui c?acee e?oaiaiai ia?a?ico
?aae?ona R (/e ia?a??co aeia?eue-ii? oi?ie), a oaeiae o aeiaaeeo
iioeo aeaeia aeaoi?ioaaiiy (noeneo i caeio). Iicia/aiiy sp , st , sc
– aiaeiiaiaeathoue a?aieoeyi iioeiinoi ia iaeiiainiee ?icoya
(iiaeaen “p”), caei (iiaeaen “t”), noene (iiaeaen “c”). Cie?aia

st = At/Vc + (Mt)0,5 , sc = Ac/Vc + (Mc)0,5 ,
(18)

aea Mt = 2E(kt + 2yt(1/R + 1/l) + gt/l + 2jt(1/R)(1/l));

Mc = 2E(kc + 2yc(1/R + 1/l) + gc/l + 2jc(1/R)(1/l));

At , Ac – eiinoaioe iaoa?iaeo a iaaiiio aeiaiaciii ciiie ?icii?ia
c?aceia.

Ooo ia?aiao?e kt , gt , yt , jt , kn , gn , yn , jn oa?aeoa?ii
aeey caeio i noen-eo c?aceia e?oaiaiai ia?a?ico, ?aaeion yeeo
R. Neiae aiaecia/eoe, ui aia?aa-oe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oiaaeo
oa?ia yp , jp , kt , gt , yt , jt , kn , gn , yn , jn aaaaeaii aia?oa
a ioaeieaoeiyo aaoi?a aeaii? ?iaioe.

Aieea iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia ia aoaeoeaio iiaa?oiaao aia?aith gef
oaa?-aeeo oie c o?iueiaie a?aoiao?ii c aeiiiiiaith e?eoa?ith
A?iooiona–I?iaaia aeey a?aieoe? i?oeiino? sp ia ?icoya (ieineee
iai?oaeaiee noai)

sp = xg (2gef/(plo))0,5 (gef = Ws + gie),
(19)

aea lo – oa?aeoa?iee ?icii? o?iueie;

gie – ?iaioa ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoeie i?e noai?aiii iiai? iiaa?oii
o aa?-oeii o?iueie;

xg – oice/ia aaee/eia, yea caeaaeeoue aiae oi?ie, ?icii?ia oiea
i oeio ciaiio-iueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (noene, ?icoya, caei).

Aiaeicoth/e aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii ?icii?iiai aoaeoo aeey oie c
o?iue-iaie, a?aoiao?ii iii?aaeo ia ieanoe/iinoue ry o aa?oei?
o??ueie ca oi?-ioeith I?aiia A.

ry = (1/(6p))/(Kc/so)2 . (20)

Ooo Kc – a?aie/ia cia/aiiy eiaoioei?ioa iioaineaiinoi iai?oaeaiue.

Ii?iaithth/e, iai?eeeaae, (17) i (19) (c a?aooaaiiyi iii?aaee (20)),
iiaeia ioeiieoe xg o ??cieo aeiaaeeao iaaaioaaeaiiy c?ace?a c
o??ueiaie.

Oaeei /eiii, o ia?oiio ?icaeiei noi?ioeueiaaii niiaaiaeiioaiiy
iiai? oa?iiaeeiaii/ii? iae?ineiii/ii? iiaeaei oaa?aeiai oiea aeey
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo ? ae?aeaeo?e/ieo iaoa??ae?a, neeaaeiaeie
aeaiaioaie yei? ?:

a) ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (7)–(10);

a) caieiooa nenoaia aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue, ye? iienothoue
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? i?ioeane a eiioaeooth/eo o?eao, ? a iniia?
yei? iieeaaeaii aaeai-nia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oeio (12), ocaaaeueiai?
oiiae ni?yaeaiiy oeio (13), (14), ??aiyiiy noaio oeio
(4), (5), a?aie/i? oiiae oeio (6);

a) iia? e?eoa??aeuei? (iaiaaeoth/?) ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (15)–(19).

sse iieacaee iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy, c aeiiiiiaith ni?aa?aeiioaiue
iiai? iiaeae? (a), (a), (a) iiaeia ?icaeiooe oai??th iiaa?oiaai?
aia?ai?, a oaeiae aeine?aeeoe caeiiiii?iinoi ?icii?iiai aoaeoo
iioeiinoi aeey c?aceia eaiiii/-ii? oi?ie (oeeeiiae?e/iee i
i?eciaoe/iee noa?aeaiue, oa?, noa?e/ii oa oeeeiiae?e/ii iinoaeeie c
aioo?ioiiie ii?iaeieiaie i o. ae.), noaie yeeo i?e ciai?oi?o
iaaaioaaeaiiyo aeecueei aei a?aieoeue oaeo/inoi oa iioeiinoi.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?a?iciiaeieo
aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia i iaoaii/ieo iai?oaeaiue iiaeeco noa?e/ieo,
oeeeiiae?e/-ieo, aeiioe/ieo aeeth/aiue oa ioai?ia a aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo
oaa?aeeo oieao, c o?aooaaiiyi iaaaaeaieo ciaiioiii iioieii ?aaeiaoeieieo
/anoeiie i oioiiia oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy
iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? oa iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao. I?iaaaeaii aiaeic e?eoa?ith
iioeiinoi aeey ii?iiiiaieo oaa?aeeo oie c o?aooaaiiyi ciii iiaa?oiaaiai
iaoyao. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaothoueny oiiae iaeaaeueiiai, a oaeiae
iaiaeaaeueiiai eiioaeoo ia a?aieoei ?icaeieo na?aaeiaeu.

Iniiaii i?eiouaiiy, yei i?eeiyoi i?e ?ica’ycoaaiii caaea/:
ia?aii-uaiiy /anoeiie na?aaeiaeua i iiaa?oii iaei; oice/ia i
aaiiao?e/ia eiiieiinoue ?iaiyiue noaio a o?eaeii?iiio iiaeoiaei;
iaooo?ii aieeaii ?ooiiinoi na?aaeiaeua ia ia?aiao?e i
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oaeiiai oa aeaeo?e/iiai iieia; ?icaeyaea?ii
iaaca?iica’ycaii caaea/i, oiaoi ia ia?oiio aoaii ?ic?aoiao?ii
?iciiaeie aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia o oaa?aeiio oiei, ia
ae?oai-io – aeeeeeaii ciiiith eiioeaio?aoei? aeaeo?iiia ciiie
oa?iiaeeiaii/ieo ia?aiao?ia. Ia iniiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a
eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui ciaiioii iaaaioaaeaiiy
aei a?aieoei iioeiinoi ia i?eaiaeyoue aei cia/ieo aiaeoeeaiue
ia?a?iciiaeieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a o iaoaeao.

Ia i?eeeaae? caaea/? i?i ioe?ieo oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a eoe?,
?icoaoiaaii? a iaaeaeo?ii?ia?aeiiio o?i?/ii iaaeoeaiiio na?aaeiaeu?,
a?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy ia/enethaaeueiiai aenia?eiaioo io?eiaii
aaeeeee iaai? oice/ieo aaee/ei, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue iiaa?oiaa?
iaoyae oa aia?ai? aeey ?yaeo iaoaeia (iiaei, n??aea, oeeieo,
iieaeth, ieiaa, caeica i o.ae.).

Aeey iaoae?a (Au, Ag, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al) anoaiiaeaii aac?ici??ia
a?aeii-oaiiy Ce/kf (Ce/kf = [1 … 2]) i?ae kf (?iioeuenii Oa?i? –
oa?aeoa?enoeeith aeaeo?ii?a i?ia?aeiino? a ia’?i? iaoaeo) ? ia?aiao?ii
Ce (oa?aeoa?enoeeith ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?e/iiai ca?yaeo a iiaa?oiaaiio
oa??). sseui iiaa?oiaa? aia?a?y Ws ? iaoya ss ca /eneiaeie
cia/aiiyie aeecuee?, oi aeyaeaii, ui Ce/kf i?yio? aei 2, o
i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo Ce/kf iaaeeaea?oueny aei 1.

Aeey iaoaeia i aeiaeaeo?eeia ? aiaeiiei aiii?e/ii onoaiiaeaia
i aenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaia niiaaiaeiioaiiy noiniaii aeaio
cia/aiue iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? Wz i Wh

Wz = Wh (Qz /Qh)m ,
(21)

aea Qz , Qh – iie?ioaa?aeinoi aeaio c?aceia iaoa?iaeo, yei
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny, iai?eeeaae, ?iciith eiioeaio?aoei?th oi/eiaeo
aeaoaeoia i yeei aiaeiiaiaeathoue iiaeaene z i h ;

m – iieaciee noaiaiy (o aiaeiiaiaeiinoi c aiaeiieie
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aea-ieie aeey iaoaeia i aeiaeaeo?eeia m = [1
… 1,5]).

Ineieueee ia?aiao?e Qz i Qh i?iii?oeieii cia/aiiyi a?aieoeue
iioeiinoi sp (oiaoi spz i sph ) o aeiaaeeo ?icoyao c?ace?a
(aeey noeneo ? caeio aiaei-a?/ii scz , sch , stz , sth), oi
io?eia?ii ae?ac

Wz = Wh (spz /sph)m ,
(22)

yeee aeei?enoaii aeey ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

Aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? a aeaiie ?iaioi
oa?iiaeeiaii/ii? ii-aeaei ? a?aeiia?aeii? oai??? aeei?enoaii
iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo iiaa?oiaai? aia?-ai? i iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao ia
iniiai iiaeaei aoiiieo aca?iiaeie c a?aooaai-iyi ia?iiai
iioaioeiaeo aca?iiae?? aeaio /anoeiie Ai?ia–Iae??a

uab = q2/Rab – cab/(Rab)6 – dab/(Rab)8 + bab exp(–Rab/rq) . (23)

Ooo q – aeaeo?e/iee ca?yae /anoeiie;

Rab – a?aenoaiue i?ae aeaiia /anoeieaie “a” ? “b” (iai?eeeaae
aoiiaie);

cab, dab , bab – iino?ei? (o?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeo);

rq – ia?aiao? “aei?noeino?”.

