AeI?I?IIAO?IANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Aaneianueeee ?inoeneaa TH??eiae/

940.5 «1918/1919» (477)

Ae?yeuei?noue Aee?aeoi??? OI?

(eenoiiaae 1918 ?. – ea?oaiue 1919 ?.)

07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?in?enueei? ?noi??? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?aaiaiei Aaeaioei Aaneeueiae/,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith ?in?enueei? ?noi???

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nieaeaoaiei Aaea??e Oaaei?iae/,

?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo

aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii
aoii?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

Eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aa?auaiei Oaoyia Noae?aia,

Caii??cueeee th?eaee/iee ?inoeooo IAN Oe?a?ie,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? oa aoiiiie?oeee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 27 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 13:00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.051.14 o Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 320625, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
i?. Aaaa??ia, 72, aoae. 307.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 320050, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe. Eicaeiaa, 8.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A. i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ia?eia
E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeiei c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a
a?o/eciyii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee a no/anieo oiiaao ? ?ic?iaea oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy oe?ieiai niaeo?o i?iaeai, ui noaiiaeyoue i?aeaaeeie
iei?oiueiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ni?eythoue ??
o?ainoi?iaoe?? o ni?aaae? iacaeaaeio, aeaiie?aoe/io i?aaiao aea?aeaao.
Ia?aaeon?i oea noino?oueny aeoie?a, aaiethoe?? oa iniaeeainoae
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ia ??cieo aoaiao – a?ae Ee?anueei?
?on? e aei nueiaiaeaiiy, a ia?ainieneaii? oa aena?oeaii? yeeo inoaii?i
/anii a?aeaoeeny nooo?a? iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy. Caaaeyee caii/aoeiaaiei c
90-o ?ie?a ye?nii iiaei noni?eueii-iie?oe/iei ia?aoai?aiiyi ia oa?aiao
eieeoiueiai N?N? /e ia aia?oa noaei iiaeeeaei ?aaeueia, aaaaoii??ia
aea/aiiy iaoi? ieioaoeie a onueiio ?? ianyc?, ae?aeaeoe/iiio,
noia?a/eeaiio aca?iica’yceo oa aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino?.

A aeaiiio eiioaeno? iaaaeyeiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iie?oe/ii? aeie? iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a o 1917-1920 ??. ?, cie?aia,
Aee?aeoi??? Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee (OI?). Aaeaea a
ae?yeueiino? inoaiiuei?, ye ? ?? iiia?aaeiee?a oa ianooiiee?a, i?ae
noieonoaaeiny niieiia?/ia i?aaiaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aei noai?aiiy
aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?, naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??, naiiooaa?aeaeaiiy. Oiio
aiae?c ? oai?/a aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo Aee?aeoi???, aea?aeaaiiai
ooai?aiiy, a yeiio aoa caeeaaeaiee aaee/aciee, aea, ia aeaeue, ia
?aae?ciaaiee iioaioe?ae, iiaea noaoe iei? a iaaiae? i?e ?icaoaeia?
noaa?aiii? Oe?a?ie, ?? no?oeoo?ieo, i?aaiaeo, iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo
canaae.

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeeeeea? iie?oeea ? i?aeoeea oeueiai o?yaeo ia ia?oiio
aoai? eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy – c na?aaeeie eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. aei ii/aoeo
o?aaiy 1919 ?., eiee a?i iaa iaeneeuei?oee aieea ia a?iiaaeyi
?anioae?ee, iaecia/i?o? iiaeeeaino? aeey iiaoaeiae iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae
oa iaea?eueoo a?i?th ca aanue /an naiai ?nioaaiiy. I?ioa ai?iaeiaae
e?eueeio i?nyoe?a an? oe? iaaeaaiiy aoee iei ao?a/ai?.

I?e/eie oaeiai e?ooiai iiai?ioo iaceaaeeny ??ci?, ui caeaa?eueoiai
caeaaeaei a?ae oiai, yeee iie?oe/iee oaa?? ?ai?acaiooaaa oie /e ?ioee
aeine?aeiee. ?acii c oei, ia aeeaey/enue ia ii??aiyii iaoe?io
?noi??ia?ao?th ?aaiethoe?? ? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a Oe?a?i?, oe?e?nii?
ea?oeie i?i ae?yeuei?noue Aee?aeoi??? OI?, ?? neeuei? oa neaae? noi?iie,
caeiaooee oa i?i?aooiee aiia ia a?aeoai?th?. A?aenooi? iaoeia? i?aoe?, a
yeeo aeaia i?iaeaia ?icaeyaeaeany a eiiieaenii, anaa?/ii, i?i ui
aeieeaaei?oa eaeaoueny o ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe??.

A?aoo?-?aoo ana oea ? iaoiiaeei aea?? ia’?eoa ? i?aaeiaoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai o?iiieia?/ieo ?aiie, iaiaaeaieo eenoiiaaeii 1918 ?.
– ea?oiai 1919 ?., oiaoi ia??iaeii, yeee ? eeth/iaei aeey ona?aeiieaiiy
noo? e iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae Aee?aeoi???, ?? iie?oe/ii?
ni?yiiaaiino?, a oaeiae i?e/ei ianooiieo iaaaea/.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1918 – na?aaeei? 1919 ??. ? ?icnoaiiaea nee iniiaieo
i?aoaiaeaio?a ia aeaaeo. O oeae ia??iae noaiiaeua a Oe?a?i? caeeoaeiny
ae?ae neeaaeiei. Ii-ia?oa, oi aoa /e ia iaeiai?oaeai?oee ??e
oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??, iane/aiee aaaaoi a /iio aecia/aeueieie
iiae?yie – caeeth/iee aoai ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae
(OAe) ia /ie? c aaoueiaiii I.Nei?iiaaenueeei; ia?iaeia iianoaiiy i?ioe
Aaoueiaiaoo oa i?eo?ae aei aeaaee Aee?aeoi??? OI?; ianooi ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enuee ? caoiieaiiy ieie Ee?aa; ii/aoie naeyinueeiai aioeeiioi?noe/iiai
?ooo; e?ecia? iio?yn?iiy a o?yae? OI? ? aioo??oi? caeieioe; ianooi ia
Oe?a?io Aeia?iaieue/i? a?i?? A.Aeai?e?ia ? a?aenooi i?aeeiio?ieueieo
?in?enueeiio ?aaeia?eiio /anoei. Ii-ae?oaa, iii?oio aeoeai?noue
aeaiiino?oaaee iiiceoe?ei? aei io?oe?eii? aeaaee (yeith a aiia ia aoea)
iie?oe/i? oa?oiiaaiiy, caaaeyee /iio aieiaiei /eiii ? noaea iiaeeeaith
oaea eaeaeaeineii?/ia ci?ia o?yae?a. Ii-o?ao?, ae?th/? ?aaeeie e??i
caoyoeo ai?ia?a iaee ? nai?o i?eoeeueiee?a, aiane?aeie /iai ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie i?iaeiaaeoaaea oi/eoeny e?eaaaa a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia, ui
aeinyaea naiai aiiaath o 1919 ?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oe?e?, ci?no, oi?ie ? caniae iie?oe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? OI? i?ioyaii eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. – ea?oiy 1919
?., aiae?c iniiaieo ieoaiue, ui iinoaee ia?aae oe?a?inueeei o?yaeii o
oeae /an, oa oeyo?a ?o ae??oaiiy.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae eenoiiaaea
1918 aei o?aaiy 1919 ??. Aeo?aeiee ?oa?ae iaa?oioiaaiee aeaoith
ooai?aiiy Aee?aeoi??? OI?. Aiaeii/an c iaoith a?eueo aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy
ia?aaeoiia oa i?e/ei ?? aeieeiaiiy iiae?? i?inoaaeothoueny c iiiaioo
i?eoiaeo aei aeaaee o?yaeo I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai. O o?aai? ae 1919 ?.
Aee?aeoi??y, aea?aeaai? onoaiiae oa a?i?y OI? iieieeeny ia a?ai? iiaii?
eaoano?ioe, caoenioo? o aeooee eoo ia caoiae? Oe?a?ie ia?aaaaeath/eie
neeaie i?ioeaieea. Aei oiai ae a oeae /an o neeaae? naii? Aee?aeoi??? oa
eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a a?aeaoeeny na?eici? ci?ie, ni?e/eiai? eiioe?eoii
ana?aaeei? oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai ?ooo, ui aeeeany o iaeaa?oeii?
i?ioeo?yaeia? aenooie e noaa ia caaaae? eiinie?aeaoe?? i?iaiaeo OI?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aia oaia
oe?eeii ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aea?aeathaeaeaoieie oaiaie I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie «Aea?aeaaieoeuee? ?aea? a oe?a?inuee?e noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e
aeoioe? e?ioey O?O – ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?oue» e
«Oe?a?inueei-?in?enuee? ?noi?e/i? ca’ycee O?O-OO no.: aeina?ae,
i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae», ye? ?ic?iaeythoueny i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano ia
eaoaae?? ?in?enueei? ?noi??? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o eiiieaeniiio, nenoaiiiio aea/aii?
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? oa ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi???
OI? a cacia/aiee ia??iae, nooiino?, oa?aeoa?o e iniaeeainoae ??
iie?oeee, a oaeiae anueiai aeieo /eiiee?a, ui aecia/aee iaa?no?aeuei?
oaiaeaioe?? ?? oi?ioaaiiy oa cae?eniaiiy. I?e oeueiio aaoi? iaiaaaany
ae??oeoe oae? eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy:

