IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?CEEE

Naiaiiaa THe?y Aaeaioei?aia

OAeE 532.738; 548-14

AeINE?AeAEAIIss OIEANOA?EEI-IAIAOE*IIAI IA?AOIAeO

A ?IAeOEIAAIEO OIEANOA?EEAO

AeEss IIAeOEssOe?? EACA?IIAI AEI?II?ITHAAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 01.04.15 -O?ceea iieaeoey?ieo ? ??aeeeo e?enoae?a

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeaeo?iiieo i?eeaae?a Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea».

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: — eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

IEEEOTHE Caiia?e Iaoa?eiae/,

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
«Euea?anueea

iie?oaoi?ea», aeioeaio eaoaae?e

aeaeo?iiieo i?eeaae?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? o?ceei- iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

EE?IOOAAA Aa?o?oaea Aanee?aia,

?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

— aeieoi? o?ceei- iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?EOeAIEI Ieeiea ?aaiiae/,

*a?i?a?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo

?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: — ?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI
Oe?a?ie, niaoe?aeueia eiino?oeoi?nueea oaoiieia?/ia ath?i.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny « 11 » ethoiai 1999 ?. i
1430 aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.159.01 i?e
?inoeooo? o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie (Ee?a-22, i?iniaeo Iaoee, 46).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?ceee
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 6 n?/iy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao o?c.-iao. iaoe
?uoe A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ??aee? e?enoaee (?E) oe?iei canoiniaothoueny a
i?eno?iyo ia?iaee oa a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? ye iioe/ii aeoeaia
na?aaeiaeua. ?o oi?eaeuei? aeaeo?iiioe/i? aeanoeaino? aeicaieythoue
noai?thaaoe eiino?oeoeaii i?ino?, aeiiii?/i?, i?i?aoth?i? i?eno?i?,
noi?ni? c ?ioaa?aeueiith noaiioaoi?eith. Ia iniia? aeaeo?iiioe/ieo
aoaeo?a a ?E noai?aii ?iaeeeaoi?e, iiaeoeyoi?e, aeaoeaeoi?e
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ??aeeie?enoae?/i? aeeniea?, iioe/i? i?ioeani?e oa ?io?.
A?aeiii aaaaoi aeaeo?iiioe/ieo aoaeo?a a ?E, na?aae yeeo iaea?eueo
oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny aeeiai?/ia ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea, oa?no- oa
noia?oa?no-aoaeoe, aoaeo «a?noue-ainiiaea?» oa ?io?. Ia?niaeoeaiei c
oi/ee ci?o aeei?enoaiiy a i?eno?iyo ia?iaee oa a?aeia?aaeaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?? ? aoaeo oieanoa?eei-iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo (OII) a
?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?eeao. Aoaeo OII iieyaa? a ia?aoiae? ??aeeiai
e?enoaeo a?ae neeueii ?icn?thth/i? eiioieaeueii? oaenoo?e oieanoa?eea
aei i?ici?iai aiiaio?iiiiai iaiaoeea i?ae ae??th aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. I?e
oeueiio iiaeeo?eaoe??th aeanoeainoae ?E-iaoa??aeo iiaeeeai caaeaaaoe
iaiao?aei? aeaeo?iiioe/i? ia?aiao?e.

A aeaiee /an ii?yae c ?icaeoeii oaoi?ee ia aeaeo?iiioe/ieo aoaeoao a
??aeeeo e?enoaeao ?ioaineaii ?icaeaa?oueny eaca?ia oaoi?ea, oiio noaea
aeooaeueiith caaea/a noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo aeaeo?iiioe/ieo iiaeoeyoi??a
eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia iniia? ?E. A oeueiio iai?yieo ia?niaeoeaiei
? canoinoaaiiy oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo a ?iaeoeiaaieo
oieanoa?eeao. Iaeiae ia nueiaiaei? ia aeine?aeaeaii aieea o?ce/ieo
ia?aiao??a ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a ia iiaeoeyoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aoaeoo OII. Oiio, i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a
oa anoaiiaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo ?o o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a c iiaeoeyoe?eieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie OII aeey eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ? aeooaeueiei.
Ae??oaiith oe??? i?iaeaie ? i?enay/aia aeaia ?iaioa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a ?aieao Aea?aeathaeaeaoii? iaoeiai- aeine?aeii?
oaie «Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoa??ae?a oa oaoiieia?e
aeaiaio?a aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee» (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
01964000169 1997 ?.).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii?
aca?iica’yceo i?ae aeaeo?iiioe/ieie, /aniaeie oa iiaeoeyoe?eieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oieanoa?eei-iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo ? o?ce/ieie
ia?aiao?aie ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a aeey noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia?
aoaeoeaieo iiaeoeyoi??a eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Iniiaieie
caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe, aoee:

— oai?aoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy oieanoa?eei-
iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo a ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?eeao c iaoith eiai
canoinoaaiiy aeey iiaeoeyoe?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy;

— anoaiiaeaiiy ei?aeyoe?? i?ae aeaeo?iiioe/ieie, /aniaeie oa
iiaeoeyoe?eieie oa?eoa?enoeeaie oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo oa
aeanoeainoyie ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a;

