2

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Aanni A?eoi? sseiae/

OAeE 591.5+598.112

Aeieoai-a?io?i?/i? iniaeeaino? aca?iiae??

i?oaeei? yu??ee (Lacerta agilis L.) c oaoiiaaiiei na?aaeiaeuai a oiiaao
noaiiaiai I?eaei?i?ia`y

03.00.16 — aeieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ciieia?? oa aeieia?? a?ieiai-iaaee/iiai
?inoeoooo Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee Eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Aoeaoia Aaeaioei Eaiio?eiae/

eaoaae?a ciieia?? oa aeieia??

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo,

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Oea?oeiaa I?ia Ieeiea?aia,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
.

Eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, Eioaiei Oaoyia ?aai?aia, ?inoeooo ciieia??
IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a), noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?a ciieia?? oa aeieia?? oaa?ei
.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “25 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.051.04, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, 320625, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?ia. Iaoeiaee, 13, ei?i. 17, aoae. 611.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 320625, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?ia. Iaoeiaee,
13.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “25 ” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?..

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, e.a.i.
Aeoaeia A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O ca’yceo c ao?oeeaei ?icaeoeii i?iieneiaino? oa
?ioaineaiiai n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aeiaaeueia oaoiiaaiia
caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua aeeeeea? cia/iee ??no iaoieia?e,
ye? aeo?niythoue i?e?iaei? oi?ie oai?ia aeeaeo ?noio. C?inoath/ee aieea
ia o?i?/io aaoa?iaaii?noue a?inoa?e ia? aaea ia i?e?iaeiee
a?iaaio?i?/iee e?oaiia?a, a ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie (Connell, Miller,
1984; Moore, Ramamoorthy, 1984; Ramade, 1987, Nieieia oa ?i., 1988;
Aeooianueeee oa ?i., 1997).

Aea/aiiy aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ia noai iiioeyoe?e oaa?ei, a oaeiae i?ioean?a ?o aaeaioaoe??
ia? ia o?eueee oai?aoe/ia, a e aaeeea i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Oiio a
aeieia?? c eiaeiei ?ieii ana a?eueoa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aea/aiith
aaeaioeaiiai i?enoinoaaiiy a?iia oa eiai ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a aei
aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao, aecia/aiith no?aoaa?/ieo a?oi i?aai?ci?a,
caeaoieo noai?thaaoe aioei?aneiaia? aooa?i? ciie a aeinenoaiao, a oaeiae
??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a a?ieia?/ii? ?iaeeeaoe?? iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, (Aeieiaeeeaoeey…, 1988; Noaiaiia, 1988; E?eaieooeeee,
1991). Oaeei /eiii, noa? iiaeeeaei ioe?ieoe ye noai naieo oaa?eiieo
i?aai?ci?a, oae ? ?o na?aaeiaeua i?iaeeaaiiy.

Aaaee? iaoaee — iaei? c iaeiaaacia/i?oeo aeioieneeaio?a. A?aoiaoth/e, ui
aiie aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo oa?iaio?a, ai?iii?a, i?aiaio?a, a?oai?i?a,
aieeaathoue ia ca’ycee ?IE oa AeIE c a?eeaie, ia neioac i?ioa?i?a,
ia?aaea/o niaaeeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?io? i?ioeane, ci?ia ?o ii?iaeueiiai
neeaaeo a i?aai?ci? oaa?ei aaaea aei cia/ieo iaoieia?e (Ea?iaooia,
Aacien, 1992; Iaeioi?ua aii?inu oiene/iinoe…, 1993).

Ia nueiaiaei? Oe?a?ia caeia? iaeia c ia?oeo i?noeue a ?a?ii? ca
e?euee?noth ae?iaeaieo a?aeoiae?a, 100 iei oii c yeeo oiene/i?
(Aieyanueeee oa ?i., 1995; Aaneeue/aiei, 1997). I?eaei?i?ianueeee ?aa?ii
iaeei c iae?icaeiai?oeo o i?iieneiaiio a?aeiioaii? (Aaa?eiaa oa ?i.,
1996), aea cia/ia caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey aeeeeea? iaaaeaeaaoi? ?aaeoe??
oei?e oa oaoie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieia?/ieo oa o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a
i?aaenoaaey? ?ioa?an aei ?icoi?iiy i?ioean?a, ye? iieyaathoue a iniia?
aaeaioaoe?? oaa?ei aei aio?iiiaaiieo ci?i oiia na?aaeiaeua, oa iaaea?
iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe noai ?o iiioeyoe?e a oiiaao oaoiiaaiiiai
no?ano. E??i oiai, oe? ia?aiao?e, ye iaea?eueo caeaaei? a?ae ??aiy
oaoiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, iiaeooue neoaeeoe a?i?iaeeeaoi?aie
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeinenoai.

I?oaeea yu??ea, Lacerta agilis L., ? oiiiaei aeaeii ieacoi?a
oeaio?aeueiiai noaiiaiai I?eaei?i?ia’y oa Oe?a?ie, aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo
aaaaoueio a?ioeaiic?a. Inoaii? ioiieththoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue
??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?ci?a, ca’ycee c yeeie o i?oaeei? yu??ee neeaaei? ?
oi?ie ?o ??ciiiai?oi?. O aeayeeo a?ioeaiicao, aea /enaeuei?noue i?oaeei?
yu??ee aeoaea aaeeea, cia/aiiy ?? ye eiinoiaioa iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe
aiaeia?/ia cia/aiiy ioao?a oa nnaaoe?a (I?uoeay yua?eoea, 1976).

Aeaia ?iaioa ?icaeaa? oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?cie aaeaioaoe?? aeoioa?iieo
oaa?ei aei eiiieaeniiai o?i?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy a oiiaao i?iieneiaiai
?aa?iio. Iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a aecia/a?oueny
aaaeeea?noth a?i?iaeeeaoe?eieo aeine?ae?a aeey caa?aaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ye
aeinenoai a oe?eiio, oae ? ie?aieo aeae?a, ui iaiiaeeeai aac ?aiiuei?
ae?aaiinoeee o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeinenoai oa iiioeyoe?e.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue
/anoeio aeine?ae?a ca a?aioaie Iiiinoa?noaa Inaioe Oe?aiie (?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0190.0059450 “Aea/eoe no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino? a?ioe i?e?iaeieo oa o?ainoi?iiaaieo aeinenoai, ?ac?iaeoe
i?eioeeie aeieia?/iiai ii?ioaaiiy oaoiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue a oe?eyo
iioei?caoe?? na?aaeiaeua i?iaeeaaiiy aeeaiai”; ? 0296.V006370 “?ic?iaea
cii-aeieia?/ieo iniia ioi?iie, iioei?caoe?? oa a?aeiiaeaiiy i?e?iaeieo
aeinenoai a oiiaao iineeaiiai oaoiiaaiiiai i?ano”; ? 0197.V000680
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae
ciioeaiico ye aeaiaioa nenoai ? ?ic?iaea oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aiiainoaco
a?ieia?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo eiiieaen?a oa iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oiiaao i?iieneiaiai noaiiaiai I?eaei?i?ia’y”) oa ca
a?aioaie AeEIO Oe?a?ie (?6.2/43 “?ic?iaea eiiieaenii?
aeieiai-aiioiii/ii? ioeiiee noaio oaa?ei a oiiaao aieeao oaoiiaaiieo
oaeoi?ia ia oa?eoi?i? Iiaaeaiii-Noiaeii? Oe?a?ie”; ?6.3/274
“Ianoaaieueiee noai aaeaino aaaeeeo iaoaeia o oaa?ei a oiiaao
oaoiiaaiiiai oeneo: aiiaeinooiiinoue, i?ioeane iiaeeiaiiy, iiaeoeaieiiee
o?ainoa?, aeoioeyoeiy oa aeaaaeaiiy”).

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Aieiaiith iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ?
c’ynoaaiiy no/aniiai noaio iiioeyoe?e i?oaeei? yu??ee c ??ciiiai?oieo ca
nooiaiai oaoiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeinenoai, aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
aaeaioaoe?? aeaeo aei aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a oa aecia/aiiy iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai aeaeo ye iiaeaeueiiai ia’?eoa aeey ii??aiyeueiiai
iii?oi?eiao iiioeyoe?e, a?ioanooaaiiy noaio ciioeaiico oa a?i?iaeeeaoe??
a?iaaioeaiic?a ??ciiai noaio caa?oaeiaiiy.

Aeaia ?iaioa ia?aaeaa/a? aeieia?/io ioe?ieo i?oaeei? yu??ee ye ia’?eoa
aeioieneeieia?/ieo oa cii?iaeeeaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao Oe?a?ie,
yea a?aecia/a?oueny aaeeeei ??ciiiai?ooyi ye a?iaaio?i?/ieo oiia, oae ?
aeinenoai ??ciiai nooiaith oaoiiaaiiiai aieeao.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai iaie aoee noi?ioeueiaai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe aeieiai-iiioeyoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oaeei? yu??ee c
??ciiiai?oieo ca nooiaiai oaoiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?iaaioeaiic?a.

2. I?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? a?iaeoioeyoe?? aaaeeeo iaoae?a a i?aai?ci?
i?oaeei? yu??ee a oiiaao eiiieaeniiai i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy
na?aaeiaeua ?o i?iaeeaaiiy.

3. Aea/eoe aeaye? o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? ?aaeoe?? aeaiiai aeaeo ieacoi?a
ia no?ani?iee aieea oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy.

4. Aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? aieeao eaaei?th ye i??i?eoaoiiai caa?oaeithaa/a
ia a?io?i?/i? iieacieee aeaiiai aeaeo a iiaeaeueieo oiiaao aenia?eiaioo.