A ?ic?aooieao iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? Ws iaoooaaee e?iaoe/iith
aia?a??th aoii?a, a iioaioe?aeueio aia?a?th ioe?ithaaee iaoiaeaie
noioaaiiy ii noaoe/-i?e a?aooe?. Aoei a?aoiaaii iii?aaee ia
ia?aeaaeuei?noue e?enoaeo (iayai?noue a?aieoeue ca?ai, aeeneieaoe?e ?
o. ae.), a oaeiae iii?aaeo ia ia?iee iioaioeiae aca?iiaei? /anoeiie,
aeeeeeaio ?iciiaeieii aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a iiaeeco iiaa?oii. Aeey
eiio?ieth ?acoeueoaoia, io?eiaieo ia iniiai oaeineiiaeaii? iiaeae?
aoiiieo aca?iiaeie, aeei?enoaii aiaeioe/ia niiaaiaeiioaiiy “Smith
J.R.//Phys. Rev. 1969”, a yeiio iiaa?oiaaa aia?aiy ae?aaea?oueny /a?ac
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iciiaeieo aonoeie aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a iiaeeco
iiaa?oii. Oaeiae aeey eiio?ieth ?acoeueoaoia aeei?enoaii aeaii,
io?eiaii ia iniiai oe?iei aiaeiiiai iaoiaeo ooieoeiiiaeo aonoeie
aeey ?ic?aooieo iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai?. Iac?o/iino? anio ia?aei/aieo
iiaeoiaeia ((a) aoiiieo aca?iiaeie, (a) Smith J.R., (a) iaoiaeo
ooieoeiiiaeo aonoeie) a oiio, ui aeey ?o aeei?enoaiiy iio?iaii
?ic?iaeyoe a?iiicaeea iaoaiaoe/ia caaacia/aiiy aeey AII, a a i?ioeani
aenieoaoaoei? aiaeiiaiaeieo i?ia?ai cao?a/a?oueny aaaaoi
iaoeiiiai /ano. Oieueee ia iniiai iaoiaeo aoiiieo aca?iiaeie
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?a-ooieo iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? a iaaaioaaeaiiio
(?icoya i noene c?acea caeica) oiei. Ia iniia? ?ioeo ia?a?aoiaaieo
oice/ieo oai?ie io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeey iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai?
aeeeth/ii a ?iaiiaaaeiiio (iaiaaaioaaeaiiio) noaii.

Ia iniiai iaoaiaoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy (aeai?eoiia i i?ia?ai aeey
AII), ?ic?iaeaiiai ca i?eioeeiaie aoiiiiai iiaeoiaeo i iiaeeoieiaaiiai c
aeiiiiiaith ia?iiai iioaioeiaeo ca Ai?iii-Iaea?ii, a oaeiae c
a?aooaai-iyi iii?aaee ia ia?ii iioaioeiaee a ieiei iiaa?oii,
aoei ia?aai?aii oe?i-eee iaai? oai?aoe/ieo i aenia?eiaioaeueieo
?acoeueoaoia ioeiiie iiaa?oia-aiai iaoyao i iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai?.
C aeiiiiiaith oaeeo i?ia?ai ia AII aoei iaa?oioiaaii
aeinoiai?iinoue iiai? oa?iiaeeiaii/ii? iiaeaei, a iniiao yei?
iieeaaeaii niiaaiaeiioaiiy (7). Aeey ioeiiee neeaaeiaeo W1 , W2 , a
oaeiae iiaeo oice/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oii ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo i
aiaeiiaiaeia iaoaiaoe/ia caaacia/aiiy, c aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia
ioeiieoe ciiie ii-aa?oiaaiai iaoyao i iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? oie,
yei ia?aaoaathoue o ia?iaiiaaae-iiio noaii (iiaeeco a?aieoei
iioeiinoi /e a?aieoei oaeo/inoi).

Aaaeeeaeie iae?iia?aiao?aie ia?aoiaeiiai oa?o iiaeeco iiaa?oii
?ic-aeieo eiioaeooth/eo oie ? iiaeoaci? aia?a?y Wi oa iaoya si , ye?
ciaoiaeeii aiaeia?/ii ye ? iiaa?oiaa? Ws (7), ss (9) c
aeiiiiiaith niiaaiaeiioaiue

Wi = W1i + xi •W2i , W1i = w1 dx , W2i = w2 dx ,
(24)

si = sydx . (25)

Ooo xi – o?ce/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa??aeo ia?ao?aeiiai oa?o.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iiaeoaciiai iaoyao si oa iiaeoacii?
aia?ai? Wi ia a?aieoei ?icaeieo aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo na?aaeiaeu.
Io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe ia?aai?aii, cie?aia, ia i?eeeaaei ia? “iiaeue –
n?iaei”, “oeeie – ?oooue”, aeey yeeo o iaoeiaie eioa?aoo?i i?eaaaeaii
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii.

Ocaaaeueiaii e?eoa??e Eaiaea?a-Aanoaoaea (aeey ?icoyao oaa?aeiai o?ea),
aeei?enoiaoth/e cai?iiiiiaaio iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee i?aeoacii? aia?a??
Wi, a oaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa xx ? iniaeeainoae
?ici??iiai aoaeoo i?oe-iino? ia o?eueee ia iniia? aaiiao?e/iiai
ia?aiao?a L , aea e c aeiiiiiaith ae?aco (17)

sp = 4xxWi[EG/(1 – n)]1/2/(pstL) = Ap/Vc + (2E(k? + 2yp(1/b
+ 1/h +

+ 1/l) + gp/l + 2jp(1/b + 1/h)/l)) 0,5 = Ap/Vc + (Mp)0,5 .
(26)

aea sp, st – a?aie/i? ii?iaeueia ? aeioe/ia iai?oaeaiiy c?acea
a?aeiia?aeii;

G – iiaeoeue cnoao;

L – iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? ieiueie eiacaiiy aeeneieaoe?e a iai?yieo
?o eiacaiiy.

E?eoa??e (26) oa?aeoa?eco? i?oei?noue oaa?aeiai c?acea iaoaeo,
iii?uaiiai a ??aeeee iaoae.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (7–10), (24), (25), a oaeiae
a?aeii? /en-eia? aeai? o?ce/ieo aaee/ei aeey eiioaeooth/eo oeeieo
? ?ooo?, io?eiaii cia/aiiy i?aeoacii? aia?a?? Wi = 50 iAeae/i2 , ui
iaiiaaii ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aenia?eiaioaeueiei (Wi)aen = 53 ± 3
iAeae/i2. I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii, ui ?icii-ae?e aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a
? iai?oaeaiue o i?ea?aie/ieo iaeanoyo iieno?oueny c aeiiiiiaith
e?i?eieo ??aiyiue noaio (4), (5), a yeeo oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeo
b, Ne, E, n ? x (7) ia caeaaeaoue a?ae aaee/eie aeaeo?e/iiai
ca?yaeo ? iai?o-aeaiue. Aiaecia/aiee aeniiaie a iniiaiiio ia
ii?ooo?oueny aeey an?o a?aeiieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ioe?iee
iiaa?oiaaeo ? i?aeoacieo iaoya?a oa aia?a?e iaaaioaaeaieo c?ace?a (ui
ciaoiaeyoueny o aaciaiio na?aaeiaeu?, ??aeeiio iaoae?, a oaeiae o
aeiaaeeo eiioaeoo c ?ioei oaa?aeei iaoaeii, iai?eeeaae, aeey nenoaie
“i?aeue – n??aei”), yeui ciai?oi? iaoai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
ia?aaeuo? a?a-ieoe? i?oeiino? (/e oaeo/ino?).

Iiyniaii a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae aianeii aeaeo?e/ii? neeaaeiai?
i?aeoacii? aia?a?? W1i i aiaeia?/ieie cia/aiiyie neeaaeiaeo W1+, W1–
iiaa?oiaaeo aia?a?e Ws+, Ws– eiioaeooth/eo na?aaeiaeu c a?aooaaiiyi
o?ueio aoai?a: a) ia?aoiaeo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a o o?ei c iaioith
aia?a??th Oa?i?, a) ciaioaiiy eoeii?anueeiai aa?’??o aei a?aie/ii?
aaee/eie yi , a) anoaiiaeaiiy e?ioeaaeo cia/aiue neeaaeiaeo
iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? W1i , xi •W2i , a oaeiae si . Aeey
c?ace?a, aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e yeeo b , h , l , L aeineoue aaeee?, xx ®
1. sseui ?ici??e o?e iaio? a?aie/ieo cia/aiue, aecia/aieo c aeiiiiiaith
oiia aaoiiiaeaeueiino? (oiia, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue i???ioiai? iaiaaeaiiy
ae?aiaciio ?ici??iiai aoaeoo i?oeiino?), oi ia iniia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
(26) aeine?aeaeo?ii caeaaei?noue ia?aiao?a xx a?ae ?ici???a.

?ic?aoiaaii ciiio iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao ss o c?aceao iiaei, aethiiiith,
iaaiith, oeoaio, caeica, aieueo?aio, ia yei aei? ?aaeiaoeieia
aei?iiiithaaiiy. Aeey ieanoei aeacaieo iaoaeia aecia/aii ia?aiao?e,
yei aoiaeyoue o e?eoa?i? iioeiinoi. Io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe ciiie Dss
aeey iieie?enoaei/ieo iaoa?iaeia o caeaae-iinoi aiae iioaa?aeueii?
aeice Oi iiieaioiaaieo o oiei aeanieo iiiia. Aeey oiieiieiaeiaeo
iie?eoue i?ae? i aethi?i?th c aeiiiiiaith ?ic?aooieia aeyaeaii
aeiaiaciie eiiieiiai oa iaeiiieiiai ciaioaiiy iaoyao ss a
caeaaeiinoi aiae aeice Oi . Aeey ie?aie ii?ii?iaieo iaoae?a
onoaiiaeaii, ui iiaa?oiaaee ia-oya ss iiaea ciaiooaaoenue aei
cia/aiue, aeecueeeo ioeth, ine?eueee noeneoth/? (?aae?aoe?eiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy) iai?oaeaiiy eiiiainothoue aeani? iai?oaeaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai
oa?o. A oie aea /an iiaa?oiaaa aia?a?y Ws c?inoa? ca ?aooiie
ca?eueoaiiy iaoai?/ii? neeaaeiai? W2 (7). Oaea c?inoaiiy eaaei
iiynieoe ia iniia? ae?aco aeey neeaaeiai? W2 (7) c a?aooaaiiyi
oiai, ui oa?aeoa?enoeee b, Ne, E, n, x i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeaoue
a?ae iai?oaeaiue.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioeiiee ciiie aeaeo?ino?eeoeieiiai eiaoioei?ioa
b, iiaa?oiaaeo iaoyao ss i aia?ai? Ws , a oaeiae neeaaeiaeo W1 i W2
a caeaaeiinoi aiae aeaoi?iaoei? aeey aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo ieanoei, yei
iiaeaeathoueny iaeiiainiiio ?icoyao, a oaeiae noeneo. *eneiai ?ic?aooiee
i?iaaaeaii aeey caeica.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aa??aio iiaeae? aeey ioeiiee oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao?ia
noaio, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeaeo?e/ii, aaeni?aoeieii ? i?oaei? aoaeoe a
iiaa?oiaaiio oa?i iaoaeo. I?e oeueiio aeyeaii, ui aeey ooi/iaii?
ioeiiee ciii iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao a i?ioeani aaeni?aoei? aeii?oee
ia iiaa?oi? o?ea iaiaoiaeii a?aoiaoaaoe ciiie qs ia?aiao?a Qs
(2), yeee i?iii?oe?eiee ca?yaeo iaeeaaeee iiaeaieiiai aeaeo?e/iiai
oa?o (oyaiiai eiiaeainaoi?a) o iiaa?o-iaaiio oa?i, a oaeiae
ci?ie qz iiiaioii? oa?aeoa?enoeee Qz :

qs = Qs – (Qs)o , qz = Qz – Qz o , Qz = ,
(27)

aea (Qs)o , Qz o – cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a Qs , Qz , ye? aoee ia
iiaa?oi? c?acea aei ii/aoeo aaeni?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano (oiaoi ia
iiaa?oi? aac aeii?oie).