— c’ynoaaoe ia?aaeoiiae oa aieiai? i?e/eie ooai?aiiy Aee?aeoi???,
aena?oeeoe ia?aa?a iniiaieo iiae?e, ca yeeo aiia i?eeoea aei aeaaee;

— aeine?aeeoe i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo
?inoeooo?a Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee iai?ee?ioe? 1918 – o ia?o?e
iieiaei? 1919 ??.;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noni?eueii-iie?oe/io aoiinoa?o a ?anioae?oe? oa ??
aieea ia aioo??oith iie?oeeo oe?a?inueeiai o?yaeo;

— ?ice?eoe iniiai? iai?yie i?aeia?iaeii? ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? ia oe?
oiai/anii? ianoaiiaee a ?a?ii?;

— i?inoaaeeoe ci?ie o neeaae? Aee?aeoi??? oa ?aaee ia?iaeieo i?i?no??a
(?II) OI?, ?o ca’ycie c iiae?yie ia oa?ai? Oe?a?ie.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca. Oaia ?iaioe aeiaaa? caeo/aiiy e aiae?co ia’?iii?
?ioi?iaoe?? – ye iioae?eiaaieo, oae ? a ian? nai?e iaiioae?eiaaieo
iaoa??ae?a. Aeaea?aeueiee a?naiae i?ciaiiy i?iaeaie neeaaeathoue e?eueea
a?oi aeaea?ae, noi?iiaaieo ca i?eioeeiii ?o iioiaeaeaiiy: 1)
caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe oa aioo??oiy aeieoiaioaoe?y o?yaeo Oe?a?inueei?
Aea?aeaae; 2) aeieoiaioe i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee OI? e?ioey 1918 ?. –
ia?oi? iieiaeie 1919 ?.; 3) iaoa??aee i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo iie?oe/ieo
nee, ui iaee aieea ia iiae?? a Oe?a?i? o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae; 4)
ia?aoeai? aeaea?aea.

Ia?oo a?oio aeaea?aeueiiai eiiieaeno ?iaioe a iniiaiiio neeaaeathoue
iaoa??aee, ui caa??aathoueny o Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo
i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI), ? cie?aia aeieoiaioe
eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a OAe (o.1064). Aiie ni?eythoue aeeaieiio ?icoi?iith
neeaaeieo ? noia?a/eeaeo iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a ca aeiae Aaoueiaiaoo, ae?e
o?yaeo uiaei noaa?e?caoe?? noaiiaeua oa ?nioth/iai eaaeo, noo? ai?ioueae
??cieo aioo??oi?o nee a Oe?a?i? ? o. ?i. O naith /a?ao, oea aeiiiiaaa?
caaaiooe iie?oe/i? e?iee oe?a?inueei? aeaaee, c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie
ooai?aiiy Aee?aeoi??? OI? oa ?? oni?oo i?ae /an aioeaaoueiainueeiai
iianoaiiy. Ie??i aeacaieo, aeena?oaioii aoee aeei?enoai? oaeiae
aeieoiaioe Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue
Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI) – ianaiia?aae ni?aae oiiaeo «Eieaeoe?y aeieoiaio?a c
?noi??? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? Oe?a?ie» (o.57). Ia?oo a?oio aeiiiaiththoue
ca??ee aeaeaieo a N?N? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 60-o ??. a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a,
ye? i?noyoue aaaaoi a?aeiiinoae i?i noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy
Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae.

Iaea?eueoee ianea aeaea?ae noaiiaeyoue aeieoiaioe ae?oai? a?oie, a naia
aeieoiaioaoe?y o?yaeiaeo ?inoeoooe?e OI?. Iniaeeao oe?ii?noue aeey
aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue iaoa??aee OeAeAAI. Ooo ciaoiaeeoueny
aieiaiee eiiieaen a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, eio?? a?aeaeca?eaeththoue
noaiiaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy Aee?aeoi??? oa ?? aea?aeaaieo onoaiia.
Ia?o ca ana, oea ni?aae oiiae?a ?aaee ia?iaeieo i?i?no??a OI? (o.1065),
?anioae?eainueeiai i?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa (o.1092), eaioeaey???
Aee?aeoi??? (o.1429) oa i?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa OI? (o.3696). O
oeeo oiiaeao ciaoiaeyoueny aeieoiaioe aia?ao?a Aee?aeoi??? ? ?II, oaenoe
caeii?a oe?a?inueeiai o?yaeo, i?ioieiee can?aeaiue, iinoaiiae i?i
caoiaee a aaeoc? aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee. Aiie
aeicaieythoue aeia?a a?ae/ooe eiei?eo aiioe, ia?eiao?? iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy ?anioae?ee, ae?yeuei?noue Aee?aeoi??? o noa?? ?icaoaeiae aeanii?
aea?aeaae, ai?ioueao ??cieo nee, oa/?e ? oa?oiiaaiue ana?aaeei? o?yaeo
oiui. A?aeiiino? i?i iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo OI? iiaeia
ii/a?iiooe ?c ca??ie «Aea?aeaaiee Oeaio? Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee a aecee?. Noaoo? ? iaoa??aee» oa «Eiinoeoooe?ei? aeoe
Oe?a?ie», aea ai?uaii io?oe?ei? aea?aeaaioai?/? aeieoiaioe oe?a?inueeeo
aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a 1917-1920 ??. oa ?noi?e/i? ?ica?aeee i?i
oiai/ani? iiae?? a Oe?a?i?.

Oaeiae aei ae?oai? a?oie aeaea?aeueiiai eiiieaeno aeena?oaoe??
iaeaaeaoue iaoa??aee, iia’ycai? c ooai?aiiyi ? ooieoe?iioaaiiyi o
Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? aeaaee i?eoeeueiee?a Aee?aeoi??? iai?ee?ioe?
1918 – ia ii/aoeo 1919 ??. Aeieoiaioe caa??aathoueny o Aea?aeaaiiio
a?o?a? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?. Oea, ia?aaeon?i, iinoaiiae
oeaio?aeueiiai o?yaeo OI?, aeieoiaioaoe?y aaei?i?no?aoeaieo onoaiia
i?noeaai? aeaaee, a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Eaoa?eiineaaueie. Iciaeiieaiiy
c ieie cia/iith i??ith aeiiiiaaa? c?icoi?oe, iane?eueee aieeaiaith oa
?aaeueiith aoea aeaaea OI? ia eeoa o Ee?a?, a e ia i?noeyo. Iaeia/a, ia
aeaeue, ca aeiyoeii ni?aae «Eeno?aee Aee?aeoi??? oa ?? i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a» (o.615, ii.1, ni?.3) oe? aeieoiaioe caeaa?eueoiai ?icii?ioai?
ii ??cieo oiiaeao – cie?aia, iacia/ia ?o /anoeia ai?uaia o oiiaeao
aeeiieiio *oiae?anueei? aieinii? ?aaee (o.43) oa aeeiieiio
I?eiiieuenueei? i?nueei? ?aaee (o.5016). Iiae?aiee noai ni?aa ? c
aeaea?aeaie c aeaii? i?iaeaie, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o oiiaeao
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai ?noi?e/iiai iocath ?i. Ae.?.ssai?ieoeueeiai (Ae?I).