5. Ioe?ieoe iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeieiai-a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a
noaio iiioeyoe?e i?oaeei? yu??ee aeey a?i?iaeeeaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue
oa a nenoai? a?iiii?oi?eiao aeey aecia/aiiy noaio ye ciioeaiico, oae ?
iacaiieo aeinenoai acaaae?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aea/ai? a?io?i?/i?
iieacieee i?oaeei? yu??ee a i?e?iaeieo oiiaao i?iaeeaaiiy. Aecia/aia
?aaeoe?y i?oaeei? yu??ee ia oaoiiaaiio o?ainoi?iaoe?th aeinenoai ye ia
iiioeyoe?eiiio, oae ? ia i?aai?ciaiiiio ??ai?. I?iaiae?ciaaii ci?ie, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny ia ??ai? aeayeeo a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a o aeaiiai aeaeo
a oiiaao o?i?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy, a naia, a neeaae? caaaeueiiai a?eea,
e?i?ae?a oa ?o o?aeoe?e, ioeea?iiaeo eeneio e iiiiien?aaiac ?c ci?oaiith
ooieoe??th — oeeoio?ii?a ?-450 oa b5.

Io?eiai? aeai? i?i a?iaeoioeyoe?th aaaeeeo iaoae?a a ??cieo i?aaiao oa
oeaieiao i?oaeei? yu??ee a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeinenoai
aoaeaaeiaoaiith i?iieneia?noth ? eiiieaeniiai caa?oaeiaiiy na?aaeiaeua
i?iaeeaaiiy aeeeaeaie o?i?/ieo oa iaoaeo?a?eieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui i?e o?ii?/i?e ?ioieneeaoe?? eaaei??i,
ye iaeiei c i??i?eoaoieo caa?oaeithaa/?a, a?aeaoaathoueny cia/i? ci?ie a
iai?i? a?ee?a oa ioeea?iiaeo eeneio. I?e oeueiio a?aaeathoueny nenoaie
aeaoieneeaoe?? ia/?iee, i?i ui na?ae/eoue ci?ia e?eueeino?
i?e?iniiaeueieo oa?iaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeaii? ?iaioe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a a?i?iaeeeaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
caa?oaeiaiiy aeinenoai aaaeeeie iaoaeaie ia o?eueee noaiiaiai
I?eaei?i?ia’y, a ? Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio, a nenoai? ?aa?iiaeueiiai
a?iiii?oi?eiao, i?e i?iaaaeaii? aeieia?/ii? ioe?iee iane?aee?a
oaoiiaaiieo caa?oaeiaiue aeinenoai ??ciiai nooiaith aio?iiiaaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe??, aeey a?ioanooaaiiy oa ioe?iee no/aniiai noaio iiioeyoe?e
ieacoi?a a ??cieo aeinenoaiao oa eiai i?iaiicoaaiiy.

Aeai? i?i noai iiioeyoe?e i?oaeei? yu??ee aeei?enoai? o nenoai?
a?iiii?oi??iao Aei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeiai i?e?iaeiiai caiia?aeieea.
Iaoa??aee, io?eiai? i?e aeeiiaii? aeaii? ?iaioe, oa?eoee aei i?ia?ai
caaaeueieo oa niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a, ye? aeeeaaeathoueny o
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iieueiaee a?aea?? iaoa??aeo oa eiai
ia?iaea, i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo, o?i?/i? aiae?ce oa
iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a c?iaeaii iniaenoi aeena?oaioii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia: 2-e ?a?iiaenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c
aeioieneeieia?? (Ainoa?aeai, 1992), Oeaio?aeueii-No?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo
eiioa?aioe?yo SECOTOX (Ii?aaea-Eiaeoaiee, Iieueoa, 1993 ? TH?iaea,
1997), 2-io oa 3-io Anana?oi?o aa?iaoieia?/ieo eiia?anao (Aaeaea?aea,
1994 oa I?aaa, 1997), ?a?iiaenueeiio neiiic?oi? EERO c ioe?iee o?i?/iiai
?eceeo (Iineaa, 1994), 3-e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c a?iaaio?i??
i?e?iaeaiaio?a (Ia?eae, 1995), 6-io I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? c niieoe
iaoae?a o iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu? oa aeeoo? (THe?o, I?ia//eia, 1995),
EERO-USAID neiiic?oi? c aeieia?/ii? o?i?? (Eeoei?a, 1995), 4
?a?iiaenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? SECOTOX (Iaooe, 1996), 9-e eiioa?aioe??
?a?iiaenueeiai Aa?iaoieia?/iiai Oiaa?enoaa (Ea Ao?aea, O?aioe?y, 1998),
8-io I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? c oieneeieia?? (Ia?eae, 1998).1-e, 2-e oa
3-e I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo c no?eeiai ?icaeoeo (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1995, Naaanoiiieue, 1996, Caii??aeaey, 1998), 1-io I?aeia?iaeiiio
neiiic?oi? «Cii?iaeeeaoe?y ? aeioieneeieia?y oaa?ei a oiiaao
oaoiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooo» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1993), 4-e I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? «O?aioe?y oa Oe?a?ia» (Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1996),
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 100-??//th caiia?aeaiiy
aneai?eneiai noaio (Aneai?y-Iiaa, 1998), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
”Ieoaiiy aiiiiaeeeaoeii i aeieiaii” (Caii?iaeaey, 1998), 7-e Ananithci?e
aa?iaoieia?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (Ee?a, 1989), Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe??
«Aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ioi?iie aeeai? i?e?iaee» (Iineaa, 1990),
Ananithci?e oeie? «I?iaeaie no?eeino? a?ieia?/ieo nenoai» (Naaanoiiieue,
1990), 6-e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeae oa eiai i?iaeoeoeai?noue a a?aae?»
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1993), eiioa?aioe?? «O?aai?caoe?y ye oaeoi? ci?i
a?iaaioeaiioe/iiai iie?eao» (Eueaia, 1994), eiioa?aioe?? «Aeieia?y oa
?iaeaia??y» (Aeiii?iaeca?aeeinuee, 1996), II Anaoe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ooiaeaiaioaeueii? aeieia??” (E?eaee ??a, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 36 i?aoeue, 17 c yeeo
naiino?ei?. Aeai? oa aeniiaee, ye? noinothoueny i?oaeei? yu??ee oa
iaaaaeai? o ?iaioao iioae?eiaaieo c? ni?aaaoi?aie, iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi
aeena?oaioo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 150 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo; aiia neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 8 ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? ai?uo? 24 oaaeeoe? oa 12 iaethie?a. Aei
nieneo e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/aii 257 iaca, c yeeo 94 ia ?iicaiieo iiaao.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi ?ice?eaa? nooi?noue ? noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, iaa?oioiao?
aeooaeuei?noue, iaoo oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

AIEEA caA?OAeIAIiy AeIAE?EEss IA OAA?EI (iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e)

A ?icae?e? i?eaiaeeoueny iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo c aeieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae i?oaeei? yu??ee. Iieacaii, ui oeae aeae oe?iei
?aniianthaeaeaiee a Oe?a?i?, a?i ? oiiiaei aeaeii aaaaoueio
a?iaaioeaiic?a (Ua?aae, 1966, Eioaiei, 1987, 1993). I?aaenoaaeai?
iaoa??aee c a?ieia?/ii? ?ie? aaaeeeo iaoae?a a i?aai?ci? oaa?ei oa ?o
aeioieneeieia?/ii? iaaaciaee i?e oaoiiaaiiiio caa?oaeiaii? na?aaeiaeua.
Iaaiaeyoueny aeai? c aieeao caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey ia aa?iaoioaoio.
Iieacaii, ui cia/ia e?euee?noue aeine?ae?a aeeiiaia ia aio?a?yo. Aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ieacoie a oeueiio a?aeiioaii? iaeaea ia
aea/ai?. A?eueo?noue iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue i?enay/aii aieeao
aeioieneeaio?a i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia /a?aiao oa e?ieiaeee?a.
E?euee?noue ?ia?o c aieeao caa?oaeiaiiy ia yu??ie iaaeinoaoiy (Oa?uaei,
1983, 1986, 1988, Avery et al., 1983). A ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny
iniaeeaino? iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a (iai?io a?ee?a, e?i?ae?a oa
ioeea?iiaeo eeneio) a ii?i? oa i?e iaoieia??, iieacaii o?c?ieia?/ia
cia/aiiy iaia?aiii-ca’ycaii? iiiiieneaaiacii? nenoaie oeeoio?iio ?-450 o
oaa?ei. Caeeoathoueny ia c’yniaaieie ieoaiiy aeieiai-iiioeyoe?eieo oa
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e ieacoi?a ia oaoiiaaiio o?ainoi?iaoe?th
a?iaaioeaiic?a oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey a?i?iaeeeaoe?? caa?oaeiaiiy
aeinenoai.

O?ceei-aaia?ao?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?AEIIO aeine?aeaeaiue

?aeii aeine?aeaeaiue ?acoaoiaaiee ia oa?eoi??? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?
iaeano? ? aoiaeeoue aei i?e?iaeii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai eiiieaeno, yeee
i?eeyaa? aei ??ee Aei?i?i ? a?aeiineoueny aei i?ai?/ii? i?aeciie ciie
ni?aaaeiueiai noaio. A ?icae?e? iienai? ee?iao, aaieia?y, aaiii?oieia?y,
?aeue?o, a?oioiaee iie?ea, ?ineeii?noue oa oaa?eiia ianaeaiiy ?aeiio
aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaaaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo ae?eyiie, aea i?iaiaeeeenue
aeine?aeaeaiiy: ia I?enaia?nueeiio i?aeia?iaeiiio a?inoa?iiio
noaoe?iia?? ? Aei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeiio i?e?iaeiiio caiia?aeieeo, ye?
?icaeyaeathoueny, ye iaeio?ainoi?iiaai? a?iaaioeaiice, oa ia oa?eoi???
i?eeaae?e aei oaoo Cao?aeiiai Aeiiaano oa a cii? eiiieaeniiai
i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy a?aeoiaeaie o?i?/ieo oa iaoaeo?a?eieo
i?aei?e?inoa i.Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueea.

