OAEAI?IAeNUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IA?A?OE* IEEIEA IEAEN?EIAE*

OAeE 539.184.52

539.186.2

AeINE?AeAEAIIss I?IOeAN?A ?II?CAOe??

IAOANOAA?EUeIEO AOII?A Mg, Ca, Sr,Aa

AEAEO?IIIEI OAeA?II

01.04.04 — o?ce/ia aeaeo?ii?ea

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oaeai?iae – 1999

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?iaeaii?e iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e eaai?aoi???

o?ce/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oao?aiueio ?aai ?aaiiae/

Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e eaaioiai? aeaeo?ii?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaco? Aieiaeeie? TH??eiae/

Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe, no.i.n.

?i?a A?iaae Eineiiae/

?inoeooo aeaeo?iiii? o?ceee
IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
aeaeo?iieo i?ioean?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 6 » o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E61.051.01 i?e Oaeai?iaenueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 294000,i.Oaeai?iae, aoe.
I?aea??ia, 46.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oaeai?iaenueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo (i.Oaeai?iae, aoe.Eai?ooeueia, 9)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 31 » aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

ae.o.-i.i.,i?io.
Aeaoeeai Ae.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiue.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?e aeaeo?ii?a c aoiiaie
aeeeeeai? iio?aaaie i?ciaaaeueiiai oa i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ii/aoie
aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?eiaaea? ia ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
eaaioiai-iaoai?/iiai iieno aoaeiae i?e?ina?oo (30 — o? ?iee OO — ai
noie?ooy). Na?aae i?ioean?a, ye? oiae? iaea?eueo oaaaeii
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, ne?ae iacaaoe i?oaeia ?icn?thaaiiy aeaeo?ii?a ia
i?inoeo aoiiao oa iieaeoeao, caoaeaeaiiy oa ?ii?caoe?y aoii?a ?c
iniiaieo noai?a aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii. I?ioeane aca?iiae?e aeaeo?ii?a ?c
caoaeaeaieie aoiiaie ?icaeyaeaeeny eeoa ye i?eioeeiiai iiaeeea?. ?o
aeine?aeaeaiiy (ye aenia?eiaioaeuei?, oae ? oai?aoe/i?) ua i?ioyaii
o?eaaeiai /ano ia i?iaiaeeeeny c i?e/ei a?aenooiino? eiino?oeoeaieo
?aeae, iaoiaeee oa a?aeiia?aeieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo cania?a.

Ianooiiee ?iioeuen, ui ni?e/eiea ianooaaia ?icai?oaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeo?ii-aoiiieo aca?iiae?e, aoa aeeeeeaiee
ona?aeiieaiiyi oi?eaeueieo iiaeeeainoae oaoi?/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ieacie.
Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui iae?ineii?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ieacie (?ioaineai?noue
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, eiioeaio?aoe?y ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie oa ?o aia?aaoe/iee
?iciiae?e, oaiia?aoo?a oa ?i.) aecia/athoueny aeaiaioa?ieie i?ioeanaie
aca?iiae?e /anoeiie ieacie, aeieeea iio?aaa o iaae?eieo oa nenoaiaoe/ieo
aeaieo i?i aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce oa eiao?oe??ioe oaeaeeinoae
aeaeo?ii-aoiiieo aca?iiae?e. Ii?yae ?c i?iaeaiaie i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o
noaaeeeny ? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? caaea/?, coiiaeai? iaiao?aei?noth
iiaeeaeaiiy iaoeo oyaeaiue i?i aeanoeaino? aoiiieo nenoai oa ?o aoaeiao.

Iine?aeiaiee iien an?o i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ieaci?,
aeiaaa? a?aeiiinoae ? i?i oa?aeoa?enoeee aca?iiae?e aeaeo?ii?a ?c
caoaeaeaieie aoiiaie. A oe?ieiio eean? caoaeaeaieo aoiiieo noai?a
iniaeeaa i?noea caeiathoue iaoanoaa?euei? noaie, /an aeeooy yeeo
a?eueoee ca 10-5n, aiane?aeie /iai ?o eiioeaio?aoe?? o ieaci? ?
a?aeiinii aaeeeeie. Ne?ae aeiaeaoe, ui ii?iaia? cia/aiiy aia?a??
iai?oaeieo i?ioean?a ca o/anoth aeaeo?ii?a oa iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a
nooo?ai iiieaeothoueny, a aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce oeeo i?ioean?a iiaeooue ia
ii?yaeie ? a?eueoa ia?aaeuoaaoe ia?a??ce aca?iiae?? aeaeo?ii?a c
aoiiaie, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a iniiaiiio noai?. Aiane?aeie oeeo i?e/ei a
ieaci? ca iaaieo oiia iai?oaei? i?ioeane aca?iiae?e aeaeo?ii?a ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieie aoiiaie iiaeooue noaoe aeii?ioth/eie. Iniaeeaa ?ieue
i?e oeueiio a?aeaiaeeoueny i?ioeanai ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a,
ine?eueee naia aiie, a ia?oo /a?ao, aecia/athoue eiioeaio?aoe?th
ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie a ieaci?, ?? a?aeiinio aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue oa
aia?aaoe/iee aaeain. A oie aea /an aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a aeeiiai? eeoa aeey
iaiaaeaiiai /enea o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a. Aei oiai ae iaai? noaeaeaiiy i?i
aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iiaeooue aooe c?iaeai? eeoa aeey
aoii?a aiaeith oa aae?th. Ui noino?oueny aeine?aeaeaiue ?ioeo ia’?eo?a
(aoiie ?ia?oieo aac?a oa aeaye? aoiie iaoae?a), oi aiie ?
o?aaiaioa?ieie, a nooi?iue aeinoia??iino? ?o caeeoa?oueny iaa?aeiiee.
I?aeoe/ii iaaeyniaieie caeeoathoueny oaeiae o?ce/i? iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy
?ii?a ?c iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a. Oaea noaiiaeua c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie coiiaeaia aaee/acieie o?oaeiiuaie
i?e ?o iinoaiiaoe?. Cie?aia, oea i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c io?eiaiiyi
iaiao?aeieo eiioeaio?aoe?e iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a, aecia/aiiyi ?o
aaee/ei, ?a?no?aoe??th iaeeo ei?enieo neaiae?a ia aaeeeiio oii?
noiooi?o i?ioean?a. Iaea e?euee?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
aaeueio? i?iaaaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa noai?aiiy ia ?o aac?
aaeaeaaoieo iiaeaeae aca?iiae?? aeaeo?ii?a ?c caoaeaeaieie aoiiaie.