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aeieoiaioe aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a i?noyoue aaaaoo
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ae?yeuei?noue o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ??cieo
iie?oe/ieo nee, ia?o?e ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e (o?aoy a?oia
aeaea?ae). Aiie ?ai?acaioothoue ??ciiiai?oi? iie?oe/i? oaai?e, ?oi?
iiaeyaee ia oiae?oith neooaoe?th a e?a?i?, aeicaieyth/e e?eoe/ii
ia?ainieneeoe caoiaee Aee?aeoi???, ni?eeiaoe ?o, oae ae iiaeoe, i?ae
?ioei eooii ci?o. Oea, cie?aia, ni?aae «Ca?o i?i ae?yeuei?noue
Oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiai-?aaiethoe?eiiai eii?oaoo c 14 eenoiiaaea ii 17
a?oaeiy 1918 ?.» ? «Eii?y ?oeiieno i?i i?aeaioiaeo iianoaiiy ioaiaia
Ine?eea a a?enueeao Iaoeth?e 29 ea?oiy 1919 ?.» (OeAeAAI, o.1429, ii.1,
ni?.13, 33); «Ia?aae?oe iaoa??ae?a i?i aeiiii?/iee noai Oe?a?ie oa
caoiaee oe?a?inueeiai ?aaeyinueeiai o?yaeo o ai?iouea? c on?ia ai?iaaie
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe??» oa «Ia?aae?oe aeieoiaio?a c ?noi??? /anoei
*a?aiii? a?i??, ui ciaoiaeeeeny ia oa?ai? Oe?a?ie» (OeAeAAI, o.5, ii.1,
ni?.52, 253); eeno?aee Ooaao oe?a?inueeiai ?anioae?eainueeiai a?enueea
ia Eaoa?eiineaauei? (Ae?I, EI – 3326, A?o. – 1842 ? Ae?I, EI – 3331,
A?o. – 1847) oiui. Na?aae aeieoiaio?a OeAeAAI cia/iee ?ioa?an, ia iao
iiaeyae, aeeeeeathoue oaeiae ni?aae, aea ai?uaii ia?aeeaaei? iaoa??aee
o?eae?a c eieae A.O?ioo?a «A?eia ia Oe?a?i?. Caienee i?iaoeueeiai
io?oea?a» (o.57, ii.2, ni?.257) ? iaaiai?aiiy a ia?eaiaio? O?aioe?? o
1919 ?. ieoaiue o?aioeocueei? iie?oeee a ?in?? (o.5, ii.1, ni?.160).
Aiie aeathoue caaaeii iaeia?aeiiee, aea aaaeeeaee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae,
yeee aeicaiey? c?iaeoe iaai? aiae?oe/i? aeniiaee uiaei ia?aaoaaiiy
i?iaoeueeeo ? o?aioeocueeeo a?enuee a Oe?a?i?.

E??i oiai, a a?o?aieo oiiaeao a?aeeeaeiny /eiaei iaoa??ae?a oiai/anii?
ia??iaeeee. Aea/aiiy i?ane nooo?ai ?icoe?th? iao? oyaeaiiy i?i iiae??
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ia oe?a?inueeeo oa?aiao, ae?? oeo /e ?ioeo
iie?oe/ieo nee, ia?o?e, iano?i? ? iiaeyaee ??cieo i?ioa?e?a ianaeaiiy. O
aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoaii /aniiene «A?eueia oe?a?inueea oeiea», «Aiein
eiiia?aoeee», aacaoe «Iaou iooue», «Iiaa ?aaea», «?ia?oie/a aacaoa»,
«O?oaeiaa ?anioae?ea», «Oe?a?inueea noaaea», iieoaanuee? «Ecaanoey»,
eaoa?eiineaanuee? «Iaoa ni?aaa», «Iiaia neiai», «?anioae?eaiaoeue»,
«Naeyineay i?aaaea», a oaeiae a?aeainueea «Aiey» oa iineianuee?
«Ecaanoey AOeEE».

O?aoth a?oio aeiiiaiththoue ca??ee ?ia?o A.Eai?ia, A.Eeieinueeiai,
I.Iaca?oea, N.Iaoeth?e, aaea caaaeoaaiee aeua ca??iee aeieoiaio?a c
?noi??? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie, ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue o yeiio
noaiiaeyoue aeieoiaioe ?in?enueei? oa oe?a?inueei? eiioi?noe/ieo ia?o?e,
?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaieo ? ai?iieo onoaiia, a oaeiae /aoaa?oee oii
aeieoiaioaeueiiai aeaeaiiy «Iiae?? a Oe?a?i? 1914-1922 ??., ?oi?e nain
oa ?noi?e/ia oei», aea ai?uaii ca?oe aano??enueeeo aeeieiiao?a i?e
oe?a?inueeiio o?yaeia? i?i neooaoe?th a Oe?a?i?.

Ia?aoo?, nthaee ae ne?ae a?aeianoe aea? ca??ee aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a,
i?enay/aieo oe?a?inueei-?a?aenueeei aca?ieiai o 1917-1920 ??. – «Iia?iie
a Oe?a?i?: 1914-1920» ? «Iaoa??aee i?i oe?a?inueei-?a?aenuee? noinoiee a
?iee ?aaiethoe?? (1917-1920)». Aiie aeiiiiaaathoue ia’?eoeaii
i?iaiae?coaaoe i?e/eie, nooi?noue aioe?a?aenueeeo iia?ii?a aeacaiiai
ia??iaeo oa noaaeaiiy aei ieo oe?a?inueeiai caaaeo.

Aei inoaiiuei?, /aoaa?oi? a?oie aeaea?ae iaeaaeaoue niiaaaee ae?y/?a ?
aaciina?aaei?o o/aniee?a ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e 1917-1920 ??. Iniaeeao
aaao iathoue iaioa?e A.Aeiie/aiea, N.Aieueaeaeueiaia, ?.Eiiiaaeueoey,
?.Iacaie, A.Ia?aie?ia, A.Ia?oina, I.Ieoethea, I.Iaca?oea, I.O?enothea,
I.Oaiiaaea, eio?? a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue o ?iaio? o?yaeo OI?. Oae naii
niiaaaee I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, Ae.Aeiioeiaa, Ae.Aei?ioaiea,
I.Iiaeeyinueeiai aeiiiiaaathoue ?ice?eoe oa?ii? i?oaeeie oa aaaeae?
aea?aeaaieo ?inoeoooe?e Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae. Aiaeii/an ne?ae
a?aei?oeoe, ui /anoeia oeeo iaioa??a (i?ei??ii, A.Aeiie/aiea,
N.Aieueaeaeueiaia, Ae.Aei?ioaiea, I.O?enothea) i?noeoue cia/io
e?euee?noue caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a oa ?ioeo aeieoiaio?a oe?a?inueeeo
o?yae?a, ui, aacia?a/ii, ?icoe?th? aeaea?aeueia iiea aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy ia?aii? aaoi?ii oaie
iathoue niiaaaee A.Aiae???anueeiai, A.Aieueaeaiaaeca?a, A.?a?aiueiaa,
?.*a?eeiaa?a. Aiie aeicaieythoue iiaeyiooe ia ae?yeuei?noue Aee?aeoi???
oa ?? i?aai?a i/eia ia?an?/ieo a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, a?aeoai?eoe oiai/anio
aoiinoa?o a ?anioae?oe?, ?aaeueia a?aeeoiiy ae?e o?yaeo oa noaaeaiiy aei
iueiai ian. A ?iaioe A.Aioiiiaa-Ian??iea, A.Aeai?e?ia, I.Iaoia,
I.Iiaeyiiae/a-Iaaeaiea, I.Oaeiae/aiea, I.Oe?eueieea c iiey?ieo iiceoe?e
a?aeia?aaeathoue ai?ioueao ca aeaaeo a Oe?a?i?, aeiiiiaaath/e iiai?oa
c’ynoaaoe noai ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue noi??i, o?ae
ai?iieo iia?aoe?e iai?ee?ioe? 1918 ?. – o ia?o?e iieiaei? 1919 ?.