IAOA??AE ? IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Iaoa??ae i?aaenoaaeaiee a aeai?e ?iaio? c?a?aii a ia??iae c 1989 ii 1998
?. o neeaae? eiiieaenieo aeniaaeeoe?e Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo oa IAe? a?ieia?? AeAeO. Iae?e /enaeueiino? oaa?ei
i?iaaaeaii ia o?ainaeoao ca iaoiaeii Ae?ianiaia, Eaeaoeueei? (1952).
Aiae?c ii?oio?c?ieia?/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a i?iaiaeeany ca noaiaea?oiith
iaoiaeeeith (Oaa?oe oa ?i., 1968). Aeey ioe?iee noaio iaoaaie?cio
i?oaeei? yu??ee c ??cieo ca nooiaiai oaoiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
a?iaaioeaiic?a aeine?aeaeaii ai?no a ??cieo i?aaiao oa oeaieiao a?eeo,
e?i?ae?a oa ?o o?aeoe?e, ioeea?iiaeo eeneio oa oeeoio?ii?a ?-450 ? b5.
Aecia/aiiy i?iaiaeeeinue ca noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie. E?euee?noue a?eeo
aecia/aeanue niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ii, c aeei?enoaiiyi a?o?aoiaiai ?aaeoeao
(I?aeoeeoi…, 1989). Ai?no e?i?ae?a aecia/aany ca iaoiaeii Eaaa?a
(Eo/a?aiei, Aaneeueaaa, 1985). ?iciiae?e e?i?aeii? aeoyaeee ii o?aeoe?yo
iiaaaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith oiieioa?iai? o?iiaoia?ao?? (Neaei?ia oa ?i.,
1981) ia noaiaea?oieo ieanoeiao “Silufor” o??ie “Kavalier”. Aiae?c ieyi
i?iaiaeeany ca aeiiiiiaith aeaineoiiao?o AeI-1I. Aeno?aeoe?y oa
niaeo?ioiiao?e/ia aecia/aiiy ioeea?iiaeo eeneio i?iaiaeeeeny ca
noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie (Aa?aeuoaa, Aac?oeiaa, 1981). Aecia/aiiy
ai?noo aaaeeeo iaoae?a aeeiiaii iaoiaeii aoiiii-aani?aoe?eii?
niaeo?ioioiiao??? ia AAS-30 (Carl Zeiss) (Oaaacia, Oeaeaa, 1983).
E?euee?noue oeeoio?ii?a ?-450 oa b5 aecia/aeanue a i?e?iniiaeuei?e
o?aeoe?? ia/?iee i?oaeei? yu??ee ca ae?oa?aioe?eiei niaeo?ii iiaeeiaiiy
a oeueo?ao?ieaoia?e iaeano? (Nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu…, 1977). Noaoenoe/ia
ia?iaea i?iaiaeeeanue ca noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie (Eaeei, 1990) ia
eiiiuethoa?? IBM PC/AT 486 a iaeao? i?ia?ai “Statistica 4.3 for Windows”
(Statsoft Inc., 1993).

Aeieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iiioeyoe?e i?oaeei? yu??ee c a?iaaioeaiic?a
??ciiai nooiaiy oaoiiaaiii?

o?ainoi?iaoe??

Aea/aiiy /enaeueiino? aeaeo ? eeth/iaei iiiaioii ye aeey aecia/aiiy eiai
a?iiane, oae ? aeey aecia/aiiy i?noey aeaeo a a?iaaioeaiicao, i?yii
iia’ycaii c i?ciaiiyi i?e?iaaiethoe?eieo i?ioean?a ona?aaeei? aeaeo.
Iaeiae, aecia/aiiy /enaeueiino? ie?aieo iiioeyoe?e, ia?o ca ana,
aeyaey?oueny iia’ycaiei c anoaiiaeaiiyi iaae iiioeyoe?e. A ca’yceo c
oeei, o aeaiiio aeine?aeaeai? aeei?enoiao?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea
«a?aeiinia u?euei?noue iiioeyoe??» (Naiaiia, Oaia?io, 1992)

Ca aeaieie, io?eiaieie ia i?ee?ioe? /a?aiy — ii/aoeo eeiiy, iiioeyoe??
i?oaeei? yu??ee, ye? caeiathoue a?aii? a?iaaioeaiice Naia?nueeiai e?no
oa Aei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeiai caiia?aeieea, ia aeine?aeaeoaaieo
ae?eyieao oa?aeoa?ecothoueny na?aaeiueith a?aeiiniith u?euei?noth
iinaeaiiy 16-20 aec/oen.i2. A cii? i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy
(i.Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee) u?euei?noue iinaeaiiy i?oaeei? yu??ee aeinyaa?
eeoa 3-5 aec/oen.i2. Iiioeyoe??, ye? ianaeythoue oaoiiaaii? aeinenoaie a
cii? oaooieo a?aeaae?a Cao?aeiiai Aeiiaano, iae?/othoue 2-3 aec/oen.i2.
Iniaeeai ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ia ae?eyioe? e?niai? ?aeoeueoeaaoe??
u?euei?noue iiioeyoe?? aeinyaa? 11-13 aec/oen.i2.

Aiae?c ??/ii? aeeiai?ee u?eueiino? iinaeaiiy i?oaeei? yu??ee a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?noeyo ia?aaoaaiiy iieacaa, ui, yeui a a?iaaioeaiicao
I?enaia?’y oa Aei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeiai caiia?aeieea eiaei? 4-5 ?ie?a
niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy /enaeueiino? oaa?ei, c iine?aeoth/ei
caeiiii??iei ?? cieaeaiiyi, oi a aio?iiiaaiii o?ainoi?iiaaieo
a?iaaioeaiicao ciie i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy oa ae?eyiie Cao?aeiiai
Aeiiaano oaeiai i?aeaeuaiiy /enaeueiino? ia a?aeaoaa?oueny.

Aea/aiiy ?ici??ii-aaaiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee iieacaei, ui iaea?eueo?
?ici??ii-aaaia? iieacieee iathoue oaa?eie c Naia?nueeiai e?no (6,9-9,3
ni, 7,7-20,3 a), a iaeiaio? – yu??ee, ye? caeiathoue a?ioiie ciie
i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy (5,5-8,5 ni, 5,3-12,9 a). Aecia/aii, ui a cii?
i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ia cnoaaiiy noaoaai?
no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?? a a?e ia?aaaae naiie. Ca aeaieie aaaaoi??/ieo
iae?e?a naiee a oe?e iiioeyoe?? neeaaeathoue 61,3 %, a ieiaeth/?noue
i?aeaeuaia ia 10% ii??aiyii c iiioeyoe?yie I?enaia?’y oa caiia?aeieea,
ui iiaea aooe iaeiei c aaeaioeaieo iaoai?ci?a ia iiioeyoe?eiiio ??ai?,
yeee i?iyaey?oueny a oiiaao ?ioaineaiiai o?i?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy. A
iiioeyoe?yo iaeio?ainoi?iiaaieo a?iaaioeaiic?a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noaoae
aeecueei 1:1.

Aiae?c iiiiaiaiiy iieiaeaeth aeaieo iiioeyoe?e na?ae/eoue, ui
iaea?eueoith u?euei?noth iinaeaiiy oeueiaie?oie (e?iaoe na?iiy — ii/aoie
aa?aniy) oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?aii? a?iaaioeaiice I?enaia?’y (110
aec/oen.i2) oa Aei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeiai caiia?aeieea (aei 96
aec/oen.i2), a iaeiaioith — ciia i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy
i.Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueea (29 aec/oen.i2). Ia oaooieo a?aeaaeao Cao?aeiiai
Aeiiaano oeueiaie?oee ia cono??/athoueny, a oie /an ye ia ae?eyioe?
e?niai? ?aeoeueo?aaoe?? ?o u?euei?noue aeinyaa? 51 aec/oen.i2.
?ici??ii-aaaia? iieacieee oeueiaie?oie aeyaeeenue iaeieae/eie a cii?
i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy.

AI?NO AAAEEEO iaoae?a a i?aai?ci? i?OAeei? yu??EE c ??CIEO i?nOeue
ia?aaoaaiIss

Iaie aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa i?ine?aeeoe aeieth aaaeeeo iaoae?a (Fe, Mn,
Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd), ye? iio?aieee aei o?aaiiai o?aeoo ?acii c ?aeath. I?i
?ioaineai?noue ?o anenaiiy iiaeii noaeeoe, ii??aithth/e neeaae aeaieo
aeaiaio?a o ai?no? ??cieo ae?eyiie o?aaiiai o?aeoo: oeoieo oa eeoa/ieea.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i ?ica?aeiino? a e?eueeino? aaaeeeo
iaoae?a o ai?no? oeoieo oa eeoa/ieea i?ae noaoyie a iiioeyoe?yo. Oae, a
iiioeyoe?? Aei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeiai caiia?aeieea o ai?no? oeoieo o
naioe?a naeioeth oa eaaei?th a 1,2 ?ac?a a?eueoa, a oeeieo oa i?ae?
iaioa, i?ae o ai?no? oeoieo o naiie. E?euee?noue iaoae?a o ai?no?
eeoa/ieea ia? iaioa noaoaaeo ?ica?aeiinoae. Iaeiae, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe,
ui ai?no eaaei?th a 1,4 ?ac?a a?eueoa o naiie.

A iiioeyoe??, yea iaoea? a cii? i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy, aoei
aeyaeaii, ui ai?no an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaoae?a, ie??i eaaei?th, aoa
aeua a o?aai?e a?oaei/oe? oeoieo naiie (naeioeth, i?ae? oa cae?ca a 1,4
?ac?a, oeeieo — a 1,5 ?aca oa ia?aaioeth a 1,2 ?aca). Oaea ae
caeiiii??i?noue niinoa??aa?oueny ? i?e aiae?c? ai?noo eeoa/ieea.
A??ia?aeieo ?ica?aeiinoae o ai?no? eaaei?th, ye o oeoieo, oae ? a
eeoa/ieeo i?ae noaoyie a oe?e iiioeyoe?? ia niinoa??aa?oueny.
Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c i?ae iiioeyoe?yie iieacaa, ui iaeaea an?
aeine?aeaeai? iaoaee a a?eueo?e e?eueeino? i?enooi? o ai?no? oeoieo
(ie??i i?ae?) oa eeoa/ieeo oaa?ei c ciie i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy.
Iniaeeai yne?aai oe? ?ica?aeiino? i?iyaeythoueny o ai?no? eaaei?th oa
naeioeth. Oae, a oeoieao yu??ie c ciie caa?oaeiaiiy eaaei?th a?eueoa a
3,8-3,9 ?ace, a naeioeth a 3,5-5,9 ?ace.