— aecia/aiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?e oa ia?aiao??a ea?oth/iai neaiaeo
ia iiaeoeyoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeo?iiioe/ieo, /aniaeo oa
iiaeoeyoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee OII oa o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a ?iaeoeiaaieo
oieanoa?ee?a aoei aeei?enoaii noaiaea?oi? aeaeo?iiioe/i? iaoiaeeee c
a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae aeine?aeaeaiue ?icn?thth/eo aoaeo?a.
Aeiaeaoeiai i?iaiaeeeenue no?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeoeiaaieo
oieanoa?ee?a iaoiaeii iaeieooiaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai ?icn?thaaiiy ca
aeiiiiiaith onoaiiaee E?I-1 oa iaoiaeii ?*- niaeo?ineii?? ia
niaeo?ioioiiao?? «SpecordM-80». I?e ia?iaoe? aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaoiaee
iae?i?eii? aii?ieneiaoe??, ?aae?ciaai? a niaoe?ae?ciaaiiio i?ia?aiiiio
iaeao? NUMERI (Numeri- Software OO Ithioai); ioe?iea aeinoia??iino?
?acoeueoao?a i?iaiaeeeanue c aeei?enoaiiyi noaoenoe/iiai ?iciiae?eo
No’thaeaioa aeey iaeeo aeai?ie; ?ic?aooiie ?ioa?aae?a aeia??e oaoi?/ieo
aei??thaaiue i?iaiaeeany ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiiai iaeaoo GRAFER.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a noi?oao neeueii oa neaaiiiey?ieo iaiaoe/ieo niieoe
?nio? e?eoe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe, i?e ye?e
niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy nooiaiy no?oeoo?ii? aii?yaeeiaaiino? noi?o?,
ui i?eaiaeeoue aei e?eoe/iiai ?inoo eiinoaio i?oaeiino? iaoa??aeo,
niaaeaiiy cae?o/oth/i? caeaoiino? aeii?oee oa aaee/ei ii?iaiaeo iie?a
OII.

2. Aecia/aii aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe iaiaoe/ii?
iao?eoe? oa eiioeaio?aoe?? iioe/ii aeoeaii? aeii?oee (IAAe) a noi?o? ia
eiio?ano oa iiaeoeyoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee OII. Iieacaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy
ai?noo neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe a iaiaoe/i?e iao?eoe? oa ciaioaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? IAAe aeeeeeathoue niaaeaiiy eiio?anoo, aeeaeie oa
a?aie/ii? /anoioe iiaeoeyoe??.

3. Anoaiiaeaii aca?iica’ycie i?ae ia?aiao?aie ea?oth/iai ?iioeueno oa
a?aie/iith /anoioith ? aeeaeiith iiaeoeyoe??, a oaeiae oiiae
oaiia?aoo?ii? noaa?eueiino? ?iai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee OII.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio: anoaiiaeaiee
aca?iic’ycie i?ae o?ce/ieie aeanoeainoyie iaiaoeei- oieanoa?e/ieo
noi?oae oa ?o /anoioii- iiaeoeyoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie a oe?ieiio
oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae?, ui aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey
noai?aiiy iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo ?E iaoa??ae?a aeey aoaeoeaieo
iecueei/anoioieo iiaeoeyoi??a eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeaeeiiai
ae?aiaciio c? noaa?eueieie ia?aiao?aie a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaaaaeai? a aeai?e ?iaio? aeeiiai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi aai ca eiai
aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth. Aaoi?ii iaa?oioiaaii iaoai?ci ?icn?thaaiiy
eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeaeeiiai ae?aiaciio niaeo?o eiioieaeueiith
oaenoo?ith ?iaeoeiaaiiai oieanoa?eea a oiieeo oa?ao ??aeeiai e?enoaeo
[10,15]. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi aeine?aeaeaii oa?aeoa? /aniaeo, iiaeoeyoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oa caeaaeiinoae e?eoe/ieo iai?oa OII a ?iaeoeiaaieo
oieanoa?eeao c ??ciith no?oeoo?ith [3,6,7]. Anoaiiaeaii aca?iica’ycie
i?ae o?ce/ieie ia?aiao?aie ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a oa iiaeoeyoe?eieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aoaeoo OII [7,10].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia:

-I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ii ??aeeeo e?enoaeao «15th, 16th
International LC Conference» (Oai?ueia oa NOA, 1994, 1996?.);

-I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 150-??//th c aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy ?a. Ioethy (Euea?a, Oe?a?ia, 1995?);

-I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo neiiic?oiao ii aeaeo?iiiei cia?aaeaiiyi «8th,
9th IS & T/SPIE’s Simposium on Electronic Imaging» (Nai Oina, NOA, 1995,
1997 ?.);

-I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «IC&T 49th Annual Conference» (Nai
Oina, Eae?oi?i?y, NOA, 1996?.);

-I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «15th General Conference of the
Condenced Matter Division» (?oae?y, 1996?.);

-?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? ii aeaeo?iiieo oaoiieia?yo «VI
Konferencji Naukowy «Technologia Elektronowa» ELTE’97» (E?eieoey,
Iieueua, 1997 ?.);

-I?aeia?iaeiiio Neiiic?oi? ii aeenieaeieo oaoiieia?yo «Advanced Display
Technologies» (Ia?oai?o, Oe?a?ia, 1997 ?.); -I?aeia?iaeiiio Neiiic?oi?
ii oaoiieia?yo i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee «Microelectronics Technologies and
Microsystems» (AEaooa, Iieueua, 1997?.)

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 14 ?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? 144 noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aiia
i?noeoue 64 ?enoiea ? 5 oaaeeoeue. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue
92 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa oa
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaaaeaia iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? oa ??
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. I?aaenoaaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe oa
ioae?eaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii no/aniee noai aeine?aeaeaiue
iaoai?ci?a ooai?aiiy ?iaeoeiaaii? ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e, o?ce/ieo
i?ioean?a aeaoi?iaoe?? oieanoa?e/ii? ni??ae? i?ae ae??th aeaeo?e/iiai
iiey oa ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea ?iaeoeiaaieie oieanoa?eeaie.

Iieacaii, ui aeey iieno ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ?iaeoeiaaii?
oieanoa?e/ii? iacioace a?aenooiy caaaeueia oai??y ni??aeueiiai
cae?o/oaaiiy, oiaoi ia ?nio? iaae?eiiai ? caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai iaoiaeo
ia?aaeaa/aiiy aaee/eie p aai dp/dT a oieanoa?e/i?e nenoai?, a oaeiae
ia?aaeaa/aiiy aieeao iieaeoey?ii? no?oeoo?e eiiiiiaio?a noi?o? ia
aaee/eio oa ciae cae?o/oth/i? caeaoiino? aeii?oee, aac aaciina?aaeiueiai
aei??thaaiiy oeeo aaee/ei.

Iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii i?ioean oieanoa?eei-iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo iieno?
oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue, ui aaco?oueny ia aecia/aii? ii?iaiaeo iie?a OII c
a?eueieo aia?a?e ??cieo noai?a aee?aeoi?a a i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo,
ine?eueee aiia aeicaiey? i?inoi oa caaeia?eueii aecia/eoe aieea iiaa?oi?
ia ii?iaia? iiey OII.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeine?aeaeaiue na?oei?icn?thaaiiy a oieanoa?e/ieo ?E
iieacaa, ui na?oei?icn?yiiy ?E caeaaeeoue a?ae o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae
??aeeiai e?enoaeo, iaoiaeeee aei??thaaiiy oa eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a
?E-eii??ee.

Noi?ioeueiaai? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iniiai? o?ceei-o?i?/i? ia?aiao?e ??aeeeo
e?enoae?a oa ?o noi?oae, ui aeei?enoai? ye ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiue.
Iaaiai?aii aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaeeee, ui canoiniaothoueny aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeo?iiioe/ieo, /aniaeo, /anoioii- iiaeoeyoe?eieo oa
ae?aeaeo?e/ieo aeanoeainoae ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a oa ia?aiao??a
oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo.

Ia’?eoaie aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoei aea?aii ?iaeoeiaai? oieanoa?e/i?
iacioace c ((>0, a yeeo iaiaoe/ieie iao?eoeyie aoee noi?o?
neeueiiiiey?iiai oe?aiia?oai?eo (5OeA), ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei
cia/aiiyi ae?aeaeo?e/ii? ai?cio?ii??, c? neaaiiiey?iei AEE-440
(acieneniieoee), yeee aieiae?? oe?ieei oaiia?aoo?iei ?ioa?aaeii
?nioaaiiy iacioace oa iecueeith ayce?noth. sse iioe/ii aeoeai? aeii?oee
aeey noai?aiiy iaaeiieaeoey?ii? ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
/eaie aiiieia?/iiai ?yaeo ao???a iaeiiiniiaieo ea?aiiiaeo eeneio.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeanoeainoae ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?e/ieo nenoai ia iniia?
iaiaoe/ieo iao?eoeue, ui neeaaeathoueny c noi?oae neeueii oa
neaaiiiey?ieo niieoe a ??cieo i?iii?oe?yo. Iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e iaiaoi- oieanoa?e/ieo noi?oae oa ii?iaiaeo
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo. I?iaiae?ciaaii
aieea oaiia?aoo?e oa iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a ia o?ce/i? ia?aiao?e
?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a oa e?eoe/i? iiey OII. Aaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo
aecia/aiiy eiinoaio i?oaeiino? ?E ia aac? ia?aiiai oai?aoe/iiai
i?aeoiaeo c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a iae?i?eii? aii?ieneiaoe??.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?aeaeo?e/ii? ai?cio?ii?? oa
oaiia?aoo? oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a iaiaoe/ieo iao?eoeue c ??ciei i?ioeaioiei
ai?noii aeo?aeieo eiiiiiaio?a iieacaee, ui ca?aeii i?eioeeio
aaeeoeaiino?, ci?ia i?ioeaioiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeo?aeieie
eiiiiiaioaie a iaiaoe/i?e iao?eoe? aeicaiey? ieaaii ci?ithaaoe
oaiia?aoo?iee ae?aiacii ?nioaaiiy iacioace oa aaee/eio ae?aeaeo?e/ii?
ai?cio?ii?? a iaaeao a?ae -0.4 aei +13.1. Aaaaeaiiy a iaiaoe/io
iao?eoeth iaei? (aei 2 aaaiaeo %) e?eueeino? ao??o oieanoa?eio
i?eaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e, i?e/iio ia iaoai?ci
ooai?aiiy iaaeiieaeoey?ii? ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e aieeaathoue ye
iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? i?ae iaiaoeeii oa aeii?oeith ia iieaeoey?iiio
??ai?, oae ? no?oeoo?a iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe?.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ??no aii?yaeeiaaiino? iaiaoe/ii?
iao?eoe? i?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe i?eaiaeeoue
aei niaaeaiiy cae?o/oth/i? caeaoiino? ao??o oieanoa?eio, a i?e ciaioaii?
ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a ao??o oieanoa?eio cae?o/oth/a caeaoi?noue c?inoa?.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? aaee/eie e?ieo ni??ae?
na?ae/aoue i?i iacia/ia ciaioaiiy aai c?inoaiiy e?ieo c ?inoii
oaiia?aoo?e. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oaiia?aoo?ieo
caeaaeiinoae ae?aeaeo?e/ii? ai?cio?ii?? neioaciaaieo iaiaoe/ieo
iao?eoeue, aaee/eie e?ieo ?iaeoeiaaii? ni??ae? oa e?eoe/ieo aeaeo?e/ieo
iie?a OII aoei aecia/aii oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? eiinoaio i?oaeiino?
O?aiea (K22,K33) (?en.1) oa aaee/eie iiaa?oiaaeo aia?a?e ??cieo noai?a
?E.

K22*10-12, H

?en.1. Oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? aaee/eie eiinoaioe i?oaeiino? E22 aeey
noi?oae c oieanoa?eei?ii?iiaoii ia iniia? ??cieo iaiaoe/ieo iao?eoeue:
S-1 — 20% 5OeA; S-2 — 40% 5OeA; S-3 — 60% 5OeA; S-4 — 80% 5OeA.