I?e oeueiio aeena?oaio ona?aeiieth? iaiao?aei?noue e?eoe/iiai noaaeaiiy
aei aoaeue-yeiai aeieoiaioaeueiiai (? a ia?oo /a?ao – ia?aoeaiiai)
aeaea?aea, ui a?oioo?oueny ia a?aooaaii? on??? noeoiiino? ianoaaei, ca
yeeo aiie c’yaeeeny ia na?o, iiaiioe caeiaeiaaii? a ieo ?ioi?iaoe??, ??
a??ia?aeiino? e oi/iino?, a oaeiae iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, oaoiaeo oa
?ioeo iiceoe?e aaoi??a, ?o noa’?eoeaiiai aieeao ia aeeeaaeaiee iaoa??ae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaoi?ii ii
noo? aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? o?yaeo OI? iai?ee?ioe? 1918 – o ia?o?e
iieiaei? 1919 ?ie?a, o oiae? yeiai aoee ae??oai? oae? eiie?aoi?
iaoeiai-aeine?aei? i?iaeaie:

anaa?/ii i?iaiae?ciaaii ae?yeuei?noue o?yaeo OI?. Iieacaii i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeui? aeaaee a ?anioae?oe? o icia/aiee
ia??iae, cie?aia, oaeoe/ii aia?oa aeine?aeaeothoueny caoiaee Aee?aeoi???
? eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a o aaeoc? eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee;

?icaeyiooi iniiai? iai?yie i?aeia?iaeii? iie?oeee Aee?aeoi???, aeyaeaii
i?e/eie ci?i ?? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo i???ioe??a. Ia aac? a?o?aieo
aeaea?ae ? niiaaae?a no/aniee?a ?ice?eoi iniiaiee ci?no ia?aaiai??a
o?yaeo OI? c o?aioeocueeei a?enueeiaei eiiaiaeoaaiiyi a Iaean? e
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei? i?n?? ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e eiioa?aioe??;

i?inoaaeaii ci?ie o neeaae? Aee?aeoi??? ? ?II OI? o oeae ia??iae,
i?iaiae?ciaaii i?e/eie o?yaeiai? e?ece, ui ni?oeaea ?anioae?eo, c?iaeai?
aeniiaee uiaei ?o ?acoeueoao?a ? nenoaiaoeciaai? i?e/eie ii?acee oe???
oa/?? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaaaeaii cia/iee ianea iiaeo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, a
naia – aioo??oith aeieoiaioaoe?th aea?aeaaieo ?inoeoooe?e OAe ? OI?, ca
?o aeiiiiiaith c?iaeaii iniiai? aeniiaee e ocaaaeueiaiiy;

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o iinoaiiaoe? oa naiino?eiiio
ae??oaii? aaaeeeai? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, ui aeicaiey? e?aua ? iiai?oa
i?ciaoe oaiiiai oe?a?inueei? Aee?aeoi???, iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaiethoe??
1917-1920 ??. a oe?eiio, a?aee?eaa? iia? a?ai? oa ai?eciioe aeey a?eueo
aeeaieiai i?iieeiaiiy o iioa?ii? e?e?aee oa oeo?inieao?iiy oe???
ao?aiii?, iaaeoi noia?a/eeai? aeiae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy i?ae /an iaienaiiy ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi???
?aaiethoe?? oa a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a Oe?a?i? 1917-1920 ??., i?iaeai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ?noi??? oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo noinoie?a. C?iaeai?
aeniiaee e ocaaaeueiaiiy aeiiiiiaeooue i?e i?aeaioiaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo
eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a o aeueo ? na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.
Aeei?enoaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoa??aeo, cie?aia c ?noi???
Eaoa?eiineaaueie iai?ee?ioe? 1918 – ia ii/aoeo 1919 ??., aea? ciiao
caeo/eoe eiai aeey ?ic?iaee i?noeaaeo e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue.
Aiaeii/an io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaaiith i??ith ni?eyoeiooue e?ea?aeaoe??
«a?eeo ieyi» oa iiaeieaiith niaeoeyoe?e ? i?o?a i?i aeaiee aoai
oe?a?inueei? ?noi???.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aoee ai?iaiaai? ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? c
iocaeii? ni?aae ? e?a?ciaanoaa (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1994), iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo «I?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee ia?iae?a ?a?iie» (Caii??aeaey,
1996), «80-??//y a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: ieioea ?
no/ania» (N?ioa?iiieue, 1997), «OI? – ia?oa a OO no. aeaiie?aoe/ia
aea?aeaaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo» (Ee?a, 1998), «Aaoueiai Iaaei
Nei?iiaaenueeee oa Oe?a?inueea Aea?aeaaa 1918 ?ieo» (Ee?a – *a?i?a?a,
1998), «350-??//y a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: ieioea ?
no/ania» (N?ioa?iiieue, 1998), ui??/ieo i?aenoieiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo c
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo (1996-1998) oa ?i., a oaeiae
i?ae /an ?ic?iaee eo?no eaeoe?e, i?aeaioiaee eaeoe?eieo ? nai?ia?nueeeo
caiyoue o Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio th?eaee/iiio ?inoeooo? IAN Oe?a?ie.
Aeena?oaoe?y aoea iaaiai?aia ? noaaeaia ia eaoaae?? ?in?enueei? ?noi???
AeAeO.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe i?aeii?yaeeiaaia iao? oa caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya aeena?oaoe??
noaiiaeoue 183 n. iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ia?ae?e aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e –
17 n. (ia?aoiao? 170 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie oa ?? aeooaeuei?noue, ca’ycie c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, aecia/athoueny iaoa, caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao ?
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeaea?aeueia aaca,
iaoeiaa iiaecia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a, ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – «?noi??ia?ao?y, iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea
aeine?aeaeaiiy» – ?ice?eaathoueny a?aeiia?aei? aniaeoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe.

Aeania iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? OI? c’yaeythoueny
iai?ee?ioe? 40-o ?ie?a. Aei oiai /ano a N?N? ? a oe?a?inuee?e ai?a?aoe??
ia?aae ?noi?e/ieo i?aoeue aaaeooue o/anieee ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e
1917-1920 ??. O ?ica?aeeao ?ice?eaathoueny nthaeaoe ai?ioueae ia o?iioao
Oe?a?ie, i?iaaaeaiiy ie?aieo iia?aoe?e, caaaeueiee ?icaeoie
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie oiui; c’yaeythoueny ia?o? ocaaaeueithth/? i?aoe?.

O 1949 ?. a Iinea? aeeoea iiiia?ao?y A.Eeoieaoa «?ica?ii
ao?aeoacii-iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? Aee?aeoi??? ia Oe?a?i?», yea a iniiaiiio
oa?eoea aei eiai ae ocaaaeueithth/i? i?aoe?. O ieo aeiaiaeeoueny
aioeia?iaei?noue ? eiio??aaiethoe?ei?noue Aee?aeoi???, caeaaei?noue ??
a?ae ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa. 1962 ?ieo iiaa/eea na?o iiiia?ao?y ?.?eaaeee c
aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee. A?i, oae naii ye ? Eeoieao, iia?aeii oi?eath/enue
iie?oeee o?yaeo OI?, aieiaio oaaao i?eae?ey? ai?iiei ae?yi ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enuee ? iianoainueeeo /anoei i?ioe Aee?aeoi???.

O oiio ae ?ioe? a NOA ii/aea aeoiaeeoe naieoiiia «Oe?a?ia a aeia?
Aee?aeoi??? OI?». ?? aaoi?, I.Noao?a, c?iaea ni?iao i?iaanoe a?oioiaia
aea/aiiy aeaiiai ?inoeoooo o 1918-1920 ??., eiai iie?oeee oa i?e/ei, ui
?? iaoiiaethaaee. Ia noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa? aeayeeo aeniiae?a Noao?aa
aeacaa A.I?ioiaea, eio?ee iaiaaa?oueny aeeeanoe nai? aa/aiiy oeueiai
a?aeo?ieo ?noi???.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? 60-o – 70-? ??. aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi???
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny caeaa?eueoiai a ?aieao ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae o aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?aaiethoe?? oa
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie 1917-1920 ??.

1972 ?ieo a NOA c’yaeeeny ae?oeii nooae?? Ae.?aoaoa?y e A.Aean?ioa.
?noi?eee cia/io oaaao i?eae?eythoue Aee?aeoi???, iniaeeai ??
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iei eiioaeoai ia oe? i?aeia?iaeii? neooaoe?? aeiaeiea
Oe?a?ie; aeaui iaioa i?noea a?aeaaaeaii aiae?co nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee oa aioo??oi?o i?ioe??/ ana?aaeei? o?yaeo OI?.

C iaaiaee 60-??//y oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? Aa?aa?aenueeee oi?aa?neoao
aeaeaa ca??eo i?aoeue oe?a?iiciaaoe?a, aea aoei ai?uaii noaooth
I.Aiaa/aanueei?-Oii’ye i?i ae?yeuei?noue Aee?aeoi???. ?ica?aeea
?ice?eaa? i?e/eie noai?aiiy Aee?aeoi???, ?? i?eo?ae aei aeaaee, iiae??,
ye? ia?aaeoaaee ii/aoeo eaoano?io?/iiai a?aenooio, o?yaeia? ci?ie
iaaani? 1919 ?. ? o. ?i.

