IAeANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA TH?EAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss

?aci?/aiei

Naiai Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 342:347.44(477)

AeIAIA?? ssE AeAEA?AEI

EIINOEOOOe?EIIAI I?AAA OE?A?IE

niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aaeio?aoia Ieoaeei Ieaenaiae?iae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa

oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Iaeanueei?

aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? O?eoeueeee Ieaa Oaaei?iae/, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o
ni?aa Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio E?eeia TH??e Aaneeueiae/, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e iie?oieia?? Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? ca’yceo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i “12” aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.086.01 Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 270009, i. Iaeana, aoe. I?iia?nueea,
2

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 270009, i. Iaeana, aoe.
I?iia?nueea, 2

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “____” ________________ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee *aieoaaa A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Canoinoaaiiy aeiaiai??a i?ioyaii e?eueeio oeny/
?ie?a iaoiiaeaii ianaiia?aae oei, ui eaeaoueny i?i aio/eo i?aaiao oi?io,
o ye?e iiaeooue ae?aaeaoeny ??ci? ca oa?aeoa?ii noni?euei? a?aeiineie.
Oa?aeoa?ecoth/enue nai?th iniiaiith eiinoeoothth/ith iciaeith (aeiaia??
? ?acoeueoaoii aeinyaiooi? eiio?aaaioaie caiaee), aeiaia??ia oi?ia
iin?ea nai? a?aeia i?noea a aea?aeaaiiio (eiinoeoooe?eiiio) i?aa?. Naia
ooo iniiaia i?ecia/aiiy aeiaiai?o ?aeue?oii caiaeeoueny aei ?aaoethaaiiy
a ?aieao caeiio iiaiaeaeaiiy noa’?eo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oeyoii
aecia/aiiy ia iaae? ?o iiaeeeaiai oa iaeaaeiiai iiaiaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae
iane?aeee ii?ooaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aeiia.

Ca oiia ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie, ui aoea ii?iaeaeaiiyi oioae?oa?ii?
aea?aeaae, aeiaia?? ciaeoia nai? aeineoue oe?iea canoinoaaiiy o?eueee a
ainiiaea?nueeiio ia?ao. Aea e oa iniiaia iana aeiaiai??a, ye? ca’ycoaaee
i?ae niaith aieiaieo o/aniee?a aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei (aea?aeaai?,
ei?ii?aoeai? e ?io? a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??), oeeaaeaeany aeey
aeeiiaiiy ieaiiaeo caaaeaiue. Oaeei /eiii, aiey eiio?aaaio?a o oaeeo
aeiaiai?ao aoea iaiiaiioe?iiith, ine?eueee aiia neeaaeaeany i?ae i?yiei
aai iai?yiei aieeaii caaaeaiue, ui aecia/aeeny aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie.

Ca oeo aea oiia iaei i?noea canoinoaaiiy aeiaiai?o ? a aea?aeaaiiio
i?aa?, cie?aia, i?e noai?aii? ?aaeyinueei? oaaea?aoeaii? aea?aeaae. Aea
aeiaiai?e i?ae nithcieie ?anioae?eaie ? oeaio?ii iaee aeaeea?aoeaiee
oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee ia i?aeoeoe? i?iyaeyeeny a aei?noe?e oeaio?ae?caoe??
ooieoe?e aea?aeaae oa i?aeii?yaeeoaaii? ?oi?i ?ioa?anai ia o?eueee
oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo, aea e ia?o?eieo iaaeaea?aeaaieo i?aai?a.

?acii c oei o ca?oa?aeieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo aea?aeaaao aeiaia??i? oi?ie
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae oaaea?aoe??th ? ?? noa’?eoaie, i?ae oeaio?aeueieie
? i?noeaaeie aeaaeaie, i?ae oa?eoi??aeueieie a?iiaaeaie iaaoee
iaea?eueoiai iioe?aiiy oa ni?eyee ae??oaiith aaaaoueio ni??ieo oa
neeaaeieo neooaoe?e, ui aeieeaee a i?ioean? ?oiuei? aca?iiae?? a ?aieao
i?aeeia?iiai oa aeno?ai?aeeia?iiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee.

Ca oiia oe?iei? aeaiie?aoecaoe?? a?iiaaenueeiai e aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy a
Oe?a?i? aeieeathoue ia’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae aeey aeei?enoaiiy aeiaia??ii?
oi?ie o noa?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa. Aei oaeeo ia?aaeoiia, ianaiia?aae,
iaeaaeeoue ci?ia i??i?eoao?a o aea?aeaai?e iie?oeoe?, ??
aoiai?oa?ecaoe?y, yea noa? aecia/aeueiei /eiieeii aea?aeaaii?
ae?yeueiino? oa noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ona?aeiieaiiyi cia/ouino?,
?icoe?aiiyi ? ci?oeiaiiyi i?eaaoii-i?aaiaeo iniia o aea?aeaaii-i?aaia?e
ae?eniino?. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?noioii? ci?ie naii? o?einio??
aca?iia?aeiinei noa’?eo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie, eio?? ca oiia
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? ? aeaeiioeaio?aoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee iaea?aeothoue
iiaeeea?noue naiino?eiiai aeai?o iiaiaeaeaiiy a iaaeao nai??
eiiiaoaioe??, ui ia?iaiaioii ?icoe?th?oueny, a oaeiae o cae??ieaii?
nai?o aca?iia?aeiinei c ?ioeie noa’?eoaie a aeiaia??ieo oi?iao. I?e
i?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe?? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo iiaeeea? ae??oaiiy cia/iiai eiea
i?iaeai, ye? iaeiie/eeeny a aeiiii?/i?e, iie?oe/i?e oa nioe?aeuei?e
noa?ao ae?yeueiino? no/anii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, aeoea?caoe?y
i?ioean?a noaiiaeaiiy iiai? ?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, ni?aaaeiueiai
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo a?iiaae, ia?aianaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i ia ?aa?iiaeueiee ??aaiue, aea aiie, aeania, ? iiaeii?
i?iaiaeeoeny a ?ioa?anao eiaeii? eiie?aoii? ethaeeie.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioo i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oai?aoe/ieo,
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo aeiaiai?o ye aeaea?aea
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie. O ?iaio? ?ice?eaathoueny cia/aiiy oa
i?aaiaee noaoon ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?o ye aeaea?aea
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie, aeine?aeaeo?oueny cia/aiiy
Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Aeiaiai?o i?ae Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie ?
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie, a
oaeiae eiai ?ieue ye nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoeyoi?a e aoaeoeaiiai
niiniao ae??oaiiy iie?oe/ii? e?ece a aea?aeaa?, ?icaeyaea?oueny i?aaiaee
oaiiiai aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ye ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy aeiaia??ieo
a?aeiinei o eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaa ? Oe?a?ie.
?ice?eaa?oueny th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a Oe?a?ie oa
?oi? cia/aiiy ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, a oaeiae
aeine?aeaeothoueny aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaia’yceiaino?
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo ii?i o iaoe?iiaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue i?ioeane noaiiaeaiiy e
iniaeeaino? aeiaiai?o ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oa aeaiaioa
nenoaie aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, ye? ?ice?eaathoueny a eiioaeno?
?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? aeaea?aea i?aaa oa nenoaie aeaea?ae i?aaa noiniaii
i?iaeaiaoeee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caoaa?aeaeaia A/aiith ?aaeith
TH?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?.
Ia/ieeiaa (i?ioieie ? 3 a?ae 10 eenoiiaaea 1997 ?.). Aiia ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith caaaeueii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa ia oaio “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, i?aaiai? aea?aeaae a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iinoaiiaea oa
ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo ? i?aaiaeo i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy aeiaia??ii? oi?ie
a?aeiinei o eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? no/anii? Oe?a?ie.

