OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AAOIIIA?EUeII-AeI?IAEI?E

OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AOAA?ANUeEEE NA?A?E IEAENAIAe?IAE*

OAeE 624.21: 666.972.16

Ae??AIICA?IENO? OeAIAIOI? AAOIIE C

AeIAAAEITH IIE?IA?A AeEss ?AIIIOO IINOIAEO

CAE?CIAAOIIIEO EIINO?OEOe?E

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.05 — aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oaoiieia?? aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ieaenaiae?
Aai?a?eiae/ Ieuea?inueeee, OA? “Ia?iaeia Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y”,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith “Aeieia?y”.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ay/aneaa Eaii?aeiae/ *a?iyanueeee,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith “O?ceei-o?i?/ia iaoai?ea oa
oaoiieia?y aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa ae?ia?a”;

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee TH??e
Ieaenaiae?iae/ Ni???i, AAO “Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
aiaiao?ea?a ?i. I.N. Aa?aaeiiai”, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???th “Oaoiieia?y
iaaiac?aeueieo aiaiao?ea?a, o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i? ? no?oeoo?ii-oacia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy”.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie (eaoaae?a “Aoae?aaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a oa ae?iaieoeoaa aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e”), i. Iae??aea.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 16 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.059.01 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 7 ” eeiiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Eini?i I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?icaeoie ? oo?eiaiiy aei?iaeiuei? ia?aae? Oe?a?ie
ia iaeaaeiiio oaoi?/iiio ??ai? ia?ic?eaii iia’ycai? c ?iaioaie ii
?aiiioo e oo?eiaiith iino?a, ui ? iaea?eueo neeaaeieie ?
a?aeiia?aeaeueieie nii?oaeaie ia aaoiiia?eueieo aei?iaao. No/ania
ia?aaea aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a Oe?a?ie ia? aeecueei 16 oen.
cae?ciaaoiiieo ? iaoaeaaeo iino?a. Cae?ciaaoiii? iinoe c aaeeiaeie
i?ieueioieie aoaeiaaie neeaaeathoue aeecueei 80% an?o ?nioth/eo iino?a.
Iaeaea 10 oen. iino?a caaaeueiith aeiaaeeiith 163 ei (46%) ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai /eiieo aoae?aaeueieo ii?i ? iio?aaothoue
?aiiioo oa ?aeiino?oeoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaea i?ney 10…15 ?ie?a
aenieoaoaoe?? a aeaiaioao cae?ciaaoiiieo iino?a aeieeathoue i?noeaa?
?oeiaoe?? caoeniiai oa?o aaoiio c iaieaiiyi ?iai/i? a?iaoo?e. Oaeiai
?iaeo aeaoaeoe a?aeiiaeththoueny a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
oeaiaioii-i?uaiei ?ic/eiii, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei i?oeiei
c/aieaiiyi ?c aaoiiii eiino?oeoe?? e a?iaoo?ith, ui iniaeeai iii?oii i?e
aeeiai?/iiio aieea? o?ainii?oo. Oiio aeooaeueiith ? ?ic?iaea
niaoe?aeueieo neeaae?a aaoiio, ui caaacia/othoue ?o aeiaaino?ieiao
ni?eueio ?iaioo c aaoiiii ? a?iaoo?ith eiino?oeoe?e, ye? ?aiiioothoueny.

Iniaeeaino? oiia ?aiiioo e aenieoaoaoe?? cae?ciaaoiiieo iinoiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e iio?aaothoue iaea?aeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo aaoiiieo noi?oae,
i?ecia/aieo aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o, ui aieiae?? i?aeaeuaieie
aaeaac?eieie aeanoeainoyie, ?ioaineaiei iaai?ii aeiaaino?ieiai?
i?oeiino?, aenieith aiaeiiai?iieei?noth, ii?icino?ee?noth, a oaeiae
iecueeeie iieacieeaie onaaeee ? iaa?yeaiiy. Aaoiii? noi?o? iiaeii? aooe
aeinooiieie, oaoiieia?/ieie e aeieia?/ii aacia/ieie. Aaaeeeai i?e
oeueiio aeei?enoaiiy i?noeaaeo iaoa??ae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeaia ?iaioa ?
?i?oe?aoeaith eaoaae? oaoiieia?? aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ?
iino?a OAeAAeOO ca ??oaiiyi i?iaeaie a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o aaoiio
? noaeaai? a?iaoo?e cae?ciaaoiio, ui caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiaaino?ieiai? i?oeiino? e aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino? iinoiaeo
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaea aaoiiieo noi?oae aeey ?aiiioo iinoiaeo
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e ia iniia? aeinooiieo, oaoiieia?/ieo ?
aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo a’yaeo/eo, caiiaithaa/?a ? aeiaaaie, ui
caaacia/othoue aenieo aaeaac?th ?aiiioiiai oa?o aei aaoiio ? noaeaai?
a?iaoo?e aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney ?aiiioo, a oaeiae iathoue
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa caoeni? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye? aeiaaino?ieiai
caa??aathoueny.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaenio aeiaaaeo, ui caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?eieo
aeanoeainoae ae??aiica?ienoeo oeaiaioieo aaoii?a aei iiaa?oi?
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, ui ?aiiioo?oueny, aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy
caoenieo oa??a aaoiio.

2. Anoaiiaeoe aieea eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ? ?? neeaaeiaeo ia i?ioeane
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ae??aiica?ienoeo oeaiaioieo aaoii?a i?e oi?ioaaii? a
caoeniiio oa?? cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e.

3. Aecia/eoe o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ae??aiica?ienoeo oeaiaioieo
aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith a caoeniiio oa?? cae?ciaaoiiieo
eiino?oeoe?e.

4. Ioe?ieoe aeiaaia?/i?noue ae??aiica?ienoeo oeaiaioieo aaoii?a, ?oith
ni?iiiaei?noue caa??aaoe caoeni? aeanoeaino? noiniaii noaeaai? a?iaoo?e.

5. Aeine?aeaeoaaoe aeaoi?iaoe?? onaaeee ? iaa?yeaiiy, a oaeiae aecia/eoe
iiaeoe? i?oaeiino? oa eiao?oe??ioe oaiia?aoo?iiai ?icoe?aiiy
ae??aiica?ienoeo oeaiaioieo aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith.

6. ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th i?eaiooaaiiy ae??aiica?ienoeo oeaiaioiaaoiiieo
noi?oae ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith ? ?aiiioo c ?o aeei?enoaiiyi aeey
a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, i?iaanoe
ia?aa??eo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

· Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee ? aeine?aeaeoaaiee iaoai?ci ae?? eiiieaenii?
aeiaaaee, ui neeaaea?oueny c i?enei?thaa/a oaa?ae?iiy ? iiaeeo?eiaaiiai
iaioaooaeueiaiai iie?ia?o ia i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?? caoeniiai oa?o c
ae??aiica?ienoiai oeaiaioiiai aaoiio aei iiaa?oiiue iinoiaeo
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, ui ?aiiioothoueny.

· Aeiaaaeaii iiceoeaiee aieea eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ia o?ceei-iaoai?/i? e
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a o a?aeiiaeaieo
caoenieo oa?ao iinoiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e.

· Aeinyaiooi ?aeaioe/i?noue aeaoi?iaoeaieo aeanoeainoae a?aeiiaeaiiai
caoeniiai oa?o ?c ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith oa
aaoiio cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, ui a?aeiiaeththoueny.

· Cae?eniaia iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy i?noeaaeo i?ne?a o yeino?
caiiaithaa/a ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ? oeaiaio?a aecia/aiiai neeaaeo
aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o iinoiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny eiiieaenii
iacaeaaeieo iaoiae?a, ui canoiniaoaaee ?c aeei?enoaiiyi no/aniiai
iaeaaeiaiiy i?e a?aeiia?aeiiio noaoenoe/iiio caaacia/aii?, ye ia
noaae?? iinoaiiaee aenia?eiaio?a, oae ? i?e ii?aoethaaii? e aiae?c?
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Inoaii? ciaoiaeyoueny a caaeia?euei?e caiae? c
oai?aoe/ieie ia?aaeoiiaaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. Cai?iiiiiaaii neeaaee ? oaoiieia?y iaea?aeaiiy ae??aiica?ienoi?
aaoiiii? noi?o? ia iniia? ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo, i?noeaaeo i?ne?a ?
eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee.

2. ?ic?iaeaii e io?eiaii ae??aiica?ienoee aaoii ia iniia? aeinooiieo
iaoa??ae?a, i?ecia/aiee aeey ?aiiioo aeaiaio?a cae?ciaaoiiieo iino?a
niiniaaie iiiie?oiiai aaoiioaaiiy ? iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. On? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii: aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e, ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a, aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith i?e
?aiiio? i?ieueioieo aoaeia aeaio ae?th/eo cae?ciaaoiiieo iino?a o
Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?, a oaeiae aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eii?
iaae?eiino? iano/eo aaeie ? ia?ae?eoue aoaeeieo a i. Oa?eia?.