Caeiaoo? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i ?ioaineai?noue i?ioean?a anenaiiy aaaeeeo
iaoae?a a eeoa/ieeo. A aene?aiaioao iaoae?a a 1,2-4,5 ?ac?a iaiueoa,
i?ae o ai?no? eeoa/ieea, aei oiai ae oiene/i? eaaei?e oa naeiaoeue
anenathoueny ?ioaineai?oa a?iaaiieo aeaiaio?a.

A?aecia/aii, ui a aene?aiaioao yu??ie c ciie i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy
an? iaoaee, ca aeeeth/aiiyi i?ae?, i?noyoueny a a?eueo?e e?eueeino?,
i?ae a aene?aiaioao oaa?ei c caiia?aeieea. Oae eaaei?th a ieo a?eueoa a
3,7-5,9 ?ac?a, a naeioeth a 2,1-2,4 ?ace.

Iaie i?iaiae?ciaaii iaeiie/aiiy aaaeeeo iaoae?a a ie?eao, ia/?ioe?,
i’ycao, oe??? oa e?noeao i?oaeei? yu??ee c ??cieo ca nooiaiai
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeinenoai. Ciaeaeaii, ui oeeie, naeiaoeue oa eaaei?e, a a
oiiaao o?i?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy ua ? ia?aaiaoeue a iaea?eueo?e e?eueeino?
iaeiie/othoueny a ie?eao oaa?ei.

Aoei aeyaeaii, ui a ia/?ioe? o yu??ie c a?iaaioeaiic?a ciie caa?oaeiaiiy
i?e?iaeaiaioe iaeiie/othoueny a cia/i?e i???. A ia/?ioe? naioe?a c
i?iieneiai? ciie naeioeth a 6,7, eaaei?th a 5,7, oeeieo a 1,2 oa i?ae? a
2,7 ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae o naioe?a c caiia?aeieea. O naiie oey
caeaaei?noue ae?aaea?oueny a 4,7-, 6-, 1,2- , 4,9-e?aoiiio i?aeaeuaii?,
a?aeiia?aeii.

Ai?no oiene/ieo eaaei?th oa naeioeth o yu??ie c i?iieneiaeo ?aa?ii?a
Cao?aeiiai Aeiiaano aeua, i?ae o a?ioiiao I?enaia?’y (a 1,4-6,3 ?ace).

A aiiaaeao naioe?a yu??ie c ciie i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy ai?no
ia?aaioeth a 3,8, i?ae? 5,7, a naeioeth oa eaaei?th a 1,9 ?ac?a a?eueoa,
i?ae o naioe?a c Aei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeiai caiia?aeieea. Aeey naiie
oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy neeaei 1,4, 6,8, 1,8 oa 2,0 ?ace, a?aeiia?aeii. Oaea
i?aeaeuaiiy e?eueeino? iaoae?a a noaoaaeo caeicao iiaea aieeiooe ia
ye?noue oa e?euee?noue aaiao, ye? ooai?ththoueny, ui aieeia ia i?ioeane
a?aeoai?aiiy iiioeyoe??.

Iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe, ui iaoaee, iia’ycai? a niieo/i?e oeaiei? aee?iaeo
o?eaoeue, aeeeth/ai? c iai?io niieoe. AEe?ia? o?eueoey a oeueiio
aeiaaeeo aenooiathoue nai???aeieie «ie?eaie iaeiie/aiiy» ?, iiaeeeai,
yaeythoue niaith iaeei c aaeaioaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a, niaoeeo?/ieo aeey
ieacoi?a a oiiaao caa?oaeiaiiy na?aaeiaeua i?iaeeaaiiy iaoaeaie. A
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy, a aee?iaeo o?eueoeyo yu??ie c caa?oaeiaiii? ae?eyiee
cia/ii c?inoa? ai?no aaaeeeo iaoae?a: cae?ca a 3,8-10,1, ia?aaioeth a
10,3-15,6, i?ae? a 7,4-29,7, oeeieo a 15,8-25,6, naeioeth a 7,3-7,5, oa
eaaei?th a 12,7-17,2 ?ac?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae noao? oaa?ei.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ai?noo iaoae?a, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue, a yeoeyo
i?oaeei? yu??ee iieacaa, ui ?o e?euee?noue cia/ii ieae/a ca ai?no a
aiiaaeao oa aee?iaeo o?eueoeyo. Iaeiae, ?niothoue ?aca?aeiino? a
iaeiie/aii? aaaeeeo iaoae?a a yeoeyo yu??ie c a?iaaioeaiic?a
caiia?aeieea oa c ?iiaeoii? ciie, yea i?eeyaa? aei o?i?/iiai oa
iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiiieaen?a. Oae, naeioeth a yeoeyo yu??ie c ciie
caa?oaeiaiiy a?eueoa a 10,2 ?ace.

OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeAssEEO ii?oio?c?ieia?/ieo oa a?io?i?/ieo

iieaciee?a i?oaeei? yu??ee

Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui o oaa?ei a cii? i?iieneiaiai
caa?oaeiaiiy i?aeaeuo?oueny ?iaeaen ia/?iee oa naeac?iee (aei 1,7
?ac?a). Ci?ith?oueny naciiia aeeiai?ea ?iaeaeno aee?iaeo o?eaoeue,
aiiaae oa ie?ie. Caiani? ?a/iaeie, ye? neiioeaio?iaai? a aee?iaeo
o?eueoeyo c ?icaeoeii aiiaae o yu??ie iiai?noth aeo?a/athoueny, ui ?
niinoa??aa?oueny o oaa?ei c caiia?aeieea (1,10,3 , n=27). Iaeiae, o
yu??ie c caa?oaeiaieo i?noeue ia?aaoaaiiy oeae iieaciee cia/ii aeuee (o
naiie a 3,9 ?ace). Oea iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i cia/io iio?aao caianieo
?a/iaei aeey ?icaeoeo a?eueoi? e?eueeino? y?oeue. I?aeaeuaiee a 4,7
?ac?a ?iaeaen aiiaae o naiie c ciie caa?oaeiaiiy ii??aiyii c naieaie c
caiia?aeieea iiaea a?aeaeaaoe c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? y?oeue, ye?
oi?iothoueny o naiie a oiiaao caaino?aiiy iio?aae a a?aeoai?thaaii?
iiioeyoe??.

Aea/aiiy ?ici??ii? aeeiai?ee ii?oio?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a iieacaei, ui
o yu??ie c caiia?aeieea ?iaeaen ia/?iee ii aeinyaiaiith iaeneiaeueieo
?ici???a cieaeo?oueny a ii??aiyii? c oaa?eiaie iaioeo ?ici???a. A oiiaao
aieeao ?ioaineaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy a?aeiinia aaaa ia/?iee c i?aeaeuaiiyi
?ici???a oaa?eie c?inoa? ? ia?aaeuo? a ?acoeueoao? oeae iieaciee o
yu??ie c caiia?aeieea a 1,5 ?ace, ui iaoiiaeaii c?inoath/eie iio?aaaie a
aeaoieneeaoe?? enaiia?ioee?a.

Aiae?c ai?noo a?eea oa caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a o i?oaeei? yu??ee c ??cieo
i?noeue ia?aaoaaiiy iieacaa, ui a ia/?ioe? oaa?ei c iiioeyoe?? ciie
i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy ai?no a?eeo aoa o?ioe aeuee eeoa o naioe?a o
ii??aiyii? c iiioeyoe?yie caiia?aeieea oa I?enaia?’y.

O i?oaeei? yu??ee c ciie caa?oaeiaiiy ciaeaeaii a??ia?aeia i?aeaeuaiiy
ai?noo a?ee?a a oe??? a 1,5-2,3 ?ace a ii??aiyii? c yu??eaie c «oiiaii
/enoeo» a?iaaioeaiic?a. E??i oiai, a?aecia/aia a?eueo i?ae aeaie?aoia
cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? a?eeo a ie?eao iiaea aooe na?ae/aiiyi aeeno?io??
inoaii?o. A oeueiio ?ac? oae? aeioieneeaioe, ye aaaee? iaoaee, ia
aeaiaeyoueny a aeinoaoi?e i??? c ?ic/eiieie a?eeiaeie eiiieaenaie /a?ac
ie?ee oa iiaeooue ca’ycoaaoenue a ia?ic/eii? eiiieaene a oe???, ui
coiiaeth? i?aeaeuaiiy e?eueeino? a?eeo a oe?e oeaiei?. Ai?no a?eeo a
i’ycao oa aiiaaeao o yu??ie c caa?oaeiaiii? ciie ieae/ee a 1,2-5,3 ?ace.
A cii? caa?oaeiaiiy i?aeaeuo?oueny ai?no e?i?ae?a a ia/?ioe?, i’ycao ? o
naioe?a a aiiaaeao.Oaeei /eiii, a i?aai?ci? oaa?ei a oiiaao i?iieneiaiai
caa?oaeiaiiy a?aeaoaathoueny aecia/ai? aaeaioaoe?ei? i?ioeane. Ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe aenieo ?aaaaioi?noue e?i?ae?a ia oaeoi?e i?iieneiaiai
caa?oaeiaiiy, iaoaaie?/iee cnoa a a?e aia?aaoe/iiai iai?io, iaea?eueoo
noaa?euei?noue oeeo iieaciee?a o naioe?a yu??ie.