Aeoiaey/e ?c neacaiiai aeua, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iiooe ?
?ic?iaea iaae?eii? iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaio?a, noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo cania?a oa i?iaaaeaiiy ia ?o iniia? nenoaiaoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a aeaeo?iiaie
ia nueiaiaei? ? aeooaeueiith caaea/ath. ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? a oiae?
oaeeo aenia?eiaio?a, i?aaenoaaeythoue oe?ii?noue ye o
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio, oae ? a i?eeeaaeiiio ieai?.

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaaea o i?iaaaeaii? eiiieaenieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ig, Na,
Sr, Aa ?c o?eieaoieo iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii oa
anoaiiaeaii? iniiaieo iaoai?ci?a ? caeiiii??iinoae oeeo i?ioean?a. Aeey
aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe a ?iaio? aoee ?ica’ycai? ianooii? caaea/i:

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo oa aia?aoo?o aeine?aeaeaiue;

— aecia/aii aaniethoi? aaee/eie ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
Ig, Na, Sr oa Aa ?c o?eieaoieo iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a aeaeo?iiaie oa
aei??yii ?o aia?aaoe/i? caeaaeiino?;

— i?iaaaeaii niaeo?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a Ig oa Sr;

— anoaiiaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa cai?iiiiiaaii
iaoai?cie ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a aeaeo?iiaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a
ne?aeoth/iio.

1. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy
?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a Ig, Na, Sr oa Aa, ye? aeeth/aee a
naaa:

— aecia/aiiy aaniethoieo iiaieo aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe??
oa ?o aia?aaoe/ii? iiaaae?iee ?c canoinoaaiiyi
aenieiiiiiaia?aaoe/iiai io/ea aeaeo?ii?a;

— aecia/aiiy aaniethoieo aaee/ei oa aia?aaoe/ieo
caeaaeiinoae ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiiy niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e iaeiica?yaeieo
?ii?a Ig oa Sr.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?a??ce ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a nooo?ai ia?aaeuothoue ia?a??ce ?ii?caoe?? ?c
iniiaieo noai?a.

3. Aeyaeaii a?aei?ii?noue aia?aaoe/ii? iiaaae?iee ia?a??c?a
?ii?caoe?? oa caoaeaeaiiy ?iiieo niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e ?c iaoanoaa?eueieo
oa iniiaieo noai?a aoii?a; iieacaii, ui oea coiiaeaii a?aei?ii?noth
iaoai?ci?a ooai?aiiy ?ii?a ?c oeeo noai?a.

4. Ia i?eii?iaiaeo ae?eyieao aia?aaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae
ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? oa caoaeaeaiiy ?iiieo niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a aeyaeaii no?oeoo?o oa aeaii oeoia/aiiy i?e/ei ??
iioiaeaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa i i?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, a io?eiaii? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo eiinoaio aca?iiae??
aeaeo?ii?a ?c iaoanoaa?eueieie aoiiaie, ciaiiy yeeo iiaeeaeththoue iao?
oyaeaiiy i?i aeanoeaino? aoiiieo nenoai. E??i oiai, ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?aaenoaaeythoue oaeiae ? i?eeeaaeiee ?ioa?an i?e
i?iaaaeaii? aiae?co iaoai?ci?a aia?aiiai?io oa iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a,
ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo ieaciiaeo na?aaeiaeuao, a
oaeiae a aoiinoa?ao ieaiao oa eiiaoi?e ano?io?ceoe?. Canoiniaaia
iaoiaeeea iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ii?caoe??
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a ?ioeo iaoae?a.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??,
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia IV-?e (?eaa, Eaoa?y,1992?.) oa
V-?e (Aae?iao?a, Aaeeeia?eoai?y, 1995?.); ?a?iiaenueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo c
aoiiii? oa iieaeoey?ii? o?ceee; OIO-?e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
o?ceee aeaeo?ii-aoiiieo c?oeiaiue (Aaieoaa?, Eaiaaea, 1995?.); 28-?e
eiioa?aioe?? ?a?iiaenueei? a?oie c aoiiii? niaeo?ineii?? (A?aoe,
Aano??y, 1996?.); I?aeia?iae?e eioa?aioe?? INAIDAOA (Aaeoa?nao?a, NOA,
1997?.); I?aeia?iaei?e aaaaoiaaeocaa?e eiioa?aioe?? (?oioi?y,
Aaea-Ia?a, 1996?.) oa I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Noi??//y aeaeo?iia»
(Oaeai?iae, Oe?a?ia, 1997?.); O?enoi?iiiueiio nai?ia?? c i?ioean?a
aoiiieo c?oeiaiue (Oaeai?iae, Oe?a?ia, 1993?.); ?oioinuee?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e o?ce/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (N?a?o, 1994?.), a oaeiae ia OI-?e
Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c o?ceee aoiiieo c?oeiaiue (*aaiena?e, 1991) oa
II Ananithciiio nai?ia?? c aoiiii? niaeo?ineii?? (Nocaeaeue, 1992?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 16 ?ia?o,
iniiai? c yeeo i?eaaaeai? a e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, ui aeeth/a? 79
iaeiaioaaiue. Caaaeueiee ia’?i aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 130 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 39 ?enoie?a ? 6 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooii iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiue,
noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe, iieacai? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi nooue iniiaieo iiiyoue oa
aecia/aiue, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a aeai?e ?iaio?. I?iaaaeaii
aiae?oe/iee iaeyae a?aeiieo iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a ?ii?caoe??
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a aeaeo?iiaie oa io?eiaieo ca ?o aeiiiiiaith
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a. Eiinoaoo?oueny, ui a iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooi? nenoaiaoeciaai? aeai? ii ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ig, Na,
Sr oa Aa ?c o?eieaoieo iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a aeaeo?iiaie (ca aeiyoeii
aeayeeo o?aaiaioa?ieo a?aeiiinoae ii aoiiao Sr [1] oa Aa [2]); i?aeoe/ii
ia i?iaiaeeany iiooe oa aiae?c iiaeeeaeo iaoai?ci?a ooai?aiiy ?ii?a ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a. Iaaaaeaii iniiai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
eeane/ii? ? eaaioiai-iaoai?/ii? oai???, ye? noinothoueny ?ic?aooieo
ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a, oa cae?eniaii ii??aiyiiy
io?eiaieo c ?o aeiiiiiaith ?acoeueoao?a ?c aeaieie aenia?eiaioo.
Aiae?co?oueny i?aaii??i?noue canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a eeane/ii? iaoai?ee
aeey ?ic?aooie?a iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe??.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iienia? aenia?eiaioaeueii?
onoaiiaee a oe?eiio oa ie?aieo ?? aoce?a, a oaeiae iaoiaeeoe?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a Ig, Na, Sr oa
Aa, i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe eiio?ieueieo aei??thaaiue oa iioeaee
aenia?eiaio?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ig, Na, Sr oa Aa ?c
o?eieaoieo iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a aeeiioaaeeny a oiiaao ia?ao?anieo
aeaeo?iiiiai oa aoiiiiai io/e?a ia i?ea?iaeuei?e aenia?eiaioaeuei?e
onoaiiaoe?, iniiaieie aoceaie yei? aoee: eaia?a c?oeiaiue ?c nenoaiith
aaeooiii? a?aeea/ee, aeaea?aea aeaeo?iiiiai oa aoiiieo io/e?a, nenoaia
?a?no?aoe??.