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?io eiiiiiaio
iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao (ss)ab o aeiaaeeo aaeni?aoe?? /anoeiie iao??th ia
iiaa?oi?iaoaeo a ?aieao aeaiaei??ii? iiaeae? iiaeia iienaoe c
aeiiiiiaith iae?i?eiiai ??aiyiiy noaio (aiaeia?/iiai e?i?eiiio
(4))

(ss)ab = (sso + (Ks – Gs)es/2 + becd + bk(cd)2 + geqs – boqz)dab +
2Gs(es)ab . (28)

Ooo “a,b = 1,2” – ?iaeaene aeey iicia/aiiy eiiiiiaio iaoyao
(ss)ab oa aeaoi?-iaoe?? (es)ab o?ce/ii? iiaa?oi? ;

sso – ii/aoeiaa cia/aiiy iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao (aei i?ioeano
aaeni?aoe??);

Ks , Gs – iiaeoe? a nanoi?iiiueiai noeneo ? cnoao aeey o?ce/ii?
iiaa?oi? a?aeiia?aeii;

es = (es11 + es22)/2 – ia?oee ?iaa??aio oaici?a iiaa?oiaai?
aeaoi?iaoe??;

cd = Cd – Cd0 – ci?ia eiioeaio?aoe?? Cd aeii?oee, yea
aaeni?ao?oueny iiaa?oiaaei oa?ii iaoaeo (a aeaiiio i?eeeaae? ii/aoeiaa
cia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? Cd0 = 0).

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao?ia a
aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo oieao iiaeeco ioai?ia, yei iiaeaeth?ii oeeeiiae?e/ieie
ii?iaeieiaie aeiioe/iiai ia?a?ico. Aeineiaeaeaii ciiio iiaa?oiaaiai
iaoyao ss o aa?oeii aeiioe/iiai ioai?o i?e ciaioaiii eiai
aaiiao?e/ieo ?icii?ia. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiaeoeeaiiy iaoyao Dss ,
aeeeeeaia cia/iith e?eaeciith aiey aa?oeie ioai?o, ia aeaa ii?yaeee
aieueoa ca iaeneiaeueio ?aaeiaoeieio iii?aaeo Dsi , coiiaeaio
iiieaioiaaieie iiiaie.

I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiie ia?a?iciiaeieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia i
iai?oaeaiue o ?icoyaiooiio ia aaciaaeiinoi ciaiioiii iaaaioaaeaiiyi p
aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiiio oiei c oeeeiiae?e/iith ii?iaeieiith aeiioe/iiai
ia?a?ico. Iieacaii, ui iaoaii/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy p iiaeeco aa?oeie
aeiioe/iiai ioai?o (B) a iiiaio iioe?aiiy o?iueie iacia/ii aieeaa? ia
ciiio iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? DWs iieie?enoaei/iiai oaa?aeiai oiea.
Aiaeiai/ii ?ic?aooiee aeey aeiioe/ieo uieei o oiieeo ieiaeao (iioeiinoue
yeeo o 10 ?acia aieueoa ii?iaiyii c iieie?enoaei/iei iaoa?iaeii)
iieacaee, ui ciiie DWs iiaeooue aooe aiaeiinii nooo?aeie (ii?yaeeo
10 %).

Aeineiaeaeaii ciiio iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? i?e aaeaaethaaiii iiaeaioi?a a
aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiee c?acie (iiai?inoi?). Anoaiiaeaii, ui a iaeanoi
i?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoeie ?iaioa aeaoi?ioaaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o ca
aaee/eiith ia 7–8 ii?yaeeia iaioa aiaeiai/ii? aaee/eie a ia’?iiie
/anoeii oiea.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo iiaa?oiaaeo oa iiaeoacieo iaoyaia ss,
si, aia?aie Ws , Wi , c aeiiiiiaith yeeo aaeineiiaeaii aiaeiii
e?eoa?i? iioeiinoi (cie?aia, Eaiaea?a-Aanoaoaea, Iieieiaa,
Eiioi?iai?-O?aieaey), i?eeiath/e aei oaaae iiai aia?aaoe/ii
oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia oie, ye? ia a?aei?io a?ae iiaa?oiaai?,
i?aeoacii? oa aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?e ? iino?eieie aeey
oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio ci?ie ?ici???a c?ace?a ? c ?o aeiiiiiaith
iiaeia aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaii i?iaiicoaaoe a?aie/i? cia/aiiy
oa?iiaeeiai?/-ieo ia?aiao??a noaio a iaaeao oeueiai ae?aiaciio.
I?iaiae?ciaaii e?eoa?ie iioeiinoi aeey ?aaeiaoeieii ii?iiiiaieo oie
(c?aceia iaoaeo).

O o?aoueiio ?icaeiei aeineiaeaeaii aieea aeaeo?e/ieo ?iciiaeieia
i iane/aiiy aeii?oeith ia iiaa?oiaaee ss oa iiaeoaciee si iaoyae i
aia?ai? Ws, Wi oaa?aeeo o?e o eaacinoaoe/iie iinoaiiaoei, c
a?aooaaiiyi aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a /anoeiie aeiiioie, iaa??ao, aiaeiaeo
?aaeiaoeieieo aeaoaeoia, aieeao ?aaeiaoeieiiai aei?iiiithaaiiy ia
noai oa?iiia? oa a?aeoeeaiiy ?o iieacia.