Caaea/aie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

— ?icaeyae ia’?eoeaieo caeiiii??iinoae, ui ni?eythoue oeueiio i?ioeano
oa cae??ieaiith ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai e i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai??a ye
i?aeeia?ieo aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? aeiaia??ii? oi?ie a?aeiinei o
eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai iaia’yceiaino? ??cieo aeae?a i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a Oe?a?ie aeey iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa;

— aea/aiiy e ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo eiinoeoooe?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
no/anieo aea?aeaa c aeei?enoaiiy aeiaia??ii? oi?ie a?aeiinei;

— ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa c iaoith ?icoe?aiiy iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy aeiaia??ii?
oi?ie a?aeiinei o th?eaee/i?e, i?aai?aaoeyoeai?e oa th?enaeeeoe?ei?e
ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith oa oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? noaee
aeinyaiaiiy na?oiai? iaoee e i?aeoeee eiinoeoooe?eiiai, ii??aiyeueiiai
eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, aeei?enoaiiy ae?aeaeoe/iiai
iaoiaeo i?ciaiiy, i?eioeeio ?noi?ecio, ii??aiyeueii-aea?aeaaiciaa/iai
(eiiia?aoea?nonueeiai) oa eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoiae?a. Aaeeeee
aianie a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie c?iaeee a?o/eciyi? a/ai?: N.N.
Aeaen??a, I.A. Aaaeae, N.I. Aieiaaoee, N.A. Aieoinueeee, A.I. Aeaienia,
N.E. C?an, N.O. Ea/ae’yi, I.I. Eooao?i, A.A. Eaca?aa, ?.?. Eoeaooe, I.A.
Eoe’yiiaa, A.A. Iaaeaaae/oe, A.O. Iaeauaiei, I.I. Ieoaeueiaa, A.A.
Ieoei, A.A. Iaca?aiei, I.I. Iaaeaaeei, I.I. I?c?o, A.O. Iiai??eei, I.I.
?aa?iiae/, A.I. Naeeaaiia, I.N. No?iaiae/, A.I. Oaeaea?a, TH.I.
Oeoiie?ia, TH.I. Oiaeeea, I.I. Oeueyiiaa, I.O. O?eoeueeee, A.?. *e?e?i,
E.I. THcueeia oa ?io?, iaoeia? i?aoe? eio?eo i?enay/ai? i?iaeaiai, ui
ae??ooaaeeny caeiaoaa/ai i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiai? aeniiaee e iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe ??oioothoueny ia /eiiiio
eiinoeoooe?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? oa eiinoeoooe?ei?e i?aeoeoe? Oe?a?ie e
ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaa, a oaeiae aeaea?aeao i?aeia?iaeiiai ioae?/iiai
i?aaa.

Ia??oioiaai?noue oa aeinoia??i?noue aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e caaacia/o?oueny eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo
caeiaoaa/ai, oa ia?aa??eith ?oi?o iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ia
?aae?ciaai?noue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiii ?
ia?oei eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi o a?o/eciyi?e th?eaee/i?e iaooe?, yea
i?enay/aia aea/aiith oai??? oa i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy e aeei?enoaiiy
aeiaiai?o ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa. Iaoeiao iiaecio
a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo iieiaeaiiyo, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— iiiyooy, iniaeeaino? oa oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa, ui ia? ?noioia cia/aiiy aeey i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aca?iia?aeiinei noni?euenoaa, iniaenoino? ? aea?aeaae;

— oa?aeoa?enoeea ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?o ye i?aeeia?iiai
aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa;

— oa?aeoa?enoeea Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Aeiaiai?o i?ae Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith
Oe?a?ie ? I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie 1995 ?. ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa Oe?a?ie, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai aoea ae??oaia e?eciaa neooaoe?y, ui
aeieeea i?ae a?eeaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?eaaea aei
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? e?ece a noni?euenoa?;

— oa?aeoa?enoeea oaiiiaia aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ye ia?aaeoiiae
aeieeiaiiy aeiaia??ieo a?aeiinei o eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie;

— oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa Oe?a?ie oa neeaaeiai? /anoeie ?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa;

— i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
Oe?a?ie, yea ?aaeaiaioo? aeei?enoaiiy aeiaia??ieo oi?i aca?iia?aeiinei
noa’?eo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa;

— ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?icoe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy aeiaia??ieo oi?i
aca?iia?aeiinei o th?eaee/i?e, i?aai?aaoeyoeai?e oa th?enaeeeoe?ei?e
ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeniiaee,
i?iiiceoe?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? caeiaoaa/a ? iaaiei aianeii o oai??th e
i?aeoeeo eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, aiie i?eaeaoi? aeey aeei?enoaiiy a
caeiiii?iaeoi?e ?iaio?, o i?ioean? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa ?ioeo noa’?eo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue neoaeeoe i???ioe?ii o
i?aaioai?/iio e i?aaicanoinia/iio i?ioeanao, o aaeineiiaeaii? iaoai?cio
iiaeieaiiy noia?a/iinoae, ye? aeieeathoue a i?aeeia?ieo oa
aeno?ai?aeeia?ieo oiiaao ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, o
aeinyaiaii? nioe?aeueii? caiaee oa iiceoeaiiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a noaiiaeaii? aea?aeaaiino?, a oaeiae ni?eyoeiooue
iaaeeaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa aei iniiaieo oe?iiinoae
aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?aaiaeo nenoai.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o aecia/aii?: c?inoaiiy ?ie?
aeiaiai?o ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oa aeooaeueiino? eiai
canoinoaaiiy a ioae?/ii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiineiao, ui neeaaeathoueny o noa??
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiai? ae?eniino? no/anii? Oe?a?ie; ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aeiaiai?o c ?ioeie aeaea?aeaie eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa a eiioaeno? ci?ie
i?aeoiaeo aei ?iciiae?eo nenoaie i?aaa ia ioae?/ia ? i?eaaoia i?aai;
i?eaeaoiino? aeiaiai?o aei oe?ieiai eiea ioae?/ii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei, ui
aeieeathoue i?ae noa’?eoaie eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, o i?ioean?
i?aeeia?iiai oa aeno?ai?aeeia?iiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee;
ia??oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ?ic?iaee aeiaia??iiai i?aaa a ?aieao
?nioth/iai eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo Oe?a?ie. O ?iaio? aeei?enoai? ?aea?
I.I. Aaeio?aoiaa, ?.Ae. Ne?aeaiea, ui ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ni?eueieo
ioae?eaoe?yo ?c aeena?oaioii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae??
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??. ??
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo aeaaeai?? oa Iaeanueeiai
?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. ?iaioa i?ieoea iiia?aaei?e caoeno ia
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??. Oai?aoe/iee aei?iaie caeiaoaa/a aeei?enoiao?oueny
a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?no “Eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai
Oe?a?ie” a Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e th?eaee/i?e aeaaeai?? oa Iaeanueeiio
?inoeooo? aioo??oi?o ni?aa, cie?aia, i?e aeeeaaeaii? eaeoe?eiiai eo?no
oa i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue ?c oai: “Aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa Oe?a?ie”, “Eiinoeoooe?eiee eaae Oe?a?ie”, “I?aaiaa noaiiaeua
Aa?oiai? ?aaee Oe?a?ie”, “I?aaiaee noaoon I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie”.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ai?iaiaai? oa ciaeoee nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ainueie ioae?eaoe?yo, ui i?noyoueny o aeaeaiiyo,
ia?ae?e yeeo caoaa?aeaeaii AAEii Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, ye? ia’?aeiothoue n?i i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 180 noi??iie.
Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae – 15 noi??iie (172 iaeiaioaaiiy).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oa noai ?ic?iaeaiiy a iaooe?
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oaie aeena?oaoe??, aecia/athoueny ?? iaoa oa
caaaeaiiy, aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eoa, i?aaeiaoa oa iaoiaeieia??
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacaii oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue ?iaioe, oi?ioeth?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, a oaeiae iiaeaii
nooi?iue ai?iaaoe??, oi?iaaaeaeaiiy e oa?aeoa? ioae?eaoe?e ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Iiiyooy oa nenoaia aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa
Oe?a?ie” neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1 “Aeaea?aei eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa: iiiyo?eia oa
i?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea” e??cue i?ecio aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo
i?aeoiae?a oai??? aea?aeaae oa i?aaa aeine?aeaeothoueny aaaaoia?aii?
aiinaieia?/i?, ?noi?e/i?, nioe?ieia?/i? e i?aaia? i?ioeane noaiiaeaiiy
iiiyooy “aeaea?aei i?aaa”. Cie?aia, ?icaeyaeathoueny ??ci? iaoeia?
i?aeoiaee oa iiceoe?? aei aecia/aiiy oeueiai iiiyooy, ia??oioiao?oueny
o?einionueei-i?aaiaa ?icoi?iiy aeaea?aea i?aaa, aeine?aeaeo?oueny eiai
aca?iica’ycie ?c aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith, yea ? eiinoeoothth/ei ia/aeii o
aaiacen?, noaiiaeaii? oa ooieoe?iioaaii? aeaea?ae i?aaa oa ?o nenoaie.
Iieacaii, ui naia aeaea?aea i?aaa ?aeue?oii oa?aeoa?ecothoue ca’ycie
i?aaa c aea?aeaaith, ine?eueee aea?aeaaia aiey iiina?aaeeiao? ca’ycie
i?aaa c ia’?eoeaii ?nioth/eie noni?eueieie a?aeiineiaie (N.A. Eiia?ia).