O ioae?eaoe?yo o ni?aaaoi?noa? iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai aeeiiaia oaea: o 1
aea/aeiny aiaeiiiaeeiaiiy, ii?eno?noue ? i?oei?noue ae??aiica?ienoiai
aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith, cai?iiiiiaaiiai aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy
caoeniiai oa?o iinoiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e; o 3 aeine?aeaeaiee
aieea eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ia o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ?
ii?icino?ee?noue ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio, ?icaeyiooi oaoiieia?th
i?eaiooaaiiy aaoiiii? noi?o?; o 4 aea/aii aieea ??ciiiai?oieo cania?a
ii?aoethaaiiy iiaa?oi? “noa?iai” aaoiio aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?eieo
aeanoeainoae aaoiio cai?iiiiiaaiiai neeaaeo aei iiaa?oiiue
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, ui ?aiiioothoueny, iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai aaeaac?? aei noaeaai? a?iaoo?e, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy; o 6 i?iaaaeaia ii??aiyiiy
i?oei?nieo, aaeaac?eieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee cai?iiiiiaaiiai
ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith ? aaoii?a c
aeiaaaeith aiieneaeieo niie.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

Cai?iiiiiaai? neeaaee aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?ae /an ?aiiioo caoeniiai oa?o
aaoiio eiino?oeoe?e niiniaii iiiie?oiiai aaoiioaaiiy i?ieueioieo aoaeia
cae?ciaaoiiieo iino?a o Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano? ia aac? AeEI “Oa?e?anueeee
A?ae?ii?no” ? ?acii ?c Oa?e?anueeei Iaeaaoiaei?ii (Iiaiaiaeieacueea
AeAO), a oaeiae aeey iineeaiiy iano/eo aaeie ? ia?ae?eoue aoaeeieo ii
aoe. Iooe?inueeee, 27 (i. Oa?e?a) niiniaii iie?iai
oi?e?aooaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianino, ?ic?iaeaiiai ia
eaoaae?? IAI OAeOOAA.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iaaiai?ai?: ia nai?ia?? “No/ani? i?iaeaie i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoaa oa
aenieoaoaoe?? nii?oae ia oeyoao niieo/aiiy” (i. Ee?a, 30 /a?aiy — 1
eeiiy 1998 ?.); ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? “I?i noai iinoiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa Caii??cueeiai Iaeaaoiaei?a ? i?i caoiaee aeey iie?ioaiiy
?iaioe i?e i?iaeooaaii?, ?aiiio? e aenieoaoaoe?? iino?a ?
oeyoii?iaiae?a” (i. Caii??aeaey, 15-16 a?oaeiy 1998 ?.), a oaeiae ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a ? ni?a?ia?oiee?a
aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueiiai oaeoeueoaoo OAeAAeOO (i. Oa?e?a, 1996, 1997,
1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 ae?oea?nueeeo
?ia?o, 5 ?c yeeo o aeaeaiiyo, ye? aoiaeyoue aei ia?ae?eo AAE Oe?a?ie, a
oaeiae io?eiaia iiceoeaia ??oaiiy ia cayaeo iaoaioo “Neeaae aaoiiii?
noi?o?” ? 98115832 a?ae 09.04.99 ?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio ? /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 175
iaeiaioaaiue ? 5 aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa i?noeoue 176 noi??iee ae?oeiaaiiai
oaenoo, 20 oaaeeoeue ? 32 ?enoiea.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aecia/ai? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy e aaeocue ?aae?caoe??
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ?ICAe?E? 1 aiae?cothoueny oa?aeoa?i? aeaoaeoe ?nioth/eo oei?a iinoiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e, oeiia? i?e/eie ?oeiaoe?? caoeniiai oa?o cae?ciaaoiiieo
eiino?oeoe?e iino?a, a oaeiae ?aiiioi? iaoa??aee ? oaoiieia?? ?aiiioo.

Cia/ia /anoeia iino?a aenieoaoo?oueny c ??ciiiai?oiiai ?iaeo
ooeiaeaeaiiyie ? aeaoaeoaie. Ia iniia? aeaieo iaoo?ieo ianoaaeaiue
cae?ciaaoiiieo iino?a, aeeiiaieo aeayeeie i?aai?caoe?yie (EAAe?, OAAe?,
I?aaei?aoae O?N?, Nithcaei?IAe?, Aea?aeaei?IAe?, Aaeaei?IAe?,
I?aoaoaei?aoae ??ON?, IAAe?, NeaAAe?, Eacainueeee ?A?), a ianoaaeaieo
iinoao iaea?eueo iioe?ai? oae? aeaoaeoe: ?oeioaaiiy ieeoe i?i?aeaeaei?
/anoeie /a?ac iiaaio ?? a?ae?i?cieyoe?th — 60…77%, ?oeioaaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?eieo oa?a /a?ac iaaeineiiae?noue eiino?oeoe?? — 60…68%,
?oeioaaiiy iie?eooy i?i?aeaeaei? /anoeie — 60…70%, a?aeeiee ? ?aeiaeie
a cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?yo — 50…65%, iaaeinoaoi?e caoeniee oa?
a?iaoo?e — 50…60% oa ?io?. O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao cono??/a?oueny
e?eueea aeaoaeo?a, ui aca?iii aieeaathoue ia noai iinoa a oe?eiio. I?e
oeueiio aeeaeia ? oa?aeoa? ooeiaeaeaiue iinooiiai ci?iththoueny i?ae /an
aenieoaoaoe?? iinoa. Aaea i?ney 10…20 ?ie?a ieiua ooeiaeaeaiue
iiaa?oi? i?ie?oii? aoae?ae? neeaaea? a?eueo 50%. O a?eueo ?aii? oa?i?ie
aenieoaoaoe?? iniiaiei aeaeii iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a ? eouaiiy, a i?ney
10 ?ie?a aenieoaoaoe?? — ?oeioaaiiy caoeniiai oa?o c ianooiiei iaieaiiyi
a?iaoo?e (aei 20% a?ae caaaeueii? ieiu? iiaa?oi?). Iaaeae? oeae aeae
?oeioaaiiy aeinyaa? a?eueo 50% ieiu? iiaa?oi? i?e oa?i?iao aenieoaoaoe??
iinoa iiiaae 40 ?ie?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiith i?e/ei ?oeiaoe?e aaoiio ? cae?ciaaoiio aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e, cie?aia o?ainii?oieo nii?oae, i?enay/ai? ?iaioe N.I.
Aeaen??aa, A.?. Aaaooe?ia, TH.I. Aoooa, O.I. ?aaiiaa, A.A.
E?iaea, A.I. Iinea?ia, I.I. Iiuainueeiai, A. ?oooa?oa, N.A. Oanoiia?iaa,
I. Oennaey, N. *aii?iia, A.E. *a?iyanueeiai, A.I. THiaa oa ?ioeo.
Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaiith i??ith ina?oeththoue i?e/eie ? iaoai?ci
?oeiaoe?? eiino?oeoe?e. Aeaoaeoii, ui iae/ano?oa cono??/a?oueny oa
?noioii aieeaa? ia aeiaaia?/i?noue cae?ciaaoiiieo i?ieueioieo aoaeia
iino?a, ? ea?aiiaoecaoe?y aaoiio ? ei?ic?y a?iaoo?e.

Iniiaiith i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy ei?ic?? aaoiio oa a?iaoo?e ? ii?ooaiiy
aiaeia?aeaiaeo aiane?aeie ooeiaeaeaiiy a?ae?i?cieyoe?? i?i?aeaeaei?
/anoeie, noieo aiaee c o?iooa??a ? ianooiii? o?eueo?aoe?? aiaee /a?ac
eiino?oeoe?? i?ieueioii? aoaeiae. Iaaaeee? eaaa?ie, ii?e, ?aeiaeie ?
a?aeeiee a caoenieo oa?ao cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, ye i?aaeei, ia
aieeaathoue ia iano/o ni?iiiaei?noue i?ieueioii? aoaeiae a ii/aoeiaee
ia??iae aenieoaoaoe??, aea iaaeae? ni?eythoue a?eueo aeeaie?e
ea?aiiaoecaoe?? aaoiio ? ei?ic?? a?iaoo?e.

Aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy caoenieo oa??a cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ??ciiiai?oi? neeaaee aaoiiieo noi?oae. Oe?ieo
a?aeii?noue a iao?e e?a?i? oa ca ei?aeiiii iaea?aeaee i?aoe?, i?enay/ai?
?ic?iaoe? neeaae?a aaoiio aeey ?aiiioo c aeei?enoaiiyi iie?ia??a
(iie?ia?oeaiaioi? aaoiie ? iie?ia?aaoiie a?aeiia?aeii aei eeaneo?eaoe??
A.A. Iaoo?i?aa) ?.I. ?eoeia, A.I. Eoaec?na, ?. Ioaie,
A.A. Iaoo?i?aa, I.N. Iiiiai?, I.A. Naoaee?ia, E. Neoi?ia, A.O.
Ne?i/aiea, A.A. Nieioeaai?, A.?. Nieiiaoiaa, O.I. O?oeueiaa, TH.N.
*a?e?inueeiai oa ?ioeo.