A aeai?e ?iaio? aoei aeei?enoaii aeaea?aea aeaeo?iiieo io/e?a
aeaio oei?a: i’yoeaeaeo?iaeia aeaeo?iiia aa?iaoa nenoaie I??na
(aia?aaoe/ia iaeii??aei?noue aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea yei? neeaaeaea 0,5 aA),
yea canoiniaoaaeanue i?e aea/aii? ?ii?caoe?? ?c caoaeaeaiiyi, oa 90
-iee oeee?iae?e/iee aeaeo?iiiee iiiio?iiaoi? c aeaeo?inoaoe/iei
oieonoaaiiyi (c iaeii??aei?noth aeaeo?ii?a ii aia?a?yi 0,2 aA) — a
aenia?eiaioao ii aea/aiith iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe??. Eae?a?iaea oeaee
aia?a?e aeaeo?ii?a cae?enithaaeany ianooiiei /eiii:

— i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioeano ?ii?caoe?? — ii a?aeiiei ii?iaai
?ii?caoe?? ii?iaeueieo aoii?a (oi/i?noue 0,1 A);

— i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioeano ?ii?caoe?? ?c caoaeaeaiiyi — ii
a?aeiiei ii?iaai caoaeaeaiiy iaea?eueo ?ioaineaieo aoiiieo
niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e ?c iniiaiiai noaio aeine?aeaeoaaiiai aeaiaioa
(oi/i?noue 0,2 A).

Aeey noai?aiiy io/ea iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a canoiniaoaaany
?ic?yaeiee iaoiae, yeee iieyaaa o ianooiiiio. Nii/aoeo noai?thaaany
aocueeieie?iiaaiee ?ioaineaiee io/ie aoii?a a iniiaiiio noai?. Aeae?
oeae io/ie i?iioneaany /a?ac niaoe?aeueio eaia?o, a ye?e caiaethaaany
aeaeo?e/iee ?ic?yae. A oiiaao ?ic?yaeo /anoeia ii?iaeueieo aoii?a
eiiaa?ooaaeany o caoaeaeai? noaie. Ei?ioeiaeeao/? caoaeaeai? noaie
?aae?aoe?eii ?iciaaeaeeny i?aeoe/ii a i?noe? ooai?aiiy, a ?iie oa
aeaeo?iie, ui aeieeaee a ?ic?yae?, aeeiaethaaeeny ia aeoiae? ?ic?yaeii?
eaia?e aeaeo?inoaoe/iei eiiaeainaoi?ii. Oaeei /eiii, i?ney ?ic?yaeii?
eaia?e a aoiiiiio io/eo /anoeia aoii?a ciaoiaeeeany a iniiaiiio, a
/anoeia — a iaoanoaa?eueieonoaiao.Iienaiei iaoiaeii aoee io?eiai? io/ee
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a Na, Sr oa Aa, ye? iathoue iecueeee iioaioe?ae
?ii?caoe?? ( iaioa 6 A). I?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo
aoii?a iaai?th, yeee ia? iaeaeuee (na?aae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeaiaio?a)
iioaioe?ae ?ii?caoe??, aeey caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? ?ic?yaeo a
?ic?yaeio eaia?o aeiaeaoeiai aaiaeeany io/ie aoii?a iao??th, yeee
oi?ioaaany ie?aiei oa?iiaooc?eiei aeaea?aeii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a Ig, Na, Sr oa Aa
aeeth/aee a naaa aecia/aiiy iiaieo aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? oa
?o aia?aaoe/ii? iiaaae?iee, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy aaniethoieo aaee/ei oa
aia?aaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiiy niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e
iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a Ig oa Sr. O ca’yceo c oeei iaie aoea ?ic?iaeaia
i?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeeea, yea aeicaieeea a iaeiiio aenia?eiaio? aea/aoe
iiai? ia?a??ce ?ii?caoe?? oa i?ioeane ?ii?caoe?? ?c
caoaeaeaiiyi.A?aeiia?aeia oe?e iaoiaeeoe? aeie-noaia ?a?no?aoe??
i?eaaaeaia ia ?en.1.

?iie, ye? ooai?thaaeeny a ?acoeueoao? aca?iiae?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a
?c aeaeo?iiiei io/eii, iiiaaeaee a i?io?aeiee eiiaeainaoi? (eieaeoi?)
-1, ana?aaeei? yeiai i?noeany inueiaee aeaeo?iae (ciiae) — 2 (aeea.
?en.1). Iiaiioa cai?o ?ii?a ciiaeii aecia/aeany no?oiii iane/aiiy, yea
ianooiaei i?e eiai a?ae’?iiiio iioaioe?ae?, ??aiiio 25 A.Nenoaia
?a?no?aoe?? ?ii?a oa ia?iaee aeaieo aenia?eiaioo neeaaeaeany ?c
eieaeoi?a ?ii?a, aeaio aeaeo?iiao??a -14, aeaio aeaieii?aeeiaoieo
naiiienoe?a — 15, i?eno?ith aeey ?icai?oee i?enei?thth/iai iioaioe?aeo
io/ea aeaeo?ii?a — 16, 17, oa eiii’thoa?a ?AI ?N/AO.