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?iaeaia aeaea?ae i?aaa a th?eaee/i?e iaooe?
?ic?iaeaia iaaeinoaoiuei c iaeyaeo ia aaaaoicia/i?noue oa ia/?oe?noue
naiiai iiiyooy aeaea?aea i?aaa, oiio aiia “iaeaaeeoue aei /enea
iaea?eueo iaiaaieo o oai??? i?aaa” (N.O. Ea/ae’yi). Oaea ioe?iea ?
aeooaeueiith ? a oaia??oi?e /an, ui ciaoiaeeoue nai? aeyaeaiiy o aaeee?e
e?eueeino? ??ciiieaiiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei ?icoi?iiy aeaea?aea i?aaa
(?aeaaeuei?, iaoa??aeuei?, th?eaee/i? aeaea?aea i?aaa). Iaaeiioe?iea
?aaeyinueeith th?eaee/iith iaoeith ieoaiiy i?i aeaea?aea i?aaa iaea
oa?aeoa? iaoiaeieia?/ii? iiieeee, ui iieyaaea a i?eiao? aocueeieeaniaeo
?ioa?an?a o i?aa? oa ioe?ioe? an?o th?eaee/ieo i?ioean?a ? i?iaeai
e??cue ?o i?ecio. O ?acoeueoao? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo o a?o/eciyi?e
th?eaee/i?e iaooe? ? aeioaia? iaia? caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai iiiyooy
aeaea?aea i?aaa.

Aiae?coth/e ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei iiiyooy aeaea?aea i?aaa, caeiaoaa/
iiae?ey? iiceoe?th oeo o/aieo, eio?? ?icoi?thoue i?ae aeaea?aeii i?aaa
oi?iaeueii ia’?eoeaiaaio ae?yeuei?noue, yea i?eaiaeeoue aei eiie?aoiiai
oi?iaeueiiai ?acoeueoaoo – i?eeiyooy i?aaioai?/iai aeoa, aai, ?ioeie
neiaaie, naiee i?aaioai?/ee aeo (A.I. Io?iioeaa, N.A. Aieoinueeee, I.N.
No?iaiae/).

Ca i?aenoieaie i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei ?icoi?iiy
i?iaeaie aeaea?aea (oi?ie) i?aaa, caeiaoaa/ aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i oa,
ui ca oiia noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? i?iaeaia aeaea?ae
i?aaa iaaoaa? ia o?eueee oai?aoe/ii?, aea e iie?oe/ii? cia/ouino?, ui
aeooae?co? iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iaoeiai ia??oioiaaii? eiioeaioe??
aeaea?ae i?aaa.

Iniaeeai? cia/ouino? a i?ioean? iie?oe/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaae e
noni?euenoaa iaaoaathoue aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa. I?e
aeine?aeaeaii? oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai ?oiueiai noaiiaeaiiy, o eiioaeno?
?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? noa? i?e?iaeiiai e iiceoeaiiai i?aaa,
aeyaeythoueny ?oi? iniaeeaino?, nioe?aeueia e th?eaee/ia cia/ou?noue.
Oe? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ice?eaathoueny ia oe? aiae?co i?noey e ?ie?
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa a nenoai? i?aaa ye i?io?ethth/i? oa ?aeeii
ooiaeaiaioaeueii? aaeoc? i?aaa. Aiae?coth/e iniaeeaino? i?aaeiaoa
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, i?ae yeei ?icoi??oueny aeie noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei, ui ? a on?o noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa, caeiaoaa/
aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui aiie aeieeathoue o i?ioean? aca?iia?aeiinei
noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaae ? iniaenoino?, i?noyoue nooo?a? oa?aeoa?enoeee,
iathoue nenoaiiooai?thth/? aeanoeaino? oa caeaoi? ?ioaa?oaaoe
nioe?aeuei? ca’ycee a oe?e?nia noni?euenoai, yea ooieoe?iio? ia iniia?
aea?aeaaii? i?aai?caoe??. ?c oeeo iiceoe?e c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui
aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie aeieeathoue o i?ioean?
cae?eniaiiy iiaiiaeaaeaey oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2 “Nenoaia aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie”
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa no?oeoo?a aaeoc? eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa, nenoaia aeaea?ae th?eaee/ieo eiinoeoooe?eieo i?aaiaeo ii?i, yeo
ooai?ththoue ???a?o?/ii aca?iicaeaaei? aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo nenoaie aeaea?ae
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie iaaoaa? aeey an??? i?aaiai? nenoaie
aea?aeaae aaaeeeaiai oai?aoe/iiai e i?aaiaoe/iiai cia/aiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaii? ?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? ?ie? oaiiiaia
““ooyao-aaiiy” ia eiinoeoooe?eio i?a?oo i?eaaoiii?aaiaeo iieiaeaiue ye
ii?iaoeaieo i?eioeei?a ioae?/iiai i?aaa” (I.I. I?c?o) i?eaiaeeoue aei
aeniiae?a i?i oa, ui aeciaiiy aa?oiaainoaa ethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae oa
?ioa?an?a iaae on?ia ?ioeie, oaeiae ? iaae aea?aeaaieie, ui eaaeeoue a
iniia? iiae?eo i?aaa ia ioae?/ia ? i?eaaoia, aaaea aei aaeueie
na?eiciiai ia?ainieneaiiy, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a – ? aei i?yiiai
ia?aaeyaeo onoaeaieo iiceoe?e, iioeaoaaiue oa noaeaeaiue. Oea ?iaeoue
aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia i?ioean ?icoe?aiiy eiea aeaea?ae
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, ui iaaoaa? oa?aeoa?o ia?iaiaioii? oaiaeaioe??,
ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aeeiai?/iino? nenoaie aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa. Cacia/ai? i?ioeane ?iaeyoue iiaeeeaei oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a
eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? aeaea?ae, ye? ?ai?oa, ca oiia aei?noei?
oeaio?ae?caoe?? oa eiioeaio?aoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ia iiaee aooe
aeei?enoai? a neeo ?o iiaiaeaeoaaeueii?, aaceiioe?eoii?,
eiioi?i?nonueei? i?e?iaee. Oaeei aeaea?aeii o eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa?
aenooia? aeiaia??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noey e ?ie? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie a nenoai? aeaea?ae
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, ?? no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eo oa nenoaiiooai?thth/eo
iniaeeainoae, iniaeeainoae ?ioeo aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie
aeicaieeee caeiaoaa/aa? aeyaeoe oa i?aeoaa?aeeoe aca?iica’ycai?noue oa
ni?ai?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue nenoaie aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa,
aecia/eoe a i?e ?ieue ? i?noea aeiaiai?o (ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai oa
i?aeia?iaeiiai).