??no aii?yaeeiaaiino? iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe? i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
aaee/ei eiinoaio i?oaeiino?, i?e/iio aeey iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe?, ui
i?noeoue 80% neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe (5OeA), niinoa??aa?oueny
e?eoe/iee ??no aaee/ei K22 oa K33. A noi?oao ia iniia? iaeii? iaiaoe/ii?
iao?eoe? c aeii?oeaie ??cieo ao???a oieanoa?eio aaee/eie eiinoaio
i?oaeiino? iacia/ii ci?iththoueny, niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei
c?inoaiiy eiinoaio i?oaeiino? c? ca?eueoaiiyi ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a
aiiieiaa ao??o oieanoa?eio. ?icaeyaeath/e oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino?
eiinoaio i?oaeiino? aeey ??cieo noi?oae, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe c?inoaiiy
e?ooecie caeaaeiinoae i?e ca?eueoaii? nooiaiy no?oeoo?ii?
aii?yaeeiaaiino? iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe?.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeenue eiioeaio?aoe?ei? oa oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino?
e?eoe/ieo iai?oa i?yiiai (Ucn) oa cai?ioiueiai (Unc) OII. ?ic?aooiie
aaee/ei eiinoaio i?oaeiino? O?aiea oa iiaa?oiaaeo aia?a?e ??cieo noai?a
??aeeiai e?enoaeo a i?ioean? OII aeey ??cieo noi?oae aeaa iiaeeea?noue
i?iaiae?coaaoe, a ?aieao oai?aoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo, ui aeei?enoiaoaaany a
?iaio?, aieea iiaa?oiaaeo oiia ia aaee/eie ii?iaiaeo iie?a OII.

I?e aeei?enoaii? ye IAAe iaaiiai ao??o oieanoa?eio, ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe a iaiaoe/i?e iao?eoe?
iaoiiaeth? niaaeaiiy eiai cae?o/oth/i? caeaoiino? c iaeiiai aieo, oa
ciaioaiiy aieeao iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a ia aaee/eie ii?iaiaeo iie?a — c
ae?oaiai. Aiane?aeie oeueiai i?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? IAAe a
noi?o? ia iniia? iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe? c aenieei nooiaiai no?oeoo?iiai
aii?yaeeoaaiiy, e?eoe/i? iiey OII c?inoathoue oaeaeoa, i?ae a noi?oao c
iaio aii?yaeeiaaiith no?oeoo?ith (?en.2). I?e oeueiio, i?e iaeiaeiaeo
aaee/eiao e?ieo ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e, aaee/eie e?eoe/ieo iie?a aoaeooue
aeueie aeey noi?oae c a?eueo aii?yaeeiaaiith no?oeoo?ith (c a?eueoeie
eiinoaioaie i?oaeiino?), yeui ia?aaaaea? aieea ia oa?aeoa?enoeee OII
o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a noi?o?, yeui ae e?ie ni??ae? aaeeeee, ? ia?aaaaea?
aieea iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a, aaee/eie e?eoe/ieo iie?a OII ? aeueie aeey
iaio aii?yaeeiaaieo noi?oae. I?e/iio, ??no eiioeaio?aoe??
neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe a iaiaoe/i?e iao?eoe? iaoiiaeth? ciaioaiiy
ae?eyiee aieeao iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a ia oeae? d/P0. Ine?eueee
eiioeaio?aoe?y IAAe a noi?oao ia ia?aaeuoaaea 2 aaa.%, a cae?o/oth/a
caeaoi?noue aeii?oee niaaea? c ?inoii eiioeaio?aoe?? neeueiiiiey?ii?
eiiiiiaioe a iao?eoe?, aenie? aaee/eie e?ieo ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e
iaoiiaeththoue aecia/aeueiee aieea iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a, ? a oeueiio
ae?aiacii? aaee/ei e?ie?a, e?eoe/i? iiey ? ieae/eie a ii??aiyii? c iaio
aii?yaeeiaaieie noi?oaie.

Ucn, B

?en.2. Caeaaeiino? aaee/eie e?eoe/ii? iai?oae i?yiiai OII a?ae
eiino?oeoeaiiai ia?aiao?o d/Po aeey noi?oae c oieanoa?eei?ii?iiaoii ia
iniia? ??cieo iaiaoe/ieo iao?eoeue: S-1 — 20% 5OeA; S-2 — 40% 5OeA; S-4
— 80% 5OeA.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a
iaoiaeaie iaeieooiaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai ?icn?thaaiiy oa ?*-niaeo?ineii??
iieacaa, ui iniiaiith no?oeoo?iith iaeeieoeath noi?o? c 80%
neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe ? aeeia?e oe?aiiiio?aeii? ? oa?aeoa?
i?aeiieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae?? ia ci?ith?oueny, ie?ai? iieaeoee
acieneniieoe aai ia?a iieaeoe «aaoaeiaothoueny» o aeo?aeio oa?iao
no?oeoo?o oe?aiiiio?aeii?. I?e oeueiio, anioe?aoe iiaiai oeio,
iai?eeeaae, c iieaeoe neeueii oa neaaiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe ia
ooai?ththoueny. I?e aaaaeaii? ao???a oieanoa?eio c?inoa? aonoeia
iaeoaaiiy iieaeoe. I?e oeueiio nooo?aeo ci?i a oa?aeoa??
i?aeiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e ia a?aeaoaa?oueny.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue eiio?anoo,
/aniaeo oa iiaeoeyoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaiaoi- oieanoa?e/ieo noi?oae
(ION), a oaeiae i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aieeao ia aeeaeio iiaeoeyoe??
o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a noi?oae, oaiia?aoo?e oa oa?aeoa?enoee ea?oth/iai
neaiaeo. Anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?? i?ae o?ce/ieie ia?aiao?aie ION,
aeaeo?iiioe/ieie, /aniaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iiai
ia?aoiaeo oa ?o iiaeoeyoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Aaee/eia iaeneiaeueii? i?ici?ino? ?E a i?ioean? OII i?ae ae??th
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a?aeiia?aea? aeiaaeeo i?ioiaeaeaiiy na?oea /a?ac ?E a
i?ici?iio aiiaio?iiiiio iaiaoe/iiio noai?. Iaeiae, aaee/eia
?ioaineaiino? ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea iaiaoeeii ? iacia/iith, ? i?iioneaiiy
a i?ici?iio noai? eii??ie, i?aoethth/eo ia aoaeo? OII, aecia/a?oueny a
iniiaiiio iiaeeiaiiyi ? a?aeaeaaiiyi ia no?oiii?ia?aeieo oa?ao.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiio?anoiiai a?aeiioaiiy aeey ??cieo ION iieacaee, ui
ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oee a noi?o? ci?ith? oi?io
aieueo-eiio?anoii? oa?aeoa?enoeee (AEO) oieanoa?eei-iaiaoe/iiai
ia?aoiaeo: ciaioo?oueny aaee/eia ?ioaineaiino? na?oea, ui i?ieoei /a?ac
c?acie o aeo?aeiiio noai?, a oaeiae aaee/eia i?i?iaeueii? ?ioaineaiino?
a i?ioean? OII i?ae ae??th i?eeeaaeaiiai iiey. Iaeanoue c?inoaiiy
i?ici?ino? eii??ee, yea a?aeiia?aea? i?ioeano ?oeioaaiiy oieanoa?e/ii?
ni??ae?, ci?uo?oueny a noi?iio aeueo iai?oa aiane?aeie c?inoaiiy
ii?iaiaiai iiey OII. Aiaeia?/iei /eiii ci?ith?oueny oi?ia AEO i?ae /an
cai?ioiueiai OII (?en.3).