A niaeo?ineii?/ieo aenia?eiaioao aei?ii?ithaaiiy niaeo?aeueieo
e?i?e aeaiaeeeinue ?c aaeooiii? eaia?e /a?ac eaa?oeaa? a?eiioey
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii inyi aeaeo?iiiiai oa aoiiiiai io/e?a ? ca aeiiiiiaith
eaa?oeiai? e?ice, ?ici?uaii? ia iiaea?ei?e oieoni?e a?aeaeae? (F=95 ii)
a?ae iaeano? aca?iiae??, i?iaeooaaeiny ia ao?aeio u?eeio
aeeo?aeoe?eiiai iiiio?iiaoi?a 4 (IAe?-23), iaa?iaia e?i?eia aeenia?n?y
yeiai noaiiaeoue 1,3 ii/ii (a ae?aiacii? =200-800 ii). Aeae?eaia
iiiio?iiaoi?ii aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeaoaeooaaeiny oioiaeaeo?iiiei
iiiiiaeoaa/ai (OAI) 5 oeio OYO-106 (=200-800 ii). Aeniei/ooeeaa nenoaia

?en.1. Aeie-noaia aenia?eiaioaeueii? onoaiiaee

1 — i?ieueioiee eiiaeainaoi?; 2 — i?iaiee aeaeo?iae (ciiae); 3 — i?eeia/
aeaeo?ii?a; 4 — niaeo?aeueiee i?eeaae (IAe?-23); 5 — oioiaeaeo?iiiee
iiiiiaeoaa/ (OAI); 6 — iiia?aaei?e i?aeneethaa/; 7 — oe?ieinioaiaee
i?aeneethaa/; 8 — oi?ioaa/ noaiaea?oieo ?iioeuen?a; 9 — ?ioaineiao?; 10
— naiiienaoeue; 11 — eiiooaoi?; 12 — iiaeoeyoi?; 13 — ?aaa?neaiee
e?/eeueiee; 14 — aeaeo?iiao?; 15 — aeaieii?aeeiaoiee naiiienaoeue; 16 —
aeaea?aei aeaeo?e/ii? iai?oae; 17 — oeeo?iaiaeiaiaee ia?aoai?thaa/; A —
aoiiiee io/ie; a- — aeaeo?iiiee io/ie.

?a?no?aoe?? na?oeiaeo iioie?a, ui aoea aeei?enoaia a iaoeo
aenia?eiaioao, i?aoethaaea a ?aaeei? ?aooieo ie?aieo oioiaeaeo?ii?a.
Aeo?aei? ?iioeuene c OAI i?aeneethaaeenue iiia?aaei?i 6 oa
oe?ieinioaiaei 7 i?aeneethaa/aie, i?ioiaeeee /a?ac eaneaaee oi?ioaaiiy ?
eiiooaoe?? 8 — 12 oa iiaeaaaeeny ia ao?ae 13 ?aaa?neaiiai e?/eeueieea
O5007 (aeea.?en.1).

Aaniethoia aaee/eia iiaiiai ia?a??co ?ii?caoe?? aecia/aeany ca
aeiiiiiaith ae?aco:

Imi = Nm Ime
Qmi b, (1)

aea — Imi — no?oi ?ii?a,

Nm — eiioeaio?aoe?y iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a,

Ime — no?oi io/ea aeaeo?ii?a,

Qmi — ooeaiee ia?a??c,

b — oeyo aeaeo?ii?a a aoiiiiio io/eo.

?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ooai?aiiy ?ii?a o caoaeaeaieo noaiao a aeai?e
?iaio? iaea?aeoaaeanue ?c aiae?co aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yea aeieeaei
aiane?aeie ?aae?aoe?eiiai ?iciaaeo oeeo noai?a. Aaniethoi? aaee/eie
ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiiy ?iiieo niaeo?aeueieo ia?aoiae?a aecia/aeeny oeyoii
?o ii??aiyiiy c aei??yiei ?ai?oa [3,4] ia?a??cii caoaeaeaiiy ?aia?ii?
aoiiii? niaeo?aeueii? e?i?? ca aeiiiiiaith oi?ioee:

Qm Jm k(p) m

(2)

Qmp Jmp k(m) p

aea Jm oa Jmp — a?aeiini? ?ioaineaiino? aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa ?aia?ii?
niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e;

k(m) oa k(p) — ooieoe?y, ui oa?aeoa?eco? /ooeea?noue niaeo?ioioiiao?a
ia aeiaaeeiao oaeeue m oa p a?aeiia?aeii;

Qmp — ?aia?iee, Qm — aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia?a??ce a?aeiia?aeii.

A?aeiioaiiy k(p)/k(m ) aecia/aeiny aii??e/iei oeyoii c aeei?enoaiiyi
aoaeiiiiai aeaea?aea iaia?a?aiiai niaeo?o c a?aeiiei ?iciiae?eii
yne?aaino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e aoii?a a iniiaiiio (Ni) oa
iaoanoaa?eueieo (Nm ) noaiao iaie aoei canoiniaaii iaeei c aa??aio?a
aani?aoe?eiiai iaoiaeo — iaoiae aeaio ?aeaioe/ie io/e?a, iiaeeo?eiaaiee
aeey oiia iaoeo aenia?eiaio?a.Aeey ia?aa??ee ei?aeoiino? ia?aii?
iaoiaeeee aoei iinoaaeaii ?yae eiio?ieueieo aenia?eiaio?a ii
aei??thaaiith iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? oa ?ii?caoe?? ?c caoaeaeaiiyi
c iniiaieo noai?a aoii?a, oa ii??aiyiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?c
a?aeiieie aeaieie [5-9].Iaea?aeai? a oiae? eiio?ieueieo aei???a
?acoeueoaoe iaeiicia/ii na?ae/aoue i?i aenieo iaae?ei?noue aeei?enoaii?
iaoiaeeee.

Iioeaee aenia?eiaio?a noaiiaeyoue:

— i?e aecia/aii? i?aeeiaoe ooieoe?e caoaeaeaiiy oa ?ii?caoe??
— ia ia?aaeuoaaea 5%, a i?e aecia/aii? aanoeene — 2%.

— i?e aei??thaaii? aaniethoieo aaee/ei ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? oa
caoaeaeaiiy ?iiieo niaoe?aeueieo e?i?e noia?ia iioeaea ia ia?aaeuo? 60%.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ig, Na, Sr oa Aa ?c o?eieaoieo
iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a aeaeo?iiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?ii?caoe??
aaeeny a o?e aoaie. Ia ia?oiio aoai? i?iaiaeeeeny aeaoaeuei?aei??thaaiiy
aia?aaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae iiaiiai ia?a??co

?ii?caoe?? aeey aeaiiai aeaiaioa; ia ae?oaiio aoai? aeey oeueiai ae
aeaiaioa i?iaiaeeeeny aeine?aee ii aecia/aiith aaniethoii? aaee/eie
iiaiiai ia?a??co ?ii?caoe??; ia o?aoueiio aoai? c iaoith aeyniaiiy
iaoai?ci?a ooai?aiiy ?ii?a cae?enithaaeeny niaeo?ineii?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy ?ii?a o caoaeaeaieo noaiao ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a (aeey aoii?a Ig oa Sr). A caaa?oaeueieo
aenia?eiaioao ia?oee ? o?ao?e aoaie i?iaiaeeeeny iaeii/anii.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe??
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a i?eaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1 oa ia ?en. 2-5 (e?ea? a).