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Aeiaia?? a nenoai? aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa
Oe?a?ie” neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1 “Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee aeiaia?? ye aeaea?aei
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa” aeine?aeaeothoueny i?ioeane noaiiaeaiiy,
?icaeoeo oa canoinoaaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?o ye a?aeiinii
iiaiai ?, o oie aea /an, i?aeeia?iiai aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa
Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?cothoueny ??ci? i?aeoiaee ??cieo aaoi??a aei aeao?i?oeaiiai
aecia/aiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?o ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa. Ia oe?e iniia? c aeei?enoaiiyi noaoooieo iciae aeiaiai?o (aca?iia
aeiiiaeai?noue oa a?eueia aieaaeyaeaiiy noi??i), caeiaoaa/ aeioiaeeoue
aeniiaeo, ui o noa?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oaeee aeiaia?? i?aaeth? oa
iaa?oue aeeeth/a? a?aeiineie aeaaee oa i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ye ia aoai?
eiai i?aeaiooaaiiy, oae ? ia aoai? eiai ?aae?caoe??. Oiio
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee aeiaia?? aecia/a?oueny ye aeia?ia?eueia oaiaea
aea?aeaa, aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue, ?oi?o i?aai?a, ?ioeo noa’?eo?a
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa c ieoaiue ?oi?o aca?iia?aeiinei.

?ioa?an, ui aeyaey?oueny aei ?icoe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?o ca oiia aeaiie?aoe/iiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aea?aeaae e noni?euenoaa, iniaeeai a ?aieao oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae, yeith ?
Oe?a?ia, iiynith?oueny, ianaiia?aae, aenieith ie?iiiceoeaiith
iioaioe??th aeiaia??ii? oi?ie i?aaa a nioe?aeueii-th?eaee/i?e
aca?iiae??, oe?ieei niaeo?ii iiaeeeainoae aeey aeinyaiaiiy caiaee e
eiii?ii?no i?ae noa’?eoaie eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa ia iniia? ?oiueiai
aeia?ia?eueiiai aieaaeyaeaiiy, ui ?iaeoue oaeee aeiaia?? iianyeaeaiiei,
i?aeeia?iei aeaea?aeii eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny oa aiae?co?oueny eeaneo?eaoe?y ioae?/ieo
aeiaiai??a (TH.I. Oeoiie?ia), ui aaciina?aaeiuei noino?oueny i?aaeiaoa
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiceoeaii ioe?ithth/e acaaae? oeth
eeaneo?eaoe?th ye ia?oo ni?iao, c?iaeaio ?? aaoi?ii ?c iaoith aecia/aiiy
iiaeeeaeo ? ?aaeueieo noa? canoinoaaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy
i?aaeiaoii-aeaeiai? ? noa’?eoii-ia’?eoii? iiiaieeaoo?e aeiaiai?o,
aeiaia??ii? oi?ie a?aeiinei o ioae?/iiio i?aa?, caeiaoaa/ aeaco? ia ??
iaaaoeai? ?ene. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui oey eeaneo?eaoe?y ia?
aaaaoianiaeoiee oa?aeoa?; aiia iaeii/anii i?noeoue aioo??oith ?
ciai?oith noa?e ioae?/ieo aeiaiai??a; ooo, ?ieiee, aeyaey?oueny
noia?a/i?noue o?einionueeeo eaoaai??e “caaaeueiiai” ? “ie?aiiai”,
“iaeeie/iiai” ? “iniaeeaiai”. Aea ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui iiceoeai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oe??? eeaneo?eaoe?? ana ae ia?aaaaeathoue: oea i?aeoe/ii
ia?oa anainyaeia eeaneo?eaoe?y ioae?/ieo aeiaiai??a; aiia ia? na?eicia
aeaea?aeiciaa/a e oaeoieia?/ia i?ae??oioy; ia? aaaiia i?aaiaoe/ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ?iaeoue ?? canoiniaoaaiith oa ?aae?ciaaiith o noa??
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo (ioae?/ii-i?aaiaeo) a?aeiinei.

I?e ?icaeyae? ie?aieo aeae?a ioae?/ieo aeiaiai??a (onoaiia/?,
eiiiaoaioe?eii-?iciaaeoaaeuei?, oaiaee i?i aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue,
ioae?/i? aeiaiai?e i?ae aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie ? a?iiaaenueeeie
i?aai?caoe?yie, i?ia?aiii-iie?oe/i? aeiaiai?e,
ooieoe?iiaeueii-oi?aae?inuee? oaiaee oiui), aecia/a?oueny noa?a ?oiueiai
canoinoaaiiy oa /eiiino?. ?icaeyaeathoueny iciaee, i?aaeiao oa
aeanoeaino? ioae?/ii-i?aaiaeo aeiaiai??a, caniae caaacia/aiiy ?oiuei?
?aae?caoe??. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeiaia??i? a?aeiineie, ni?yiiaai? ia
ocaiaeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? o/aniee?a (iniaeeai noa’?eo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa), o iaaeao ioae?/ii-i?aaiaiai aieeao ciaoiaeyoue nai? ae?aaeaiiy a
ioae?/ii-i?aaiaeo oi?iao oa ?aaeueia cae??ieaiiy a ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeiaiai?ao. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui ?icia?ooy ? iaaiee nooi?iue
oi?aa?naeueiino? oaeeo aeiaiai??a aeicaieythoue ?icoe?eoe iaae? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy a aea?aeaaii-i?aaia?e ae?eniino?, nooo?ai i?aeaeueaoe
??aaiue ?o “ioae?/iino?”, a oaeiae o?ainoi?iothoue ?o o aaaeeea? oa
aeineoue iioe?ai?, i?aeeia?i? aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa.

Aeooae?caoe?y aeiaia??ieo a?aeiinei o eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? i?yii
iia’ycaia c oaiaeaioe??th e?aa?ae?cio, ui ioiieea a inoaii? ?iee an?
?inoeoooe aeooiaiiai, iie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy aeaiie?aoe/iiai
noni?euenoaa. No/ania e?aa?aeueia oai??y noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo
aeyaey?oueny o aeaio a?oiao iniiaieo ?aeae, ye? noinothoueny ethaeeie ?
iniia i?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa (N.N. Aeaen??a). Iniiaith ?oiuei?
i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? a noni?euenoa? aenooia? aeieeiaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy oa
no?oeoo?ecaoe?y iniiaii? nioe?aeueii? ia?aaeeaie – oaiaeaioe?? aei
?inoo, naii?icaeoeo e aa?iii?? ethaeeie, – yea cae?enith?oueny /a?ac
naiaiaeo ethaeeie, ?aae?ciaaio a iaaieo nioe?aeueieo ?aieao. ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie, ui ?noioiei, nioe?aeueii i?eionoeiei oa, iaaiith i??ith,
“iaeaoaiei” aeyaeaiiyi oaeeo nioe?aeueieo ?aiie aenooiathoue aeiaia??i?
a?aeiineie, aeiaiai?e i?ae ethaeueie, i?ae ie?aiith ethaeeiith ?
noni?euenoaii, i?ae ethaeeiith ? aea?aeaaith.

Noaiiaeaiiy e ci?oeiaiiy iiceoe?e ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?o ye
aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie ? na?ae/aiiyi ci?ie
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?aaa ? aea?aeaae (i?aaiaa aea?aeaaa), a oaeiae ci?uaiiy
aeoeaio?a o ni?aa?aeiioaii? “iniaeno?noue – noni?euenoai – aea?aeaaa” ia
i?aaa ?iaeea?aea.