I?ae aieeaii i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia o?aeoe?eiiai
neeaaeo e?i?ae?a oaa?ei. E?euee?noue oinoie?i?ae?a cieaeo?oueny a
ia/?ioe?, oe???, eaaaiyo a 1,2-1,9 ?ace, oiaoi a i?aaiao, ye? iaaeothoue
c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai (oe??a oa eaaai?) oa cae?eniththoue i?ioean
aeaoieneeaoe?? (ia/?iea), ui iiaea aooe a?aeia?aaeaiiyi ii?ooaiiy
aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino. E?euee?noue oieanoa?eio i?aeaeuo?oueny a
ia/?ioe?, oe???, eaaaiyo oa ie?eao yu??ie c ciie caa?oaeiaiiy o
ii??aiyii? c oaa?eiaie c caiia?aeieea. Ine?eueee oieanoa?ei, ye ?
oinoie?i?aee, aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo ee?oeiieo iaia?ai oa oaeiae aecia/a?
?o i?iieeeea?noue, o?aiey?oueny ci?ia aeanoeainoae ieaciaoe/ieo iaia?ai
ee?oei ye ?aaeoe?y ia ae?th enaiia?ioee?a.

E?euee?noue o?eae?oea?eae?a oa ao???a oieanoa?eio, ye? ? aeaea?aeii
aia?a?? a ee?oeiao, cieaeaia a ??ciiiai?oieo i?aaiao oa oeaieiao o
yu??ie c ciie caa?oaeiaiiy a 1,8-20,9 ?ac?a o ii??aiyii? c yu??eaie c
caiia?aeieea. Iaaii, oea a?aeia?aaea? aenie? aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe oaa?ei
a oiiaao caa?oaeiaiiy.

Iineeaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a iiaea i?ecaiaeeoe aei aeoeaaoe?? neioaco
ioeea?iiaeo eeneio oa a?ee?a (Iaa?nii, 1981). Ca?aeii c io?eiaieie
aeaieie iiaeia a?aecia/eoe oaiaeaioe?th aei c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ?IE a
1,2-2,6 ?ac?a o aeayeeo i?aaiao oa oeaieiao i?oaeei? yu??ee c ciie
i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy a ii??aiyi? c oaa?eiaie c a?ioii?a «oiiaii
/enoi?» ciie. O naiie yu??ie oea iniaeeai yne?aai aeyaey?oueny a
ia/?ioe?, a o naioe?a — a oe??? oa i’ycao.

Iniaeeaei niaoeeo?/iei iieacieeii ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?IE/AeIE a i?aaiao
oa oeaieiao oaa?ei, yea iiaea a cia/i?e i??? na?ae/eoe i?i
o?aine?eioe?eio aeoeai?noue aaiiia. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?IE/AeIE c?inoa? a
ia/eioe? o oaa?ei c caa?oaeiaieo a?iaaioeaiic?a o ii??aiyii? c yu??eaie
caiia?aeieea. O naiie c ciie caa?oaeiaiiy o?aine?eioe?eia aeoeai?noue a
1,9 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae o naiie c caiia?aeieea. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?IE/AeIE
o i’ycao yu??ie c ciie i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy oaeiae a?eueoa, i?ae o
yu??ie c caiia?aeieea: o naiie — a 1,2 ?ace, a o naioe?a — a 2,3 ?ace.

Ine?eueee o a?aeiia?aeue ia aeiiae na?aaeiaeua c?inoa? ooieoe?y nenoai,
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca aaeaioaoe?th, oi iiaeiia ?icaeaaoeny aeoeaaoe?y
neioaco ioeea?iiaeo eeneio oa a?ee?a. Aea aenie? aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe ia
aeicaieythoue i?aeo?eioaaoe aiiainoac ? aaeaiooaaoeny ie?aiei i?aai?ciai
a oiiaao i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy. I?i oea na?ae/aoue cieaeaiiy
e?eueeino? a?eeo, iaia?aiieo e?i?ae?a (oinoie?i?aee) oa caianieo
e?i?ae?a (o?eae?oea?eaee) a i?aaiao oa oeaieiao oaa?ei.

Nenoaia oeeoio?ii?a ?-450 oa b5 c iaeiiai aieo a?aeiia?aea? ca
aeaoieneeaoe?th enaiia?ioee?a, a c ae?oaiai aiia cacia? aieeao
oiene/iiai no?ano. Caeiaoo? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i ??cea cieaeaiiy
e?eueeino? oeeo oa?iaio?a o oaa?ei, ye? iaoeathoue a cii? i?iieneiaiai
caa?oaeiaiiy, oaae. 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

E?euee?noue oeeoio?ii?a ?-450 e b5 a ia/?ioe? i?oaeei? yu??ee,

iiieue/ia i?e?iniiaeueiiai a?eeo

Oeeoio?iiAei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeee

caiia?aeieeCiia i?iieneiaiai

caa?oaeiaiiynM±mlimnM±mlim?-450110,43±0,060,32-0,5670,15±0,030,11-0,22b5
110,34±0,020,31-0,3770,26±0,030,23-0,30

Iiiiieneaaiace c? ci?oaiith ooieoe??th (?-450 oa b5) ?aaaothoue ia
aeioieneeaioe i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy c?inoaiiyi nai?? e?eueeino?.
Iaeiae, cia/i? no?ane iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe aei a??ia?aeiiai cieaeaiiy ?o
e?eueeino? (Ieeiii?ia, 1990). Cieaeaiiy ai?noo oeeoio?ii?a a ia/?ioe?
yu??ie iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i a?aaeaiiy nenoai, ye? i?eeiathoue o/anoue ye
a aeaoieneeaoe?? i?aai?/ieo enaiia?ioee?a, oae ? a i?aeo?eioe?
aiiainoaco a oe?eiio.

ci?ie a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a i?oaeei? yu??ee a iiaeaeueieo oiiaao i?e
o?ii?/i?e ?ioieneeaoe?? eaaei??i

Aeey aea/aiiy aieeao o?ii?/ii? ?ioieneeaoe?? eaaei??i ia aeaye?
a?io?i?/i? iieacieee i?oaeei? yu??ee aoee i?iaaaeai? iiaeaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aeeiaeai? c eiio?ieueii? ae?eyiee (I?enaia?’y,
noooaaoee a??) oaa?eie aoee ?iciiae?eai? ia o?e a?oie. E??i iaeiaeiaiai
ei?io (eiiaoe, a iniiaiiio oaa?aeie?ee? oa i?yiie?ee?), ia?oa a?oia (I)
caeiaoea 0,5 ia oei?eaeo eaaei?th ia aeiao, ae?oaa (II) — 1,0 ia, a
o?aoy (III) — 3,0 ia. Aaaaeaiiy oei?eaeo eaaei?th cae?enithaaeinue o
aeaeyae? ?ic/eio aioo??oiueioeoieiaei oi?eneoaaiiyi ca aeiiiiiaith
eaoaoa?a. A?aea?? i?ia cae?enithaaany ia 5-o, 10-o oa 15-o aeiao
aenia?eiaioo.

I?e c?inoaii? aeiaiai? aeice iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eaaei?th a i?aai?ci
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy eiai iaeiie/aiiy a oe???. Iaiaaia, aeniea
eiioeaio?aoe?y eaaei?th a oe??? (141,818,3 ia/ea n.a., n=5) iiaea
iai?yii na?ae/eoe i?i aaeaioeaia i?enoinoaaiiy, eio?a ae?aaea?oueny o
aeaaaeaii? oieneeaioa i?ae /an eeiyiiy (Oa?uaei, 1981).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e o?eaaeiio iaaaioaaeaii? aenieeie eiioeaio?aoe?yie
eaaei?th, inoaii?e a e?noeao oa i’ycao ia a?aeeeaaea?oueny, a
aeoenea?oueny oeeieii. A oie aea /an, a oe??? oaa?ei eiai e?euee?noue
cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny, iae.1.

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????-????-??????????? yyy????uoy?????? Iae.1.
Aeeiai?ea ai?noo eaaei?th a oe??? i?oaeei? yu??ee a iiaeaeueieo oiiaao

Aeey aiae?co iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy oaino?a, ye? ?aoeaeoi?ii
a?aeeeaeathoueny yu??eaie, c iaoith i?eaeeoo?ai? a?i?iaeeeaoe??
caa?oaeiaiiy na?aaeiaeua aaaeeeie iaoaeaie aoea aeine?aeaeaia
?ioaineai?noue iaeiie/aiiy a ieo eaaei?th a oiiaao aenia?eiaioo.
Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii? a i?aai?ci
eaaei?th a e?eueeinoyo, ye? aeei?enoai? a aenia?eiaio?, niinoa??aa?oueny
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo aeaiiiai aeaiaioo a oainoao a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai.
Oae, o yu??ie, ye? io?eioaaee ca aeiao 1 ia oei?eaeo eaaei?th, ai?no
eaaei?th /a?ac 15 ae?a c?inoa? o a?aeeeiooeo oainoao aei 16 ia/ea nooi?
aaae.

A ia/?ioe? niinoa??aa?oueny caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y aei cieaeaiiy
e?eueeino? ?IE i?e o?ii?/i?e ae?? eaaei?th. Ne?ae iaeiae a?aecia/eoe, ui
o oaa?ei, ye? io?eioaaee iaeneiaeueio aeico eaaei?th, i?ney 10 ae?a
aenia?eiaioo e?euenoue ?IE a ia/?ioe? ae?inea a 1,2 ?aca, aea iio?i, ia
15-e aeaiue cia/ii cieceeanue (a 1,7 ?aca), ui neeaei iaeiaioa cia/aiiy
na?aae on?o a?oi oaa?ei. Aeey AeIE a ia/?ioe? i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei
aoei oa?aeoa?iei i?aeo?eiaiiy ?? e?eueeino? ia a?aeiinii iino?eiiio
??ai?. Iaeiae, o oaa?ei ??? a?oie ia e?iaoeue 15-i? aeiae aenia?eiaioa
??aaiue AeIE a ia/?ioe? cieceany. Iaaii, i?e a?aeiinii aenie?e
e?eueeino? eaaei?th aaeaioaoe?ei? iaoai?cie ia ai?aaeythoueny oa
oiene/iee aoaeo aeyaey?oueny cia/ii neeuei?oei.