A oaaeeoe? 1 i?eaaaeaii: aenia?eiaioaeuei? cia/aiiy ii?ia?a
?ii?caoe?? (Aiii?); niaeo?ineii?/i? ii?iae ?ii?caoe?? c ??cieo
iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a (Ainiaeo?); aaniethoi? aaee/eie iiaieo
ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? a ?o iaeneioi? (Qimax); a?aeiioaiiy aaniethoieo
aaee/ei ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? ?c iaoanoaa?eueieo oa ?c iniiaieo
noai?a i?e aia?a?? 10 aA (Qmi /Qoi ). ?c ii??aiyiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa niaeo?ineii?/ieo cia/aiue ii?ia?a ?ii?caoe?? a
?iaio? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a caaeaieo oiiaao aenia?eiaioo
a?aeaoaaeeny i?ioeane ?ii?caoe?? naia ?c o?eieaoieo iaoanoaa?eueieo
noai?a. Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaieo oaae.1 iieaco?, ui iaeneiaeuei?
cia/aiiy iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? aeinyaathoue aaee/ei ii?yaeeo
10-15 ni2 ? a?eueoa, a a?aeiioaiiy (Qmi /Qoi ) c?inoa? aei aaee/eie
6,3. I?e oeueiio ?c ?inoii ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a eoaeiicaiaeueiiai
aeaiaioa aaniethoia cia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai ia?a??co ?ii?caoe??
ca?eueoo?oueny, a ia?aiao? (Qmi /Qoi ) — ciaioo?oueny. Aia?aaoe/i?
caeaaeiino? ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? — ooieoe?? ?ii?caoe?? (O?) —
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a i?eaaaeai? ia ?en.2-5 (e?ea? a), aea ii in?
aanoeen a?aeeeaaeaia aia?a?y iae?oath/eo aeaeo?ii?a, a ii in? i?aeeiao —
ia?a??c ?ii?caoe?? a aeia?eueieo iaeeieoeyo. Aeey ii??aiyiiy ia oeeo aea
a?ao?eao iiaoaeiaai? ooieoe?? ?ii?caoe?? c iniiaieo aoiiieo noai?a
(e?ea? a), ye? aoee iaea?aeai? a iaoeo aenia?eiaioao. sse aeaeii c
?enoie?a, ooieoe?? ?ii?caoe?? an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaoanoaa?eueieo
aoii?a oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaieie caaaeueieie caeiiii??iinoyie.
Ii-ia?oa, iaeneioie O? aoii?a c iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a cnoioo? a a?e
iaioeo aia?a?e ii??aiyii c O? oeo aea aoii?a c iniiaieo noai?a.

Ii-ae?oaa, ia an?o O? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a niinoa??aa?oueny
no?oeoo?a o aeaeyae? ceii?a oa onooi?a,aeiaeaoeiaeo iaeneioi?a, yei?
iaia? ia O? ii?iaeueieo aoii?a.sse na?ae/eoue aiae?c i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeey aoii?a Ig oa Sr, no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? ia ooieoe?yo
caoaeaeaiiy ?iiieo niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e oa ia ooieoe?yo ?ii?caoe?? ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a i?iyaeythoueny i?e iaeieo ? oeo naieo
cia/aiiyo aia?a?e iae?oath/eo aeaeo?ii?a. Iayaia no?oeoo?a, ia iao
iiaeyae, ? iciaeith iniaeeaeo iaoai?ci?a ooai?aiiy ?ii?a ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a. E??i oiai, a ?iaio? iieacaii, ui
noia?iee ia?a??c caoaeaeaiiy iaea?eueo ?ioaineaieo ?iiieo e?i?e ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a neeaaea? a?eueoa 30% a?ae iiaiiai
ia?a??co ?ii?caoe??. Oeae aaaeeeaee oaeo na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui i?e
?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a Ig, Na, Sr oa Aa cia/ia /anoeia
ooai?aieo ?ii?a ciaoiaeeoueny o caoaeaeaieo noaiao.O aeiaaeeo
?ii?caoe?? ii?iaeue-

?en.2.Aia?aaoe/i? caeaaeiino? ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a iaai?th
?c o?eieaoieo

iaoanoaa?eueieo (e?eaa a) oa iniiaiiai (e?eaa a) noai?a

?en.3.Aia?aaoe/i? caeaaeiino? ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
eaeueoe?th ?c o?eieaoieo

iaoanoaa?eueieo (e?eaa a) oa iniiaiiai (e?eaa a) noai?a

?en.4 Aia?aaoe/i? caeaaeiino? ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
no?iioe?th ?c o?eieaoieo

iaoanoaa?eueieo (e?eaa a) oa iniiaiiai (e?eaa a)
noai?a

?en.5. Aia?aaoe/i? caeaaeiino? ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a aa??th
?c o?eieaoieo

iaoanoaa?eueieo (e?eaa a) oa iniiaiiai (e?eaa
a) noai?a

Oaaeeoey 1

Aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Mg, Ca, Sr Ba ?c iaoanoaa?eueieo
noai?a

AeaiaioIi/aoeiaee

NoaiAiii?, aAAiniaeo?, aAQimax . 1015,ni2Qmi /QoiMg3s3p 3P0,24,84,94;
4,931,56,3Ca4s4p 3P0,2

4s3d 1D24,3

4,23; 4,21

3,401,83Sr 5s5p 3P0,2

5s4d 1D24,03,92; 3,84

3,192,44Ba6s6p 3D1,2,3

6s5d 1D24,14,09; 4,97; 4,02

3,803,21,5

ieo aoii?a oaea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaaaaaoi iaioa. A oeueiio ae ?icae?e?
aiae?cothoueny iiaeeea? iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a ?c
o?eieaoieo iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a. Ianaiia?aae cacia/eii, ui
iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy ?ii?a ?c iaoanoaa?eueieo oa ?c iniiaiiai noai?a
aoiia ? ??cieie. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeiiai ?iia ?c
iniiaiiai noaio aoiia Ig a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie iaeiiaeaeo?iiiiai
aai aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai ia?aoiaeo ca noaiith:

s Mg+ (3s
2S1/2) + 2e (3)

Mg (3s2 1So) + e

Mg+
(nl 2Lj) + 2e (4),

a ?acoeueoao? /iai iaeei ?c ciai?oi?o 3s2 -aeaeo?ii?a ia?aaiaeeoueny a
eiioeiooi, a ae?oaee — ia iaeei ?c aeene?aoieo ??ai?a iaeiica?yaeiiai
?iia Ig (ooo n oa l — a?aeiia?aeii aieiaia oa i?a?oaeueia eaaioia?
/enea aeaeo?iiii? eiio?ao?aoe?? ?iia, 2Lj — oa?i ooai?aiiai ?iia).