I?ae?icae?e 2.2 “Eiinoeoooe?eiee Aeiaia?? i?ae Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith
Oe?a?ie ? I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie 1995 ?. – aeaea?aei eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa Oe?a?ie” i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith i?noey oa ?ie?
Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Aeiaiai?o i?ae Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie ?
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie i?i iniiai? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? ia ia??iae aei i?eeiyooy iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ye aeaea?aea
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, eiai ?ie? a eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?ioean? Oe?a?ie, a
oaeiae o ae??oaii? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? e?ece ca aeno?ai?aeeia?ieo
oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaae ? noni?euenoaa.

I?e aiae?c? i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? e?ece a
noni?euenoa? ? aea?aeaa?, ui ia?aaeoaaea oeeaaeaiith Eiinoeoooe?eiiai
Aeiaiai?o, a?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?eeiyooy oeueiai aeieoiaioa noaei
i?aai?/iith /anoeiith eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i?, aiii
cana?ae/eei i?eioeeiiai iiaee i?aeo?ae aei cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee, ia a?aei?io a?ae oioae?oa?ecio ?aaeyinueeiai /ano, – iaoiae
eiinainono i?ae noi?iiaie a iie?oeoe?. Naiee oaeo aeieeiaiiy oaeiai
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai oaiiiaia, ye Eiinoeoooe?eiee Aeiaia??, iieacaa
iiceoeaiee i?eeeaae ae??oaiiy iaea?eueo oai?iaeeaeo e?eciaeo ieoaiue ?
i?iaeai aeey aea?aeaa ?c ianoaa?eueiith iie?oe/iith neooaoe??th.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo oa?aeoa?enoee Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Aeiaiai?o, eiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c /eiiith a oie ia??iae Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie 1978 ?.
(ca th?eaee/iith i?e?iaeith, noa’?eoaie i?eeiyooy, iaeii/aniith ae??th,
??aiicia/iith neeith iieiaeaiue, ye? ia noia?a/aoue iaeia iaeiiio, ca
ia’?eoaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, iiaaeaie, ui aianee ci?ie a
aea?aeaaiee ono??e oa a eiiiaoaioe?ei? iiaiiaaaeaiiy i?aai?a aea?aeaae)
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui Eiinoeoooe?eiee Aeiaia?? ? aeaea?aeii
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie.

sse aeniiaie a?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?eeiyooy Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Aeiaiai?o
caiia?aei i?ioenoiyiith aeaio a?eie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ia?aaaei
eiioe?eo, ui iac??aaa, ?c ieiueie i?ioenoiyiiy a ieiueio
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa an?o i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ui iaei nai?th iaoith
i?eeiyooy iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie oa aeaaaeaiiy e?a?ie c e?eciaiai
noaiiaeua.

Aeine?aeaeaiith i?aaiaiai oaiiiaia aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue o
eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? a eiioaeno? oiia eiai ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? oa
?aae?caoe??, ye? iathoue i?ae niaith aeiaia??io iniiao, i?enay/aii
i?ae?icae?e 2.3 “Aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ye ia?aaeoiiaa aeieeiaiiy
eiinoeoooe?eii-aeiaia??ieo a?aeiinei”.

I?iaeaia aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue aeine?aeaeo?oueny a ?iaio? ye iaeei
?c aeae?a aeaeaaiaaii? caeiiioai?/ino?, ui ia? cia/ia iioe?aiiy a
ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaaao. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a?o/eciyia i?aaiaa aeieo?eia
o?eaaeee /an iaaaoeaii noaaeeany aei oe??? i?iaeaie. E??i oiai, o
oaia??oi?e /an i?iaeaia aeaeaaiaaii? caeiiioai?/ino? noia?a/eoue
i?eioeeio iiae?eo aeaae, ui ? ia??aeiei eaiaiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo
Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae eiinoeoooe?eiei ianoaiiaai, ye? ca?aoiaothoue
caeiiiaeaa/o ae?yeuei?noue aei aaniethoii? eiiiaoaioe??
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a aeaaee. ?acii ?c oei, a ?noi??? oa i?aeoeoe?
no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio ? i?eeeaaee aeei?enoaiiy
aeaeaaiaaii? caeiiioai?/ino? c iaoith i?enei?aiiy aeiiii?/iiai
?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?euenoaa (aeea. ?icae?e XV Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie).

Caeiaoaa/ aecia/a? noa’?eo?a aeaeaaiaaii? caeiiioai?/ino?, ?icaeyaea? ??
??ci? niiniae, iaoiaee e oiiae ia i?eeeaae? eiinoeoooe?e ca?oa?aeieo
aea?aeaa. Aeyaey? ?oi? noaaeaiiy aei i?aeoeee aeaeaaiaaii?
caeiiioai?/ino? oa ?? eiinoeoooe?eii? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? (i?yia caai?iia
caeiiioai?/i? ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo, caaoaeueiaaia noaaeaiiy aei
aeaeaaiaaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, eiinoeoooe?eia eaaae?caoe?y oa
naieoe?iioaaiiy caeiiioai?/i? ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo). Oaea oe?iea
ioiieaiiy i?iaeaiaoeee aea? iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe aeiaia??io iniiao
i?aaiaiai oaiiiaia aeaeaaiaaii? caeiiioai?/ino?, yea ?nio? a aea?aeaaao
?c ??ciith oi?iith i?aae?iiy, aecia/eoe ?? iiceoeai? ? iaaaoeai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee noiniaii aea?aeaa, o yeeo iaeiei c iniiaieo i?eioeei?a
eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo ? i?eioeei iiae?eo aeaae, oa aeno?aiiethaaoe ??
iiceoeaiee iioaioe?ae ia canoinoaaiiy a oiiaao eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo
Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaiieo aniaeo?a aeaeaaoaaiiy caeiiiaeaa/eo
iiaiiaaaeaiue i?eaiaeeoue caeiaoaa/a aei aeniiaeo i?i aeei?enoaiiy
i?yiiai niiniao aeaeaaoaaiiy oaeeo iiaiiaaaeaiue a?eueo?noth
aeaiie?aoe/ieo aea?aeaa, na?aae yeeo ? e Oe?a?ia. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui
aei i?eeiyooy Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie 1996 ?. o aea?aeaa? oi?iaeueii
cae??iethaaeany eiioeaioe?y “ia?eaiaionueeiai noaa?ai?oaoo”,
a?aeiia?aeii aei yei? o?eueee oe?a?inueeee ia?eaiaio aenooiaa a?ae ?iai?
ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie, o?eueee a?i i?eeiaa caeiie c iaoith ?aaoeyoe??
iaeaaaeeea?oeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ? ia ?icae?eya nai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy c
?ioeie a?eeaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. ?acii ?c oei, oaea a 1992 ?. Aa?oiaia
?aaea Oe?a?ie oei/aniai aeaeaaoaaea Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie
iiaiiaaaeaiiy ia aeaeaiiy aeae?ao?a o noa?? caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy
(Caeii Oe?a?ie a?ae 18 eenoiiaaea 1992 ?.).