Aeey iiaeoaciiai iaoyao si i a?aieoei iioeiinoi sn ia noene nenoaie
aeaio oiieeo eiioaeooth/eo (i?eaa?aieo iaeia aei iioi?) iaia?ai
(?i aiaeiiaiaeathoue iiaeaene “+”, “–” i aiaeiiaiaeii a?aieoei
iioeiinoi icieueiaaieo iaia?ai sn+ , sn– o iiaio?i), aeaioiaeaieo ic
nieaaia caeica, anoaiiaeaii aiaeioe/ia niiaaiaeiioaiiy (i?e cOi+ c < cOi– c): sc = (sc+ + sc–)•(F+/F-)/2, (F+/F- <1 ) (29) aea F+, F- – iiaeeo?eiaai? iioaioe?aee (IOIAI) eiaeiiai iaoa??aeo. Ia iniiai /eneiaeo ?ic?aooieia anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?aeoa? oi?ioee (29) ia ciiith?oueny a i?ioeani iane/aiiy iaia?ai aeiiioeith (c a?aooaaiiyi aeaeo?e/iiai ca?yaeo aeiiioie), a caeaaeiinoue iiae ?oeioth/eie iai?oaeaiiyie i aiaeiiaiaeieie aac?icii?ieie eiioeaio?aoeiyie aeiiioee na+ , na– ? eiiieiith sc+ = sc+i•(1 – aw+ • na+) ; sc– = sc–i•(1 – aw– • na–). (30) Ooo aw+, aw– – iinoieii eiaoioei?ioe (oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa?iaeo). Aeineiaeeaoe (/enaeueii) iiaaaeiieo ia?aiao?ia si i Wi o iaaaioaaeaiie coneeeyi p aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiie ieiueii c ioai?ii, caiiaiaiei ?icieaaii, yeee iinoeoue aeeooiaeoth/o a oaa?aea oiei aeiiioeo, anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiy aeiiioee i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy iiaeoaciiai iaoyao si (i?e p = 0) ia 12 % (/eneiai aeaii aiaeiiaiaeathoue nenoaii “iiaeue – ?icieaa iiaei”). ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo iiaeoaciiai iaoyao i ?iaioe aaeaaci? eiioaeooth/eo aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo oie c o?aooaaiiyi aeeeeeaieo ?aaeiaoeieiei ii?iiiiaiiyi oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia. Iieacaii, ui aeey aeayeeo eiioaeooth/eo iaoa?iaeia iioaineaiee iioie ?aaeiaoeieieo /anoeiie i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy iiaeoaciiai iaoyao i aei caieueoaiiy ?iaioe aaeaaci?. I?iaaaeaii aiaeic niiaaiaeiioaiiy, yea ca’yco? iiaeoaciee iaoya c iiaa?oiaaeie iaoyaaie. Aiaeiai/ii ye niiaaiaeiioaiiy (15) caienaii e?eoa?ie iioeiinoi ii?iiiiaieo eiioaeooth/eo oie c o?aooaaiiyi ciiie iiaeoaciiai iaoyao Dsi = Ki•ni F Dsi* (Dsi* = si – si*) , (31) aea Ki – iinoieiee eiaoioei?io; ni – eiioeaio?aoeiy ?aae?aoe?eieo oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia. Ineieueee iaeneiaeueia eiioeaio?aoeiy aeii?oee ni o iiaeoaciiio oa?i iiaei ceeaaea? ni = 0,1 , oi aeey nenoaie eiioaeooth/eo oie “iiaeue – n?iaei”, io?eia?ii Dsi* = 0,15 I/i. ?c (31) ciaoiaeeii ioeiieo iinoieii? Ki (Ki = = 1,5 I/i). Ii?iaithth/e Ki i Kb (15) (Dss = Kbns1 F Dss*) aeey iiaei, ii?iii-iaii? iaeneiaeueiith aeicith aeanieo iiiia, aeyaeaii, ui Kb/Ki » 30. Ine?eueee eiioaeo aeaio ??cii??aeieo aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo o?e noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ineaaeaiiyi neeiaeo ca’yce?a o ia?ao?aeiiio oa?? ? ia?aoiaeii iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao ss o i?aeoaciee si , ??cieoey i?ae yeeie neeaaea? 1–2 ii?yaeee (si = [0,01ss ... ... 0,1ss] ), oi a?aeiia?aeii a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith ? eiinoaioe Kb , Ki . ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioeiiee aieeao ia?a?iciiaeieia aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a o iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo /anoeiie aa?icieia oa a aeaeo?e/ieo ciiaeao ia iiaa?oiaao aia?aith, ic ciiiaie yei? ca’ycaii aiaeoeeaiiy iieacia ieeiii?ia oa aiaeiiaiaeii ciiie aieueoaiia?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeo?e/ieo ciiae?a aeey aeii?thaaiiy ia?aiao?ia ieacie. Aeineiaeaeaii ia?aiao?e oa?iiaeeiaii/iiai noaio aieueo?aii?aii?aeo noa?aeiia (yei ? /ooeeaeie aeaiaioaie oa?iiia?e WRe5–WRe20) o aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio na?aaeiaeui c o?aooaaiiyi: a) aei? ?aaeiaoeieiiai aei?iiiithaaiiy, ui aeeeeea? o iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao noa?aeiia iiyao oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia; a) aeia?iaoaaiiy aieueo?aio, yea i?ioiaeeoue aieueo iioaineaii o iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao noa?aeiy i i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiaeii?iaeiiai ii ?aae?ono iai?oaeaiiai noaio. A aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iaiaeii??aei? ii ?aae?ono /ooeeaiai aeaiaioa oa?iiia?e ci?ie ia?aiao??a (Dai) o iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao noai?ththoue oiiae aeey aeiaeaoeiaiai ?icn?yiiy iin??a no?oio. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iiaeoacieo iaoyaia i aia?aie a aa?y/iio oa oieiaeiiio niayo oa?iiia?e (WRe5–WRe20) c o?aooaaiiyi aiaeiaeo oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia. O /aoaa?oiio ?icaeiei aeineiaeaeaii caeiiiii?iinoi ia?a?iciiaeieo ca’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia o aeiaeaeo?e/ieo oaa?aeeo oieao i aiaeiiaiaeii ciiie iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao oa iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai?. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? Ws iiaeaii aiaeia?/ii ye aeey aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo o?e (7), a aeey aecia/aiiy aeaeo?e/ii? neeaaeiai? W1 aeei?enoa?ii ae?ac aonoeie aia?a?? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey o aeaeyae? w1 = (e•eo/2) (¶Y/¶x)2. (32) Ooo e – a?aeiinia ae?aeaeo?e/ia i?iieei?noue na?aaeiaeua (cie?aia, aeey eaa?-oeo o oaa?aeiio noai? – e = 4,5). Neeaaeiao W2 ae?aaea?ii /a?ac eiiiiiaioe iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue sx ? sy ye ? o ni?aa?aeiioaii? (7), a sx ? sy ciaoiaeeii aiae?oe/ii c aeei?enoai-iyi a?aie/ieo oiia ia iiaa?oi? c?acea ae?aeaeo?eea, ye? aiaeia?/i? aei (6): jz = – Zno; sx = – (e•eo/2) (¶Y/¶x)2 i?e x = 0 . (33) Ooo jz = Zn – Zno – a?aeoeeaiiy iioaioe?aeo Zn a?ae eiai ??aiiaaaeiiai cia/aiiy Zno aeaeaei a?ae iiaa?oi? a ia’?i? o?ea; Zn – iiaeeo?eiaaiee o?i?/iee iioaioe?ae ca’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a (aiaeia?/iee aei O (1) aeey aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiiai o?ea). Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui aeey ae?aeaeo?e/ieo o?e ci?uaiiy iiaea?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o ia a?aenoaiue Z iiaeeco iiaa?oi? ia a?aoiao?ii. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioeiiee ciiie iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao a ii?iiiiaieo a–/anoeieaie c?aceao eaa?oeo. Aeey c?aceia neea, yei iiaeaeathoueny ?icoyao, i?iaaaeaii aiaeic ia?aiao?ia, ui aoiaeyoue o e?eoa?ie A?iooiona–I?iaaia. Aeyaeaii, ui oeueo?aoiieaoiaa aei?iiiithaaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy ieanoe/ii? neeaaeiai? aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? gie aiae 17 % aei 23 %, a aiaeiaethaaiiy aeeeeea? c?inoaiiy gie i ?aaeiona caie?oaeaiiy aa?oeie o?iueie a?ae iaeeo cia/aiue aei 70 %. Ii?ii?iaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy /enea aaeain?e ? i?aeaoceiaeo aoii?a o iiaa?oiaaiio oa??. sseui noai o?ea iaaeeaea?oueny aei a?aie/iiai (ao?aoe i?oeiino?), oi aeiaeaoeiaa /enei oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a oo?oaeith? noa?o e?i?eieo, aeaiaei??ieo ? o?eaei??ieo aeaoaeo?a, oiaoi ci?oeith? iaoa??ae. Oea i?iyaey?oueny o c?inoaii? a?aieoe? i?oeiino? ? a?aeiia?aeii aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? oa ?? neeaaeiaeo. Aeineiaeaeaii aieea ?aaeiaoeieieo oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia ia iiaeoaciee iaoya eiioaeooth/eo oie. C aeiiiiiaith eiiieieo aeaiaei??ieo ?iaiyiue noaio io?eiaii niiaaiaeiioaiiy, yea ca’yco? iiaeoaciee iaoya si ? ?iaioo aaeaac?? wa c iiaa?oiaaeie ss1 ? ss2. Aeey iaoae?a ? ae?aeaeo?ee?a aeyaeaii, ui aieea oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a ia ci?ie si i wa iiaeia c aeinoaoiueith oi/i?noth oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aoaeoeaiei iaeii??aeiei iieai noeneoth/eo iai?oaeaiue. I?eaaaeaii ae?ac aeey ?iaioe aaeaaci? iiae oieaie. Ia i?eeeaaei iieacaii, ui aiaeoeeaiiy aiae i?aaeea Aioiiiaa (yea ca’yco? ?iaioo aaeaac?? c iiaa?oiaaeie iaoyaaie ss1 ? ss2 ) neeaaea? 78 % aeey ?aaeiaoeieii ii?iiiiaieo i 82 % aeey iaii?iiiiaieo c?aceia. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi/eiai ?aaeiaoeieii aeaoaeoe aeeeeeathoue nooo?ai ci?ie iiaeoaciiai iaoyao a eiioaeooth/eo aeiaeaeo?e/ieo ieiaeao ZrO2 i HfO2. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioeiiee oice/ieo iinoieieo, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue iiaa?oiaaee oa? o aeiaeaeo?e/ieo oieao, cie?aia, i?e ?o aeaoi?ioaaiii iiaeeco a?aieoei iioeiinoi. sse ? aeey iaoae?a onoaiiaeaii, ui oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??-aeo o ??aiyiiyo noaio oeio (4), (5) ? icia/aii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? (7) b , Ne , E , n , x ia caeaaeaoue a?ae aeaeo?e/iiai ca?yaeo oa iai?oaeaiue ? c ?o aeiiiiiaith iiaeia c aeinoaoiueith oi/i?noth i?iaiaeeoe ioe?ieo cia/aiue iiaa?o-iaaeo aia?a?e ? iaoya?a o ii?ii?iaieo oa iaoai?/ii iaaaioaaeaieo o?eao. O i’yoiio ?icaeiei aecia/aii iiaa?oiaao aia?a?th oa ciiie aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a o aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oa ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oaa?-aeeo o?eao, noai yeeo aeecueeee aei a?aieoeue oaeo/ino? ? i?oeiino?. Aeineiaeaeaii ca-eiiiii?iinoi ?icii?iiai aoaeoo i?e ieanoe/iiio i eaacie?eoeiio aeaoi?io-aaiii ieanoei, oiieeo ieiaie, oiieeo oeeeiiae?e/ieo c?aceia, oiieeo noa?aeiia iiaeeco a?aieoeue oaeo/ino? oa i?oeiino? c o?aooaaiiyi aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu, iaa?iao. I?e oeueiio aeeiioaaeenue oiiae ?icoyao, noeneo, caeio, ciiie oaeae-einoi iaaaioaaeaiiy, oeeeei/iino? i?e aoiiiiio ?oeioaaiii, iecueeeo oaiia?a-oo?, i?ioiiiiai i aaiia-aei?iiiithaaiiy, a?aoiaoaaeenue e?eaecia iiaa?oiiue aeineiaeaeoaaieo c?aceia, iayai?noue o??uei. Ia iniiai aeyaeaieo caeiiiii?