Na?aae i?aoeue ae?oai? iieiaeie 80-o ??. ne?ae a?aei?oeoe ?iaioo
?.Iaaa?anueeiai. Aeine?aeiee iieaco? ea?oeio ai?ioueae ca oe?a?inueeo
aea?aeaai?noue o 1917-1920 ??., i?ioa eiai aeniiaee ?iiae? ? aeineoue
ni??ieie.

Iai?ee?ioe? 80-o – ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a o ca’yceo c i?ioeanii
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? c’yaeythoueny iia? ?iaioe
a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a. Aaciina?aaeiuei aea/aiiyi Aee?aeoi??? ia
ia?oiio aoai? ?? ?nioaaiiy caeiaany A.Ai?ae. O nai?o ?iaioao aaoi?
iaiaaa?oueny aac oia?aaeaeaiiy iiaeyiooe ia ae?? oeueiai ?inoeoooo
aeaaee, a oaeiae ioe?ieoe ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino? eiai aeeoo?caeaoiino?.

*eiaei oaaae i?iaeaiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aaiethoe?eieo oe?a?inueeeo
o?yae?a, o oiio /ene? e Aee?aeoi???, i?eae?eaii o iiiia?ao?yo
A.A?eoeaiei ? ss.A?eoeaea. Oi/a aiie ia noaaeyoue ca iaoo anaa?/ii
aeine?aeeoe iie?oe/iee oaiiiai Aee?aeoi??? OI?, i?ioa aiie aeineoue
?aoaeueii aena?oeththoue iiae??, iia’ycai? c ?? ae?yeuei?noth.

O na?aaeei? 90-o ?ie?a iiaa/eea na?o i?aoey a/aieo ?inoeoooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie «?noi??y Oe?a?ie: iiaa aa/aiiy». A i?e, na?aae
?ioeo, ai?uaii noaooth A.Aa?nothea, i?enay/aio iaeyaeo aea?aeaaiiai
aeeooy OI? ca aeiae Aee?aeoi??? (o ci?iaiiio aeaeyae? oey ?iaioa aoea
aeeth/aia aei caaaeueii? «?noi??? Oe?a?ie» i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th A.Niie?y).
Ca iniiao ocyoi niiaaaee ?.Iacaie, I.O?enothea, I.Oaaeaiea, ca yeeie e
aaaeaoueny aeeeaae iaoa??aeo.

Iauiaeaaii c’yaeeany iiiia?ao?y A.Nieaeaoaiea «Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y:
eiioeaioe?y oa ?noi??ia?ao?y», aeaeaia aeaiia /anoeiaie. Aaoi? aiae?co?
i?e/eie, nooi?noue ? oa?aeoa? ?aaiethoe??, i?ioenoiyiiy iniiaieo
iie?oe/ieo nee o 1917-1920 ??., aeine?aeaeo? i?e/eie ii?acee, o?iee oa
?noi?e/ia cia/aiiy. I?e?iaeii, /eiaei oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny Aee?aeoi???
OI?, oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ?? iniiaieo iie?oe/ieo e?ie?a.

*anoi ie?ai? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? aea/aeeny ia oe? ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a 1917-1920 ??. Cie?aia, o oaeee niin?a
aeine?aeaeoaaii i?iaeaie ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie aeiae ?aaiethoe??.

A oe?eiio iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io e?euee?noue
ioae?eaoe?e, ua iaia? ocaaaeueithth/i? ?iaioe, yea a anaa?/ii
aiae?coaaea aioo??oith oa ciai?oith iie?oeeo Aee?aeoi???. *eiaei
aaaeeeaeo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a caeeoeeeny iaaeei?enoaieie aeine?aeieeaie.
I?ae oei, ?o aea/aiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue iiai?oa, a oi e ii-iiaiio
iiaeyiooe ia aeaio i?iaeaio. Ioaea, ?nio? iaaaeueia iio?aaa o noai?aii?
oaei? i?aoe?, ui aeaaaea a iiaia ? i?aaaeeaa oyaeaiiy i?i an? aniaeoe
ae?yeueiino? oeueiai ?inoeoooo.

C iaoith ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo i?iaeai aeciaii ca aeioe?eueia
aeei?enoaoe ye caaaeueiiiaoeia?, oae ? nooi ?noi?e/i? iaoiaee i?ciaiiy.
Na?aae ia?oeo /?eueia i?noea iin?aea? iaoiae noiaeaeaiiy a?ae
eiie?aoiiai aei aano?aeoiiai. O aeine?aeaeaii? a?i ciaeoia nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?ioean? aiae?co ??cieo noi??i iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
Aee?aeoi??? OI?, ui aea? ciiao aeyaeoe ?noioi? ?ene ? oaiaeaioe?? ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aiaeii/an a ?iaio? aeei?enoiaothoueny ?noi?e/iee ?
eia?/iee iaoiaee. Ia?oee ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai o?yaeo a icia/aiee ia??iae, eiai aaiaoe/ieo ? no?oeoo?ieo
ca’yce?a. Ca aeiiiiiaith eia?/iiai iaoiaeo ?ice?eaathoueny caoiaee
aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo onoaiia aeiae Aee?aeoi???, a oaeiae i?e/eie,
ui ?o iaoiiaethaaee.

Na?aae iaoiae?a aeania ?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?iei canoiniao?oueny
?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee iaoiae, yeee aeicaiey? iine?aeiaii, a aeeiai?oe?
i?inoaaeeoe aeanoeaino? Aee?aeoi??? a i?ioean? ?? ?noi?e/iiai iinooio.
Aaaaoi a /iio naia aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeo ni?eyei ae??oaiith
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue. A a?naiae iaoeiaiai ?ino?oiaioa??th aoei oaeiae
caae?yii i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee iaoiae. Caaaeyee eiio aaeaeiny
?iciiae?eeoe ia?aio oaio aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ?yae a?eueo aocueeeo i?iaeai,
aecia/aieo o ?icae?eao, o eiaeiiio c yeeo ?noi?e/iee iaoa??ae
?icaeyaea?oueny o o?iiieia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Ia?aaeoiiae ooai?aiiy Aee?aeoi??? OI?. I?eo?ae aei
aeaaee» aena?oeththoueny iie?oe/i? iiae?? na?aaeeie – ae?oai? iieiaeie
1918 ?., ui i?ecaaee aei iaae?iiy o?yaeo Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae oa
ia?aa?aiiy aeaaee iiaei aea?aeaaiei ?inoeoooii.

Aioo??oi?e eo?n aaoueiaia Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai, ui i?eeoia aei aeaaee
aiane?aeie aea?aeaaiiai ia?aai?ioo a Oe?a?i? 29 ea?oiy 1918 ?., aieiaiei
nai?i caaaeaiiyi aaa/aa noaa?e?caoe?th ?icao?oaieo ?aaiethoe??th
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. I?ioa a i/ao iacaiiaeieo
aa?noa ianaeaiiy eiai iie?oeea ioioiaeithaaeany c e?ea?aeaoe??th
?aaiethoe?eieo caeiaooe?a ia?iaeo, iiaa?iaiiyi i?nuee?e oa n?euenuee?e
ao?aeoac?? oaa?ee, caaiae?a ? caiaeueieo aieiae?iue. O??coaaiiy i?aa
?ia?oiee?a, eiio?neaoe?y io?eiaieo caiaeueieo iaae?e?a ? noyaiaiiy c
naeyi eiio?eaooe?e aeeeeeaee noeo?ei? aioeo?yaeia? aenooie, ye? noaee
ni?aaaei?i ae/ai oe?a?inueei? ianoaa?eueiino? ae?oeo 1918 ?.