Nenoaiaoe/iee aiae?c eiinoeoooe?e ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaa oa Oe?a?ie
aeicaieea aeyaeoe noa’?eoe oa ieceo oiia, yeeie noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue, i?aeoaa?aeeoe eiai aeia?ia?eueiee,
iiaiaeaeoaaeueiee oa?aeoa?, ui ?ethno?o? iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy
ia?aaeoiia aeiaia??ieo a?aeiinei o eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa?. Nenoaia ii?i,
ye? anoaiiaeththoue ii?yaeie aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue o Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie, a?ae??ciy?oueny aeayeeie iniaeeainoyie – aiie iathoue aeaiyeee
oa?aeoa?: aeica?eueiee – eaaae?co? i?aai iaeieo i?aai?a aea?aeaae
aeaeaaoaaoe a?aeiia?aei? iiaiiaaaeaiiy ?ioei i?aaiai, a inoaii?i – i?aai
?o ?aae?ciaoaaoe (noaoo? 119, 138, 143 Eiinoeoooe??) oa caai?iiiee –
i?yii aeaco? ia caai?iio aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue (noaoo? 106, 124);
i?ioean aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ia? aeineoue oe?ieee noa’?eoiee
(aea?aeaaa, Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei, ia?eaiaio, i?aai aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee, i?aai i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy) oa ia’?eoiee (iiaiiaaaeaiiy o
noa?? caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy, iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee,
iiaiiaaaeaiiy i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy) neeaae; a?i ia? ye
??cii??aiaaee (“caa?oo-aiec”, “cieco-oaa?o”), oae ? iaeii??aiaaee (ii
ai?eciioae?) oa?aeoa?; a?i iaae?eaiee eiinoeoooe?eiith i?ioeanoaeueiith
?aaeaiaioaoe??th, yea ia? eiioeaiooaeueiee oa?aeoa? (/. 3, 4 no. 143
Eiinoeoooe??).

A?eueoa oiai, nenoaiaoe/iee aiae?c aeayeeo iieiaeaiue Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie aeicaiey? aecia/eoe e ?icoe?eoe noa?o iiina?aaeeiaaii?
?aaeaiaioaoe?? a?aeiinei noa’?eo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa ia iniia?
aeiaiai?o. Oaeei /eiii iiaeeeaa ae??oaiiy i?iaeai, ui aeieeathoue i?ae
/eaiaie oa?eoi??aeueii? a?iiaaee i?e aaciina?aaeiueiio cae?eniaii?
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy (/. 3 no. 140 Eiinoeoooe??); i?e a?aeiineiao
i?ae i?aaiaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy iniiaiiai (n?euenuee?, naeeui?
e i?nuee? ?aaee) oa anioe?eiaaiiai ??ai?a (?aeiii? e iaeani? ?aaee) (/.
4 no. 140); i?e ae??oaii? ieoaiue iaae?eaiiy aoaeeieiaeo, eaa?oaeueieo
oa ?ioeo i?aai?a oa?eoi??aeueii? naiii?aai?caoe?? ianaeaiiy
eiiiaoaioe??th i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy (/. 6 no. 140).

sse aeniiaie a?aecia/a?oueny, ui eiinoeoooe?ei? iieiaeaiiy, ye?
?aaeaiaioothoue i?ioean aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue, eio?ee aenooia? ye
ia?aaeoiiaa aeieeiaiiy aeiaia??ieo a?aeiinei, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
i?ioeanoaeueiith iaiiaiioe?ii?noth oa iio?aaothoue na?eicii? aei?iaee.
Cie?aia, iaiao?aeia /?oea ?aaeaiaioaoe?y ?i?oe?aoeae, oiia oa ianyao e
?ioeo neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue, cae??ieaiiy
o?iiieia?/ieo iaae oeueiai i?ioeano. Oiio oyaey?oueny ia??oioiaaiith
i?iiiceoe?y i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee niaoe?aeueiiai i?io?eueiiai
caeiio, yeee ?aaeaiaioo? ??cii??aiaa? oi?ie e iaoiaee aeaeaaoaaiiy
iiaiiaaaeaiue, ?oi? oe?e?, eiei ieoaiue ? oa?i?i ia?aaeaaaiiy.

?icae?e o?ao?e “I?aeia?iaeiee aeiaia?? ye aeaea?aei eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa Oe?a?ie” neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a.

I?ae?icae?e 3.1 “TH?eaee/ia i?e?iaea i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a oa
caaaeueiiaeciaieo ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa” i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith
iniiaii? noaoooii? iciaee i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o – eiai
iiaiaeaeoaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, ui ?iaeoue ?noioiee oa aecia/aeueiee aieea
ye ia eiai th?eaee/io i?e?iaeo, oae ? ia eiai nioe?aeueio nooi?noue.

I?aeia?iaeiee aeiaia??, ye oaiaea i?ae aea?aeaaaie aai ?ioeie noa’?eoaie
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ia? yaii c?eio, ?aeue?oii ae?aaeaio
iiaiaeaeoaaeueio i?e?iaeo. Iniiai? ii?ie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ui
noinothoueny aeiaiai??a (Noaooo I?aeia?iaeiiai Noaeo III, A?aeainueea
eiiaaioe?y 1969 ?. “I?i i?aai i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a” oa ?io?),
aeoiaeyoue c oiai, ui oea aeaea?aei i?aaa aeiaaa? iaia’yceiai? caiaee,
ca?ao aieue noa’?eo?a, ui noai?ththoue eiai.

Ia??oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii aei yeiai i?aeia?iaeiee
aeiaia?? iiaea i?eaanoe aei noai?aiiy i?aeia?iaeii? ii?ie o?eueee a oiio
aeiaaeeo, yeui a?i ??oioo?oueny ia oaiae? aea?aeaa ye noa’?eo?a
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. ?c oeueiai iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
i?aeia?iaeiee aeiaia?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye can?a oi?ioaaiiy
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo ii?i.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaa ii?ia ? iniiaiei ci?noiaiei
aeaiaioii i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o, c iaoith aeyaeaiiy ??
aeia?ia?eueii-iiaiaeaeoaaeueii? i?e?iaee caeiaoaa/ i?iaiaeeoue
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiai? i?e?iaee i?aeia?iaeii? ii?ie, ?? noaoooieo
ooieoe?e oa eeaneo?eoth/eo iciae, aeiia, ye? aenoaathoueny aei ia?.
?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui ii?ia – oea ?acoeueoao oaiaee noa’?eo?a, aiia
ae?aaea? ?oith aieth, iia’yco? eiie?aoiee i?iya aie? noa’?eo?a o ?aeeia
oe?ea, eio?a iaiaaeaii ?? ?aieaie. I?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i
oa, ui ii?ia ae?aaea? iiaiaeaeaio ?aei?noue aieue o eiie?aoiiio ieoaii?,
a ia ?icia?ooy aieue, ui icia/aei a a?aenooi?noue oaiaee, a ioaea ?
ii?ie (?.?. Eoeaooe).

O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aeiaia??ia i?e?iaea iniiaieo i?eioeei?a
(ii?i) i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ye? iathoue ?iia?aoeaiee oa
caaaeueiiaeciaiee oa?aeoa? (jus cogens) ? iin?aeathoue iniaeeaa i?noea
na?aae i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo ii?i. Ii?ie caaaeueiiai i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa neoaeaoue i??ith nioe?aeueii iaiao?aeiiai iiaiaeaeaiiy aea?aeaa a
?ioa?anao caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? e ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiaaeueii?
nenoaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. Aiie aacia?a/ii i?eeiyo? an?ia
aea?aeaaaie ye caaaeueiiiaia’yceia? aeey naaa. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a
?oiueiio aeieeiaii?, ?nioaaii? oa ooieoe?iioaaii? aeyaey?oueny iiceoeaia
niieo/aiiy e neia?a?caoe?y aeiaia??ii? i?e?iaee aeieeiaiiy oaeeo
i?eioeei?a ?c noaa?aiiith aieath oa aeaaeith eiaeii? aea?aeaae. Ca?aene,
oaeoe/ii, oi?io-?oueny iaoai?ci ?iieaiaioaoe?? oaeeo i?eioeei?a, i?e/iio
ia o?eueee a i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae i?e ?aae?caoe?? ??
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee, aea e o iaoe?iiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai. Oiio
cae??ieaiiy a no. 18 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie iieiaeaiiy, ca?aeii c yeei
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?ie cae?enith?oueny ia i?aenoaa?
caaaeueiiaeciaieo i?eioeei?a oa ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, eaaae?co? oa
“caionea?” oaeee iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoai?ci ?o ni?eeiyooy.