I, a?aei. iae.

?en.3. Aieueo-eiio?anoi? oa?aeoa?enoeee OII aeey noi?oae ia iniia?
iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe? S-1 c aeii?oeaie oieanoa?eei?ii?iiaoo: 1,2,3, —
i?yi? ia?aoiaee; 1′, 2′, 3′ — cai?ioi? ia?aoiaee; 1, 1′ — 0.63%; 2, 2′ —
0.96%; 3, 3′ — 1.24% ao??o.

I?e ci?i? eiioeaio?aoe?? neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe a iaiaoe/i?e
iao?eoe? oi?ia AEO i?aeaea?oueny a?eueo nooo?aei ci?iai. Ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe aeeeeea? ??cea ca?eueoaiiy
aaee/eie i?i?iaeueii? i?ici?ino? ?E, i?e/iio aeey iaiaoe/ieo iao?eoeue
S-3 (60% 5OeA) oa S-4 (80% 5OeA) oa oieanoa?eei?ii?iiaoii a yeino? IAAe,
niinoa??aa?oueny a?aenooi?noue ia AEO ae?eyiee, ui a?aeiia?aea?
oaenoo?iiio ia?aoiaeo. Ca?eueoaiiy ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a aiiieiaa ao??o
oieanoa?eio, ui aenooia? ye IAAe a noi?oao ia iniia? oeeo iao?eoeue,
aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy aaee/eie d/P0, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?oeioaaiiy
oieanoa?e/ii? no?oeoo?e no?ieaie eii??ee, ? ci?ie i?ici?ino? i?ae ae??th
iiey ia niinoa??aa?oueny.