Iiaeeeaee oaeiae i?ioean ooai?aiiy ?iia Ig aiane?aeie ?iciaaeo
i?ii?aeeiaeo — aaoi?ii?caoe?eieo — noai?a, ye? aeieeathoue a
?acoeueoao? iaeii/aniiai caoaeaeaiiy iaio s2 -aeaeo?ii?a, ui
?ethno?o?oueny noaiith:

Ig (3s2 1So ) + a Ig AIC (n1 l1 n2 l2 LJ ) + e
(5),

Mg+(nl 2LJ) + e

aea n1 , l1 , n2 , l2 oa n, l — a?aeiia?aeii eaaioia? /enea
aaoi?ii?caoe?eiiai noaio aoiia oa aeia?eueiiai noaio ooai?aiiai ?iia.
I/aaeaeii, ui noia?iee ?acoeueoao ia?aa?ao i?ioean?a (3-5) ?
a?aeia?aaea? O? ii?iaeueiiai aoiia (aeea. e?eao a, ?en.2). Iaeiae,
a?aenooi?noue iii?oieo no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae ia e?ea?e a (?en.2)
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aianie i?ioean?a (4) oa (5) ii a?aeiioaiith aei
i?ioeano (3) ? iacia/iei. Iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a Ig c
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a ? a?eueo ??ciiiai?oiee. Ooo iiaeeea?
oae? i?ioeane:

p Mg+ (3s 2S1/2)
+ 2e (6)

Mg (3s3p3P0,2) + e

Mg+ (nl
2Lj) + 2e (7)

s Mg+ (3p 2P1/2,3/2) + 2e (8)

Mg (3s3p3P0,2) + e

Mg+ (nl
2Lj) + 2e (9)

Ig (3s3p 3P0,2 ) + a Ig AIC (n l 3p LJ ) +
e

Mg+(nl
2LJ) + e (10)

Ig (3s3p 3P0,2) + a Ig AIC (n1 l1 n2 l2 LJ ) +
e (11)

Mg+(nl 2LJ)
+ e

Icia/eii iaaaaeai? i?ioeane ianooiiei /eiii: (6) — p-?ii?caoe?y; (7) —
p-?ii?caoe?y ?c caoaeaeaiiyi; (8) — s-?ii?caoe?y; (9) — s-?ii?caoe?y
?c caoaeaeaiiyi; (10), (11) — ?ii?caoe?y aiane?aeie ?iciaaeo aoiiieo
A?N.

Iaaaaeai? aeua iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e o?ce/i?e
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae ia aia?aaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoyo
iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? oa ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? ?c caoaeaeaiiyi.

I?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe i?aoeec?eieo aei??thaaiue aia?aaoe/ii?
caeaaeiino? iiaiiai ia?a??co ?ii?caoe?? aoiia Ig a i?eii?iaia?e iaeano?
aia?a?e. Io?eiai? iaie aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue eaaioiai-iaoai?/io iiaeaeue

Aeaeaeoiaia, ca?aeii yei? ia?a??c ?ii?caoe?? iiaeeco ii?iao
i?iii?oe?eiee (Ae-Ai )1, aea Ae oa Ai — aia?a?y iae?oath/eo aeaeo?ii?a
oa iioaioe?ae ?ii?caoe?? a?aeiia?aeii.

Cae?eniaii oai?aoe/i? ?ic?aooiee iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? a
a?ia?iiio iaaeeaeaii? eeane/ii? iaoai?ee. Iieacaii, ui aea?aia
oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue ye?nii ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioo.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE

1.Noai?aia aenia?eiaioaeueia onoaiiaea c ia?ao?anieie
aeaeo?iiiei oa aoiiiei io/eaie, yea i?eaeaoia aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a oe?ieiai eeano o?i?/ieo
aeaiaio?a.

2.Cai?iiiiiaaia oa ?aae?ciaaia iiaa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue
?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a c aeei?enoaiiyi iiiiaia?aaoe/iiai
aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea, yea a?oioo?oueny ia iaeii/aniiio aecia/aii? ye
iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe??, oae ? ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? ?c caoaeaeaiiyi.

3.Aia?oa i?iaaaeai? nenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ii?caoe??, a
oiae? yeeo aoee aei??yi? aaniethoi? cia/aiiy iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe??
oa ?ii?caoe?? ?c caoaeaeaiiyi, a oaeiae aecia/ai? ?o aia?aaoe/i?
caeaaeiino? a ?ioa?aae? aia?a?e a?ae ii?ia?a i?ioean?a aei 20 aA.

4.Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?a??ce ?ii?caoe?? iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a
cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue ia?a??ce ?ii?caoe?? ii?iaeueieo aoii?a; iaea?eueoei
iiaiei ia?a??cii ?ii?caoe?? ?c iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aoii Aa (3,2.10-15 ni2 ), iaeiaioei — a?aeiia?aeii aoii Ig
(1,4.10-15ni2).

5.Aeyaeaii, ui aia?aaoe/i? caeaaeiino? ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe??
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a oa ii?iaeueieo aoii?a nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny.
Ia aia?aaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoyo iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? oa ?ii?caoe??
?c caoaeaeaiiyi iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a ciaeaeaia no?oeoo?a,
iioiaeaeaiiy yei? iaoiiaeaia iniaeeaeie iaoai?ciaie ooai?aiiy ?ii?a ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a; anoaiiaeai? iniiai? iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy ?ii?a ?c
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a.

6.Ia i?eeeaae? aoii?a Ig oa Sr iieacaii, ui i?e ?ii?caoe?? ?c
o?eieaoieo iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a a ?ioa?aae? aia?a?e aeaeo?ii?a 13- 20
aA cia/ia /anoeia ooai?aieo iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a ( 30%) ciaoiaeeoueny o
caoaeaeaieo noaiao.