-iinoae a ?yae? eiie?aoieo aeiaaee?a anoaiiaeaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?i-ii?oe?eieie ia’?io oa ieiu? iiaa?oii neeaaeiaeie a?aie/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue. Ioeiiaii aieea ciaiioiueiai na?aaeiaeua (iiaio?y, ?i/eiaa aiaea, nieiia aiaea, ianei ia?ee IN ) ia aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee ianooaaiiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi a aaiiao?e/ii iiaeiaieo noa?aeiyo noaeae 20O , 40O , yei iiaeaea-thoueny aei? oeeeei/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (aeaoi?iaoeiy caeio). ?ic?aoiaaii /eneiai cia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ia?aiao?ia, ui oa?aeoa?e-cothoue “aiiiaeueiee” ?icii?iee aoaeo iioeiinoi aeey iaeiiainiiai ?icoyao noa?aeiia ieiaa a 0,2 % ?ic/eii iea?iiai? eeneioe o aacaeiiiaiio ianei. Aiaeiai/ii ?ic?aooiee aeeiiaii aeey noa?aeiia c iiaei, aethiiiith, noaeae (30OANA, 30NANIA, 18OIAA, 40OIIA), yei iiaeaeathoueny iaeiiainiiio ?icoyao i oa?aeoa?ecothoueny “ii?iaeueiei” ?icii?iei aoaeoii iioeiinoi. I?iaaaeaii ii?iaiyiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ia?aiao?ia yp (17) aeey ?icieo iaoa?iaeia. Anoa-iiaeaii, ui c?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ia Dt = 400 K (T = [473 ... 873 K]) aee-eeea? ciaioaiiy ia?aiao?a yp aeey c?ace?a iiaei o 8 ?acia. Oaea ciaioaiiy yp iiaeia iiynieoe ciaioaiiyi aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? aeeneieaoe?e iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o, ye? a i?ioean? i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e noathoue a?eueo ?ooiieie. Ii?iaithth/e aia?aaoe/ii ia?aiao?e di (16) i yp (17), yei oa?aeoa?e-?ecothoue ?icii?iee aoaeo a?aieoeue oaeo/inoi oa iioeiinoi aeey c?aceia noaei 18OIAA, aeyaeaii, ui aiaeiioaiiy xi = di/yp = 35. Ia iniiai ?ic?aooieia onoaiiaeaii, ui aeey aethiiiith di i?eaeecii ia ii?yaeie iaioa, iiae o noaeyo i iiaei, aea ia aeaa ii?yaeee aieueoa iiae aeey ieiaa, iiiiuaiiai o aacaeiiiaa ianei. Aeey ?icieo ni?oia noaeae aeiaiacii di aeineoue aaeeeee di = [17 ... 600 eAeae/i2]. Aeey ieiaie iieaeth iie?iiieo ?icii?ia di = = 42 I/i. Aeey oiieeo aieieii iie?iiieo ?icii?ia: a) iiaei – di = 3665 Aeae/i2 ; a) neea – di = [2,35 ... 50 eAeae/i2 ]; a) e?aiiith – di = 3,75 eAeae/i2 ; aa?iaiith – di = 12,74 Aeae/i2 . Aeey noa?aeiia iiaei iieiiao?iaeo ?icii?ia di = 141 eAeae/i2 . Ia iniiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?acoeueoaoia ?icii?iiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi a ieia-eao ZrO2 i HfO2 ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy i noi?ioeueiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? uiaei aiaeiaeo eaca?ieo o?oaie. *ooeeaeie aeaiaioaie o?o-aie ? aeca?eaea, iiaa?oii yeeo iie?eoi aeacaieie ieiaeaie. ?aeiiaiaeaoei? neeaee iniiao ?ic?iaee oaoiieiai? aiaeiaeo, i?e yeiio iai?oaeaiiy a ieiaeao ia ia?aaeuothoue caaeaii? a?aieoei i ieiaee ia ?oeiothoueny (? aeo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy). Anoaiiaeaii, ui aia?aaoe/ii ia?aiao?e, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?icii?iee aoaeo iioeiinoi a noeniooeo iieio?aoaiiaeo c?aceao, c?inoathoue eiiieii i?e caieueoaiii oaa?aeinoi To. Aeiyoeii ? iaeiiieia c?inoaiiy iiaeoey THiaa i?e caieueoaiii To . I?e oeueiio a aeiaiaciii To = [20 ... 50 iae. O] (1 iae. O – iaeeieoey oaa?aeinoi ca Oi?ii) aia?aaoe/iee ia?aiao? iiaa?oii c?inoa? ia 76 %, a ia?aiao?, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ciioeiaiiy, ia 181 % . C aeiiiiiaith aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oi?, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ?ici??iiio aoaeoo i?oeiino? a aaiiao?e/ii iiaeiaieo oeeeiiae?e/ieo c?aceao ic iioe/iiai neoaea NI–115I i?e inueiaiio noeneo, ?ic?aoiaaii a?aieoeth iioeiinoi noeniooeo i?eciaoe/ieo c?aceia, cia/aiiy yei? aiae?iciythoueny aiae aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ia 10 % (i?e oeueiio iioeaea aenia?eiaioo 13 %). C aeiiiiiaith aaaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa-?enoee iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a iiaeia ia o?eueee ye?nii (ye oea aoei ?ai?oa), aea e e?euee?nii ia iniia? aac?ici??ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue oi?ioethaaoe oiiae ?ioaineaiino? ?ici??iiai aoaeoo i?oeiino? ? iniaeeaino? ci?ie eiai oa?ae-oa?o (iai?eeeaae, ia?ao?ae a?ae “ii?iaeueiiai” aei “aiiiaeueiiai” aoaeoo), a oaeiae aeine?aeaeoaaoe aieea ia oe? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo oaeoi??a (oaa?aeino?, iaa?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae i?e?iiiei ? i?e?iao?iaei ?ici??iei ae?aiaciiii ? o. ae.). Aeey neeyieo i?yiieooieo noa?aeiia, yei iiaeaeathoueny caeio, i?iaaaeaii ?icae?eaiiy a?aie/ieo iai?oaeaiue s? ia aea? neeaaeia? s? = s?1 + s?2 , iaeia c yeeo (s?1) caeaaeeoue a?ae iiaeoey THiaa oa ieoiii? aia?a?? ?icn?yiiy a na?aea/ieeo, ae?oaa (s?2) – a?ae ?ici???a ? aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a. Aeyaeaii, ui neeaaeiaa s?2 iaia?a?aii ciiith?oueny a caeaaeiinoi aiae oaeae-einoi iaaaioaaeaiiy vs i i?e iaaiiio ?? cia/aiii (vs = 97 eIa/n) ia? iiiiioi. Caeaaei?noue iiaeo aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a a?ae oaeae-einoi vs iae?i?eia ? iiiioiiii c?inoath/a ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith, ine?eueee ?c ca?eueoaiiyi vs aeeneieaoe?? a o?e? noathoue iaio ?ooiieie ? aaeueiothoue i?ioean ia?aoiaeo iaoa??aeo a a?aie/iee noai. I?iaaaeaii aiaeic aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aieea ?icii?iiai oaeoi?a ia aoiiio iioeiinoue i?eciaoe/ieo c?aceia i’?ciea?aiiee OeOAN–3, yei iathoue i?yiieooiee ia?a?ic i aeeiiothoue caeiii eieeaaiiy /anoioith f = 17,8 eAoe. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey aeiaiaciio ciiie /enea oeeeeia Noe = [105 ...109 ] aia?aaoe/ii ia?aiao?e ya, ka (iiaeaen “a” aiaeiiaiaea? aoii-iie iioeiinoi i?e caeii o ni?aa?aeiioaii? (18)) ciaioothoueny ia 43,2 % i 44,45 % aiaeiiaiaeii. I?e oeueiio ya ciaioo?oueny iiiioiiii i ia eiioeaaie aei-eyioei (Noe = [108 ... 109]) aoaea i?aeoe/ii iino?eiith aaee/eiith, a ciiia ia?a-iao?a ka (aeey (Noe = [105 ... 109]) ia? iaiiiioiiiee oa?aeoa? c eieaeueieieiaeneioiii i iiiiioiii. A ?acoeueoao? aeae?eeii o?e iiiioiii? noaae??. Ia i?eeeaaei iaeiiainii ?icoyaiooeo o iiaio?i i?e eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?i noa?aeiia iieiaoeeaio aenieiai oeneo (IAAO) ia?ee 10802–020 (aeiaiacii ?icii?ia yeeo Rk = [2,5 ... 10 ii]) aeineiaeaeaii aieea aaiia-i?iiaiia aeicith Og = 0,5 IA? ia aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oii i iniaeeainoi ?ic-ii?iiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi iiaeeco a?aieoeue oaeo/inoi oa iioeiinoi. Aaiia-i?iiai? ni?eythoue iiya? o o?e? oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a, ye? cae??ieththoue aeeneieaoe?? ? oo?oaeiththoue ?o noa?o aeey c?acea, noai yeiai iaaeeaea?oueny aei a?aieoe? oaeo/ino?. sseui ae noa?aei? iie?aoeeaio iaaaioaaeai? aei a?aieoe? i?oeiino?, oi aaiia-i?iiai? ineaaeththoue ca’ycee i?ae aoiiaie ? cieaeothoue oeth a?aieoeth. I?e oeueiio iiyaey?oueny i?aeae?aiacii d = [5 ... 10 ii] c aiiiaeueiei ?ici??-iei aoaeoii (a?aieoe? i?oeiino?), i?aeae?aiacii d = [10 ... 15 ii] c aeineoue ??cei ae?aaeaiei ii?iaeueiei ?ici??iei aoaeoii , a oaeiae i?aeae?aiacii d = [15 ... ... 20 ii] ?c neaai ae?aaeaiei ?ici??iei aoaeoii. Oi/a a eiaeiiio i?aeae?aia-cii? ? nai? cia/aiiy iiaiaaaaeaieo aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oi?, a ia-aeao onueiai ae?aiaciio d = [5 ... 20 ii] aiie c?inoathoue o na?aaeiueiio a 3 – 4 ?ace, ui a?aeia?aaea? caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th “ii?iaeueiiai” ?ici??iiai aoaeoo. Aeey noa?e/ieo i oeeeiiae?e/ieo o?e ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ca’yceo iiae a?aie/ieie aaee/eiaie aioo?ioiio aiae?inoaoe/ieo oeneia, ia cia/aiiy yeeo aieeaa? ?icii?iee aoaeo iioeiinoi, i aaoniaith e?eaeciith aioo?ioiio iiaa?oiiue c a?aooaaiiyi aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?o-iaaeo oa?ia. Ia i?eeeaaei iaaaioaaeaieo aioo?ioiii aiae?inoaoe/iei oeneii noa?e/ii? iinoaeeie i oeeeiiae?e/ii? o?oae c ?iaieie aioo?ioiiie i ciaiio-iiie ?aaeionaie aeyaeaii, ui ?icieoey aeiaeaoeiaeo, aeeeeeaieo ?icii?iei aoaeoii, a?aie/ieo oeneia iiaea neeaaeaoe Dp = [110 ... 120 %] (aeey ieiaa). Cie?aia, aieueoiio cia/aiith e?eaecie aioo?ioiuei? iiaa?oii (noa?e/ia iinoaeeia) aiaeiiaiaea? aieueoee aeiaeaoeiaee oene. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi/a ieiu? aioo??oi?o iiaa?oiiue aea?aaeaioieo (c ??aieie ia’?iaie) oeee?iae?e/ii? o?o-ae Soeo ? noa?e/ii? iinoaeeie Sni iacia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny (Soeo/Sni = 1,05), ?ici??iee aoaeo o noa?e/i?e iinoaeei? i?iyaey?oueny a?eueoa oiio, ui a i?e aioo??oiy iiaa?oiy aeaoi?io?oueny o aeaio aca?iii iaiia?aeeeoey?ieo iai?yiao (a oie /an ye o oeee?iae?e/i?e o?oa? o?eueee a iai?yieo c?inoaiiy ia?eiao?o eiea). ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioeiiee aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oii i iaa?oioiaaii caeiiiii?iinoi ?icii?iiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi a c?aceao c iaae?ica-ie, yei iiaeaeathoueny ?icoyao, c a?aooaaiiyi iii?aaee ia ieanoe/iinoue ry o aa?oeii iaae?ico. Aiaeicoth/e aiaeiiaiaeii oice/iei i?ioeanai o i?yiieooieo c?aceao noaei 22E c aeaiia neiao?e/ieie iaae?icaie aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii, aeyaeaii, ui aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icii?iiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi caiinoue aoae-oeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? gef aieueo c?o/ii aeei?enoaoe iiaiaaaaeaiiia?aiao?e yp (17), a oaeiae iino?ei? eiao?oe??ioe ai , bi (i = 1,2) o oi?ioeao: Ws1 = a1 + b1/(lo)0,5 , Ws1 = a2 + b2/(lo)0,5 , (34) yp , ai , bi oa?aeoa?ecothoue ciiie a?aieoei iioeiinoi oa iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? i iathoue iinoieii cia/aiiy aeey aeaio iiaeaeiaiaciiia ?icii?ia lo1 = [0,05 i; 0,02 i], lo2 = [0,02 i; 0,005 i] c?aceia, yeei aiaeiiaiaeathoue iiaeaene “1”, “2”. E?ii oiai, aeey aecia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oii yp ia iaia’yceiai i?iaiaeeoe aiaeic iai?oaeaiue o aa?oeii iaae?ico, ui cia/ii ni?iuo? ia’?i /eneiaeo ?ic?aooieia. Aea aiaeic oice/ieo ia?aiao?ia a?aie/iiai noaio c?aceia iiaeeco aa?oeie o?iueie i a ia?a?ici iaooi i?ae iaae??caie iaiaoiaeiee aeey oiai, uia anoaiiaeoe iaeiicia/io aiaeiiaiaeiinoue iiae a?aie/ieie cia/aiiyie iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? Ws o aa?oeii o?iueie, iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? o aiaeaeaeaiie aiae o?iuei oi/oei “M” i aoaeoeaii? iiaa?o-iaai? aia?ai? gef . Oea aaaeeeai, ineieueee aieueo aeaoaeueiee aiaeic iieacaa, ui ia o anio oi/eao iiaeeco aa?oeie o?iueie aeey anueiai aeiaiaciio ?icii?ia c?aceia ? iaeiicia/ia aiaeiiaiaeiinoue iiae oa?aeoa?ii ci?i Ws i gef . Ia iniiai aiaeico io?eiaieo aeaieo aeyaeaii, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?ai iaeiiieiee oa?aeoa? caeaaeiinoi a?aie/ieo ?oeioth/eo iai?oaeaiue sa c?aceia noaei 22 E noaiaea?oiiai ?icii?o aiae oaiia?aoo?e, aiaeiioaiiy ia?aiao?ia “dbi = ypi/bi” iaeaea eiiieii ciiith?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao T = [183 K ... 313 K]. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiaeiioaiiy dbi eiiieii caeaaeeoue aiae oaiia?aoo?e (o i?iiiaeeo T = [163 ... ...313 K]) i aeey iiaeaeiaiaciio ?icii?ia o?iuei lo1 = [0,05 i; 0,02 i] ia? o aeaa ?ace aieueoa /eneiaa cia/aiiy db1 = yp1/b1, a oaeiae o aeaa ?ace aieueoee iaoee ii?iaiyii c aiaeiai/ieie db2 = yp2/b2 aeey iaioeo ?icii?ia lo2 = [0,02 i; 0,005 i]. Anoaiiaeaii, ui yeui ia a?aoiaoaaoe iii?aaeo ry (20), oi cia/aiiy yp (17) o c?aceao noaei 22E ia 150 %, 43 %, 9 % aieueo? ii?iaiyii c aeaieie iaooi/iaii? iaoiaeeee i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 293 K, 258 K, 228 K aiaeiiaiaeii. Aeyaeaii, ui ci?ie cia/aiue yp o c?aceao noaei 22E caeaaeaoue ia o?eueee a?ae iaoa??aeo e oaiia?aoo?e, aea e a?ae oi?ie ia?a??co iaooi i?ae iaae??caie, iaeei c ?ici???a yeiai oiiaii ciaioo?oueny ca ?aooiie iii?aaee ry . Aeey aeaiiai oeio c?ace?a ? iaaaioaaeaiiy ieanoe/i? i?ioeane o aa?oei? o??ueie (ye? e?euee?nii oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iii?aaeith ry) ineaaeththoue aieea iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o (aeaiioothoue eiai) ? oea i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai ia?aiao?a yp. I?iaaaeaii aeineiaeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icii?iiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi a c?aceao eai’yii? niei (??aieo aeiaaeei, a ia?a??c? – eaaae?ao (h?h)), yei iiaeaea-thoueny ?icoyao. Aeiaiacii ci?ie ?o iiia?a/ieo ?icii?ia – h = [1,5 ... 6 ii]. Aeey ieo ?ic?aoiaaii ia’?iio i iiaa?oiaao neeaaeia? o ae?ac? a?aie/iiai iai?o-aeaiiy. I?e ca?eueoaii? c?ace?a (h) no?oeoo?i? aeaoaeoe na?aea/ieea iaio ?ioaineaii aca?iiae?thoue c iiaa?oiaaith iaeanoth o?ea, oiio i?iii?oe?eiaia’?io neeaaeiaa a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiy iiiioiiii ciaioo?oueny a?ae db = = 0,604 aei db = 0,087. A oie aea /an iiaa?oiaaa neeaaeiaa c?inoa? a?ae 11 % aei 15%, aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy i?e h = 3 ii, i iaaeaei ciaioo?oueny a?ae 15 % aei 13%. Oaea ci?ia oa?aeoa?o dg iia’ycaia c oei, ui aaiiao?e/iee ia?aiao? h a ia’?iio neeaaeiao a?aie/iiai iai?oaeaiiy aoiaeeoue o noaiai? “–2” (oiaoi h–2), a o iiaa?oiaao neeaaeiao ye h–1/2. O i?aeae?aiacii? ha = [1,5 ... 3 ii] a?aeiinia ci?ia ia’?iiiai /eaia oeio h–2 aeia?aaeaea? ci?io (iiaa?oiaaiai) /eaia, i?iii?oe?eiiai h–1/2, ia 39 % , a a i?aeae?aiacii? hb = [3 ... 6 ii] iaaiaee, a?aeiinia ci?ia aaiiao?e/iiai /eaia oeio h–2 a?aenoa? a?ae ci?ie /eaia oeio h–1/2 ia 51 %. Oa?aeoa? ci?ie /eai?a oeio h–2 , h–1/2 o eiaeiiio c i?aeae?aiacii?a ha , hb aiee-ioa ia a?aeiia?aeio i???ioaoe?th a?aeiioaiue dga. dgb . ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aeineiaeaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniaeeainoi ?icii?iiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi a c?aceao, yei iinoyoue aieiao o?iueio (iaae?ic) i iiaeaeathoueny eiinieueiiio caeio, c a?aooaaiiyi aian-eia ia’?iii? i iiaa?oiaai? neeaaeiaeo o /eneiaa cia/aiiy a?aieoei iioeiinoi. Ia iniiai aeacaii? iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaii aiaeic aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeey c?aceia oeoaiiaiai nieaao AO14. Iiaoaeiaaii caeaaei?noue aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? gef a?ae a?aie/iiai cia/aiiy iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? Ws (yea a?aeiia?aea? ?oeioaai-ith ) aeey caaeaiiai ae?aiaciio ci?ie oe?eie c?ace?a AO14 b = [6 ... 1 ii] (aeiaaee-ia l ? oiaueia h – iaci?ii?). Caeaaei?noue iaeiicia/ia, iiiioiiii c?inoath/a (a?aeiia?aeii aei ciaioaiiy ?ici??o b) ? aeineoue aeecueea aei e?i?eii?. Onoaiia-eaii, ui aia?aaoe/iee ia?aiao? iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o yt (18) ia ? oa?aeoa?en-oeeith iaoa??aeo (AO14) iiaeeco aa?oeie o??ueie, a oa?aeoa?eco? aanue c?a-cie (oi/i?oa, eiai iiaa?oith) ?c eiie?aoii? oi?ie o??ueiith a caaeaiiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie ?ici???a, yeui ae?? iaaia ciai?oi? iaaaioaaeaiiy. A?aeiioaiiy oeio “dy = = yp/(b3)0,5” (o ciaiaiieeo ia?aiao? b3, yeee a?aeiia?aea? ca ciaioaiiy /e ca?eueoaiiy iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? Ws o i?ioean? ci?ie ?ici???a b c?ace?a, cie?aia, aeey oeoaiiai nieaao AO14 – Ws = (a3 + b3/b)0,5) o ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey ioe?iee ?ioaineaiino? ?ici??iiai aoaeoo i?oeiino?, yeui caaeaii ae?aiacii ci?ie ?ici???a c?ace?a ? a oeueiio ae?aiacii? ia?aiao?e yp , b3 – iino?ei?. Aeyaeaii, ui aianie ia’?iii? neeaaeiai? a ioeiieo oa?iiaeeiaii/ieo ia?aiao?ia noaio aeey AO14 ia iniaeeai nooo?aee, oiaoi ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao du = [0,0116 ... 0,0523], aea yeui eiai ia a?aoiaoaaoe, oi ?ic?aoiaaii a?aie/i? cia/aiiy ia?aiao?ia iathoue o aeaa ?ace aieueoi aiaeoeeaiiy aiae aenia?eiai-oaeueieo, a i?e aecia/aiii aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o io?eia?ii iioeaee aei 16 %. Aeeeth/ath/e c ?icaeyaeo no?oeoo?i? aeaoaeoe na?aea/ieea c?acea, ie ca?aeith?ii iiaeaeue, ii?ooo?ii aeaiaioe a?aeiia?ae-iino? i?ae iiaa?oiaaeie ? ia’?iieie aianeaie a aia?a?th oaeiai eiiii-ceoiiai o?ea ? oiio io?eia?ii iaaeinoaoiuei ei?aeoi? ?acoeueoaoe, cie?aia, noiniaii aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oi?. O aeiaeaoeo A i?eaaaeaii aiaeiii oice/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoaeia (Ag, Au, Al, Fe, Ni, Sn, Zn, Hg), a oaeiae iia?, aaaaeaii a aeaiie ?iaioi (o ?iaiyiiyo noaio), i ?ic?aoiaaii c aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. O aeiaeaoeo A iiaeaii niiaaiaeiioaiiy, yei ca’ycothoue iiaeoaciee iaoya si , a oaeiae iiaeoacio aia?aith Wi c iiaa?oiaaei iaoyaii ss i iiaa?o-iaaith aia?ai?th Ws aeey iiaei oa n?iaea. O aeiaeaoeo A ? /eneiai aeaii oice/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee K, G oa aiae?inoaoe/iiai oeneo p aeey aeaiaioia oa?iiia?e WRe5–WRe20. O aeiaeaoeo Ae ciaoiaeyoueny aeoe i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoia iaoeiai–aeineiaeieo ?iaio aeena?oaioa o ae?iaieoeoai . INIIAII ?ACOEUeOAOE I AENIIAEE 1. ?ic?iaeaii iiao oa?iiaeeiaii/io oai??th iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? oaa?aeeo o?e, yea a?aoiao? ? aeaeo?e/io, ? iaoai?/io neeaaeia? oe??? aia?a??, ui oa?ae-oa?eco? i?oaeio iaeanoue aeaoi?ioaaiiy, a oaeiae iaeanoue iiaeeco a?aieoeue oaeo/inoi oa iioeiinoi c o?aooaaiiyi oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia ? ?icii?ieo aoaeoia. 2. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee e?eoa?ie iioeiinoi, a iniia? yeiai ciiie iiaa?oia-aeo iaoyao oa aia?ai? c o?aooaaiiyi ia?a?iciiaeieia aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia o iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo oie i ca’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yaeia o aeiaeaeo?e/ieo. 3. Ia iniiai iiai? oai??? i iiaeo e?eoa?i?a iioeiinoi ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo oice/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa?iaeia i ia?aiao?ia noaio aeey iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo ? ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oaa?aeeo oie. 4. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioeiiee eoeiiianueeiai aa?’??o ia iiaa?oii ia-oaeo, ?icoaoiaaiiai a iaaeaeo?ii?iaiaeiiio i aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiiio na?aaei-aeuao. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo aeaee iiaeeea?noue iaa?oiooaaoe aenia?eiai-oaeueii io?eiai? cia/aiiy i?aeoacieo iaoya?a si oa aia?a?e Wi o eiioae-ooth/eo nenoaiao oeio “oaa?aea aeaeo?ii?ia?aeia o?ei – oaa?aea aeaeo?ii?i-a?aeia o?ei”, “oaa?aea aeaeo?ii?ia?aeia o?ei – ??aeeee iaoae”. 5. Ocaaaeueiaii aiaeioe/ii niiaaiaeiioaiiy, yei ca’ycothoue iiaeoaciee iaoya si i ?iaioo aaeaaci? wa c iiaa?oiaaeie iaoyaaie eiioaeooth/eo oaa?aeeo oie, a yeeo ? oi/eiai aeaoaeoe oeio aaeain?e ? i?aeaoceiaeo aoii?a. 6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaiaeii??aei? ciiie ia?aiao?ia noaio Dai, ca’ycaii c aeia?iaoaaiiyi aieueo?aio, aieueo nooo?ai (o na?aaeiueiio o 2,4 ?ace) aiee-aathoue ia ciiie oa?iiaeaeo?i?ooieii? neee oa?iiaeaiaioia, iiae aieueoi ca aaee/eiith ia ii?yaeie, aea iaeii??aei? ii ia’?io /ooeeaiai aeaiaioo Dai , aeeeeeaii ?aaeiaoeieieie oi/eiaeie aeaoaeoaie (aaeain?yie, i?aeaoceiaeie aoiiaie). 