Canoinoaaiiy iie?ia?oeaiaioieo aaoii?a aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o
cae?ciaaoiiieo iinoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e aeicaieeoue iaea?aeaoe a?eueo
aenie?, o ii??aiyii? c oeaiaioieie aaoiiaie, iieacieee i?oeiino? i?e
noeneo oa caei?; ca?eueoeoe c/aieaiiy aaoiio ?aiiioiiai oa?o c aaoiiii
oa a?iaoo?ith eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae i?aeaeueoe aiaeiiai?iieei?noue ?
no?ee?noue oeueiai aaoiio aei aa?aneaieo aieea?a. E??i oeueiai, aiie
aieiae?thoue, ia a?aei?io a?ae iie?ia?aaoii?a, a?eueo iecueeeie
cia/aiiyie onaaei/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e i?e oaa?ae?ii? ? iaioei eiao?oe??ioii
oaiia?aoo?iiai ?icoe?aiiy. Oea aeicaieeoue caiia?aoe aeieeiaiiy
onaaei/ieo o??uei ? a?aeoa?oaaiiy aaoiio a?ae?aiiioiaaii? ae?eyiee a?ae
aaoiio eiino?oeoe??, ui aenieoaooaaeany, a oaeiae caaacia/eoe
aeiaaia?/i?noue a?aeiiaeaieo ae?eyiie. C iaoith iaea?aeaiiy iaea?eueo
aeiiii?/ieo neeaae?a aaoiio aeey ?aiiioo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a yeino? eiai eiiiiiaio?a iaoa??aee
a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aei aaae iie?ia?aaoii?a a?aeiineoueny iac?noaai?noue ?o aeaoi?iaoeaieo
aeanoeainoae ?c cae?ciaaoiiii eiino?oeoe?e, iaiiaeeea?noue ?oiueiai
iaianaiiy niiniaii oi?e?aooaaiiy ia iiaa?oi?, ui ?aiiioothoueny.
Iaea?eueo oaoiieia?/ieie iaoa??aeaie aeey ?aiiioo iinoiaeo
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e ? oeaiaioi? ? iie?ia?oeaiaioi? aaoiie, ui
aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ?o iaianaiiy iaoai?ciaai? niiniae, o oiio
/ene? niin?a oi?e?aooaaiiy.

O ?ICAe?E? 2 noi?ioeueiaai? oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeei?enoaiiy iie?ia?ieo aeiaaaie aei oeaiaioieo aaoii?a aeey ?aiiioo
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe ye?nii iiaee
iaoa??ae. Oaea niieo/aiiy aeiiii?/ii aea?aeia ? oaoi?/ii aeioe?eueia i?e
?aiiio? iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae ni?eyoeeaa i?e oi?ioaaii?
no?oeoo?e a?ae?aoiaaieo a’yaeo/eo, iniaeeai ia eiioaeo? c? “noa?ei”
aaoiiii (aaoii o a?oe? ia iaio 3 ?ie?a).

I?enei?thaa/ oaa?ae?iiy o aeaeyae? oei?eaea eaeueoe?th, ui a?aeiineoueny
aei aeiaaaie ae?oaiai eeano ca A.A. ?aoeiiaei, ni?iiiaeiee ?iaeoe
iiaeeo?eoth/ee oa i?enei?thth/ee aieea ia a?ae?aoaoe?th aethi?iaoii?
neeaaeiai? oeaiaioo. O naith /a?ao, iiaeeo?eiaaiee iaioaooaeueiaee
iie?ia? (III), ui i?noeoue a?ae?ieneeuei? a?oie II (?en. 1), iiaeiiee
iaoe aenieo aaeaac?th aei aaoiio eiino?oeoe??. III, ye ? aaaaoi
iie?ia??a, ? iiey?iith ?a/iaeiith.

Iiaa?oiy aaoiio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth e?aii?eeeniaaiai ea?eano ?
iiaa?oiaaeo a?ae?ienee?a, ui, o e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo, iiaeiii aecia/aoe
aenieo aaeaac?th iie?ia?o aei iiae?aieo iaoa??ae?a (?en. 2). O
ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoiiao ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio i?noeoue i?eaeecii 20% SiO2,
a, e??i oiai, iniiaiei iin??i SiO2 ? eaa?oeiaee caiiaithaa/. Oiio
a?ae?ieneeueia a?oia iie?ia?o ia? iiaeeea?noue ca’ycoaaoeny c
iiaa?oiaaeie a?oiaie e?aii?eeeniaaeo oao?aaae??a ca aeiiiiiaith
aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a, ?ii-ae?iieueieo ? iaa?oue o?i?/ieo aca?iiae?e.

?en. 1 Oi?ioea iiaeeo?eiaaiiai iaioaooaeueiaiai iie?ia?o

?en. 2 Aiaeiaa? ca’ycee i?ae III (I — I — R) oa iiaa?oiath oeaiaioiiai
eaiaith.

Iaoai?ci aaeaac?? III aei aaoiio iiaeia iiynieoe c iiceoe?? iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue aeaeo?iiii? oai??? ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy iiaea?eiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o. Iiaea?eiee aeaeo?e/iee oa? ooai?th?oueny a
?acoeueoao? i???iooaaiiy ca?yaeaeaieo /anoie iie?ia?o aei iiaa?oi? o?ea
aaoiio c aeieeiaiiyi iio?i ??cieoe? iioaioe?ae?a i?ae ieie. I?ioa, ia
a?aei?io a?ae aeaeo?inoaoe/ii? aca?iiae?? i?e ooai?aii? iiaea?eiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o a?aeaoaa?oueny aca?iiee ia?ao?ae aeaeo?ii?a i?ae
ooieoe?iiaeueieie a?oiaie iieaeoe iie?ia?o ? iiaa?oiath aaoiio.
Aca?iiae?th III ?c iiaa?oiath oeaiaioiiai eaiaith iiaeia oyaeoe:

— Si — OI + II — R — Si — O — R + I2I.

Aiaeiaaee ca’ycie iaaaaaoi neaaeee, i?ae o?i?/iee ca’ycie, aea a?i o
aaaaoi ?ac?a neeuei?oee, i?ae i?aeiieaeoey?i? ca’ycee. Eiai ae?y
iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? ? aeyaey?oueny ia
a?aenoai? aei (2,5…2,8)10-4 iei.

Aeanoeaino? iie?ia?o o cia/i?e i??? aecia/athoueny ooieoe?iiaeueieie
a?oiaie, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo iieaeoee. Eiaac?ei? aeanoeaino? III
aenie? ca ?aooiie i?oeiino? ca’yceo i?ae ie?aieie iieaeoeaie, ui
aoiaeyoue aei ?oiueiai neeaaeo. Aiia neeaaea? aeey a?oi NI2 — 0,99
eeae/i?eue, a aeey II- 17,25 eeae/i?eue. Aecia/aiee aieea ia aaeaac?th
oa eiaac?th ?iaeoue iieaeoey?ia iana iie?ia??a. III ia? iieaeoey?io iano
(1500…5000), ui aeicaiey? iaoe caaeia?euei? aaeaac?ei? aeanoeaino? ?
eiaac?th.

Iaioaooaeueia? iie?ia?e oa?ii?aaeoeai?. O ioaa?aeaeaiiio aeaeyae? aiie
iathoue aeia?o aiaeino?ee?noue, aea iieeththoueny ?ic/eiaie eoa?a. Aiie
e?eoe?, ianoi?ni? c ie?yie, iathoue iaiaaeaio ?ic/eii?noue, oiio a
i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa ?o iiaeeo?eothoue aeey iie?ioaiiy aeanoeainoae
iie?ia?o. Iaioaooaeueiaee iie?ia? iiaeeo?eo?oueny aee?ieie eeneioaie o
aeaeyae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo i?aai?/ieo niieoe aai o neeaae? ?ineeiieo
ianae. Ianea ?ineeii? i?noyoue ia?aaaaeii ia?icaaeoaeai? iaeiiiniiai?
iane/ai? (N6 — N24) ? iaiane/ai? (N14 — N18) iani? eeneioe c iiaea?eiei
/eneii aoii?a aoaeaoeth. I?enooi?noue ianieo eeneio iaoiiaeth?
ni?iiiaei?noue III iie?ia?ecoaaoeny a oiieiio oa?? c ooai?aiiyi i?oeii?
aoiinoa?ino?eei? ie?aee, a oaeiae ciauoth/?, ieanoeo?eoth/? ?
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? aeanoeaino? iie?ia?o. Canoiniaoaaiee iiaeeo?eiaaiee
iaioaooaeueiaee iie?ia?, ye ? a?eueo?noue iie?ia??a, ia? ci?oai?
ooieoe??, ye a?ae?io?e?coth/?, oae ? a?ae?ioia?coth/?; i?ioa /ano?oa i?e
?oiueiio aaaaeaii? a aaoii i?aaaeth? yeeenue iaeei aoaeo. Oiio
ieanoeo?eoth/ee aoaeo iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaiee ye ooai?aiiyi i???ioiaaieo
oiieeo ie?aie iie?ia?o, oae ? /anoeiai ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? i?oeii
iia’ycaii? aiaee. Iiey?i? aeoeai? II-a?oie iie?ia?o iathoue noeeuei?noue
aei anioe?aoe??. Aoaeaaiaeiaa? eaioethae iieaeoee iie?ia?o, iaaiaee,
iathoue neaae? iieaeoey?i? ca’ycee. C oe??? i?e/eie ca’ycee, ooai?ai?
iaoeeueieie a?oiaie, ? ieiueiaie eiacaiiy. C i???ioiaaieo o oaeee niin?a
iieaeoe ooai?ththoueny ye ae ieanoeie, ni?iiiaei? eiacaoe iaeia ii
iaei?e, noai?thth/e ii?? aeaoi?iaoe?yi o an?o ?ioeo iai?yieao.