Ioaea, oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? aaee/eie i?i?iaeueii? ?ioaineaiino? na?oea,
ui i?ieoei /a?ac ?E a i?ioean? oieanoa?eei-iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo, a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy d/P0 na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aaaaeaiiy iaoai?cio ?icn?thaaiiy
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeaeeiiai ae?aiaciio ((=0.63 (m) ia iaiaeii??aeiinoyo
(aeiiaiao) eiioieaeueii? oaenoo?e ION. I?e oeueiio, i?e iaeiaeiaeo
oiaueiao ?E-oa?o, aaee/eia e?ieo ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e P0 aecia/a?
?ici?? oa eiioeaio?aoe?th na?oei?icn?thth/eo aeaiaio?a (aeiiai?a) a
eiioieaeuei?e oaenoo??. Oaeei /eiii, ?ioaineai?noue ?icn?thaaiiy
ca?eueoo?oueny c? c?inoaiiyi ia’?iii? aonoeie ?icn?thaa/?a oa nooiaiy
?icoii?yaeeiaaiino? inae ni??aeae eiioieaeueieo aeiiai?a, ui
a?aeiia?aea? aeiaaeeo aaeeeeo d/P0. A?aeiia?aeii, ca?eueoaiiy aaee/eie
e?ieo iaoiiaeth? ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? aeiiai?a a ia’?i? ?E oa ciaioaiiy
oaioe/iino? i???ioaoe?? iioe/ieo inae aiane?aeie iineeaiiy aieeao
iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a. I?e aeinoaoiuei aenieeo aaee/eiao e?ieo (d/P0<<1) eiioieaeueia oaenoo?a a eii??oe? ia ooai?th?oueny, ?icn?thaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ia /anoeiai aai iiai?noth c?oeiiaai?e ieaia?i?e oieanoa?e/i?e oaenoo??, ? aaee/eia i?i?iaeueii? i?ici?ino? ?E e?eoe/ii c?inoa?. Aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue /aniaeo ia?aiao??a ION aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c ae?acaie aeey /an?a aeeth/aiiy ((on) ? aeeeth/aiiy ((off) a aeaioeiinoaioiiio iaaeeaeaii?: aea K22, K33 - eiinoaioe i?oaeiino? O?aiea, P0 - a?eueiee e?ie ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e; d - oiaueia ?E, ( - ayce?noue iaoa??aeo, (( - ae?aeaeo?e/ia ai?cio?ii?y. I?e oeueiio oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? /an?a aeeth/aiiy ? aeeeth/aiiy iathoue aeniiiaioe??iee oa?aeoa?, ? /ania? ia?aiao?e niaaeathoue c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy ayceino? iaoa??aeo. Aiae?c aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieaco?, ui ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? IAAe a noi?o? i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy aaee/eie aeeaeie iiaeoeyoe??, a oie /an ye c?inoaiiy aii?yaeeiaaiino? no?oeoo?e iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe? - aei ?? ciaioaiiy (?en.4). ?en.4. Caeaaei?noue aaee/eie aeeaeie iiaeoeyoe?? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? IAAe a noi?o? aeey ??cieo iaiaoe/ieo iao?eoeue: S-1 - 20% 5OeA; S-2 - 40% 5OeA; S-3 - 60% 5OeA; S-4 - 80% 5OeA. Aeai? aeaeo?iiioe/ieo aei??thaaiue aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe aca?iica'ycie i?ae nooiaiai no?oeoo?iiai aii?yaeeoaaiiy iaiaoi-oieanoa?e/ieo noi?oae oa iiaeoeyoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie OII. Oa?aeoa? eiioeaio?aoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae aeeaeie iiaeoeyoe?? aecia/a?oueny ci?iith oi?ie aieueo-eiio?anoii? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa aaee/eie i?i?iaeueii? i?ici?ino? ?E i?e ci?i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae eiiiiiaioaie iaiaoi- oieanoa?e/ii? noi?o?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieueo- eiio?anoieo oa?aeoa?enoee noi?oae na?ae/aoue i?i niaaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? na?oei?icn?thaaiiy ia eiioieaeuei?e oaenoo?? oieanoa?e/ii? oace ye i?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? neeueiiiiey?ii? neeaaeiai? iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe?, oae ? i?e ca?eueoaii? ii?aeeiaiai iiia?a ao??o, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a yeino? iioe/ii aeoeaii? aeii?oee. E??i oiai, iniaeeaino? oaenoo?iooai?aiiy a eii??oe? i?e iaeeo d/P0 , iia’ycai? c ae??th iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a, iaoiiaeththoue i?e iaaieo oiiaao a?aenooi?noue nooo?ai? ci?ie ?ioaineaiino? na?oei?icn?thaaiiy i?ae ae??th iiey. A ?acoeueoao? aeeaeia iiaeoeyoe?? ia ae?eyioe? iane/aiiy c ?inoii aii?yaeeiaaiino? no?oeoo?e noi?o? niaaea?. C ae?oaiai aieo, ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iioe/ii aeoeaii? aeii?oee aeeeeea? iineeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? na?oei?icn?thaaiiy ia eiioieaeuei?e oaenoo?? c?acea i?ae /an OII, ui iia’ycaii c? ciaioaiiyi ?ici??o eiioieaeueieo aeiiai?a i?e ciaioaiiyi aaee/eie e?ieo ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e. Niaaeaiiy aeeaeie iiaeoeyoe?? c ?inoii /anoioe ea?oth/iai neaiaeo (?en.5) iaoiiaeaii iayai?noth i?ioean?a ?aaeoe?? oa ?aeaenaoe??, ?, a?aeiia?aeii, a?aie/ia /anoioa iiaeoeyoe?? aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiaie /an?a aeeth/aiiy ? aeeeth/aiiy. Ioaea, iaea?eueoith a?aie/iith /anoioith iiaeoeyoe?? aieiae?thoue noi?o? c i?i?iaeueieie /anaie ?aaeoe?? oa ?aeaenaoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oi?ie ea?oth/eo ?iioeuen?a ia oa?aeoa? iiaeoeyoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae iieacaee, ui i?e ea?oaaii? ?iioeuenaie iai?yiieooii? oi?ie ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? aeeiai?ee o?ainoi?iaoe?e ??aeeiai e?enoaeo i?ae /an OII. m, a?aei. iae. ?en. 5. *anoioi? caeaaeiino? aeeaeie iiaeoeyoe?? aeey noi?oae ia iniia? iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe? S-1 (20% 5OeA) c aeii?oeaie oieanoa?eei?ii?iiaoo: 1- 0,63 %; 2- 0,96 %; 3- 1,24 %. Iieacaii, ui aeey ea?oth/eo ?iioeuen?a iai?yiieooii? oi?ie c?inoa? aieea i?ioean?a ?aaeoe?? ? ?aeaenaoe?? ia oa?aeoa? iiaeoeyoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae, aiane?aeie /iai aeeaeia oa a?aie/ia /anoioa iiaeoeyoe?? niaaeathoue. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE ? AENIIAEE 1. I?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo aeey noai?aiiy ia eiai iniia? iiaeoeyoi??a eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. 2. Aeine?aeaeaii aca?iica'ycie i?ae aeaeo?iiioe/ieie, /aniaeie oa iiaeoeyoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oieanoa?eei-iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo oa o?ce/ieie ia?aiao?aie ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui: - i?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo neeueiiiiey?ii? neeaaeiai? a iaiaoe/i?e iao?eoe? i?ioiaeeoue ca?eueoaiiy nooiaiy no?oeoo?ii? aii?yaeeiaaiino? (??no eiinoaio i?oaeiino? iaoa??aeo), ui aeeeeea? iiiioiiiee ??no aaee/eie ae?aeaeo?e/ii? ai?cio?ii?? (( oa niaaeaiiy cae?o/oth/i? caeaoiino? ao???a oieanoa?eio, aaee/ei ii?iaiaeo iai?oa OII, eiio?anoo, aeeaeie oa a?aie/ii? /anoioe iiaeoeyoe??. 