Aeine?aeaeaiith ?ie? e i?noey i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o ye i?aeeia?iiai
aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie i?enay/aii i?ae?icae?e 3.2
“I?aeia?iaeiee aeiaia?? o nenoai? aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa
Oe?a?ie”.

O aea?aeaaiiio i?aa? eieeoiueiai N?N? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a ye
aeaea?ae aea?aeaaiiai i?aaa o?eaaeee ?noi?e/iee ia??iae ia aoei. No/ania
aeieo?eia eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie a?aeiineoue i?aeia?iaei?
aeiaiai?e, ui oeeaaeathoueny iacaeaaeiith aea?aeaaith c ?ioeie
noaa?aiieie aea?aeaaaie, aei naiino?eieo aeaea?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa.

I?e ?icaeyae? iaoai?cio o?ainoi?iaoe?? ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ui
icia/a? ?oi? ia?aoai?aiiy ia ii?ie iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?aaa, aiae?cothoueny
a?aeiia?aei? iieiaeaiiy i?io?eueiiai oa?aeoa?o, eio?? i?noyoueny a
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, Caeiiao Oe?a?ie “I?i /eii?noue i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie” 1991 ?. oa “I?i i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e
Oe?a?ie” 1993 ?., ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue oeae i?ioean. A?aei?/a?oueny
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iieiaeaiue cacia/aieo caeii?a, ?c yeeo aeieeaa?, ui
Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie cae?enith? ?aoeo?eaoe?th i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a
oeyoii i?eeiyooy niaoe?aeueiiai caeiio i?i ?aoeo?eaoe?th, iieiaeaiith
no. 9 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, yea cae??ieth?, ui /anoeiith iaoe?iiaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? eeoa /eii? i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e, “caiaea ia
iaia’yceia?noue yeeo aeaia Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie”. O ?acoeueoao?
nenoaiaoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo iieiaeaiue onoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae
eiinoeoooe?eiei oi?ioethaaiiyi ?icoi??oueny aeania ?aoeo?eaoe?y
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o, i?e ?? cae?eniaii? ia?aaeaa/aii aeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa o aeaeyae? niaoe?aeueiiai caeiio i?i
?aoeo?eaoe?th, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iiina?aaeeiaaio o?ainoi?iaoe?th
i?aeia?iaeieo ii?i o iaoe?iiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie. Ca
i?aenoieaie i?aaiaiai aiae?co ?aoeo?eaoe??, ui ? iaeaaaeeea?oith
noaae??th oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a, ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui
o?eueee o? i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e Oe?a?ie, ye? iaeaaeiei /eiii aoaeooue
?aoeo?eiaai?, ? aeaea?aeaie ?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa, ioaea,
eiinoeoooe?eiiai caeiiiaeaa-noaa. A?aecia/a?oueny iaiaeiicia/i?noue
oaeiai aeniiaeo, ine?eueee i?e aoeaaeueiiio aeio?eiaii? eiinoeoooe?eiiai
iieiaeaiiy i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e Oe?a?ie, ye? ia i?aeeyaathoue
?aoeo?eaoe?? Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie a neeo oiai, ui aiie oeeaaeai?
?ioeie noa’?eoaie (i?aeo?yaeia?, i?aea?aeii/?) aai ?aoeo?eaoe?y ?o ia
ia?aaeaa/aia a naiiio aeiaiai??, ia o?eueee ia ? aeaea?aeaie
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, aea ? acaaae? ia iaeaaeaoue aei nenoaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, ui ?iaeoue ?o i?aeoe/ii
iacae?enithaaieie oa iacae?eniaiieie, ine?eueee aeey noa’?eo?a
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai i?aaa aiie ia iathoue iaia’yceiai? neee. ?c
oeueiai ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui a ?acoeueoao? iaaeineiiaeino?
eiinoeoooe?eii? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a neeaeany
neooaoe?y, yea, ii noo?, aeieo? i?ioean ?iieaiaioaoe??, a a oe?ieiio
?icoi?ii?, ? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa a ii?ie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

I?ney iaaoooy i?aeia?iaeiei aeiaiai?ii /eiiino? iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino?
iaaoaa? i?iaeaia iaia’yceiaino? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiai? ii?ie aeey
onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e ? a?iiaaeyi eiie?aoii? aea?aeaae. O ia??iae
?nioaaiiy N?N?, a?aeaeaath/e oaiaeaioe?th aei naii?cieyoe??, ?aaeyinueea
i?aai a oe?eiio iaei aaeueie “cae?eoee” oa?aeoa? oa i?eioneaei /eii?noue
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o ia oa?eoi??? N?N? eeoa ye aeiyoie. Aiae?c
iieiaeaiue iioi/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie na?ae/eoue, ui a iueiio
caeeaaeaiee i??i?eoao eiie?aoiiai i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o (/e
aeiaiai??a) iaae caeiiii Oe?a?ie, yeee ?aaoeth? eiie?aoi?
i?aaia?aeiineie, aea a Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ?aaeaiaioaoe?? oeueiai
iaeaaaeeea?oiai iieiaeaiiy iaia?, ui noai?th? na?eici? o?oaeiiu? a
i?aaicanoinia/?e ae?yeueiino?. O ca’yceo c oeei ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i
iaiao?aei?noue io?oe?eiiai oeoia/aiiy Eiinoeoooe?eiei Noaeii Oe?a?ie
iieiaeaiue i?i aeiionoei?noue aeciaiiy a i?aa? Oe?a?ie i??i?eoaoo
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a iaae ?? aioo??oi?i caeiiiaeaanoaii.

AENIIAEE

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oiiaao aeaiie?aoecaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai oa a?iiaaenueeiai
aeeooy, oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oa i?aaiai? aea?aeaae,
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? oa aeaeiioeaio?aoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee aeiaia??
aenooia? iioeiaeueiei i?aaiaei niiniaii ae??oaiiy noia?a/iinoae, eio??
aeieeathoue i?ae noa’?eoaie eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa a i?ioean? ?o
i?aeeia?iiai ? aeno?ai?aeeia?iiai ?aaeeio ooieoe?iioaaiiy o noa??
ioae?/ii-i?aaiaeo aca?iia?aeiinei. Oeei iiynith?oueny c?inoaiiy
?aaoeyoeaii? ?ie? aeiaiai?o (ii?iaoeaiiai-i?aaiaiai oa i?aeia?iaeiiai)
ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa a no/ani?e aea?aeaaii-i?aaia?e
ae?eniino?. O aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiiothoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?ic?iaee
eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a aei aeei?enoaiiy aeiaia??ii? oi?ie a?aeiinei
i?ae noa’?eoaie eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, noai?aiiy nenoaie ioae?/iiai
aeiaia??iiai i?aaa a ?aieao ?nioth/iai eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo Oe?a?ie,
oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy aeiaiai?o a aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo
(ioae?/ii-i?aaiaeo) a?aeiineiao. Ia??oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue
iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?c i?iaeaiaoeee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii oae? ?iaioe:

1. Eiinoeoooe?eia ?aaeaiaioaoe?y i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a Oe?a?ie //
A?niee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – 1997. – ?1. – C. 15-16.

2. I?iaeaia iaia’yceiaino? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiai? ii?ie a eiinoeoooe?ei?e
i?aeoeoe? aea?aeaa // A?niee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. –
1997. – ?2. – C. 49-51. (o ni?aaao. c I.I. Aaeio?aoiaei).

3. Aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ye ia?aaeoiiaa aeieeiaiiy aeiaia??ieo
a?aeiinei o eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie // A?niee Iaeanueeiai
?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – 1997. – ?2. – C. 26 – 28.