E??i oiai, aeey aaoiio ?aiiioiiai neeaaeo aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aeae
canoiniaaiiai oeaiaioo. A?aeiia?aeii aei ?nioth/i? aeoiee c on?o
oeaiaio?a iaea?eueoee ?ici?? c/aieaiiy iathoue ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioe c
aenieei oo?eiaiiyi N2S, ca ieie ?icoaoiaothoueny ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioe c
o?aaeeoe?eiei i?ia?aeueiei neeaaeii. Ci?ia c/aieaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeaeo oeaiaioo iiynith?oueny ?o ??ciiiai?oiith eeath/ith
ni?iiiaei?noth, a oaeiae ??cieoeath a onaaei/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo aaoii?a
ia oeeo oeaiaioao. I?ioean neeathaaiiy ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c
aeiaaaeaie ? aaoiio eiino?oeoe?? ia? o?ceei-o?i?/iee oa?aeoa? ? iio?aao?
aeey naiai caaa?oaiiy o?eaaeiai /ano. Ooai?aiiy eiei?aeieo no?oeoo?, a
oaeiae e?enoae?caoe?y i?iaeoeo?a a?ae?aoaoe?? o cii? eiioaeoo
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ianooiiiai ca?eueoaiiy c/aieaiiy i?ae aaoiiii
?aiiioiiai neeaaeo oa aaoiiii eiino?oeoe??.

O ?ICAe?E? 3 iaaaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea canoiniaaieo iaoa??ae?a, iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue oa io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O yeino? a’yaeo/iai canoiniaoaaany ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio Ieueoainueeiai ?
A?eai?iaenueeiai oeaiaioieo caaiae?a. I?e oeueiio ee?iea? iaio oeaiaio?a
iaa ii?iiaaiee i?ia?aeueiee neeaae c ai?noii C3S o e?eueeino? aei
50…55% ? C3A a?ae 4 aei 6% ca ianith.

O yeino? ae??aiiai caiiaithaa/a aeei?enoiaoaaee iaea?eueo iioe?ai? o
No?aei?e Oe?a?i? i?noeaa? eaa?oeia? i?nee c iiaeoeai e?oiiino?
0,75…1,5. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ia?ai? i?nee Iiainae?anueeiai ?
Aacethae?anueeiai ea?’???a Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?. Ca iiaeoeai e?oiiino?
oe? i?nee iaeaaeaoue aei a?oi “aeoaea ae??ai?” oa “ae??ai?”
a?aeiia?aeii.

Aea?? neeaaeiai? eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee cae?enithaaany, aeoiaey/e c
iniaeeainoae ?oiueiai aieeao ia i?ioeane a?ae?aoaoe?? ?
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy oeaiaioo, e??i oeueiai, a?aoiaoaaeany ?oiy
aeinooii?noue, oaoiieia?/i?noue, aaciaea i?e caa?aaeaii? ? ?iaio?.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeey i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo
aeei?enoiaoaaeany aeiaaaea OAE — noi?o, ui neeaaea?oueny c 15%
aacaiaeiiai oei?enoiai eaeueoe?th (AINO 450-77), 5% aacaiaeiiai
oei?enoiai aethi?i?th (AINO 3759-75) ? 80% aiaee ii ian?. A a yeino?
iniiaiiai no?oeoo?oth/iai eiiiiiaioo, canoiniaoaaeany aeiaaaea
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai iaioaooaeueiaiai iie?ia?o (III). Iie?ia? iaea?aeothoue
ia iniia? iaioaa?eo?eoo ? ooaeueiaiai aia?ae?eaeo. Iaioaa?eo?eo
(2,2-aeeiaoeeiei?iiaiaeeie) N(NI2II)4 (AINO 9286-89) — /ioe?ueioaoiiiee
nie?o ?c ?icaaeoaeaiei aoaeaaiaeiaaei eaioethaii. Ooaeaaee aia?ae?eae
(N8I4I3) (AINO 7119-77) — ia? aeaeyae a?eeo aieie, eiai u?euei?noue —
1527 ea/i3, oaiia?aoo?o ieaaeaiiy ia iaio + 130N oa eei?iiy + 284,5N.
A?i ia?ic/eiiee o aiae?, iii??eiaaii — a i?aai?/ieo ?ic/eiieeao.

O ?iaio? canoiniaoaaany eiiieaen iacaeaaeieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeeeaino? ? aeicaieyth/i?
ni?iiiaeiino?. O aeai?e ?iaio?, e??i noaiaea?oieo (aecia/aiiy i?oeiino?
ia noene ? ?icoya i?e caei?, aiaeiiiaeeiaiiy, aiaeii?iieeiino?,
ii?icino?eeino?, onaaeee, ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? oa ?io?),
aeei?enoiaoaaany ?yae niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue:
ethi?ianoeaioia aeaoaeoineii?y, iioe/ia i?e?ineii?y (i?e?ineii IA?-6 ?c
oioiianaaeeith aei oioiaia?aoo “Cai?o”), ?io?a/a?aiia niaeo?ineii?y
(niaeo?ioioiiao? “Spekord-M80”). Aea/aiiy iiaeoeth i?oaeiino? ?
eiao?oe??ioo oaiia?aoo?iiai ?icoe?aiiy ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a aeeiiaii
ia onoaiiaeao, ?ic?iaeaieo ia eaoaae?? oaoiieia??
aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a OAeAAeOO. E??i oeueiai,
aeine?aeaeoaaeany aaeaac?eia i?oei?noue aaoii?a ??cieo neeaae?a aei
aaoiio e a?iaoo?e eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae ci?ia i?oeiino? eiioaeoo i?ae
ae??aiica?ienoei aaoiiii a?aeiiaeaiiai caoeniiai oa?o ? “noa?ei” aaoiiii
eiino?oeoe?e i?ae ae??th noeueoaoii? ei?ic?? oa aaaaoi?aciaiai
caii?iaeoaaiiy-a?aeoathaaiiy ia neeaaeaieo aaei/eao ca?aeii ?c
cai?iiiiiaaieie iaie iaoiaeeeaie.

Aaaaeaiiy aeiaaaee III aei aaoiiii? noi?o? o e?eueeinoyo 0,125…1% a?ae
iane oeaiaioo i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaeneiaeueiiai ieanoeoeeoth/iai aoaeoo.
Iie?ioaiiy c?o/iioeeaaeaeueiino? aaoiiieo noi?oae aeicaiey? cieceoe
aiaeioeaiaioia a?aeiioaiiy ia 10…15%, aai ciaioeoe aeo?aoo oeaiaioo.
Cieaeaiiy aiaeioeaiaioiiai a?aeiioaiiy aac iia??oaiiy
c?o/iioeeaaeaeueiino? noi?o? aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe i?oei?noue ?
u?euei?noue aaoiio.

Iioeiaeueia e?euee?noue aeiaaaee III ioe?ithaaee ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy
aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c aeiaaaeaie
??ciiiai?oieo e?eueeinoae III aei aaoiio o a?oe? a?eueo 3 ?ie?a
oaa?ae?iiy. Aaeaac?eio i?oei?noue aecia/aee ia i?aenoaa? i?oeiino? ia
/enoee caei aaei/ie, ui neeaaeathoueny ?c ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio,
aeioi?iiaaiiai aei “noa?iai” aaoiio.

Ia i?aenoaa? aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? ? i?oeiino? ia noene oa caei aaoiiieo
c?ace?a ia ??aii?ooiieo noi?oao, iioeiaeueia e?euee?noue aeiaaaee III
neeaaea? a?ae 0,75 aei 1%. O oie aea /an, cia/iee i?e??no aaeaac?eii?
i?oeiino? aoa aeinyaiooee i?e 1% aeiaaaee III, a iaeneiaeueiee i?e??no
i?e caei? aeinyaa?oueny i?e aeiaeaaaii? iie?ia??a o e?eueeino? 0,75…1%
a?ae iane oeaiaioo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy aeiaaaee iie?ia?o ae?? ia oeaiaio iiae?aii
niia?eueithaa/o o?eueee a ii/aoeiaee ia??iae oaa?ae?iiy, a ia e?iaoeue
oaa?ae?iiy aiia ia ?iaeoue ?noioiiai aieeao.

Aaaaeaiiy i?enei?thaa/a oaa?ae?iiy OAE ?acii ?c ??ciiiai?oiith
e?euee?noth aeiaaaee III aeicaieeei aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee ai?no
iie?ia?o a eiiieaeni?e aeiaaaoe?. Iaea?eueo? cia/aiiy aaeaac?eii?
i?oeiino? aoee aeinyaioo? i?e aaaaeaii? cai?iiiiiaaii? eiiieaenii?
aeiaaaee (5% OAE + 1% III). Aea/aany oaeiae aieea aeiaaaee OAE ?acii ?c
??ciiiai?oiith e?euee?noth iie?ia?o ia i?oei?noue i?ae /an noeneo ?
caeio c?ace?a ?c ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio. Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui
eiiieaenia aeiaaaea oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaeneiaeueiiai i?e?inoo
i?oeiino? i?ae /an noeneo ? caeio aaoiiieo c?ace?a.

Aaeaac?eia i?oei?noue aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith cia/ii aeua, i?ae
aaeaac?eia i?oei?noue aacaeiaaai/ieo aaoii?a (o 1,5…1,8 ?ace) o an?
oa?i?ie aei?iaoaaiue.

Aaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino?
aaoiio ia 1 aeiao i?e noeneo aei 55…60%, a i?e caei? — 40…50%; ia 3
aeiao i?e noeneo — 16…26%, i?e caei? — 24…30%. I?oei?noue, io?eiaia
ia 360 aeiao, a?eueoa, i?ae o aacaeiaaai/iiai aaoiio, i?e noeneo ia
20…30%, a i?e caei? — ia 27…35%. Oa?aeoa? e?iaoeee c?inoaiiy
i?oeiino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ia ??ciiiai?oieo oeaiaioao ? i?neao ?
aiaeia?/iee, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Eiao?oe??io aeaoaeoiino? no?oeoo?e aaoii?a i?e aaaaeaii? eiiieaenii?
aeiaaaee ieae/a, i?ae o eiio?ieueieo c?ace?a, o an? oa?i?ie oaa?ae?iiy,
ye aeey aaoiio ia Ieueoainueeiio oeaiaio? ? Aacethae?anueeiio i?neo, oae
? aeey aaoiio ia A?eai?iaenueeiio oeaiaio? ? Iiainae?anueeiio i?neo. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aaoii ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith ia? a?eueo
iaeii??aeio no?oeoo?o c iaioith aeaoaeoi?noth.

Aoee c?noaaeai? i?oei?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c
eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith oa ?c oe?iei canoiniao?iith aeiaaaeith AAe-20.
I?e oeueiio iaea?aeaiiy a?eueo aenieeo iieaciee?a ii aaeaac?ei?e
i?oeiino? aeinyaa?oueny aaaaeaiiyi 5% AAe-20 a?ae iane oeaiaioo o?eueee
i?ney 7…14 ae?a oaa?ae?iiy, ui iai?eeiyoii aeey ?aiiioo aenieoaoiaaieo
aac i?eieiaiiy ?ooo o?ainii?oo aaoiiia?eueieo iino?a. I?ney 90 ae?a
oaa?ae?iiy i?e??no aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? aaoiio ?c aeiaaaeith AAe-20
neeaaea? ia a?eueo 6,0…7,5 %, o ii??aiyii? c ae??aiica?ienoei aaoiiii
?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith. A?eueo aenie? cia/aiiy aaeaac?eiii?
i?oeiino? a 1 aeiao oaa?ae?iiy (ia 30…40%) caaacia/othoue e?auo
ni?eueio ?iaioo cai?iiiiiaaiiai ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c aaoiiii
eiino?oeoe?? ? ia i?ecaaaeooue aei a?aeoa?iaoaaiiy a ?aii? oa?i?ie
oaa?ae?iiy. I?e oeueiio ae??aiica?ienoee aaoii ?c eiiieaeniith
aeiaaaeith ia? e?auo aeeiai?eo iaai?o i?oeiino? a ?aii? oa?i?ie
oaa?ae?iiy (1…3 aeiaa), iniaeeai i?e caei?, ui iaea?eueoa aaaeeeai
aeey iinoiaeo i?ieueioieo eiino?oeoe?e. Oaeei /eiii, iniiai? i?oei?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith, o
ii??aiyii? c iie?ia?oeaiaioieie aaoiiaie c aeiaaaeith aiieneaeieo niie,
iathoue a?eueo aenie? cia/aiiy a ?aii? oa?i?ie oaa?ae?iiy, a i?ney 90
ae?a oaa?ae?iiy aiie i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeia?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaoaeoiino? no?oeoo?e ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c
eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith iaoiaeii ethi?ianoeaioii? aeaoaeoineii??
iieacaei ?o iaea?eueo u?eueio e iaeii??aeio no?oeoo?o, o ii??aiyii? c
aacaeiaaai/iei aaoiiii. Cia/ii nei?i/o?oueny e?euee?noue e?oiieo ii? (r
> 1000 iei). Ii?e ?iciiae?eai? a?eueo ??aiii??ii a ia’?i? c?aceo oa
?cieueiaai? iaeia a?ae iaeii?, oi?ia ?o ia?aaaaeii ie?oaea.

Iioeei-i?e?ineii?/iei iaoiaeii aecia/aii, ui ca ?aooiie aaaaeaiiy
eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ?noioii nei?i/o?oueny cia/ia ii?eno?noue, a /anoea
ae??aieo ii? aeey ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a c?inoa?. Aiie iaaoaathoue
?cieueiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o c /?oei ae?aaeaiith eieueiaoaoe??th ii?iaiai
i?inoi?o iie?ia?ii. Nooi?iue a?ae?aoaoe?? a’yaeo/iai, o ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieueiei neeaaeii (aacaeiaaai/iei aaoiiii), c?inoa? a?eueo, i?ae ia
10%, i?e/iio a?ae?aoe iiaeai? a iniiaiiio iecueeiiniiaieie oi?iaie.
Oa?aeoa?ia aeey ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith
ou?eueiaiiy no?oeoo?e aeyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? nei?i/aiiy i?aeca?iiaiai
i?inoi?o aei 60 iei (o na?aaeiueiio), a oaeiae ou?eueiaii? ciie
eiioaeoo.

Aea/aiiy ii?enoino? a i?ici?eo oe?oao aeicaieeei eiinoaooaaoe, ui
ae??aiica?ienoee aaoii ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith i?aeoe/ii ia ia? ii?
?ici??ii a?eueo 500 iei, ia a?aei?io a?ae eiio?ieueiiai neeaaeo, ui ia?
aei 9% oaeeo i??. O eiio?ieueiiio neeaae? ia?aaaaeathoue ii?e ?ici??ii
100…500 iei, ui o noi? neeaaeathoue aei 70%. Aaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii?
aeiaaaee ea?aeeiaeueii ci?ith? no?oeoo?o ii?iaiai i?inoi?o. Cia/ii
ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue ii? ?ici??ii 100…500 iei (aei 30%), a
iaeneioi ia?aaaaeiiai ?ici??o ii? c?ooo?oueny o a?e ciaioaiiy ae?aiao?a.
Oae, ii?e ?ici??ii aei 100 iei neeaaeathoue ii?yaeeo 70%, o naith /a?ao,
ii?e iaio 50 iei iaea?eueo aaaaoi/eneaii? a o?e? aaoiio ? neeaaeathoue
37% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?.

Caaaeueia ii?eno?noue c?ace?a ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a eiio?ieueiiai
neeaaeo, ui oaa?ae?thoue o ii?iaeueieo oiiaao, neeaea 21,5%, a c?ace?a
?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith (5% OAE + 1% III) — 17,0%. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe
ocaiaeaeothoueny ?c aeaieie, io?eiaieie ca iaoiaeeeith A.A.
Oo?eanoaiiaa. Aeayea ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiue iiynith?oueny oei, ui
a?aeiia?aeii aei aeaieo iioe/ii? i?e?ineii?? a aaoii? ? ?cieueiaai?
ii?e, iaaeinooii? aeey i?iieeiaiiy aiaee.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ?*-niaeo?ineii?? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ooai?aiiy ei?ioeeo
aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a i?ae eeniai nee?eaoiiai e aethi?iaoiiai ea?eana ?
aiaeiai ?aaeoe?eii? II-a?oie iiaeeo?eiaaiiai iaioaooaeueiaiai iie?ia?o.
Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iacia/iei cnoaii /anoioe eieeaaiue ia 10…15
ni-1 a iaeano? iiaeeiaiiy nee?eaoiiai ea?eano (956 ni-1).

Ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ?ici???a iiaeeiaiiy nioa (950…970 ni-1 ? 1400…
1500 ni-1) ioe?ithaaee iniiai?noue a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th. Aeey an?o
neeaae?a oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeineoue aeniea, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeeaa
ooai?aiiy iecueeiiniiaieo a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th (CaI/SiO2<1). O neeaaeao ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith, o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiei neeaaeii, ?ioaineai?noue iiaeeiaiiy a iaeano? 11,0...6…6,0 iei i?aeaeuo?oueny, ui aeaco? ia iacia/ia cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? iecueeiiniiaieo a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th. Oea iia'ycaii c ooai?aiiyi e??i a?ae?inee?eao?a ?c a?aeiioaiiyi CaI/SiO2<1 ua e aeayei? e?eueeino? a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th c iniiai?noth CaI/SiO21, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny ?c oaa?aeaeaiiyi TH.N. *a?e?inueeiai i?i iiaeeeaee aieea iie?ia?o (ui aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee) ia a?ae?aoaoe?th o?ueioeaeueoe??aiai nee?eaoo. E??i oeueiai, ae?oaee eiiiiiaio eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee, i?enei?thaa/ oaa?ae?iiy, oaeiae ni?ey? c?inoaiith ?ioaineaiino? iiaeeiaiiy a iaeano? 11,0...6,0 iei ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioieo i?ia?ae?a. Iayai?noth ?ii?a II- iaoiiaeaia iiyaa ia niaeo?ao aocueei? nioae iiaeeiaiiy c iaeneioiii i?e 3630 ni-1. Iiaeeiaiiy i?e 3644 ni-1 (2,77 iei) aeaco? ia ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? a?ae?ieneaeo eaeueoe?th a neeaaeao ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiei neeaaeii. Oea iaoiiaeth? caa??aaiiy aeiaaino?ieiai? i?oeiino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith. Iaeneioi a iaeano? 3420 ni-1 na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue iieaeoe aaeni?aiaaii? aiaee ia i?iaeoeoao a?ae?aoaoe??. Iieiaeaiiy iaeneioio iiaeeiaiiy ia ?*-niaeo?? eiio?ieueiiai neeaaeo i?e 3428...3432 ni-1 a?aeiia?aea? eiioeaio?aoe?? aaeni?aiaaii? aiaee a e?eueeino? a?ey 70% ca ?aooiie ia?aaaae a iueiio iecueeiiniiaieo a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th c? ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi CaI/SiO2<1. Cnoa oeueiai iaeneioio a iaeanoue 3452...3456 ni-1 ia ?*-niaeo?ao neeaae?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith aeaco? ia ciaioaiiy (ia 12…15%) ai?noo aaeni?aiaaii? aiaee, ui iai?yii oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a?aecia/aia aeua aeayea ciaioaiiy ai?noo iecueeiiniiaieo a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th c? ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi CaI/SiO21, oiio ui ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? i?oeii ca'ycaii? aiaee oa?aeoa?ia aeey a?ae?io?e?coth/eo aeiaaaie. Ieanoeo?eo/ee aoaeo aeiaaaee III iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaiee ooai?aiiyi i???ioiaaieo ie?aie iie?ia?o i?ae /anoeaie caiiaithaa/a oa aiaee. Aaaaeaiiy iie?ia?o ?iaeoue no?oeoo?o aaoiio a?eueo u?eueiith ? ae??aiiii?enoith, aeia?iaoaaiiy aiaee c iueiai ??cei cieaeo?oueny ?, ye iane?aeie oeueiai, onaaeea ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith cieaeo?oueny a 1,5...2,0 ?ace a on? oa?i?ie oaa?ae?iiy, i?ae o aaoiio aac aeiaaaee. Iano?eueee iaeo onaaeeo ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith iiaeia iiynieoe aenieith ni?iiiaei?noth ieanoeo?eoth/i? aeiaaaee III, ui aoiaeeoue aei ?? neeaaeo, ? a?aeiia?aeiei ciaioaiiyi aiaeiiio?aae. E??i oeueiai, ie?aea iie?ia?o oiia?eueith? i?ioean aeia?iaoaaiiy aiaee c aae?ai? a?ae?aoii? neeaaeiai? oeaiaioiiai eaiaith, a ioaea, ? ciaioo? aeaoi?iaoe?th onaaeee. Aaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee i?ecaiaeeoue aei iacia/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy iiaeoeth i?oaeiino? oa eiao?oe??ioo oaiia?aoo?iiai ?icoe?aiiy aaoiio (oaae. 1). Aeecuee? cia/aiiy oeeo iieaciee?a aeey ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith oa aaoiiii iinoiai? eiino?oeoe?? aeicaiey? aeiiiaoeny ?o aeia?i? ni?eueii? i?aoe? ? caiia?aoe iiaeeeaino? a?aeoa?iaoaaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?o a?eueoo ia?aaaao, o ii??aiyii? c ae??aiica?ienoeie aaoiiaie c aeiaaaeith AAe-20. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? eiioaeoo i?ae cai?iiiiiaaieie ae??aiica?ienoeie aaoiiaie ? “noa?ei” aaoiiii a oiiaao noeueoaoii? aa?an??, a oaeiae aaaaoi?aciaiai caii?iaeoaaiiy-a?aeoathaaiiy, iieacaee ca?eueoaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? eiioaeoo i?e aaaaeaii? eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee a ?aiiioiee neeaae. I?ney 12 i?n aeo?eioaaiiy a 5% ?ic/ei? Na2SO4 on? c?acee iieacaee cieaeaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino?. I?e oeueiio aaeaac?eia i?oei?noue aaoiio eiio?ieueiiai neeaaeo neeaea 70% a?ae ii/aoeiaiai cia/aiiy, a ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith - 86%, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeiaaia?/i?noue eiioaeoo i?e aeei?enoaii? cai?iiiiiaaiiai ?aiiioiiai neeaaeo aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o aaoiio iinoiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e. Oaaeeoey 1 - Aenieoaoaoe?ei? ? aeaoi?iaoeai? aeanoeaino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a Aeiaaaea Aiaeiiiaeeiai- iy, % Ia?ea ca aiaeiiai?i- Ia?ea ca ii?i- Iiaeoeue i?oaeiino?, Eiao?oe??io oaiia?aoo?iiai Ca ianithCa ia’?iii ieei?noth, ao? cino?e-e?noth IIa ?icoe?aiiy, C-1 - 8,6 19,0 W2 F100 3,18 104 9,0 10-6 5% OAE + 1% III 5,4 12,1 W10 F200 3,79 104 10,1 10-6 5% AAe-20 4,9 10,7 W10 F200 4,14 104 12,0 10-6 Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue, ui aaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee cia/ii i?aeaeuo? aeiaaia?/i?noue aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? c aaoiiii eiino?oeoe?? i?e aieea? aaaaoi?aciaiai caii?iaeoaaiiy-a?aeoathaaiiy ia ieiuo ciio eiioaeoo, o ii??aiyii? c aacaeiaaai/iei (eiio?ieueiei) neeaaeii. I?e oeueiio, cieaeaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? i?ney 200 oeeee?a caii?iaeoaaiiy-a?aeoathaaiiy neeaaea? onueiai 7...8%, ia a?aei?io a?ae eiio?ieueieo c?ace?a, ui iieacaee cieaeaiiy aei 25%. Aeey aecia/aiiy iiaeeeaino? iiyae ei?ic?? a?iaoo?e iaie aoee i?iaaaeai? aei??e ?ici??o ?I aiaeieo aeoyaeie ?c ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio a?ae?aco i?ney caoai?aiiy, e o a?oe? a?ae 28 ae?a aei 21 i?n ca iaoiaeeeith, cai?iiiiiaaiith A.E. *a?iyanueeei. Aeiaaaea oei?eae?a - i?enei?thaa/?a, ye i?aaeei, i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ?I aiaeieo aeoyaeie aaoiio (11,4...11,7). Iaeiae, aaaaeaiiy iie?ia?o a neeaae? eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe eoaei?noue na?aaeiaeua aaoiio (11,7...12,2) ? oieeiooe iiaeeeaino? iiyae ei?ic?? a?iaoo?e. Aacaeiaaai/iee ae??aiica?ienoee aaoii i?ioyaii onueiai ia??iaeo aea/aiiy iieacaa cia/aiiy ?I a ?ioa?aae? a?ae 11,6...12,1. Iienaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee ?I aiaeieo aeoyaeie ?c ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio aoea aeiiiaiaia i?yiith ioe?ieith ei?ic?? noaeaai? a?iaoo?e, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a aaoii?. ?nieoe iieyaaee o caa?aaeaii? a ??cieo oiiaao c?ace?a-eoa?a c a?iaoo?ith ? aeoyaoaaii? ?? c ianooiiei oioia?aooaaiiyi. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaiiai neeaaeo c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith a on?o oiiaao caa?aaeaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy ei?ic?? a?iaoo?e ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy eoaeiino? na?aaeiaeua aaoiio, iaea?aeaiiy a?eueo u?eueiiai aaoiio ? eieueiaoaoe?? ii? iie?ia?ii. Iaea?eueo ?ioaineaia ei?ic?y noaeaai? a?iaoo?e a aeine?aeaeoaaieo aaoiiao a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e ia?ai?iiiio caa?aaeaii? o aiae? oa o iia?o?yii-nooiio noai?, a oae naii a 5% ?ic/ei? NaCl oa o iia?o?yii-nooiio noai?. ?nieoe aaeaac?eiii? i?oeiino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a aei a?iaoo?e i?iaiaeeee oeyoii i?iaeaaethaaiiy caoi?iiaaiieo aa?oeeaeueii a?iaoo?ieo no?eaei?a e??cue o?ei aaoiio. Io?eiai? aeai? i?aeoaa?aeeee ca?eueoaiiy c/aieaiiy ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith c? noaeaaith a?iaoo?ith ia 10...25%, ia a?aei?io a?ae aacaeiaaai/ieo aaoii?a. Canoinoaaiiy iiia?aaeiueiai ii?aoethaaiiy iiaa?oi? o?eueee oeaiaioiith noniaic??th ia?aae iaianaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aiiioieo neeaae?a aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe iacia/ia ca?eueoaiiy i?oeiino? c/aieaiiy c? “noa?ei” aaoiiii (6...8%). I?oei?noue c/aieaiiy ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith c? “noa?ei” aaoiiii i?e iaianaii? ia nooo iiaa?oith aoaea neeaaeaoe 82...86% a?ae i?oeiino? c?acea, aeaioiaeaiiai ?c aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio. Iiia?aaei? ii?aoethaaiiy oeaiaioiith noniaic??th aeicaieeoue iaea?aeaoe cia/aiiy i?oeiino? c/aieaiiy, ??ai? 90...92%. O ?ICAe?E? 4 i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoea i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeia ia?aa??ea iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a ?c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith aeey ?aiiioo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e. O aeiaoi? 