Neii?aeeioaaoe ae?? iianoaeeo ian, i/ieeoe ?o ? ia?aoai?eoe ?ic??ciai?
aeoe?? ia anaia?iaeia iianoaiiy i?ioe ?aaeeio iaiaaaeeny ye a?eueoiaeee,
oae ? i?aaenoaaieee e?aiai e?eea oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?o?e.
I?ney iaaaeaei? ni?iae ia?oeo ?icii/aoe caaaeueia iianoaiiy o na?ii?
1918 ?. ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey oni?oii? aeoe?? oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo nee neeaeeny o na?aaeei? eenoiiaaea. Aeaii?ae?caoe?y e
caiaiaae aieiaiai aeooo i?iaoeueei-aano??enueeeo a?enuee a Oe?a?i?
aiane?aeie ?aaiethoe?e a ?oi?o e?a?iao, a?aenooi?noue o aaoueiainueeiai
o?yaeo i?oeii? ai?caeaoii? a?i?? ni?eyee oaeaeeiio ?iciianthaeaeaiith
iianoainueeeo iano?i?a na?aae oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Iianoaiiy i/ieeea Aee?aeoi??y OI? – eieaeoeaiee ?aaiethoe?eiee i?aai c
on??th iiaiioith aeaaee i?ae /an iianoaiiy. Aee?aeoi??y aoea ooai?aia 14
eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. Oe?a?inueeei iaoe?iiaeueiei nithcii (OIN) –
i?aai?caoe??th, yea ?ai?acaiooaaea iiiceoe?ei? o?yaeo iie?oe/i? neee.
Aaciina?aaeiueith i?e/eiith noai?aiiy Aee?aeoi??? oa ii/aoeo iianoaiiy
noaea ??cea ci?ia iie?oe/iiai eo?no OAe aiane?aeie iiyae a?aiioe
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai a?ae oiai ae 14 eenoiiaaea i?i aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia
oaaea?aoeaieo canaaeao aei neeaaeo iaa?eueoiaeoeueei? ?in??. I?ci?oa aei
iianoaiiy i?e?aeiaeeny, ia ni?eeiath/e iie?oe/ii? i?ia?aie Aee?aeoi???,
a?eueoiaeoeuee? /anoeie e aia?o?/i? naeyinuee? caaiie.

Oni?o iianoaiiy iaoiiaeee o?e ianoaaeie. Ii-ia?oa, aiii aoei i?aeo?eiaia
a?eueo?noth ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ianaiia?aae iacaiiaeieie ianaie.
Ii-ae?oaa, iaeaea an? aaoueiainuee? a?enueeia? /anoeie, ni?eeiyaoe
oaaea?aoeaio a?aiioo aaoueiaia ye caa?ico naiino?eiino? Oe?a?ie, noaee
ia a?e Aee?aeoi???, eio?a aenooieea ye caoeniee oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?. ?, ii-o?ao?, oea iaeo?ae?oao i?iaoeueeeo ?
aano?i-oai?nueeeo a?enuee, yeeo oe?eaaeei o oie /an a iniiaiiio eeoa
iaeia – oaeaeea iiaa?iaiiy aeiaeiio (ui e aoei ia?oeyii Aee?aeoi???th a
iai?i ia aeiaea?aeaiiy ieie iaeo?ae?oaoo). O noeoiiino? oe? oaeoi?e
i?ecaaee aei ia?aiiae ?anioae?eainueei? a?i?? o oiae?
aioeaaoueiainueeiai iianoaiiy ? c?a/aiiy a?ae aeaaee o?yaeo
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai.

O?ao?e ?icae?e «Aioo??oiy ? ciai?oiy iie?oeea o?yaeo Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee o a?oaei? 1918 – n?/i? 1919 ??.» i?enay/aii aiae?co
aieiaieo ieoaiue, ui iinoaee ia?aae Aee?aeoi???th ye oei/aniaith
aa?oiaiith aeaaeith a?aeiiaeaii? ?anioae?ee, ? oeyo?a ?o ae??oaiiy.

Io?eiaaoe aeaaeo, Aee?aeoi??y cina?aaeeea nai? coneeey ia ?ica’ycaii?
oaeeo iniiaieo i?iaeai: ao?eaiiy o aeeooy ?aea? o?oaeiaeo ?aae ye
aea?aeaaiiai eaaeo OI?, i?aeaioiaea ? i?iaaaeaiiy O?oaeiaiai eiia?ano –
aeuiai caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aaio Oe?a?ie, yeiio Aee?aeoi??y iaea neeanoe
nai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy; ae??oaiiy caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy oeyoii e?ea?aeaoe??
i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth (caeii OI? a?ae 8 n?/iy 1919 ?.);
?ae?a?eia neooaoe?y – noaiiaeua oea?eae a OI? (caeii c 1 n?/iy 1919 ?.
i?i noai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? aaoieaoaeueii? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae); a?ioiaa
?aoi?ia ? aaaaeaiiy a?eai? (caeii a?ae 6 n?/iy); ia’?aeiaiiy COI? ? OI?
(aeo Niai?iino? Oe?a?ie 22 n?/iy).

*eiaei oaaae i?eae?eyea Aee?aeoi??y ? eoeueoo?i?e iie?oeoe? – caniiaaii
Aea?aeaaio oeieo eiaca??a, o?eaaea ?iaioa iaae noai?aiiyi
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iocath, ?i?oe?eiaaii aea?aeaaiee aeiaeyae ca iiaeeith
Oaa/aiea, ooaaeaii iinoaiiae i?i ?aoi?io oeiee, niinoa??aaeany
aeoea?caoe?y ?icaeoeo oa iiioey?ecaoe?y oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoaa, ioi?iia ?noi?e/ieo iai’yoie oiui. O ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??y i?iaeiaaeeea o?aaeeoe?? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee,
iaeaaiaeaeoth/e noinoiee c ??cieie e?a?iaie, iaiaaath/enue i?aeaeueoe
aaoi?eoao Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?.

I?ioa ia?aae o?yaeii OI? iinoaee i?iaeaie, ?ica’ycaoe ye? a?i aoa i?inoi
ia a ciic?. *a?ac oa oaeoe/ii eiaeia c eiai ii/eiaiue eeoeeiny
iacaaa?oaiei. Neeeeaaoe, iai?eeeaae, O?oaeiaee eiia?an (23-28 n?/iy 1919
?.), Aee?aeoi??y ia caaacia/eea iiaia i?aaenoaaieoeoai on?o ia?iaeieo
ia?aioe?a. Ooaaeeaoe ?aaeeeaeueiee caiaeueiee caeii, aiia ia ciiaea
?aaeueii ao?eeoe eiai o aeeooy. Iieeaaoe ii/aoie ?nioaaiith OAIOe,
Aee?aeoi??y ia coi?ea caaacia/eoe, ye ieaioaaeiny, ?? ae?yeuei?noue i?ae
caoenoii aea?aeaae. ?icii/aaoe a?ioiao ?aoi?io, oe?a?inueea aeaaea
aeyaeeany iacaeaoiith oe?eani?yiiaaii aeiaanoe ?? aei e?ioey. Ia?aoo?,
c?i?oe?thaaaoe aicc’?aeiaiiy aeaio a?eaie a?ae??aaieo iaeia a?ae iaeii?
/anoei oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a ?aeei?e aea?aeaa?, Aee?aeoi??y aeyaeeany
iani?iiiaeiith iaeaaeiei /eiii aeei?enoaoe an? iie?oe/i? aeaiaee oeueiai
e?ieo.

Iiae?aia neooaoe?y neeaeany ? c ?ioeie caeiaooeaie oe?a?inueeiai o?yaeo
iai?ee?ioe? 1918 – ii/aoeo 1919 ??., ui noaei caeiiii??iei iane?aeeii
iaae??oaiino? iaeiiai c eeth/iaeo ia oie /an ieoaiue – a?enueeiaiai.
Iaaaeueia iio?aaa noai?aiiy i?oeii?, aeenoeeie?iiaaii? a?i??
aeeeooaaeany a?eiith i?ae ?NO?? ? OI?, a oaeiae cac?oaiiyie ?ioeo
non?ae?a ia aoi?/i? oe?a?inuee? oa?eoi???. Ia?ica’ycai?noue oeueiai
caaaeaiiy ? noaea aieiaiith ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo aei ?icaoaeiae iiai?
aea?aeaae.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – «A?aenooi Aee?aeoi??? ia I?aaiaa?aaeio Oe?a?io o
ethoiio – ea?oi? 1919 ?ieo. O?yaeiaa e?eca» – oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aioo??oiy ? ciai?oiy iie?oeea o?yaeo OI? a?ae iiiaioo caeeoaiiy iei
oe?a?inueei? noieeoe? ia ii/aoeo ethoiai ? ci?i o neeaae? Aee?aeoi???
(a?ae’?cae ca ei?aeii Aieiae A.Aeiie/aiea) oa eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a
(a?aenoaaea ia?oiai neeaaeo ?II).