Aeeiai?ea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?IE/AeIE o oaa?ei c I a?oie oaeoe/ii ia
iioa?i?ea ci?i. O oaa?ei II oa ??? a?oie a?aeaoaaeinue cieaeaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?IE/AeIE ia i?ee?ioe? aenia?eiaioo. Oaeei /eiii, i?e
uiaeiaiai? aeic? eaaei?th 0,5 ia o?aine?eioe?eia aeoeai?noue aaiiia
a?aeiiaeth?oueny. I?e a?eueo aenieeo aeicao neioaoe/ia aeoeai?noue
cieaeo?oueny oei nei??oa, /ei aeua oiene/ia aeica.

O i’ycao neioaoe/ia aeoeai?noue aaiiia cieaeo?oueny o oaa?ei c
i?aeaeuaiei oiene/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi. A oie aea /an yu??ee, ye?
iaea?aeaee i?i?iaeueio aeico, i?iaeaiiino?oaaee iiaeeea?noue ?inoo
neioaoe/ii? aeoeaiino? (ioaea iineeaiiy aaeaioaoe?eieo i?ioeann?a) ia
10-o aeiao aenia?eiaioo. Iaeiae i?e i?iaeiaaeaii? o?ii?/ii?
?ioieneeaoe?? oey aeoeai?noue iaaeaea.

A ia/?ioe? yu??ie I a?oie niinoa??aaany ??no e?eueeino? a?eeo /a?ac 10
oa 15 aei?a a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo a na?aaeiueiio ia 10%. O II a?oi?
ia?aeiiee ??no ??aiy a?eeo (a 1,2 ?aca) ci?ith?oueny ??ceei cieaeaiiyi
(a 1,7 ?aca) ia 15 aeiao aenia?eiaioa. A oie aea /an o yu??ie ??? a?oie
ai?no a?eeo a ia/?ioe? nii/aoeo cieceany a 1,6 ?aca, aea /a?ac 15 aei?a
a?i aoa oaea aeua, i?ae o oaa?ei an?o a?oi. Oaeei /eiii, aeiaiaa aeica
eaaei?th 3,0 ia aeyaeeanue iaaecae/aeii aenieith, ? ia oi?ioaaiiy
aaeaioaoe?eiiai i?ioeano aoa iio??aiee aeayeee /an. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe,
ui o oaa?ei, ye? iaea?aeaee iaeneiaeueio aeico /a?ac 15 aei?a
aenia?eiaioo niinoa??aaeenue ae??ai? iae?ioe/i? ieyie, ye? i?iyaeyeenue
o 30% aeiaaee?a.

A ie?eao a ia?o? 5 aei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy eaaei??i o oaa?ei an?o o?ueio
a?oi niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? a?eeo a 1,6-2,0 ?ace.
Iaeiae, yeui o oaa?ei ? a?oie niinoa??aa?oueny noaa?eueia i?aeaeuaiiy
e?eueeino? a?eeo /a?ac 10 oa 15 aei?a a?ae ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioa, oi o
oaa?ei II oa III a?oi ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy a?eeo /a?ac 10 aei?a
ci?ith?oueny eiai iiaoi?iei cieaeaiiyi /a?ac 15. A aiiaaeao oaa?ei ? oa
II a?oi ai?no a?eeo c?inoaa ia i?ee?ioe? aenia?eiaioo. O yu??ie c III
a?oie e?euee?noue a?eeo a aiiaaeao cieaeo?oueny, ui iiaea a?aeia?aaeaoe
ii?ooaiiy ?o ?icaeoeo. A i’ycao oaa?ei on?o a?oi e?euee?noue a?eeo ia
i?ee?ioe? aenia?eiaioa cieaeo?oueny, ui iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i c?inoaiiy
aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?ao oaa?ei i?e cieaeai?e o?aine?eioe?eii? aeoeai?no?.

I?oaeea yu??ea ye oano-ia’?eo aeey a?i?iaeeeaoe?? oaoiiaaiiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy na?aaeiaeua i?iaeeaaiiy

Aeaiee aeae ieacoi?a ? oiiiaei oa ianiaei aeaeii a?eueoi? /anoeie
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie oa ?a?iie. A?i caaeiaieueiy? on?i aeiiaai, ye?
i?aae’yaeythoueny aeaeo-a?i?iaeeeaoi?o (Noaiaiia, 1988, Lower, Kendall,
1990).

Aeai?, ui io?eiai? i?e aea/aii? iiioeyoe?e a I?enaia?’?,
Aei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeiio caiia?aeieeo, ia oa?eoi??? i?eeaae?e aei
oaoo Cao?aeiiai Aeiiaano oa a cii? i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy a?aeoiaeaie
o?i?/ieo oa iaoaeoa?eieo i?aei?e?inoa na?ae/aoue i?i cia/ia iaeiie/aiiy
aaaeeeo iaoae?a a ie?eao, ia/?ioe? oa e?noeao oaa?ei a oiiaao
caa?oaeiaiiy. Aeey ie?ie eiao?oe??ioe aeoioeyoe?? (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?aai/a?oio) aeey eaaei?th aeinyaathoue 6,3-7,9, a aeey naeioeth
4,6-7,7, ui aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ?o aeei?enoaiiy a nenoai?
a?i?iaeeeaoe?? a a?iaaioeaiicao c aenieith /enaeuei?noth eaoea?oeae.

sse iieacieee, ui aeoaea iii?oii ci?iththoueny a oiiaao caa?oaeiaiiy,
o?aeoe?eiee neeaae e?i?ae?a oa nenoaia oeeoio?ii?a P-450 ? b5
yaeythoueny aeoaea ei?enieie ui aei ?o aeei?enoaiiy a a?i?iaeeeaoe??,
ioe?ioe? oa i?iaiicoaaii? noaio ye iiioeyoe?e, oae ? a?iaaioeaiic?a a
oe?eiio.

A a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a a?io?i?/i? iaoiaee ?iaeeeaoe?? caniiaai? ia
oia?oa?ii? oaa?ei. Iu aea/aee iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy oaino?a, ye?
?aoeaeoi?ii a?aeeeaeathoueny yu??eaie, c iaoith i?eaeeoo?ai?
a?i?iaeeeaoe?? caa?oaeiaiiy na?aaeiaeua aaaeeeie iaoaeaie. Caeiaoo?
aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui e?eueeino? oeeieo oa eaaei?th a oainoao
yu??ie Cao?aeiiai Aeiiaano a 3,2 oa 6,0 ?ace a?eueo?, i?ae o yu??ie c
I?enaia?’y, oi/a eiao?oe??ioe aeoioeyoe?? neeaaeathoue eeoa 1,6.

AENIIAEE OA ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

1. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i ni?eyoeea? a?iaaio?i?/i?
oiiae ?nioaaiiy oaa?ei a a?iaaioeaiicao I?enaia?’y oa
Aei?i?ianueei-I??euenueeiio caiia?aeieeo. Aeayea ??cieoey iiaea
aecia/aoeny c iaeiiai aieo iniaeeainoyie i?e?iee?iaoe/ieo, aaio?i?/ieo
oa a?ioii?/ieo oiia, a c ae?oaiai — neaaeith o?ainoi?iiaai?noth
a?iaaioeaiic?a caiia?aeieea aiane?aeie aeecueeino? oaoiiaaiieo
oa?eoi?ee. A aeinenoaiao ciie i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy
(i.Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee) oa aoaeaaeiaoaaiiy (Cao?aeiee Aeiiaan)
iiioeyoe?? i?oaeei? yu??ee ciaoiaeyoueny a iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao
?nioaaiiy, ui iiaea i?eaanoe aei ?o cieeiaiiy. E?niaa ?aeoeueoeaaoe?y
ni?ey? a?aeiiaeaiith iiioeyoe??.

2. Oaoiiaaiia caa?oaeiaiiy aeinenoai aeeeeea? ianaiia?aae cia/i? ci?ie
a e?euee?niiio neeaae? iiioeyoe?e i?oaeei? yu??ee. O ii??aiyii? c
iao?ainoi?iiaaieie aeinenoaiaie ?o /enaeuei?noue cieaeo?oueny a 3,2-6,7
?ace. I?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy aeinenoai ca aeiiiiiaith e?niai?
?aeoeueoeaaoe?? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c?inoaiiyi /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe?? (a
2,2-6,5 ?ace).

3. Ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe?? i?oaeei? yu??ee a o?ainoi?iiaaieo
aeinenoaiao a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oii? ia?aaoaeiae ia?aiao??a iiioeyoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e oa ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai oeeeeo, ui iiaea aooe ?icaeyiooi ye
aaeaioaoe?eiee i?ioean, yeee eiiiaino? cia/i? ao?aoe iiioeyoe??. Oea
aecia/a?oueny ci?iith noaoaai? no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe??, a yei? c?inoa?
a?aenioeiaa e?euee?noue naiie (a 1,2 ?ace) oa i?aeaeuaiiyi iiioeyoe?eii?
ieiaeth/ino? (ia 10%). Cia/i? ao?aoe a?aeaoaathoueny a neeaae? i?eaoei?
iiioeyoe??.

4. Aieea i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy aeeeeea? ci?ie ii?oio?c?ieia?/ieo
iieaciee?a. Cia/ii ca?eueoothoueny ?iaeaene ia/?iee, naeac?iee oa ie?ie.
Ca?eueoaiiy a?aeiinii? aaae oeeo i?aai?a na?ae/eoue i?i ?ioaineo?eaoe?th
iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a a oiiaao caa?oaeiaiiy.

5. Iaeiie/aiiy aaaeeeo iaoae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a on?o i?aaiao oa
oeaieiao, aea iaea?eueoee ??aaiue a?iaeoioeyoe?? niinoa??aa?oueny a
ie?eao, ia/?ioe? oa oe???. Iae?ioain?ai?oa iaeiie/othoueny eaaei?e oa
naeiaoeue.