7. Aeyaeaii, ui a?aie/i? cia/aiiy caeaaeii? a?ae ?ici???a neeaaeiai?iai?oaeaiue aeey neeyieo noa?aeiia, yei iiaeaeathoueny caeio, ? ooieoe??th aia?aa-oe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a ? i?e iaaiiio cia/aii? oaeaeeinoi iaaaioaaeaiiy vs iathoue i?i?ioi. 8. Ia i?eeeaaei ?icoyaiooeo noa?aei?a iieiaoeeaio (ae?aiao?ii d a?ae 5 ii aei 20 ii) iieacaii, ui aeeeeeaia aaiia-i?iiaiyie (aeicith Og = 0,5 IA?) c?inoaiiy a?aieoei oaeo/inoi i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy aaee/eie aia?aaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o ia 60–70 %, a ni?e/eiaia ii?ii?iaiiyi ciaioaiiy a?aieoe? i?oeiino? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c?inoaiiyi iiaiaaaaeaieo aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?en-oee iiaa?oi? a iaaeao anueiai ae?aiaciio ?ici???a o na?aaeiueiio a 3–4 ?ace, ui a?aeia?aaea? caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th “ii?iaeueiiai” ?ici??iiai aoaeoo. 9. Aeey noa?e/ieo i oeeeiiae?e/ieo oie ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ca’yceo iiae aaee/eiaie a?aie/ieo oeneia, ia yei aieeaa? ?icii?iee aoaeo iioeiinoi, i aaoniaith e?eaeciith aioo?ioiio iiaa?oiiue. 10. ?ic?iaeaii ooi/iaio iaoiaeeeo ioeiiee aia?aaoe/ieo iiaa?oiaaeo aa-ee/ei, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniaeeainoi ?icii?iiai aoaeoo iioeiinoi a c?aceao c iaae?icaie, yei iiaeaeathoueny iaeiiainiiio ?icoyao ? iaa??ao, c a?aooaaiiyi iii?aaee ia ieanoe/iinoue ry , i iieacaii, ui iaii?oaaiiy iii?aaeith ry i?eaiaeeoue aei nooo?aeo a?aeoeeaiue /eneiaeo cia/aiue aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oii. 11. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a c?aceao eai’yii? niei, yei iiaeaeathoueny ?icoyao, ic caieueoaiiyi ?icii??a iiia?a/iiai ia?a?ico aaee/eia i?iii?oe?eii? ia’?io c?acea neeaaeiai? a?aie/ieo iai?oaeaiue iiiioiiii ciaioo?oueny, a aaee/eia i?iii?oe?eii? ieiu? iiaa?oi? neeaaeiai? a?aie/ieo iai?oaeaiue c?inoa? ? aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy i?e iaai?e oiauei?, a iio?i ciaioo?oueny. 12. Aeei?enoiaoth/e io?eiai? iiai ?acoeueoaoe, ye? noi?ioeueiaaii ia iniiai aeineiaeaeaiue iiaa?oiaaeo yaeu ? ?ici??ieo aoaeo?a, ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieiaith aiaeiaeo eaca?ieo o?oaie, iaa?ia yeeo aei e?eoe/ieo oaiia?aoo? ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?oeioaaiiyi /ooeeaeo aeaiaioia. INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeI? AEEEAAeAII A ?IAIOAO: 1. THcaae/ A. I. Eiioaeoi? oiiae a aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo nenoaiao c o?ce/ieie iiaa?oiyie ?icae?eo//Aeii. AI O?N?. Na?. A. – 1984. – ? 8. – N. 60–63. 2. THcaae/ A. I. Aieea iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? ia ianooaaiee aoaeo i?oaeii- ieanoe/ii aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea//Aeii. AI O?N?. Na?. A. – 1988. – ? 2. – N. 38–41. 3. THcaae/ A.I. Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneia iienaiea iiaa?oiinoiuo iaoa-iiyeaeo?ioa?iiaeeoooceiiiuo i?ioeannia e niioiioaiea Aioiiiaa//Iiaa?oiinoue. Oeceea, oeiey, iaoaieea. – 1988. – ? 9. – N. 135–139. 4. THcaae/ A. I. Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeanna aaeni?aoeee a i?eiiaa?oiinoiii neia iaoaeea//Iiaa?oiinoue. ?aioaaiianeea, neio?io?iiiua e iaeo?iiiuaenneaaeiaaiey. – 1998. – ? 3. – N. 32–37. 5. THcaae/ A.I. Iaoaiiyeaeo?ioa?iiaeeoooceiiiua i?ioeannu a eiioaeoe-?othueo oaeao n oi/a/iuie aeaoaeoaie//I?eeeaaeiay iaoaiaoeea e iaoa-ieea. – 1988. – ? 5. – N. 873–877. 6. THcaae/ A.I. Ioeaiea aeeyiey ianooaaiiai oaeoi?a ia ?ac?ooaiea noa?aeiae//I?iae. i?i/iinoe. – 1991. – ? 1. – N. 77–79. 7. THcaae/ A.I. Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneia iienaiea iaoaiiyeaeo?ioa?iiaeeo-ooceiiiuo i?ioeannia a aeaoi?ie?oaiuo aeeyeaeo?eeao n oi/a/iuie aeaoaeoaie e niioiioaiea Aioiiiaa//Oa?iiaeeiaieea iaia?aoeiuo i?ioeannia/Iiae. ?aae. A.E. Eiiooaineie. – I.: Iaoea, 1992. – N. 163–168. 8. THcaae/ A. I. Ciiia iiaa?oiaaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ii?iiiiaiiai eaa?oeo//Iaoeiaee ainiee *AeO. Oiceea. – *a?iiaoei: *AeO, 1999. – Aei. 50. – N. 104–105. 9. Nii?oithe I.I., THcaae/ A. I. I?eiiaa?oiinoiua yaeaiey a ieaiea yeaeo?inoaoe/aneiai ciiaea//Iiaa?oiinoue. Oeceea, oeiey, iaoaieea. – 1995. – ? 5. – N. 14–17. 10. Nii?oithe I.I., THcaae/ A. I. E?eoa?ie iioeiinoi oa aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee ieiaee ia iiaa?oii aeaeo?e/iiai ciiaea//Oic.–oii. iao. iaoa?iaeia. – 1997. – ? 2. – N. 18 – 22. 11. Nii?oithe I.I., THcaae/ A. I. Aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee naiaeiooai-?aii? e iaaiaeiaii? iiaa?oii iaoaeo a ei?icieiiio na?aaeiaeui//Oic.–oii. iao. iaoa?iaeia. – 1998. – ? 2. – N. 34 – 38. 12. THcaae/ A.I. ?an/ao iai?yaeaiii–aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey oeeeeiae?e-/aneie o?oau i?e ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao//I?i/iinoue iaoa?eaeia e eii-no?oeoeee i?e ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao. – E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1990. – N. 253–257. 13. THcaae/ A. I. Aeeyiea eceo/aiey ia caeiiiia?iinoe ianooaaiiai yooaeoa i?i/iinoe ?ac?ooaaiuo noa?aeiae//Oec.–oei. iao. iaoa?eaeia. – 1990. – ? 3. – N. 17 – 19. 14. THcaae/ A. I. Aieea ?ici???a ia i?oaeiiieanoe/io ??aiiaaao noa?e/ii? iinoaeeie, e?eueoey oa oeee?iae?e/ii? o?oae//Oic.–oii. iao. iaoa?iaeia. – 1993. – ? 2. – N. 128–130. 15. THcaae/ A. I. Aaeainiaua niioiioaiey a aeaoi?ie?oaiuo yeaeo?ii?iaiae-iuo n?aaeao n oece/aneeie iiaa?oiinoyie ?acaeaea//Iao. iaoiaeu e oec.–iao. iiey. – E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1983. – ? 17. – N. 37–41. 16. THcaae/ A. I. Oa?iioi?oaea i?ioeannu a aeaoi?ie?oaiuo oaa?aeuo oaeao n oi/a/iuie aeaoaeoaie//Iao. iaoiaeu e oec.–iao. iiey. – E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1988. – ? 17. – N. 18–21. 17. Iiiiae/ A. A., THcaae/ A. I. Yia?aey ia?aciaaiey iiaa?oiinoe i?e ieanoe/aneii aeaoi?ie?iaaiee oaa?aeuo oae a n?aaeao//Oec.–oei. iao. iaoa?eaeia. – 1985. – ? 5. – N. 77–80. 8. THcaae/ A. I., Iiiiae/ A. A. Ianooaaiue yooaeo ieanoe/aneiai aeaoi?ie?iaaiey oiieeo noa?aeiae//Oec.–oei. iao. iaoa?eaeia. – 1989. – ? 2. – N. 51–53. 19. THcaae/ A. I. Aiaeeoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea eeiaoeee eciaiaiey ii-aa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey i?e aaeni?aoeee e aeeoooceiiiii ianuuaiee a yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiii oaa?aeii oa?a//Oec.–oei. iao. iaoa?eaeia. – 1986. – ? 6. – N. 30–33. 20. Iiiiae/ A. A., THcaae/ A. I. ?aaioa aaeaaeeaaiey aeanoeiai eiaeaioi?a a oi?oaia iieoi?ino?ainoai//Oec.–oei. iao. iaoa?eaeia. – 1983. – ? 2. – N. 106–108. 21. Noiey?/oe I. A., THcaae/ A. I. ?an/ao eciaiaiee oa?ii–Y.Ae.N. aieue-o?ai?aieaauo oa?iiia?, aucaaiiuo enia?aieai aieueo?aia//Aanoiee Eueaianeiai iieeoaoie/aneiai einoeoooa. – Eueaia: Naio, 1990. – ? 248. – N. 127–131. 22. Aaeaiaoe A.I., THcaae/ A. I. Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iaaeoac-iuo yaeaiee a nenoaia iaoaee – ?anieaa//Aaeaacey ?anieaaia e iaeea iaoa?eaeia.Na.iao/.o?oaeia. – E. : Iaoe. aeoiea, 1985. – ? 14. – N. 10–13. 23. THcaae/ A. I. ?aeaenaoe?y iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? a i?ioean? aaoinaa?aaaoe?? ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo//Iaoeiaee ainiee *AeO. Oiceea. – *a?iiaoei: *AeO, 1999. – Aei. 50. – N. 13–14. 24. Aaeaiaoe A.I., THcaae/ A. I. Iaiauaiiua oneiaey nii?yaeaiey iaoa-iiyeaeo?ioa?iiaeeoooceiiiuo iieae a eoni/ii–iaeii?iaeiuo yeaeo?i-i?iaiaeiuo n?aaeao//Iaoaieea iaiaeii?iaeiuo no?oeoo?. Na. iao/. o?oaeia. – E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1986. – N. 40–45. 25. Noiey?/oe I. A., THcaae/ A. I. ?aaeeaoeeiiiay iia?aoiinoue oa?iiiao?a ni-i?ioeaeaiey i?e ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao//Eiio?ieueii–ecia?eoaeueiay oaoieea. Na. iao/. o?oaeia. – Eueaia: Aeua oeiea, 1986. – Aui. 40. – N. 42–44. 26. *aoiai ss.?., THcaae/ A. I. ?ic?aooiie aieeao e?euee?niiai oaeoi?a ia aea-oi?iaoe?eio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iie?o?aoaiiaiai c?acea//Iie?a?ao?y ? aeaeaaie/a ni?aaa. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – Euea?a: Aeua oeiea, 1987. – ? 23. – N. 46–50. 27. *aoiai ss.?., THcaae/ A. I. ?ieue ianooaaiiai oaeoi?a i?e aei?iaoaaii? iie?o?aoaiiaiai c?acea ??cii? oaa?aeino?//Iie?a?ao?y ? aeaeaaie/a ni?aaa. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – Euea?a: Aeua oeiea, 1988. – ? 24. – N. 47–49. 28. THcaae/ A. I. Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea i?eiiaa?oiiniuo yaea-iee auno?iaeaeaeouaeny aeeaeeinoe a aeae?iaeeiaie/aneie o?oaa//Aeae?iaee-iaieea aieueoeo nei?inoae. Na. iao/. o?oaeia. – E?aniiy?ne: EIE, 1989. – N. 129–133. 29. Nii?oithe I.I., THcaae/ A. I. Iiaeaethaaiiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue aeaeeiiai oa ?io?a/a?aiiiai ae?aiaciio c aoa?eueiei ieeii//A?aea?? oa ia?iaea ?ioi?iaoe??. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1996. – Aei. 10 (86). – N. 44–49. 30. THcaae/ A. I. Iiaeaethaaiiy ci?i iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? o c?aceao iaoaeo c o??ueiaie//Iaoeiaee ainiee *AeO. Oiceea. – *a?iiaoei: *AeO, 1999. – Aei. 50. – N. 43–44. 31. THcaae/ A. I. E?eoa??? i?oeiino? oaa?aeiai o?ea c o?aooaaiiyi ?ici??iiai aoaeoo ? aieeao na?aaeiaeua//Oic.–oii. iao. iaoa?iaeia.–1999.–? 2.–N.80–85. 