7.I?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/i? ?ic?aooiee iiaieo ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe??
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a o a?ia?iiio iaaeeaeaii? eeane/ii? iaoai?ee.
Iieacaii, ui aea?aia oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue ye?nii ocaiaeaeo?oueny ?c
aeaieie aenia?eiaio?a. Ia i?eeeaae? aoiia Ig aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii,
ui aia?aaoe/ia caeaaei?noue iiaiiai ia?a??co ?ii?caoe?? iiaeeco ii?iao
a?aeiia?aea? eaaioiai-iaoai?/i?e iiaeae? ?ii?caoe??.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo
?iaioao:

1.Oao?aiueio ?.?., Oeiii E.E., Ia?a?oe/ I.I. ?ii?caoe?y iaoanoaa?eueieo
aoii?a aa??th aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii// Oe?.O?c.AEo?i.- 1995.- O.40, N
6.- N.532-536.

2. Shafranyosh I.I., Margitich M.O. Electron-impact ionisation
of the metastable Mg (…2p6 3s3p 3P0,2) atoms// Z.Phys.D. — 1996.-
V.37, N 2.- P.97-101.

3.Shafranyosh I.I., Snegurskaya T.A., Margitich N.A., Bogacheva
S.P., Lengyel V.I., Zatsarinny O.I. Excitation of the Ca atom from the
metastable states by electron impact // J.Phys.B.- 1997.- V. 30.-
P.2261-2285.

4. Ia?a?oe/ I.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano ?ii?caoe?? ?c
caoaeaeaiiyi iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a Sr aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii // Iaoe.
a?ni. OaeAeO. Na??y o?ceea. — 1998.- N3.- N.5-6.

5. Shafranyosh I.I., Shimon L.L., Margitich N.A. Electron
impact ionization of metastable calcium atom // IV Europ. Conf. Atom and
Molec. Phys. Abstr. of Pap.- Riga (Latvija).- 1992.- P.332.

6. Shafranyosh I.I., Snegurskaya T.A., Aleksakhin I.S.,
Margitich N.A., Shimon L.L. Electron impact excitation and ionization
of alkaline-earth atoms from metastable states // Proc. 3rd Triang
Seminar on Atomic Coll. Processes. Uzhgorod (Ukraine).- 1993.- P.48-51.

7. Margitich N.A., Shimon L.L., .Shafranyosh I.I.
Electron-impact ionization cross-sections for the metastable Ca (4s4p
3P0,2) and Sr (5s5p 3P0,2) atoms // XIX ICPEAC, Abstr. Of Pap.
Wankuver (Canada).- 1995.- P.507.

8. Margitich N.A., Shafranyosh I.I., Study the Ion-Formation
from the 3s3p 3P0,2 Metastable States of Mg Atom by Electron Impact
// ECAMP 5, Abstr. of Pap. Edinburg (UK).- 1995.- P.525.

9. Shafranyosh I.I., Margitich M.O.,Snegurskaya T.A.,Kovach
V.V.Shimon L.L. Electron excitation of the Sr spectral lines from
the Sr (…4p6 5s5p 3P0,2) states // 28th EGAS Conference Abstr.
of Pap. Gratz (Austria). — 1996.- P.C4-29.

10. Margitich M.O., Snegurskaya T.A., Shimon L.L., Shafranyosh
I.I. The mechanism of Mg+ formation from the metastable Mg states by
electron impact // Proc. of the Internat.Conf. The Centenary of
Electron. — Uzhgorod (Ukraine).- 1997. — P.152.

E?OA?AOO?A

1. Aeaenao?i ?.N., Oao?aiueio ?.?. Aea/aiiy ?ii?caoe?? ?c
caoaeaeaieo noai?a aoii?a no?iioe?th aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii // OOAE —
1974. — O.19.- N11. — N.1843-1847.

2. Traimar S., Nickel J.C. and Antoni T.
Electron-impact Ionisation of Laser-exited Ba (…5p6 6s6p)
and Ba (…5p66s5d) atoms // Phys.Rev.A.-1986.-V.34.-6.-P.5154-5157.

3. Aeaenaoei E.N., Iaaaniue O.E., Naiaithe ss.I., Niaao?neay
O.A., Oao?aiueio E.E. Nooiai/aoia aicaoaeaeaiea niaeo?aeueiuo
ia?aoiaeia aoiiia no?iioeey yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii // Iio. e niaeo?. —
1988.- O.64, N 2.- N.431-433.

4. Oao?aiueio E.E., Niaao?neay O.A., Ia?aeoe/ I.A.
Yooaeoeaiua na/aiey aicaoaeaeaiey aoiiia eaeueoeey ec
iaoanoaaeeueiuo 43P0,2 -nioiyiee yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii // Iio. e
niaeo?. — 1994.- O.77.- N 56.- N.725-729.

5. Okuno Ya., Okuno K., Kaneko Yo., Kanomata I. Absolute
measurement of total ionization cross section of Mg by electron impact
// Journ. Phys. Soc. Japan.- 1970.- V.29.- N 1.- P.164-172.

6. Okuno Ya. Ionization cross sections of Ca, Sr and Ba by
electron impact // Journ. Phys. Soc. Japan.-1971.- V.31.- N 4.-
P.1189- 1195.

7. Aaeioaei E.A., I/eo? A.E., ?aoianeee A.E. Aaniethoiua
cia/aiey na/aiee eiiecaoeee iaaiey, eaeueoeey, no?iioeey e
aa?ey yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii // AEYOO.- 1971.-O.61,N 2(8).-N.511-519.

8. Leep D., Gallagher A. Excitation of the Mg and Mg+
rezonance lines by electron impact on Mg atoms// Phys. Rev.A.- 1976.-
V.13, N 31.- P.148-155.

9. Aeaenaoei E.N., Caiani/iue E.I., Aa?aa E.E., Noa?iaeoa
A.I. Aicaoaeaeaiea uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii.
I.Iaaiee // Iio. e niaeo?.- 1973.- O.34.- N 6.- N. 1053-1061.

Ia?a?oe/ I.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?ii?caoe??
iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a Ig, Na, Sr, Aa aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.04 — o?ce/ia
aeaeo?ii?ea. -Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oaeai?iae, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aea/aiith
?ii?caoe?? Ig, Na, Sr oa Aa ?c o?eieaoieo iaoanoaa?eueieo noai?a ?c
canoinoaaiiyi oaoi?ee ia?ao?anieo aeaeo?iiiiai oa aoiiiiai io/e?a.
Aecia/ai? aaniethoi? aaee/eie oa aia?aaoe/i? caeaaeiino? iiaieo
ia?a??c?a ?ii?caoe?? oa ?ii?caoe?? ?c caoaeaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeoaaieo
aoii?a. Anoaiiaeaii iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a Ig, Na, Sr,
Aa ?c o?eieaoieo iaoanoaa?eueieo aoiiieo noai?a. Iaea?aeai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe ii??aiththoueny ?c ?ic?aooieiaeie aeaieie,
io?eiaieie a a?ia?iiio iaaeeaeaii? eeane/ii? iaoai?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ii?caoe?y, iaoanoaa?euei? noaie, caoaeaeaiiy,
aoaeoeaiee ia?a??c.