6. C?inoaiiy ??aiy aaaeeeo iaoae?a (ia i?eeeaae? eaaei?th) a oiiaao
aenia?eiaioo a oe??? oa oaino? i?oaeei? yu??ee na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue
aaeaioaoe?? i?aai?cio uiaei aeae?eaiiy oieneeaio?a c? no?oeoo?aie, ye?
ao?a/a? i?aai?ci a i?ioean? eeiyiiy aai aooioii??.

7. ?aaeoe?? a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a aeyaeythoueny o yu??ie c neeueii
o?ainoi?iiaaieo a?iaaioeaiic?a ye ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo a?eea a oe??? ?
e?i?ae?a a ia/?ioe? oa i’ycia?e oeaiei?, ui iaoiiaeaii ye aaeaioaoe?eiei
i?ioeanii ia i?aai?ciaiiiio ??ai?, oae ? ia?aaoaeiaith iaia?aiieo
no?oeoo? o ee?oeiao i?ae aieeaii oieneeaio?a. Oea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ci?iith o?aeoe?eiiai neeaaeo e?i?ae?a ia/?iee, oe??e oa eaaai?a o a?e
cieaeaiiy ??aiy oinoie?i?ae?a ? o?eae?oea?eae?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
cia/i? aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe i?aai?cio oaa?ei i?e ae?? oieneeaio?a.

8. Ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ioeea?iiaeo eeneio oa aeniea o?aine?eioe?eia
aeoeai?noue (a?aeiioaiiy ?IE/AeIE) o oe??? i?oaeei? yu??ee c
caa?oaeiaieo a?ioii?a aaaea aei ca?eueoaiiy a i?e ai?noo a?eeo oa ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith no?eeino? aei oieneeaio?a.

9. ??aaiue oa?iaio?a i?e?iniiaeueii? o?aeoe?? ia/?iee ?-450 oa b5, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue ca aeaoieneeaoe?th enaiia?ioee?a, cieaeo?oueny o oaa?ei
c a?iaaioeaiic?a ciie caa?oaeiaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i cieaeaiiy
no?eeino? i?aai?cio a oiiaao ae?? no?aniaeo oaeoi??a ? iaiiaeeea?noue
iiaii? aaeaioaoe?? aei ieo.

10. Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?oaeei?
yu??ee ye oano-ia’?eoa aeey a?i?iaeeeaoe?? caa?oaeiaiiy aaaeeeie
iaoaeaie ye ie?aieo iiioeyoe?e, oae ? a?iaaioeaiico a oe?eiio. A ?aic?
iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieo iieaciee?a ne?ae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe /enaeuei?noue
iieiae?, noaoaao no?oeoo?o iiioeyoe?e, ci?io e?eueeino? e?i?ae?a oa ?o
o?aeoe?e, ??aaiue o?aine?eioe?eii? aeoeaiino? ioeea?iiaeo eeneio oa
e?euee?noue oa?iaio?a (?-450 oa b5) i?e?iniiaeueii? o?aeoe?? ia/?iee.
Aeey ioe?iee nooiaith caa?oaeiaiiy i?aai?cio oaa?ei aaaeeeie iaoaeaie
ne?ae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe iieacieee ?o iaeiie/aiiy o oainoao, ui aeicaieeoue
i?iaiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aac oia?oa?iiy oaa?ei.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

1. Aanni A.ss. Iniaaiiinoe iaiaia aaeea e eeieaeia a i?aaiecia i?uoeie
yua?eoeu (Lacerta agilis) a oneiaeyo aio?iiiaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee
aeiaaioeaiicia // Aii?inu noaiiiai eaniaaaeaiey e eaniie ?aeoeueoeaaoeee
caiaeue. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: AeAeO. — 1997. — N. 180-184.

2. Ienth?a A.I., AEoeia A.A., Iieic I.A., Nooaiiaa A.I., Aanni A.ss.,
?aaa A.A., Eoeueaa/ei TH.E. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaea eiiieaeniie
yeieiai-aeioeie/aneie ioeaiee ninoiyiey iiioeyoeee aeeaioiuo a
oaoiiaaiiuo yeinenoaiao I?eaeiai?iauey // Aanoiee Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai
oieaa?neoaoa. Aeieiaey, yeieiaey. Aui.2. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO. —
1996. — C. 177-184.

3. Ienth?a A.I., Aanni A.ss., Iieic I.A., Nooaiiaa A.I., AEoeia A.A.,
Eoeueaa/ei TH.E., ?oceia A.I. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea niaea?aeaiey
iaeioi?uo iee?iyeaiaioia a i?aaieciao aaniicaiii/iuo, caiiiaiaeiuo e
i?aniueathueony a oneiaeyo oaoiiaaiiiai aeeyiey // Aanoiee
Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai ainoieaa?neoaoa. Aeieiaey e yeieiaey. Aui.3. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO. — 1997. — N.133-143.

4. Aoeaoia A.E., Aoaeei A.A., Iaoiiia A.A., Aiaueaa TH.I., ?aaa A.A.,
Aanni A.ss., Ieoaaa A.A., Iiiiia?aiei A.E., Eiiiaieaoe A.A.
Ooieoeeiiaeueiay ?ieue aunoeo aaoa?io?ioia a au?aaioea yeieiae/aneie
onoie/eainoe eaniuo aeiaaioeaiicia a oneiaeyo aio?iiiaaiiiai i?anna a
noaiiie ciia oe?aeiu // Aanoiee Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai ainoieaa?neoaoa.
Aeieiaey e yeieiaey. Aui.3. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO. — 1997. —
N.113-119.

5. Misyura A.N., Gasso V.Y., Sukhanova V.N. Comparative ecology and
biochemistry of amphibians and reptiles in polluted habitats // Advances
in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union. — Sofia-Moscow:
PENSOFT Publ. — 1996. — Vol. 1. — P. 191-200.

6. Gasso V.Y. Some physiological indices of the sand lizard from the
ecosystems of different transformation rate // Proc. VI Meeting «Species
and its productivity in the distribution area» UNESCO programme «Man and
Biosphere». — St.Petersburg. — 1993. — P. 164-165.

7. Aanni A.ss. Eniieueciaaiea ianniauo aeaeia i?aniueathueony aeey
aeiiiieoi?eiaa ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a caiiaaaeieeao // Iaoa?.
I?aeia?. eiio. i?enay/. 100-??//th caiia?aeaiiy aneai?eneiai noaio.
“Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy noaiiaeo aeinenoai”. —
Aneai?y-Iiaa. — 1998. — N. 255-257.

8. I?nth?a I.I., Aoeaoia A.E., Iieic I.A., Aanni A.ss., Nooaiiaa A.I.
Noai aa?iaoioaoie o?aai?ciaaieo ? ?ae?aaoe?eieo oa?eoi??e o caieaaao
oaoiiaaiieo ?aa?ii?a // Iaoa?. eiio. “O?aai?caoe?y ye oaeoi? ci?i
a?iaaioeaiioe/iiai iie?eao”. — Euea?a: Aeaaeai?/iee Aeni?an. — 1994. —
C. 43-45.

9. Ienth?a A.I., Nie?iia TH.A., Aanni A.ss., Ia?/aieianeay A.A.
Aeioanoe?iaaiea eae iaoiae ioeaiee i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu // Iaoa?. II
Anaoe?. eiioa?. “I?iaeaie ooiaeaiaioaeueii? aeieia??”. — E?eaee ??a. —
1997. — N. 42-43.

10. Aanni A.ss. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iee?iyeaiaioiiai ninoaaa
?acee/iuo aeaeia i?aniueathueony noaiiiai I?eaeiai?iauey // Aii?inu
aa?iaoieiaee. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea. — 1989. — C. 55-56.

11. Ienth?a A.I., Nuiaei O.E., Aanni A.ss. Iaeioi?ua iaoaieciu
onoie/eainoe iiioeyoeee ?acee/iuo aeaeia aioeaee e ?aioeeee e aeeyieth
aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia // Oac. aeiee. Anan. oeieu. “I?iaeaiu
onoie/eainoe aeieiae/aneeo nenoai”. — Oa?ueeia. — 1990. — C. 173-174.

12. Aanni A.ss., Ienth?a A.I., Aoeaoia A.E. Yeieiai-aeioeie/aneea
iieacaoaee i?uoeie yua?eoeu eae iieacaoaeue ninoiyiey iacaiiie
aa?iaoioaoiu a oaoiiaaiiuo ?aaeiiao // Oac. Anan. eiio. “Yeieiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu io?aiu aeeaie i?e?iaeu”. — *anoue 2. — Iineaa. — 1990. — C. 97.

13. Gasso V.Y. Some effects of environmental pollution and of benzene
alone on protein and lipid bioconcentration in the sand lizard Lacerta
agilis L. // Abstracts 2nd Europ. Conf. on Ecotoxicology. — Amsterdam. —
1992. — P 2-88.

14. Aanni A.ss., Nooaiiaa A.I. I?aniueathueany Aeiai?ianei-I?aeueneiai
caiiaaaeieea e eo eniieueciaaiea a nenoaia yeieiae/aneiai iiieoi?eiaa //
Aeieia?/i? iniiae iioei?caoe?? ?aaeeio ioi?iie ? aeei?enoaiiy
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo. — ?ao?a. — 1993. — C. 243-244.

15. Gasso V.Y. Heavy metals, protein and lipid bioconcentration in the
sand lizard blood under pollution impact // Absrtracts 7th Ordinary
General Meeting SEH. — Barcelona. — 1993. — P. 69.

16. Gasso V.Y. Lipid composition of some lizard organs under industrial
pollution // Environmental Toxicology: Pollutants in the Environment and
their Toxic Effects. Central Eastern Europ. Regional Meeting of SECOTOX.
— Porabka-Kozubnik, Poland. — 1993. — P. 96.