32. A.n. ? 1730794 NNN?. Ono?ienoai aeey iaoyaeaiey aeaeaey ia ionaoiii oeeeeiae?a ia/aoiie iaoeiu/A.I. THcaae/, ss.E. *aoiai, A.O. Naieonue, A.A. Ainae, E.I. E?aa/oe. – ? 4221233; Cayaeaii 02.04.1987; Ca?aaeno?e?iaaii a Ain. ?aano?. ecia?aoaiee NNN? 3.01. 1992 a. THcaae/ A. I. Aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia ? oiceei–iaoaii/ii aeanoeaino?oaa?aeeo oie. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oiceei– iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 01.04.07 – oiceea oaa?aeiai oiea. *a?iiaaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao, *a?iiaoei, 1999. Aeena?oaoeiy i?enay/aia aea/aiith o?ceei–iaoaii/ieo i?ioeania o oaa?-aeeo oieao c o?aooaaiiyi aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia, ?icii?iiai oaeoi?a, ?aae?aoe?eieo oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoia. ?ic?iaeaii aa?iaio oai?i?, ui iieno? ciiio aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? ? ?? neeaaeiaeo aeey aeaeo?ii?iaiaeieo oa aeiaeaeo?e/ieo oie, noai yeeo aeecueeee aei a?aieoeue oaeo/inoi i iioeiinoi. ?ica’ycaii i?iaeaio aecia/aiiy ca’yceia iiae oa?iiaeeiaii/ieie ia?aiao?aie i aia?aaoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo oie, ia yei aeithoue iioiee /anoeiie, iaa?ia, iaoaii/ii iaaaioaaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia’?aeiaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? iiaeaei c e?eoa?iaeueieie niiaaiaeiioaiiyie aeey a?aieoeue iioeiinoi i oaeo/inoi o?e a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao ni?iuo? i?ioeaaeo?o iaa?oiooaaiiy aenia?eiaioa-eueieo aeaieo. Cae?eniaii i?iieneiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaieo ?aei-iaiaeaoeie aeey ?ic?iaee oaoiieiai? aiaeiaeo oa?iiiiia? i eaca?ieo o?oaie. Eeth/iai neiaa: oaa?aei oiea, aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee, oa?iiaeeiaiiea, iiaa?oiy, ?icii?iee aoaeo, e?eoa?i? iioeiinoi. THcaae/ A. I. Aia?aaoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa e oeceei–iaoaie/aneea naienoaa oaa?aeuo oae. – ?oeiienue. Aeena?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei–iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 – oeceea oaa?aeiai oaea. *a?iiaeoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, *a?iiaoeu, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia o oaa?aeuo oaeao n o/aoii yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa-?enoee iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa, ?acia?iiai oaeoi?a, ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo e oi/a/iuo aeaoaeoia. ?ac?aaioai aa?eaio oai?ee aeey iienaiey eciaiaiee yooaeoe-aiie iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee e aa ninoaaeythueo i?eiaieoaeueii e yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiui e aeeyeaeo?e/aneei oaeai, ninoiyiea eioi?uo aeeceia e i?aaeaeai oaeo/anoe e i?i/iinoe. Iiaa?oiinoiay yia?aey i?aaenoaaeaia a ae-aea yeaeo?e/aneie e iaoaie/aneie ninoaaeythueo. ?aoaia i?iaeaia onoaiia-eaiey naycae iaaeaeo ia?aiao?aie oa?iiaeeiaie/aneiai ninoiyiey e yia?aaoe-/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa aeey iiiaieiiiiiaioiuo oae, ia eioi?ua aeaenoaotho iioiee /anoeoe e oioiiia, iaa?aa, iaoaie/aneea iaa?o-cee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iauaaeeiaiea oa?iiaeeiaie/aneie iiaeaee n e?eoa?eaeue-iuie niioiioaieyie aeey i?aaeaeia i?i/iinoe e oaeo/anoe aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia iniiaa iaiauaiiie e oniaa?oainoaiaaiie oai?ee iainiiaaoue aieueoie iauai ?acoeueoaoia yenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaiiuo, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho iiaaaeaiea oaa?aeuo oae a yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo aicaeaenoaey aiaoieo oaeoi?ia. ?ac?aaioai iiaue e?eoa?ee i?i/iinoe (a iniiaa eioi?iai eciaiaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo iaoyaeaiee e yia?aee n o/aoii ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee yeaeo?e/aneeo ca?yaeia a iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiuo oae e naycaiiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo ca?yaeia a aeeyeaeo?eeao. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiu ecaanoiua e?eoa?ee i?i/iinoe (Eaiaea?a-Aanoaoaea, Iieeeiaa, Eiioi?iaie-O?aieaey) n o/aoii iiauo yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa oae. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia aeaieiiai yeaeo?e/anei-ai neiy ia iiaa?oiinoe yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiiai oaa?aeiai oaea (a oii /enea e eoeiiianeiai aa?uea?a), eioi?ia iaoiaeeony a iayeaeo?ii?iaiaeiie e yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiie n?aaea. N iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey inouanoaeai aiaeec oeceei–iaoaie/aneeo naienoa /oanoaeoaeueiuo yeaiaioia oa?iiia?u WRe5–WRe20. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoea eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia ninoiy-iey, iaoneiaeaiiua enia?aieai aieueo?aia, aieaa cia/eoaeueii aeeytho ia eciaiaiea oa?iiyeaeo?iaeaeaeouae neeu, /ai niioaaonoaothuea eciaiaiey, aucaaiiua ?aaeeaoeeiiiuie aeaoaeoaie. Ia iniiaa au/eneeoaeueiiai yenia?eiaioa n o/aoii niioiioaiee iiaie oa?iiaeeiaie/aneie iiaeaee inouanoaeai aiaeec i?ea?aie/iuo ?ani?aaeaea-iee yeaeo?e/aneeo ca?yaeia e iai?yaeaiee a eiioaeoe?othueo nenoaiao “oaa?aeia yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiia oaei – aeeaeeee iaoaee” , “oaa?aeue aeeyeaeo?ee – oaa?aeue aeeyeaeo?ee”, a ie?anoiinoe iaaeoaciuo iiaa?oiinoae eioi?uo iiaoo auoue ?aaeeaoeeiiiua aeaoaeou. Iaiauaiu aiaeeoe/aneea niioiioa-iey, eioi?ua naycuaatho iaaeoaciia iaoyaeaiea e ?aaioo aaeaacee n iiaa?oiinoiuie iaoyaeaieyie eiioaeoe?othueo iaeo/aiiuo oae. N iiiiuueth ?an/aoia onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?aaeaeueiua cia/aiey caaenyuae io ?acia?ia ninoaaeythuae iai?yaeaiee ecaeaaaiuo noaeeyiiuo noa?aeiae yaeythony ooieoeeae yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa ei?e ii?aaeaeaiiii cia/aiee nei?inoe i?eeiaeaiey iaa?ocee eiatho ieieioi. Aeey noa?e/aneeo e oeeeeiae?e/aneeo ninoaeia ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa caaeneiinoae iaaeaeo aaee/eiaie i?aaeaeueiuo aeaaeaiee, ia eioi?ua aeeyao ?acia?iue yooaeo i?i/iinoe, e e?eaeciie aioo?aiieo iiaa?oiinoae. N iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?iuo i?ia?aii onoaiiaeaiu niioiioaiey iaaeaeo eciaiaieyie iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee e yooaeoeaiie iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee, a oaeaea aaaaeaiiuie a aeaiiie ?aaioa ia?aiao?aie, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho iaoi?oaea naienoaa oaa?aeuo oae. Niioaaonoaothuea aeai?eoiu i?eiaiaiu aeey enneaaeiaaiey iniaaiiinoae ?acia?iiai yooaeoa i?i/iinoe a ia?acoeao noaee 22E n neiiao?e/iuiu aieiauie iaae?acaie i?e ?anoyaeaiee, a oaeaea a ia?acoeao oeoaiiaiai nieaaa AO14 n iaeiei iaae?acii i?e ecaeaa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?aiaa?aaeaiea iii?aaeie ia ieanoe/iinoue ry a aa?oe-iao iaae?acia i?eaiaeeo e caauoaiiui cia/aieyi yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?e-noee iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa, a /anoiinoe, aeey noaee 22E ia 150 %, 43 %, 9 % aieueoeo ii n?aaiaieth n aeaiiuie oi?iuaiiie iaoiaeeee, anee ia?acoeu iaoiaeyony i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 293 K, 258 K, 228 K niioaaonoaaiii. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee aiaae?aiu i?e ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee ioaeeaa oa?iiiiia? e eaca?iuo o?oaie, a oaeaea i?e nicaeaiee auniei /oanoaeoaeue-iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae i?eai?ia e eioi?iaoeeiiii-ecia?eoaeueiuo nenoai. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaa?aeua oaea, yia?aaoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, oa?iiaeeiaieea, iiaa?oiinoue, ?acia?iue yooaeo, e?eoa?ee i?i/iinoe. Yuzevych V. M. Energetic characteristics of surface layers and physical-mechanical properties of solids. – Manuscript. Thesis for a doctor’s degree of physical and mathematical sciences by spe-ciality 01.04.07 – solid state physics. Chernivtsi State University, Chernivtsi, 1999. The thesis contains the theoretical investigations of mechanical and electrical phenomena in the solids with taking into account the surface energy, surface tension, size effect and radiation point defects. It is developed the theory which describes change of the effective surface energy and its parts for the conducting and dielectric bodies with state near to limit of strength and fluidity. The problem of determination the relations between parameters of thermodynamical state and energetic characteristics for surface layers of multicomponent bodies which are under the influence of the particle’s flows, heating, mechanical loading. It is determined that join of the thermodynamical model and criteria relation for limits of strength and fluidity in extremal conditions simplifies the procedure of grounding the experimental data. The industrial introduction of elaborated technologies for annealing of the thermocouples and laser tubes has been carried out. Key words: solids, energetic characteristics, thermodynamic, surface, size effect, strength criteria. ___________________________________________________ I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 23.07.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60 84 1/16 Ae?oe ionaoiee Cai 282 Oe?aae 100 ____________________________________________________ A?aeae?oeiaaii o aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/iiio a?aeae?e? EaOeIOA?

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