Ciooaia ooeaoe nithciee?a aiane?aeie ai?iieo ae?e, ui oi/eeeny, ?
neeaaeii? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? ea??aieoeoai OI? iaiaaaeiny
aeei?enoaoe i?enooi?noue ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie o?aioeocueeiai a?enueeiaiai
aeanaioo. Aea aeiaa? oa /ano? ?aoiaee ia?aaiai??a ia i?ecaaee aei
oeeaaeaiiy oaiaee, ia?o ca ana /a?ac ?io? i??i?eoaoe o ciai?oi?e
iie?oeoe? O?aioe??. Oaeiae ne?i/eeany iaaaea/ath ni?iaa aeiaeoeny
aeciaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e eiioa?aioe??. E??i
iani?eyoeeai? i?aeia?iaeii? neooaoe??, oeueiio noaea ia caaaae? iaaaeaea
? ianeii?aeeiiaaia aeeieiiaoe/ii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueea ae?yeuei?noue
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?n?e. I?yeeo ?aaeueieo iane?aee?a ia iaee e ?ic??ciai?
caoiaee oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aoe?eieo e?e NOA oa Eaiaaee.

Iia? ii?acee Aee?aeoi??? ia o?iio? i?ecaaee aei iiaeaeueoi? ao?aoe
oa?eoi??? oa iineeaiiy ?iceeaaeo a?i?? OI?, ui nooo?ai iicia/eeiny ia
ca?eueoaii? /enea aioe?a?aenueeeo iia?ii?a. Oe?a?inueeee o?yae iaiaaaany
??cieie oeyoaie ia?aoeiaeeoe ?i, oi/a nai ciaoiaeeany o noai? e?ece.
*a?aiaa iiey?ecaoe?y nee o iueiio iaea iane?aeeii a oeae ia??iae
caeieioe e?aiai (21 aa?aciy 1919 ?., Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee) oa
i?aaiai e?eea (29 ea?oiy 1919 ?., ??aia) oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a.
Ni?e/eiai? iacaeaoi?noth o?yaeo aei?aaeoe noaiiaeua a ?anioae?oe?, aiie
i?ecaaee aei iiaeaeueoi? eiio?iioaoe?? ana?aaeei? i?iaiaeo OI? ?
aiaeii/an iia?/ii ni?eyee i?ioeano iiaeaeueoi? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaaee a
?oeao N.Iaoeth?e. Oeae i?ioean iaaoa iaiai?ioiiai oa?aeoa?o, oi/a, ia
a?aei?io a?ae cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai i?aceaeaioa ?.Iao?ooaae/a, yeiai
aeaniee o?yae iaae?eea aeeeoaoi?nueeeie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie, aeaaea e?aea?a
OI?, iaiaaeaia ae?yie eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a, a?eueoa oyae?ea aei
i?aceaeaionueei? oi?ie i?aae?iiy (ui e aoei i?ci?oa eiie?aoeciaaii
Aea?aeaaiei oeaio?ii OI? a aecee?).

O aeniiaeao aeeeaaeai? caaaeuei? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie.

Ooai?aiiy iai?ee?ioe? 1918 ?. Aee?aeoi??? OI? noaei eia?/iei a?ioeai
ae?yeueiino? aeaiie?aoe/ii? oa/?? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a
?aaiethoe?? 1917-1921 ??. ?ai?acaioiaaia nii/aoeo Oe?a?inueeith
Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith, oey oa/?y iai?ee?ioe? ea?oiy 1918 ?ieo, ua ia
?aae?coaaaoe on? nai? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?, aoea ianeeueieoeueeei
oeyoii onoiooa a?ae aeaaee eiina?aaoeaieie neeaie, oiniaeaieie o?yaeii
aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa eiai i?eoeeueieeaie. Aaoueiaiao
a?aeiiaea i?eaaoio aeani?noue ia caieth, naiaiaeo oi?a?ae?, iiaa?ioa
iiia?aaei?i aeanieeai ?oi? aieiae?iiy. Oa a i/ao ia?iaeieo ian ae??
o?yaeo anioe?thaaeeny c ea?aeueieie aeniaaeeoe?yie, eiio?eaooe?yie,
eiio?neaoe?eieie aeoe?yie iii?uee?a ? i?iaoeueei-aano??enueeeo a?enuee,
ciouaiiyie ia o?eueee iaae ?aaiethoe?eieie caeiaooeaie ?ia?oiee?a oa
naeyi, aea e iaae naiei ?o aeeooyi. Ia aeeaii, ui a Oe?a?i? iaeia ca
iaeiei ii/aee niaeaooaaoe naeyinuee? iianoaiiy i?ioe ?aaeeio oa
a?aeaoaaoeny ?ia?oie/? no?aeee. Ia?iaei? aeiiae acyany ?ai?acaiooaaoe
OIN, aei neeaaeo yeiai oa?eoee oe?a?inuee? nioe?ae?noe/i? ia?o??, ui
ciaoiaeeeeny a iiiceoe?? aei aaoueiainueeiai o?yaeo. Ae?yeuei?noue
nithco iciaiaioaaea niaith iiaa?iaiiy aei aeoeaii? iie?oeee
aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee – oai?oe?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee.

I?ney e?eueeio iaaaeaeeo ? aaconi?oieo ni?ia OIN ea?aeeiaeueii aieeiooe
ia iie?oeeo Aaoueiaiaoo e?a? eiea nithco ia /ie? c eiai aieiaith
A.Aeiie/aieii aenooieee ca i?aeaioiaeo iianoaiiy c iaoith iiaaeaiiy
o?yaeo I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai. I?ioa ?io? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ui aoiaeeee aei
OIN, iinoaaeeeny aei iiae?aii? ?aea? iaaaoeaii, aaa/ath/e o oeueiio
iaaaciaeo ?oeiaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, aeieeiaiiy oaino e aia?o??.
Neooaoe?y ??cei ci?ieeanue o na?aaeei? eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. I?ney ?icioneo
eiae?oe?eiiai o?yaeo Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae oa iiyae a?aiioe
Nei?iiaaenueeiai i?i oaaea?aoe?th Oe?a?ie c ?in??th, eio?o a?eueo?noue
ni?eeiyea ye caa?ico oe?a?inuee?e iacaeaaeiino?, OIN aeneiaeany ca
ii/aoie ia?iaeiiai iianoaiiy. I/ieeoe eiai iaa eieaeoeaiee (c iaoith
caeo/aiiy yeiiiaa a?eueoiai /enea iie?oe/ieo a?oi ? oa/?e) i?aai
?aaiethoe?eii? aeaaee – Aee?aeoi??y OI?. 14 a?oaeiy 1918 ?. ?e aaeaeiny
i?eeoe aei aeaaee ia /ie? ianiaiai aioeaaoueiainueeiai iianoaiiy.

Iaaeae? Aee?aeoi??y ieaioaaea aanoe iie?oeeo, oioiaeio aei eo?no
iiia?aaeiueiai o?yaeo OI?, i?e oeueiio /anoi iae?eoe/ii ni?eeiath/e eiai
aeina?ae ? iiaoi?thth/e eiai iiieeee. Aei oiai ae, iaiaaath/enue
?ica’ycaoe iaeiaeo/?o? aeey ?anioae?ee i?iaeaie, Aee?aeoi??y iieieeany o
aaaee?e ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?e neooaoe??. ?? iaoiiaeee ia eeoa i?aeaeuaiee
?ioa?an aei oe?a?inueeeo oa?ai?a iaeaeeae/eo non?ae?a – Iieueu?, ?in??,
?oioi??, aea e (? oea iaeaieiai?oa) iacaeaoi?noue oni?oii aanoe aeoeaio,
oe?eani?yiiaaio aeeieiiaoe/io ae?yeuei?noue, a?aenooi?noue i?oeii?
ai?caeaoii? a?i??, ?aoi?iiaaii? c iianoainueeeo /anoei. Oiae, oi/a
aieiaiei i?eioeeiii ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee oe?a?inueeiai o?yaeo
i?iaieiooaaany ae?oaei?e iaeo?ae?oao c on?ia e?a?iaie, OI? ciooaia aoea
ai?iieoe nai? ei?aeiie a?ae e?eueeio ai?ia?a. Iaeiae ?aaeueieo nee aoei
caiaei, ui e i?ecaaei aei eaoano?io?/ieo ii?acie ia o?iio?.