3. Aeey noi?oae ia iniia? iaeii? iaiaoe/ii? iao?eoe? ii?iaia? iai?oae OII, eiio?ano, aeeaeia oa a?aie/ia /anoioa iiaeoeyoe?? niaaeathoue c? ca?eueoaiiyi ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a ao??o oieanoa?eio, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny ye iioe/ii aeoeaia aeii?oea, aiane?aeie c?inoaiiy no?oeoo?ii? aii?yaeeiaaiino? noi?o?. 4. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a ia ii?iaia? aeaeo?e/i? iai?oae, /ania? ia?aiao?e oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo. Iieacaii, ui: - aieea iiaa?oiaaeo aoaeo?a ia ii?iaia? iai?oae oa /ania? ia?aiao?e OII ciaioo?oueny c ?inoii nooiaiy no?oeoo?ii? aii?yaeeiaaiino? noi?o? aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy eiinoaio i?oaeiino? O?aiea i?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo neeueiiiiey?ii? eiiiiiaioe. 5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ioaineai?noue na?oei?icn?thaaiiy eiioieaeueiith oaenoo?ith oieanoa?e/ii? oace, ui aecia/a? eiio?ano OII, c?inoa? c? ciaioaiiyi aaee/eie e?ieo ?iaeoeiaaii? ni??ae? ye aiane?aeie ?inoo ?icn?thaaiiy ia eiioieaeueieo aeiiaiao, oae ? ca ?aooiie iineeaiiy aieeao naeaeoeaiiai ?icn?thaaiiy. 6. Aecia/aii aieea ia?aiao??a ea?oth/eo neaiae?a ia aaee/eio aeeaeie iiaeoeyoe??. - iieacaii, ui aaee/eia aeeaeie iiaeoeyoe?? ciaioo?oueny c ?inoii /anoioe ea?oth/iai neaiaeo aiane?aeie aieeao i?ioean?a ?aaeoe?? oa ?aeaenaoe??, a iioeiaeueieie aeey ea?oaaiiy ? ?iioeuene i?yiieooii? oi?ie, ui iia'ycaii c aeeiai?eith o?ainoi?iaoe?e ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a a i?ioean? OII. 7. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea oaiia?aoo?e ia aeaeo?iiioe/i?, oa /ania? ia?aiao?e aoaeoo OII. Anoaiiaeaii, ui: - ca?eueoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e i?eaiaeeoue aei ?icoii?yaeeoaaiiy oeoeooaoe?eii? oa?iai? no?oeoo?e ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?ee?a, aiane?aeie /iai i?ioiaeeoue niaaeaiiy eiinoaio i?oaeiino? oa ayceino? iaoa??aeo, ? aaee/eie ii?iaiaeo iai?oa oa /an?a aeeth/aiiy ? aeeeth/aiiy niaaeathoue. 8. Aaee/eie aeeaeie oa a?aie/ii? /anoioe iiaeoeyoe?? c?inoathoue c? ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy /an?a ?aaeoe?? oa ?aeaenaoe?? ?E- iaoa??aeo. INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? ?IAIOE: 1. Ieeeothe C.I., Naiaiiaa TH.A., Io?aoaae/ A.I. Iniaeeaino? ?icn?yiiy ?aioaai?anueeeo i?iiai?a a ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?eeao// Oac. I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 150-??//th c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ?a. Ioethy, Euea?a, Oe?a?ia.-1995.- N.106. 2. Mikityuk Z.,Fechan A.,Semenova J. Liquid crystal material for light modulators on the base of cholesteric- nematic phase transition// J. Proc. SPIE.-V.2651, Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Applications IV N3.-1996.- P.196-208. 3. Z.Mikityuk, M.Vistak, J.Semenova. Small angle X-ray scattering in induced cholesterics.//Abs. of 15th General Conference of the Condenced Matter Division- Italy.- Apr. 22-25, 1996.- N 935. 4. Mikityuk Z., Fechan A., Semenova J. Liquid crystal mixtures for spatial-time light modulators with a memory.//Proc. of IC&T 49th Annual Conference, May 19-24, 1996.- USA.- P.420-425. 5. M.Vistak, Z.Parashchuk, J.Semenova. Induced cholesteric and its application in display devices//Proc. of IC.T 49th Annual Conference, May 19-24, 1996.- USA.- P.418-419. 6. Mikityuk Z., Fechan A., Semenova J. Light modulation features by cholesteric-nematic transition in nematic-cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures.//Opto-Electronics Rewiew.- V.5, N1 (1997).- P.47-53. 7. Z.Mikityuk, J.Semenova, M.Nutskovsky, O.Sushinsky. Liquid crystal modulator of laser radiation for high-power lasers of infra-red range of spectrum.// Molecular Cryst.& Liquid Cryst.- N1 (1998). -P.1-5. 8. J.Semenova, Z.Mikityuk, A.Fechan, M.Nutskovsky. Induced cholesterics as an active medium for low-frequency light modulators.// J. Proc. SPIE.-V.3015, Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Applications IV.- N3 (1997).- P.106-112. 9. D. Batbayarin, O. Gotra, Z. Mikityuk, J. Semenova. Display devices on the base of texture transition.//Materialy VI Konferencji Naukowy "Technologia Elektronowa" ELTE'97, Krynica, Poland.- 1997.- P. 109-110. 10. D. Batbayarin, O. Gotra, Z. Mikityuk, J. Semenova, A. Fechan. New Liquid Crystal Materials For Modulators On The Base Of Texture Transition. //Materialy VI Konferencji Naukowy "Technologia Elektronowa" ELTE'97, Krynica, Poland.- 1997.- P.113-114. 11. Z.Mikityuk, Z.Gotra, A.Fechan, J.Semenova. Liquid crystal materials for opto-electronic devices// Proc. of 1-st International Symposium on Microelectronics Technologies and Microsystems, Rzeszow, Poland.- May 27-28, 1997.- P.58-63. 12. Z.Mikityuk, A.Fechan, J.Semenova. Liquid crystal material for space-time modulators on the base of cholesteric- nematic transition effect// Proc. of VI-th International Symposium on Advanced Display Technologies, Crimea, Ukraine.- October 12-16, 1997.- D-36, P.72-75. 13. Ieeeothe C.I., Naiaiiaa TH.A., Aio?a I.C., Oa/ai A.A. Iniaeeaino? ?icn?thaaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy eiioieaeueiith oaenoo?ith a oa?? ?iaeoeiaaiiai oieanoa?eea aeey na?oei?icn?thth/eo aeaiaio?a// A?niee AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea», «Aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/i? oa aeaeo?iiaoai?/i? nenoaie».- N 334.- 1997.- N.72-76. 14. Ieeeothe C.I., Oa/ai A.A., Aio?a I.C., Naiaiiaa TH.A. ??aeeie?enoae?/iee iaoa??ae aeey i?inoi?iai- /aniaeo iiaeoeyoi??a na?oea nenoai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ea?oaaiiy ia iniia? oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo// A?niee AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea», «Aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/i? oa aeaeo?iiaoai?/i? nenoaie»-N334- 1997.-N.68-72. Naiaiiaa TH.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oieanoa?eei-iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo a ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?eeao aeey iiaeoeyoe?