4. Aei ieoaiiy i?i aeaea?aei eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa // A?niee
Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – 1997. – ?3. – C. 28 – 31.

5. Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie aeiaiai? eae enoi/iee eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa
Oe?aeiu // TH?eaee/aneee aanoiee. – 1998. – ?1. – N. 88-93. (a niaao. n
I.A. Aaeio?aoiaui).

6. ?ieue oa i?noea Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Aeiaiai?o a eiinoeoooe?eiiio
i?ioean? Oe?a?ie // A?niee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. –
1998. – ?1. – C. 22 – 28. (o ni?aaao. c ?.Ae. Ne?aeaieii).

7. Aeaye? i?iaeaie canoinoaaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?o ye
aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa // A?niee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – 1998. – ?2. – C. 12 – 14.

8. Aeaea?aei i?aaa: iiiyooy oa i?aaiaa ?aaeaiaioaoe?y // A?niee
Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – 1998. – ?4. – N. 14 – 19.

Aiioaoe?y

?aci?/aiei N.A. Aeiaia?? ye aeaea?aei eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.02 – eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai. – Iaeanueea
aea?aeaaia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y, Iaeana, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny i?ioeane oa i?aaia? i?aenoaae
noaiiaeaiiy e aeei?enoaiiy aeiaiai?o ye aeaea?aea eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa
Oe?a?ie. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a no/anieo oiiaao ?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae aeiaia??ia oi?ia aca?iia?aeiinei noa’?eo?a eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa ia o?eueee iiaea oa ia? noaoe iioeiaeueiith oi?iith ae??oaiiy
noia?a/eeaeo neooaoe?e, ui aeieeathoue o i?ioean? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaae oa iniaenoino?, aea e noa? i?aeeia?iei
aeaea?aeii eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, iaaoaath/e aeaaeae? a?eueoiai
iioe?aiiy a aea?aeaaii-i?aaia?e ae?eniino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaea?aei eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, aeiaia??,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee aeiaia??, eiinoeoooe?eiee aeiaia??, aeaeaaoaaiiy
iiaiiaaaeaiue, i?aeia?iaeiee aeiaia??.

Summary

Reznichenko S.V. Treaty as the source of Constitutional Law of Ukraine.
– Manuscript.

The Dissertation for a Candidate Degree in Science of Law by speciality
12.00.02 — Constitutional Law. – Odessa State Law Academy, Odessa, 1999.

The Dissertation is investigated the processes and law grounds of
formation and use of treaty as the source of Constitutional Law of
Ukraine. It is said that at present conditions of the Ukrainian state
development, the treaty form of the relations of the Constitutional Law
subjects can and must not only become suitable form of the solution of
the argument situations which arise during the process of the
functioning of society, state and personality; but the treaty becomes an
ordinary source of Constitutional Law, widespreading in state law
reality.

The key words: source of Constitutional Law, treaty, law normative
treaty, constitutional treaty, delegation of powers, international
treaty.

Aiiioaoeey

?acie/aiei N.A. Aeiaiai? eae enoi/iee eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa Oe?aeiu. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.02 – eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai. – Iaeanneay
ainoaea?noaaiiay th?eaee/aneay aeaaeaiey, Iaeanna, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony i?ioeannu e i?aaiaua iniiaaiey noaiiaeaiey
e eniieueciaaiey aeiaiai?a a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa
a ?aieao nouanoaothuaai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai no?iy Oe?aeiu.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea ?aaiou, /a?ac i?ecio eniieueciaaiey iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
iiaeoiaeia oai?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, ?anniao?eaathony i?iaeaiiua
aii?inu aaiacena, noaiiaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey enoi/ieeia
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa, eo nenoaiu, ii?aaeaeyaony eo iiiyoeeiay e
i?aaiaay oa?aeoa?enoeea, a oaeaea iniaaiiinoe.

Aoi?ie ?acaeae aeenna?oaoeee iinayuai enneaaeiaaieth aeiaiai?a eae
enoi/ieea eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa Oe?aeiu. Caeanue aiaeece?othony
i?ioeannu e oaiaeaioeee noaiiaeaiey, ?acaeoey e i?eiaiaiey
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?a eae ioiineoaeueii iiaiai, e a oiaea
a?aiy, i?aeeia?iiai enoi/ieea eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa Oe?aeiu.
?anniao?eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey aeiaiai?a a yeno?ai?aeeia?iuo
oneiaeyo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ia i?eia?a
caeeth/aiiiai a 1995 a. Eiinoeoooeeiiiiai Aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo Aa?oiaiui
Niaaoii Oe?aeiu e I?aceaeaioii Oe?aeiu ia iniiaiuo i?eioeeiao
i?aaiecaoeee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey a Oe?aeia ia ia?eiae aei i?eiyoey iiaie Eiinoeoooeee
Oe?aeiu. Iainiiauaaaony aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?aiey i?eiaiaiey
iieeoeei-i?aaiaiai oaiiiaia aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee eae i?aaeiinueee
aicieeiiaaiey eiinoeoooeeiiii-aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea enneaaeoaony ?ieue e cia/aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
aeiaiai?a eae enoi/ieea eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa Oe?aeiu. ?anniao?eaaaony
th?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia e iauai?eciaiiuo ii?i
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa a eiioaenoa eo iniiaiiai noaoooa?iiai i?eciaea –
ni-aeaneoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ue ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia e
ii?aaeaeythuaa aeeyiea eae ia th?eaee/aneoth i?e?iaeo, oae e
nioeeaeueioth nouiinoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?a. Enneaaeiaaiea ?iee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?a eae i?aeeia?iiai enoi/ieea a nenoaia
enoi/ieeia eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa Oe?aeiu, iicaieeei auyaeoue
i?iaeaiiua aii?inu eiinoeoooeeiiiie e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie ?aaeaiaioaoeee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia, i?aaeeiaeeoue iooe e niiniau eo ?ac?aoaiey.

A auaiaeao aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey ioia/aaony, /oi a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ?acaeoey oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa,
nii?iaiaeaeathueony aeoeaiuie i?ioeannaie aeaiie?aoecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiie e iauanoaaiiie aeecie, aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee e
aeaeiioeaio?aoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, noaiiaeaiey a?aaeaeaineiai
iauanoaa e i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa, aeiaiai?iay oi?ia acaeiiioiioaiee
noauaeoia eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa ia oieueei iiaeao, ii e aeieaeia
noaoue iioeiaeueiie oi?iie ?ac?aoaiey nii?iuo neooaoeee, aicieeathueo a
i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauanoaa, ainoaea?noaa e ee/iinoe. A
i?ioeanna yoiai aeiaiai? (ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie e iaaeaeoia?iaeiue)
noaiiaeony i?aeeia?iui enoi/ieeii eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa, iieo/ay ana
aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ea/anoaa ?aaoeyoi?a oe?ieiai e?oaa
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiauo (ioaee/ii-i?aaiauo) ioiioaiee. A aeenna?oaoeee
i?aaeeaaathony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?ac?aaioea eiioeaiooaeueiuo iiaeoiaeia
e eniieueciaaieth aeiaiai?iie oi?iu ioiioaiee iaaeaeo noauaeoaie
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa, nicaeaieth nenoaiu ioaee/iiai aeiaiai?iiai
i?aaa a ?aieao nouanoaothuaai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai no?iy Oe?aeiu, oe?ieiio
eniieueciaaieth aeiaiai?a a ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiauo (ioaee/ii-i?aaiauo)
ioiioaieyo. Iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaeueiaeoeo enneaaeiaaiee ii
i?iaeaiaoeea aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoi/iee eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa, aeiaiai?,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie aeiaiai?, eiinoeoooeeiiiue aeiaiai?, aeaeaae?iaaiea
iieiiii/ee, iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aeiaiai?.

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