17. Gasso V.Y., Sukhanova V.N. Heavy metals body burden of the sand
lizard (Lacerta agilis L.) in the Samara-river region (Ukraine) //
Aanoiee Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai Oieaa?neoaoa. Aeieiaey e yeieiaey. Aui. 1. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO. — 1993. — C. 114-115.

18. Gasso V.Y., Bulakhov V.L. Lizards reproductive adaptation under
strong indusrial pollution // Abstracts 2nd World Congress of
Herpetology. — Adelaide. — 1994. — P. 95.

19. Gasso V.Y., Doroshenko T.B. Chemical risk assessment for reptiles
under environmental pollution // Abstracts EERO Symp. ”Chemical Risk
Assessment”. — Moscow. — 1994. — P. 26.

20. Gasso V.Y. Aspects of reptiles response to heavy metals
contamination: species diversity, bioaccumulation and biochemical
alterations // 3rd Int. Confer. on the Biogeochemistry of Trace
Elements. Theme B: Impacts and Pathways of Exposure. — Paris. — 1995,
B1. — No page numbers.

21. Misyura A.N., Gasso V.Y., Sukhanova V.N., Poloz O.V. Determination
of the degree of heavy metal environmental pollution using amphibians
and reptiles as bioindicators in biomonitoring system // Abstracts 6th
Internat. Hans Wolfgang Nurnberg Memorial Symp. on Metal Compounds in
Environment and Life. — Julich, Germany. — 1995. — P. 152.

22. Misyura A.N., Gasso V.Y., Poloz O.V., Sukhanova V.N.. Using animals
biochemical parameters for risk assessment under toxicants impact //
EERO-USAID Symp. on Ecological Chemistry. — Chisinau, Moldova, 1995. —
P. 152.

23. Gasso V.Y., Astakhov O.V., Goloskok T.A. Possible using reptiles for
bioindication of heavy metals pollution // Abstracts 1st Practical nonf.
“Sustainable development: environmental pollution and ecological
safety”. — Vol. 2. — Dnepropetrovsk: DSU. — 1995. — P. 51-52.

24. Gasso V.Y. Ecotoxicological effects on DNA and RNA levels in lizards
// Abstracts 4th Europ. Conf. SECOTOX. “Ecotoxicology and Environmental
Safety”. — Metz, France. — 1996. — P. C22.

25. Gasso V.Y. Toxicological aspects of lizards metabolism under
industrial pollution // Abstracts 2nd Practical Conf. “Sustainable
development: system analysis in ecology”. — Sevastopol. — 1996. — P.
137-138.

26. Aanni A.ss., Aieineie O.A. Noai ieacoi?a a ??cieo ca nooiaiai
aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oa?oiiaaiiyo // I?iaeaie ooiaeaiaioaeueii?
aeieia??. — E?eaee ??a. — 1996. — N. 35.

27. Aanni A.ss., Eoeueaa/ei TH.E., Ienth?a A.I. Eciaiaiea iaeioi?uo
aeioeie/aneeo iieacaoaeae iicaiii/iuo e aaniicaiii/iuo aeeaioiuo a
oneieyo i?iiuoeaiiiai caa?yciaiey n?aaeu iaeoaiey // Oace eiio.
“Aeieia?y oa ?iaeaia??y. Noai, iane?aeee, oeyoe ooai?aiiy aeieia?/ii
/enoeo oaoiieia?e”. — Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee. — 1996. — N. 41-42.

28. Aanni A.ss. Aeieiai/ii iniaeeainoi i?oaeei? yui?ee a oiiaao
i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy // Oace IV Iiaeia?. eiio. “O?aioe?y oa
Oe?a?ia, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeinaiae o eiioaenoi aeiaeiao iaoeiiiaeueieo
eoeueoo?”. — Oii 2. — *anoeia 2. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: AeAeO. — 1996. —
N.23.

29. Gasso V.Y. Industrial pollution influence on biochemical indices of
the sand lizard Lacerta agilis L. // Herpetology’97. 3rd World Congress
Herpetology, Abstracts. — Prague. — 1997. — P. 74.

30. Gasso V.Y. Indices of reptiles protein and lipid metabolism as
bioindicators of pollution impact // Central Eastern Europ. Conf.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. — Jurmala. — 1997. — P. 44.

31. Misyura A.N., Vinnichenko A.N., Gasso V.Y. Using different animal
species as environmental bioindicators in South Eastern Ukraine // 9th
Internat. Symp. on Bioindication. — Serdang, Malaysia. — 1997. — P. 44.

32. Gasso. V.Y. Different levels of reptile homeostasis under conditions
of environmental stress // Toxicology Letters. Suppl. 1/95, 1998. — P.
238.

33. Gasso, V.Y. Peculiarities of lipid metabolism in lizards under
industrial pollution // 9th SEH Ordinary General Meeting. Programme and
Abstract. — Le Bourget du Lac, France. — 1998. — No page numbers.

34. Misyura A.N.. Gasso V.Y.. Marchenkovskaya A.A. Influence of
technogenic landscape changing on amphibian and reptile populations //
Program and Abstract Internat. Conf. “Present and historical
nature-culture interactions in landscapes”. — Prague. — 1998. — No page
numbers.

35. Aanni A.ss. Iiioeyoeeiiii-aeieiae/aneee aiaeec naaieaoie yua?eoe eae
iaoiae ioeaiee ninoiyiey yeinenoai i?e eo aio?iiiaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee
// Oac. aeiee. O?aoueae Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. ii onoie/eaiio ?acaeoeth.
“I?iaeaiu eiaeono?eaeueiuo ?aaeiiia: iaiaaeaeiaio e yeieiaey”. —
Caii?iaeuea, 1998. — N. 59-60.

36. Aanni A.ss. Aiciiaeiia eniieueciaaiea ?aoeaeoi?ii ioa?anuaaaiiai
yua?eoeaie oainoa a oeaeyo i?eaeeciaiiie aeieiaeeeaoeee caa?yciaiey
n?aaeu oyaeaeuie iaoaeeaie // Oace I?aeia?. eiio. “Ieoaiiy
a?i?iaeeeaoe?? ? aeieia??”. — Caii??aeaey. — 1998. — N. 46.

Aanni A.ss. Aeieoai-a?io?i?/i? iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? i?oaeei? yu??ee
(Lacerta agilis L.) c oaoiiaaiiei na?aaeiaeuai a oiiaao noaiiaiai
I?eaei?i?ia`y. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.16 — aeieia?y. — Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee
aea?aeoi?aa?neoao, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aea/aiiy noaio iiioeyoe?e i?oaeei?
yu??ee a oiiaao oeaio?aeueiiai noaiiaiai I?eaei?i?ia’y. Anoaiiaeai?
aeaye? aeieia?/i? (u?euei?noue iiioeyoe?e, noaoaaa no?oeoo?a, iiiiaiaiiy
iieiaeaeth) oa a?io?i?/i? (ai?no aaaeeeo iaoae?a, a?eeo, e?i?ae?a oa ?o
o?aeoe?e, AeIE, ?IE, oeeoio?ii?a ?-450 oa b5) iieacieee i?oaeei? yu??ee.
Aeyaeaii ?aaeoe?th oeueiai aeaeo ia oaoiiaaiio o?ainoi?iaoe?th
a?iaaioeaiic?a. Aecia/aii iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeai? iieacieee, ye? iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? aeey a?i?iaeeeaoe?? caa?oaeiaiiy iacaiieo aeinenoai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?oaeea yu??ea, aeieia?y, aaaee? iaoaee, a?eie, e?i?aee,
AeIE, ?IE, oeeoio?iie ?-450 oa b5, caa?oaeiaiiy, a?i?iaeeeaoe?y.

Aanni A.ss. Yeieoai-aeioeie/aneea iniaaiiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey i?uoeie
yua?eoeu (Lacerta agilis L.) n oaoiiaaiiie n?aaeie a oneiaeyo noaiiiai
I?eaeiai?iauey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.16 — yeieiaey. — Aeiai?iiao?ianeee
ainoieaa?neoao, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth ninoiyiey iiioeyoeee i?uoeie yua?eoeu
a oneiaeyo oeaio?aeueiiai noaiiiai I?eaeiai?iauey. Onoaiiaeaiu iaeioi?ua
yeieiae/aneea (ieioiinoue iiioeyoeee, iieiaay no?oeoo?a, iiiieiaiea
iieiaeueth) e aeioeie/aneea (niaea?aeaiea oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia, aaeea,
eeieaeia e eo o?aeoeee, AeIE, ?IE, oeeoio?iiia ?-450 e b5) iieacaoaee
i?uoeie yua?eoeu. Auyaeaia ?aaeoeey aeaiiiai aeaea ia oaoiiaaiioth
o?ainoi?iaoeeth aeiaaioeaiicia. Ii?aaeaeaiu iaeaieaa eioi?iaoeaiua
iieacaoaee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey aeieiaeeeaoeee
caa?yciaiey iacaiiuo yeinenoai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?uoeay yua?eoea, yeieiaey, oyaeaeua iaoaeeu, aaeie,
eeieaeu, AeIE, ?IE, oeeoio?iiu ?-450 e b5, caa?yciaiea, aeieiaeeeaoeey.

Gasso V.Y. Ecology-biochemical peculiarities of interaction of sand
lizard (Lacerta agilis L.) with technogenic environment under conditions
of steppe Dnieper region. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree by speciality 03.00.16 — ecology. —
Dnipropetrovsk State University, Dnipropetrovsk, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the state of sand lizard populations in
central steppe Dnieper region. Some ecological (populations’ density,
sex ratio, replenishment by young animals) and biochemical (the content
of heavy metals, protein, lipids and its fractions, DNA, RNA in organs
and tissues, cytochromes P-450 and b5 in microsomes of liver) indices of
the sand lizard is determined. The responce of this species to
technogenic transformaton of biogeocenoses has been revealed. The most
informative indices which may be used for bioindication of terrestrial
ecosystems pollution have been established.

Key words: sand lizard, ecology, heavy metals, protein, lipids, DNA,
RNA, cytochromes P-450 and b5, pollution, bioindication.

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