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.15 - O?ceea iieaeoey?ieo ? ??aeeeo e?enoae?a, ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi oai?aoe/i? iiaeae? ooai?aiiy ?iaeoeiaaii? ni??aeueii? no?oeoo?e a iaiaoi- oieanoa?e/ieo noi?oao, oaenoo?ieo oa oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue a ?iaeoeiaaieo oieanoa?eeao i?ae ae?ath aeaeo?e/iiai oa oaieiaiai iie?a, ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea ?iaeoeiaaieie oieanoa?eeaie. Aeine?aeaeaii aeaeo?iiioe/i?, /ania? oa iiaeoeyoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee oieanoa?eei-iaiaoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo oa anoaiiaeaii aca?iica'ycie c o?ce/ieie ia?aiao?aie iaiaoi-oieanoa?e/ieo noi?oae. ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii noai?aiith iaoa??ae?a aeey aoaeoeaieo iecueei/anoioieo iiaeoeyoi??a eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeaeeiiai ae?aiaciio niaeo?o. Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?iaeoeiaaiee oieanoa?ee, oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/iee ia?ao?ae, ni??aeueia no?oeoo?a, iiaeoeyoe?y aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Naiaiiaa TH.A. Enneaaeiaaiey oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/aneiai ia?aoiaea a eiaeooee?iaaii(o oieanoa?eeao aeey iiaeoeyoeee eaca?iiai eceo/aiey. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei- iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.15 - Oeceea iieaeoey?i(o e aeeaeeeo e?enoaeeia, Einoeooo oeceee IAI Oe?aei(, 1999. A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?anniio?ai( oai?aoe/aneea iiaeaee ia?aciaaiey eiaeooee?iaaiiie nie?aeueiie no?oeoo?( a iaiaoeei- oieanoa?e/aneeo nianyo, oaenoo?i(o e oacia(o i?aia?aciaaiee a eiaeooee?iaaii(o oieanoa?eeao iiae aeaenoaeai (eaeo?e/aneiai e oaieiaiai iieae, ?annayiey naaoa eiaeooee?iaaii(ie oieanoa?eeaie. Enneaaeiaai( (eaeo?iiioe/aneea, a?aiaii(a e iiaeoeyoeeiii(a oa?aeoa?enoeee oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/aneiai ia?aoiaea e onoaiiaeaia eo acaeiinaycue n oece/aneeie ia?aiao?aie iaiaoeei- oieanoa?e/aneeo nianae. ?ac?aaioai( ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii nicaeaieth iaoa?eaeia aeey (ooaeoeai(o iecei/anoioi(o iiaeoeyoi?ia eaca?iiai eceo/aiey aeaeeiiai aeeaiaciia niaeo?a. Eeth/aa(a neiaa: eiaeooee?iaaii(e oieanoa?ee, oieanoa?eei- iaiaoe/aneee ia?aoiae, nie?aeueiay no?oeoo?a, iiaeoeyoeey eceo/aiey Semenova J.V. Studies of Cholesteric-Nematic Transition in Induced Cholesterics for Laser Radiation Modulation. - Manuscript. Thesis for the degree of candidate of physical-mathematical sciences by speciality 01.04.15 - Physics of Molecular and Liquid Crystals. Institute of physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999. Analysis of induced helix creation in nematic-cholesteric mixtures, texture and phase transitions in induced cholesterics upon the action of electric field and temperature theoretical models is carried out, light scattering in induced cholesterics prosesses are considered. It is shown, that the theoretical model, which bases on cholesteric-nematic transition threshold fields defining by means of free energies of director different states during the transition decribes the cholesteric-nematic transition process more adequately. On the base of this theoretical approach and induced cholesterics electrooptical studies the method of material elasticity constants defining is elaborated. The electrooptical, time and modulation characteristics are studied for induced cholesterics on the base of nematic matrices - mixtures of strong polar cyanobiphenile and weak polar asoxycompouds with a low content of cholesterine esters. The correlation between this mixtures electrooptical, time and modulation characteristics and their physical parameters are fixed. It is shown, that the strong polar component content increasing leads to structure regularity degree (material elesticity constants) growing, that causes the dielectric anisotropy monotonous growth and cholesterine esters twisting ability, cholesteric-nematic transition threshold fields, contrast value, modulation depth and modulation frequency limit decreasing. For the mixtures on the base the same nematic matrix cholesteric-nematic threshold fields, contrast, modulation depth and modulation frequency limit decrease with a cholesterine ester’s, which is used as an optical active dopant for spiral structure creation, ordinal number in the series increasing. This fact can be explained by the mixture structural regulating degree growth. The analysis of results of induced cholesterics structure studies by small-angle X-ray scattering and infra-red spectroscopy shows, that the main structural units of the mixture with highest strong polar component content are cyanoderivative dimers, molecular interaction nature is not changes by strong polar component content growing, single asoxycompoud’s molecules or a pair of this molecules are «fixes» into the origin cianoderivative layered structure, molecular packing density increases. The influence of surface effects on cholesteric-nematic transition threshold fields and time parameters are considered. It is shown, that the surface effects influence on threshold fields and time parameters decreases by a mixture regulating degree growth as a sequence of Frank’s elasticity constants increasing. On the base of electrooptical studies it is fixed, that intensity of light scattering by focal-conic cholesteric texture, which defines the cholesteric-nematic transition contrast, increases by the induced spiral pitch decreasing owing to both scattering on focal-conic domains growth and selective scattering influence intensification. The influence of control signal parameters on modulation depth value is studied. It is shown, that modulation depth value decreases with control signal frequency growing as a sequence of reaction and relaxation processes influence, and the square-shape signals are optimum for the modulator controlling, that is connected with induced cholesterics transformations dynamic during the cholesteric-nematic transition process. It is fixed, that temperature growh leads to fluctuation layered induced cholesterics structure unregulating, that causes Frank’s elastisity constants and material viscosity decreasing and cholesteric-nematic transition threshold fields and time parameters decrease. The recommendations for materials for effective low-frequency laser radiation of visible range of spectrum are elaborated. Key words: induced cholesteric, cholesteric-nematic transition, spiral structure, modulation of radiation. PAGE 3 3 2 1

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