Ia?aeoe/ I.A. Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeannia eiiecaoeee
iaoanoaaeeueiuo aoiiia Ig, Na, Sr, Aa yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.04 — oece/aneay
yeaeo?iieea. -Oaeai?iaeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oaeai?iae,
1999.

Aeennapoaoeey ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, opao aeaa, auaiaeia, nienea
eeoapaoopu (78 iaeiaiiaaiee). Iauee iauai aeennapoaoeee- 130 nopaieoe
ia/aoiiai oaenoa, aeeth/ay 39 penoieia e 6 oaaeeoe.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia yenia?eiaioaeueiiio eco/aieth
eiiecaoeee iaoanoaaeeueiuo aoiiia Ig, Na, Sr e Aa. Oeaeue paaiou
caeeth/aeanue a ipiaaaeaiee eiiieaeniuo yeniapeiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee
ipioeannia eiiecaoeee Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba ec opeieaoiuo iaoanoaaeeueiuo
ninoiyiee yeaeopiiiui oaeapii e onoaiiaeaiee iniiaiuo iaoaieciia e
caeiiiiapiinoae aeaiuo ipioeannia.

A yeniapeiaioao auea eniieueciaaia oaoieea ia?anaeathueony
yeaeo?iiiiai e aoiiiiai io/eia. Eippaeoiinoue eniieuecoaiie iaoiaeeee
enneaaeiaaiee iipaaeaeyeanue a eiiopieueiuo yeniapeiaioao iooai
iaoiaeaeaiey aaniethoiuo iieiuo na/aiee eiiecaoeee e eiiecaoeee n
aicaoaeaeaieai iipiaeueiuo aoiiia enneaaeoaiuo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia n
iineaaeothuei npaaiaieai iieo/aiiuo iaie pacoeueoaoia n iioaeeeiaaiiuie
paiaa aeaiiuie aepoaeo aaoipia.

A oiaea auiieiaiey paaiou auee aiapaua ipiaaaeaiu
nenoaiaoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey eiiecaoeee, eioipua aeeth/aee a naay
eciapaiea aaniethoiuo

cia/aiee iieiuo na/aiee eiiecaoeee e eiiecaoeee n aicaoaeaeaieai, a
oaeaea iipaaeaeaiea eo aiapaaoe/aneeo caaeneiinoae a eioapaaea yiapaee
io iipiaia ipioeannia aei 20 yA. Onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua iaoaieciu
iapaciaaiey iaeiicapyaeiuo eiiia Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba ec iaoanoaaeeueiuo
aoiiiuo ninoiyiee; ia iniiaaiee ipaaeeiaeaiiuo iaoaieciia ipiaiaeeony
eioapipaoaoeey nopoeoopiuo iniaaiiinoae ia yiapaaoe/aneeo caaeneiinoyo
iieiuo na/aiee eiiecaoeee e eiiecaoeee n aicaoaeaeaieai. Ha ipeiapa
aoiiia Mg e Sr iieacaii, /oi ipe eiiecaoeee ec opeieaoiuo
iaoanoaaeeueiuo ninoiyiee a eioapaaea yiapaee yeaeopiiia 13 — 20 yA
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iapaciaaaoeony eiiia (30%) iaoiaeeony a
aicaoaeaeaiiuo ninoiyieyo. Ii?aaeaeaiu aaniethoiua aaee/eiu e
yia?aaoe/aneea caaeneiinoe iieiuo na/aiee eiiecaoeee, a oaeaea
eiiecaoeee n aicaoaeaeaieai enneaaeoaiuo aoiiia. Ipiaaaeaiu
oaipaoe/aneea pan/aou iieiuo na/aiee eiiecaoeee iaoanoaaeeueiuo aoiiia
Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba a aeiapiii ipeaeeaeaiee eeanne/aneie iaoaieee. Iieacaii,
/oi aeaiiay oaipaoe/aneay iiaeaeue ea/anoaaiii niaeanoaony n aeaiiuie
yeniapeiaioia. Ha ipeiapa aoiia Mg yeniapeiaioaeueii iieacaii, /oi
yiapaaoe/aneay caaeneiinoue iieiiai na/aiey eiiecaoeee aaeece iipiaa
ioaa/aao eaaioiai-iaoaie/aneie iiaeaee eiiecaoeee.

Hao/iay e ipaeoe/aneay oeaiiinoue ipiaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee
ninoieo, a iapaoth i/apaaeue, a iieo/aiee ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo eiinoaio
acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaeopiiia n iaoanoaaeeueiuie aoiiaie, ciaiea eioipuo
oaeoaeyao iaoa ipaaenoaaeaiea i naienoaao aoiiiuo nenoai. Epiia oiai,
pacoeueoaou aeennapoaoeeiiiie paaiou ipaaenoaaeytho oaeaea ipaeoe/aneee
eioapan ipe aiaeeca iaoaieciia yiapaiiaiaia e iiaeaeepiaaiey
ipioeannia, ipioaeathueo a ieceioaiiapaoopiuo ieaciaiiuo npaaeao, a
oaeaea a aoiinoapao ieaiao e eiiaoiie anopioeceea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiecaoeey, iaoanoaaeeueiua ninoiyiey,
aicaoaeaeaiea, yooaeoeaiia na/aiea.

Margitich M.O. Studies of electron-impact ionization of the
metastable Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba atoms. — Manuscript.

Candidate of physical and mathematical sciences thesis.

Speciality 01.04.04 — physical electronics. — Uzhgorod state
university, Uzhgorod, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to the experimental studies of
ionisation of Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba from the triplet metastable states by
using the crossed electron and atomic beam technique. The absolute
values and the energy dependences of total ionization cross sections as
well as those for the ionization with excitation of atoms under study.
The mechanismus of the formation of single-charged Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba
ions from the triplet atomic metastable states have been found. The
experimental data are

compared with calculated ones obtained within the classical mechanics
binary approximation.

Key words: ionization, metastable states, excitation, effective
cross sections.

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