1997 ?. ia aac? AeEI “Oa?e?anueeee A?ae?ii?no” ?aiiioo i?aeaeaeany cae?ciaaoiiia aaeea i?ieueioii? aoaeiae ia iinoo a i. Oa?eia? i?ae Aeaen??aeith oa Iaaeiaei Iieai. O na?ii? 1998 ?. ca aeiiiaeai?noth c Oa?e?anueeei Iaeaaoiaei?ii ? Iiaiaiaeieacueeei AeAO aoei i?iaaaeaia a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o ieaeiueiai iiyno aaeee i?ie?oii? aoae?ae? (i?ioyaii 7,5 i) ia iinoo /a?ac ??eo Oaee i?ae Oa?eiaii. O ea?oi? 1999 ?. ia aac? “Aoae?aaeueiiai Oi?aiaiai Aoaeeieo” aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoaeeieo Oe?a?inueei? oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? aeaaeai?? (i. Oa?e?a) aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeii-i?iieneia? ?nieoe ii iaianaiith ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith ia iano/? aaeee ? ia?ae?eooy niiniaii iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy. Niinoa?aaeaiiy i?ioyaii 1,5 ?ieo ia iinoo a i. Oa?eia? ? i?ioyaii 9 i?n, aeeth/ath/e ceiiaee ia??iae, ia iinoo /a?ac ??eo Oaee iieacaei a?aenooi?noue onaaei/ieo o??uei ? a?aeoa?iaoaaiiy a?aeiiaeaiiai caoeniiai oa?o a?ae aaoiio iinoiai? cae?ciaaoiiii? eiino?oeoe??. I?iaiiciaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo ca ia??iae aenieoaoaoe?? cae?ciaaoiiiiai iinoa (aeiaaeeia - 100 i, aaaa?eo - 11,5 i) a?ae canoinoaaiiy ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o iinoiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e neeaaea 9150 a?i. AENIIAEE 1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaei??th c aieiaieo i?e/ei cieaeaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e iino?a ? ?oeiaoe?y caoeniiai oa?o aaoiio c iaieaiiyi a?iaoo?e. 2. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e aeieia?/ii aacia/i? ae??aiica?ieno? oeaiaioi? aaoiie c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith, ui aeeth/a? i?enei?thaa/ oaa?ae?iiy ? iie?ia?, ui o e?eueeinoyo 5% ? 1%, a?aeiia?aeii, caaacia/othoue aenie? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? e aioeei?ic?ei? aeanoeaino? caoeniiai oa?o cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e. 3. Oai?aoe/ii ?icaeyiooi iaoai?ci i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?? aaoiio caoeniiai oa?o aei ooeiaeaeaiiai aaoiio cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, ui iieyaa? a aeaeo?inoaoe/i?e aca?iiae?? i?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiith II-a?oiith iie?ia?ii? neeaaeiai? eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ?c iiaa?oiath aaoiio. 4. Iieacaii, ui aaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee aei ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy i?oeiino? i?e noeneo ia 30%, i?e caei? ia 40% ? aaeaac?? ia 80%. 5. Iacaeaaeieie iaoiaeaie o?ceei-o?i?/iiai aiae?co anoaiiaeaia oi?ioaaiiy iaeii??aeii? u?eueii? no?oeoo?e ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio caoeniiai oa?o a ?acoeueoao? ou?eueiaiiy eiioaeoii? ciie i?ae eiiiiiaioaie, ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? e?oiieo ii? ? c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ae??aieo ii?, eieueiaoiaaieo iie?ia?ii, ca?eueoaiiy ia 10% nooiaiy a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo, a oaeiae noai?aiiy aiaeiaaeo ca'yce?a II-a?oi iie?ia?ii? neeaaeiai? eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ? a?ae?ao?a oeaiaioiiai eaiaith. 6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee aeicaiey? cieceoe e?euee?noue aiaee cai?ooaaiiy ia 10...15% aac ci?ie c?o/iioeeaaeaeueiino? noi?o?, i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy ii?icino?eeino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a o caoeniiio oa?? ia 2 nooiaiy, aiaeiiai?iieeiino? - aei 10 ao?, noeueoaoino?eeino? - o 1,2 ?ace, a oaeiae aeicaiey? cieceoe a ia??iae oaa?ae?iiy ?ici?? onaaeee a 1,5...2,0 ?ace. 7. Iieacaii, ui i?ae ae??th noeueoaoiiai na?aaeiaeua ? aaaaoi?aciaiai caii?iaeoaaiiy oa a?aeoathaaiiy aaeaac?eia i?oei?noue caoeniiai oa?o c ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio ?c cai?iiiiiaaiith eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith cieaeo?oueny ia 7...14%, o ii??aiyii? c aacaeiaaai/iei aaoiiii (25...30%). 8. Iieacaii, ui aaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee i?aeaeuo? eoaei?noue ??aeei? oace aaoiio a caoeniiio oa?? aei cia/aiiy ?I 11,7...12,2, ui ? ni?eyoeeaith oiiaith aeey caaacia/aiiy oe?eino? noaeaai? a?iaoo?e. 9. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii aoaeoeai?noue ?aiiioo ? a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o aaoiio iinoiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e ae??aiica?ienoeie aaoiiaie c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith niiniaii iiiie?oiiai aaoiioaaiiy ia aaoiaei?iaei?o iinoao o Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?. Iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo ?ic?iaie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino? iano/eo aeaiaio?a aoaeeieo a i. Oa?eia? niiniaii oi?e?aooaaiiy. I?e oeueiio aeinyaioo? aeiiii?y /ano ? i?aoeaaeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai ?ia?o, nei?i/aiiy aeo?aoe aeaeo?iaia?a?? oa iaoa??ae?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo: 1. Aoaaaaneee N.A., ?aaeeicoaia A.A. ?aiiioiue ninoaa n iiieaeaiiie i?iieoeaaiinoueth // Aanoiee Aeiiaanneie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oaoeeoo?u. - Iaeaaaea. - 1998. - Aui. ?1(9). - N. 12-16. 2. Aoaaaaneee N.A. Ei??icey a?iaoo?u aeaeaciaaoiiiuo iinoia e iaoiaeu aa ono?aiaiey // Nai?iee aeieeaaeia Oe?. iaaeio?aneaaiai iao/ii-i?aeoe/. naieia?a ”No/ani? i?iaeaie i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe?? nii?oae ia oeyoao niieo/aiiy.” - E: O?ainii?oia Aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie. - 1998. - N. 34-38. 3. Aoaaaaneee N.A., Eoeei I.I., Ieueaeineee A.A. ?aiiioiue ninoaa aeey caueoiiai neiy aeaeaciaaoiiiuo iinoia // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiiai oaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. - 1998. - Aui. 7. - N. 65-67. 4. Aoaaaaneee N.A., ?aaeeicoaia A.A. Iiauoaiea noeaieaiey ?aiiioiiai ninoaaa ni noa?ui aaoiiii e a?iaoo?ie // Iaoeiaee a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa. - 1998. - Aei. 4. - N. 118-121. 5. Aoaaaaneee N.A. Aeeyiea aeiaaaee iieeia?a ia naienoaa iaeeica?ienoiai (ian/aiiai) aaoiia // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiiai oaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. - 1998. - Aui. 8. - N. 65-68. 6. Aoaaaaneee N.A., ?aaeeicoaia A.A. Iaoa?eaeu aeey ?aiiioa caueoiiai neiy aeaeaciaaoiiiuo iinoiauo eiino?oeoeee // Iaoeiaee a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa. - 1999. - Aei. 5. - N. 40-43. 7. Eoeei I.I., Ieueaeineee A.A., Aoaaaaneee N.A., ?aaeeicoaia A.A. Ninoaa aaoiiiie niane. Iieiaeeoaeueiia ?aoaiea ? 98115832. 1999 aiae. AIIOAOe?ss Aoaa?anueeiai N. I. Ae??aiica?ieno? oeaiaioi? aaoiie c aeiaaaeith iie?ia?a aeey ?aiiioo iinoiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.05 - aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae. - Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ??oaiith aeooaeueii? i?iaeaie noai?aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo, aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo aaoiiieo noi?oae ia iniia? aeinooiieo i?noeaaeo eiiiiiaio?a aeey ?aiiioo cae?ciaaoiiieo ?, cie?aia, iinoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e. Noai?aiiy aaoiiieo noi?oae aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo, oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaieo iecueeiiiaeoeueieo i?ne?a ? eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee, eiiiiiaioe yei? aeicaieythoue ??ciiiai?oieie niiniaaie i?iaiaeeoe a?aeiiaeaiiy caoeniiai oa?o aaoiio e a?iaoo?e cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e aac i?eieiaiiy ?ooo o?ainii?oo. Anoaiiaeaii iaoai?ci ae?? ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a ? eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee a oe?eiio ia i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?? aei iiaa?oi?, ui ?aiiioo?oueny. Aeiaaaeaii iiceoeaiee aieea eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ia o?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a o a?aeiiaeaieo caoenieo oa?ao iinoiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e. Aeinyaiooi ?aeaioe/i?noue aeaoi?iaoeaieo aeanoeainoae a?aeiiaeaiiai caoeniiai oa?o ?c ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith c aaoiiii iinoiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaeaac?y, ae??aiica?ienoee aaoii, caoeniee oa?, eiiieaenia aeiaaaea, iinoia? cae?ciaaoiii? eiino?oeoe??. THE SUMMARY Bygaevsky S.A. Fine cement concrete with polimer additive for the repair of reinforced cencrete bridge structures. - Manuscript. Thesis for Ph. D. Degree by speciality 05.23.05 - construction materials and products - Kharkov State automobile and hidway technical university, Kharkov, 1999. Thesis dedicated to the solution of current problem of creating technological ecologically safe compositions on the base of local components for the repair of reinforced concrete, and particularly of bridge structures. Creation of compositions is based on the use of portland cement, widespreaded low-modulus sands and complex additives, components of which allow to rehalibitate the defence layer of concrete and reinforcement without stopping the traffic by different methods. Established action mechanism of certain components and the complex additive itself on increasing adhesion to the repaired surface. Proved the positive influence of complex additive on physico-mehanical and performance properties of fine concrete in rehalibitated defence layers of bridges reinforced cement concrete structures. Achieved the identity of deformation properties of rehalibitated fine concrete defence layer with complex additive with the concrete of bridges reinforced concrete structures. Kay words: adhesion, fine concrete, defence layer, complex additive, bridge reinforced concrete structures. AIIIOAOeEss Aoaaaaneee N.A. Iaeeica?ienoua oeaiaioiua aaoiiu n aeiaaaeie iieeia?a aeey ?aiiioa iinoiauo aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeee. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.05 - no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey. - Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?aoaieth aeooaeueiie i?iaeaiu nicaeaiey oaoiieiae/iuo, yeieiae/anee aaciianiuo aaoiiiuo nianae ia iniiaa aeinooiiuo ianoiuo eiiiiiaioia aeey ?aiiioa aeaeaciaaoiiiuo e, a /anoiinoe, iinoiauo eiino?oeoeee. A ?aaioa i?iaiaeece?iaaiu oa?aeoa?iua aeaoaeou nouanoaothueo oeiia iinoiauo eiino?oeoeee, oeie/iua i?e/eiu ?ac?ooaiey caueoiiai neiy aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeee iinoia, a oaeaea iaoa?eaeu e oaoiieiaee ?aiiioa. Aaaaeaiea onei?eoaey oaa?aeaiey e iieeia?a a aeaea eiiieaeniie aeiaaaee a iaeeica?ienoua aaoiiu ia iniiaa ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue onei?aieth i?ioeannia no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey e iiauoaieth aaeaaceiiiuo naienoa caueoiiai neiy aaoiia aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeeyo, iaania/eo aunieoth aiaeiiai?iieoeaaiinoue e ii?icinoieeinoue, nicaeano oneiaey aeey aeieaia?aiaiiie niaianoiie ?aaiou n ?aiiioe?oaiie eiino?oeoeeae. A enneaaeiaaieyo i?eiaiyeny eiiieaen iacaaeneiuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiee, n o/aoii eo yenia?eiaioaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe e ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe. A ianoiyuae ?aaioa, e?iia noaiaea?oiuo (ii?aaeaeaiea i?i/iinoe ia naeaoea e ?anoyaeaiea i?e ecaeaa, aiaeiiiaeiuaiey, aiaeii?iieoeaaiinoe, ii?icinoieeinoe, onaaeee, ei??iceiiiie noieeinoe e ae?.), eniieueciaaeny ?yae niaoeeaeueiuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiee: ethieianoeaioiay aeaoaeoineiiey, iioe/aneay iee?ineiiey, eio?ae?aniay niaeo?ineiiey (niaeo?ioioiiao? “Spekord-M80”). Eco/aiea iiaeoey oi?oainoe e eiyooeoeeaioa oaiia?aoo?iiai ?anoe?aiey iaeeica?ienouo aaoiiia auiieiaii ia onoaiiaeao, ?ac?aaioaiiuo ia eaoaae?a oaoiieiaee aei?iaeii-no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia OAAAeOO. E?iia oiai, enneaaeiaaeanue aaeaaceiiiay i?i/iinoue aaoiiia ?acee/iuo ninoaaia e aaoiio e a?iaoo?a eiino?oeoeee, a oaeaea eciaiaiea i?i/iinoe eiioaeoa iaaeaeo iaeeica?ienoui aaoiiii ainnoaiiaeaiiiai caueoiiai neiy e “noa?ui” aaoiiii eiino?oeoeee iiae aeaenoaeai noeueoaoiie ei??icee e iiiaie?aoiiai caii?aaeeaaiey-iooaeaaiey ia ninoaaiuo aaei/eao ii i?aaeeiaeaiiui iaie iaoiaeeeai. A ?aaioa ?anniio?ai iaoaieci iiauoaiey aaeaacee aaoiia caueoiiai neiy e iia?aaeaeaiiie aeaeaciaaoiiiie eiino?oeoeee, caeeth/athueeny a yeaeo?inoaoe/aneii acaeiiaeaenoaee iaaeaeo ooieoeeiiaeueiie II-a?oiiie iieeia?iie ninoaaeythuae aeiaaaee e iiaa?oiinoueth aaoiia, i?eaiaeyuai e ia?aciaaieth aiaei?iaeiuo naycae. Aaaaeaiea eiiieaeniie aeiaaaee a iaeeica?ienoue aaoii i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth i?i/iinoe i?e naeaoee aei 30%, i?e ecaeaa aei 40% e aaeaacee aei 80%. Iacaaeneiuie iaoiaeaie oeceei-oeie/aneiai aiaeeca onoaiiaeaii oi?ie?iaaiea iaeii?iaeiie ieioiie no?oeoo?u iaeeica?ienoiai aaoiia caueoiiai neiy a ?acoeueoaoa oieioiaiey eiioaeoiie ciiu iaaeaeo eiiiiiaioaie, oiaiueoaiea e?oiiuo ii? e aic?anoaiea eiee/anoaa iaeeeo ii?, eieueiaoe?iaaiiuo iieeia?ii, a oaeaea oaaee/aiea ia 10% noaiaie aeae?aoaoeee oeaiaioa. E?iia oiai, onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaaaeaiea eiiieaeniie aeiaaaee iicaieyao nieceoue aiaeioeaiaioiia ioiioaiea ia 10…15% aac eciaiaiey oaeiaioeeaaeuaaaiinoe niane, i?eaiaeeo e iiauoaieth ii?icinoieeinoe iaeeica?ienouo aaoiiia a caueoiii neia ia 2 nooiaie, aiaeiiai?iieoeaaiinoe - aei 10 aoe, noeueoaoinoieeinoe - a 1,2 ?aca, a oaeaea iicaieyao nieceoue a ia?eiae oaa?aeaiey aaee/eio onaaeee a 1,5...2,0 ?aca. Iieo/aiu aeaiiua, /oi iinea aicaeaenoaey noeueoaoiie n?aaeu e iiiaie?aoiiai caii?aaeeaaiey e iooaeaaiey aaeaaceiiiay i?i/iinoue caueoiiai neiy ec iaeeica?ienoiai aaoiia n i?aaeeiaeaiiie eiiieaeniie aeiaaaeie nieaeaaony ia 7...14%, ii n?aaiaieth n aacaeiaaai/iui aaoiiii (25…30%). Aaaaeaiea eiiieaeniie aeiaaaee iiauoaao uaei/iinoue aioo?aiiae n?aaeu aaoiia a caueoiii neia aei cia/aiey ?I 11,7…12,2, /oi yaeyaony aeaaii?eyoiui oneiaeai aeey iaania/aiey nio?aiiinoe noaeueiie a?iaoo?u. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey iaeeica?ienouo aaoiiiuo nianae n i?aaeeiaeaiiie eiiieaeniie aeiaaaeie i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?eiaiaiea noaiaea?oiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e ioee/aaony eeoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth niaoeaaiey eiiiiiaioia. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaia yooaeoeaiinoue ?aiiioa e ainnoaiiaeaiey caueoiiai neiy aaoiia iinoiauo aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiino?oeoeee iaeeica?ienouie aaoiiaie n eiiieaeniie aeiaaaeie niiniaii iiiieeoiiai aaoiie?iaaiey ia aaoiaei?iaeiuo iinoao a Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe. Ainnoaiiaeaiiay iiaa?oiinoue aeaeaciaaoiia ia i?aoa?iaea eciaiaiee i?e aicaeaenoaee ia i?ioyaeaiee 1,5 eao e 9 ian. Iieo/aii nieaeaiea noieiinoe aaoiia ?aiiioiiai ninoaaa aieaa /ai ia 40%, ii n?aaiaieth n i?eiaiyaiuie iaeeica?ienouie aaoiiaie n aeiaaaeaie yiieneaeiuo niie. Iieacaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue eniieueciaaiey iieo/aiiuo ?ac?aaioie aeey iiauoaiey yenieoaoaoeeiiiie iaaeaaeiinoe ianoueo aaeie e ia?ae?uoee caeaiey a a. Oa?ueeiaa niiniaii oi?e?aoe?iaaiey. I?eiaiaiea iaeeica?ienouo aaoiiia n i?aaeeiaeaiiie eiiieaeniie aeiaaaeie iicaieeei nie?aoeoue ioneie aaoiia i?e oi?e?aoe?iaaiee a 2 ?aca, /oi i?eaaei e yeiiiiee a?aiaie e o?oaeicao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai ?aaio, nie?auaieth ?anoiaea yeaeo?iyia?aee e iaoa?eaeia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaeaacey, iaeeica?ienoue aaoii, caueoiue neie, eiiieaeniay aeiaaaea, iinoiaua aeaeaciaaoiiiua eiino?oeoeee.

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