Iaiaaath/enue a?yooaaoe noaiiaeua, Aee?aeoi??y caa?ioeany ii aeiiiiiao
aei e?a?i Aioaioe (aeanaio yeeo aenaaeeany o a?oaei? 1918 ?. ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie) a iaae??, ui ieoaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee aoaea iiceoeaii ae??oaia ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e eiioa?aioe??.
Aeiaa? oa /ano? ?aoiaee ia?aaiai??a aeaeaaaoe?e Aee?aeoi??? c
eiiaiaeoaaiiyi o?aioeocueeeo a?enuee a Oe?a?i? ia i?ecaaee i? aei /iai,
ai inoaii? aie?ee aaa/aoe o a?enueeiaeo caaiiao OI? neeo, eio?a iiaea a
aeiiiiiaoe a?aeiiaeoe «?aeeio oa iaiiae?eueio ?in?th», o oie /an ye
Aee?aeoi??y ia aaaeaea iinooiaoeny nai?ie aieiaieie canaaeaie ? a ia?oo
/a?ao – ?icaoaeiaith iacaeaaeii? aeaiie?aoe/ii? Oe?a?ie. Oae naii
aac?acoeueoaoii cae?i/eeeny ae?? ?anioae?eainueei? aeaeaaaoe?? ia ie?i?e
eiioa?aioe?? a Ia?eae? o 1919 ?ioe?.

Iaei??th c i?iaeai, ui iaea?eueo aeaeany aciaee oe?a?inueeiio o?yaeia?
aceieo – iaaani? 1919 ?., aoea a?aenooi?noue ?aeeii? aea?aeaaii?
?aeaieia??. O oie /an, eiee aeoaea aaaaoi caeaaeaei a?ae
aa?oaoe?eii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueei? ?iaioe a ia?iaeieo ianao, a iniaeeai –
na?aae oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa, caoiaee ?inoeooo?a aeaaee a OI? o
oeueiio iai?yieo aoee aaeueie neaaeeie oa iaaoaeoeaieie. A?aeoae ?oi?
iaaeie?ee /eiaeith i??ith ni?e/eiyee niaith no??iea iaae?iiy
iiioey?iino? Aee?aeoi??? na?aae ianaeaiiy. E??i oiai, iino?ei? eieeaaiiy
o?yaeo, a?aenooi?noue /?oei aecia/aieo iie?oe/ieo i???ioe??a ?anioae?ee
iineaaethaaee o? a?enueeia? oi?ioaaiiy, ui caeeoaeeny ua a??ieie
Aee?aeoi???.

Iia? a?enueeia? ii?acee ?acii ?c iani?eyoeeaith i?aeia?iaeiith
eii’thieoo?ith ua a?eueoa iiaeeaeee e?eciao neooaoe?th a ea??aieo eieao
OI?, iia’ycaio c ?ica?aei?noth iiaeyae?a ia iiaoaeiao aea?aeaae. Ia?o??
oa a?oie, ui a?aee o/anoue o iianoaii?, ia aeyaeee a nia? iaeaaeii?
iie?oe/ii? aeaaaeaiino? oa ioae?ino?, uia i?aeiyoeny iaae nai?ie
aocueeiia?o?eieie ?ioa?anaie e ia’?aeiaoeny caaeey ii?yooieo e?a?ie.
Aiaeii/an o neeaae? o?yaeo i?ioyaii ia?oi? iieiaeie 1919 ?ieo
a?aeaoaaeeny ci?ie, ye? iaee nai?i iane?aeeii iiaeaeueoo eiioeaio?aoe?th
aeaaee a ?oeao N.Iaoeth?e. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui eoeiny ia i?i
aeeeoaoi?nuee? iiaiiaaaeaiiy e?aea?a OI?, a nei??oa i?i i?aceaeaionueeo
oi?io i?aae?iiy o ?anioae?oe?, ui e aoei i?ci?oa caoaa?aeaeaii
eaa?oeiii.

Aea, iii?e an? iaaa?acaee, ui ni?oeaee Aee?aeoi??th oa noaee ia
ia?aoeiae? ao?eaiith ?? i?iaeo?a o aeeooy iai?ee?ioe? 1918 – o ia?o?e
iieiaei? 1919 ?ieo, aiia a?ae?a?aea aecia/io ?ieue a oe?a?inuee?e
?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ??. Ooai?aiiy Aee?aeoi???, i?eo?ae ?? aei aeaaee
oa ae?yeuei?noue i?iaeaiiino?oaaee noae?noue aeaiie?aoe/ieo oaiaeaioe?e
na?aae oe?a?inoaa e iniaeeai na?aae eiai iie?oe/iiai i?iaiaeo. O?yae OI?
ia i?eieiea naiai ?nioaaiiy iaaani? – ae?oeo 1919 ?ieo, iieieaoenue o
eaoano?io?/i?e iaoia?e neooaoe??. Oa, ui a?i i?iaeiaaeoaaa ae?yoe e
iaaeae? (ye ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?, oae ? ana?aaeei? e?a?ie),
nie?ath/enue aeeeth/ii ia aeani? neee, ae?acii na?ae/eei i?i eiai
aeeoo?caeaoi?noue. I?ioa ae??oaeueieie ia oie /an aoee ianoaaeie, eio??
ia caeaaeaee a?ae iniaenoi? aie? oa iiaeeeainoae ea??aiee?a OI?.

Iniiaiee ci?no ? eeth/ia? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

Aaneianueeee ?. Eaoa?eiineaaueia aeiae Aee?aeoi??? OI? // Ai?enoai. –
1996. – ? 11. – N. 14-15 (0,3 ae?. a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. OI? ? COI?: /e aoea iiaeeeaith ceoea? // Ai?enoai. –
1999. – ? 6. – N. 7-8 (0,25 ae?. a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. Ao?a/ai? iiaeeeaino? (aeaye? aniaeoe aioo??oiuei?
iie?oeee Aee?aeoi??? OI? iai?ee?ioe? 1918 – ii/aoeo 1919 ?.) //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. – 1997. – ? 55. – N. 35-44 (0,4 ae?.
a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. O?yaeiaa e?eca a OI? o ethoiio – ea?oi? 1919 ?. //
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Aeae-ai
«A?o-I?an», 1999. – N. 47-57 (0,4 ae?. a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. O iiooeao nithciee?a: ciai?oiy iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI?
o ia?o?e iieiaei? 1919 ?ieo // A?ai?. – 1999. – ? 2. – N. 36-43 (0,7
ae?. a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. Inei Iaca?oe (1883-1940): aeeooy oa iaioaeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaieea // A?ai?. – 1999. — ? 3. – N. 88-93 (0,5 ae?.
a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. Aei ieoaiiy i?i i?e/eie ii?acee oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??
1917-1921 ??. («Ai??ea oaoa…») // A?ai?. – 1998. – ? 1. – N. 80-86
(0,3 ae?. a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. Eenoiiaaeiaa iianoaiiy 1918 ?.: «iaoeth??anueea
aaaioth?a» /e «iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaiethoe?y»? // Aaoueiai Iaaei
Nei?iiaaenueeee oa Oe?a?inueea Aea?aeaaa 1918 ?. Ca??iee iaoe. aeiiia. –
E., 1998. – N. 62-65 (0,7 ae?. a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. Iie?oe/ia aeaaea Aee?aeoi??? OI? ia Eaoa?eiineaauei? //
Niaaeueia: Aei 75-??//y Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?.
Ca??iee noaoae. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: A?o-I?an, 1999. – N. 119-126 (0,4
ae?. a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. Aacaoa «?anioae?eaiaoeue» ye aeaea?aei c ?noi???
Eaoa?eiineaaueie aeiae Aee?aeoi??? // C ieioaoeie Iiaei?i?ia’y.
Iaoa??aee iaoe. eiio., i?enay/aii? I?aeia?iaeiiio aeith ioca?a. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: AIII «Aei?i?i», 1995. – N. 107-111 (0,2 ae?. a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. Iie?oeea Aioaioe uiaei Oe?a?ie a 1919 ?ioe? //
I?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee ia?iae?a ?a?iie. Iaoa??aee iaoe. eiio. –
Caii??aeaey: ?A «Oaiaeai O», 1996. – N. 62-64 (0,1 ae?. a?e.).

Aaneianueeee ?. Aee?aeoi??y OI?: iaaeei?enoaiee iioaioe?ae ? oaine ia
noai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae // 80-??//y a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: ieioea ? no/ania. Aeiiia. ? iia?ae. ia
anaoe?. iaoe. eiio. – N?ioa?iiieue,1997. – N. 59-60 (0,1 ae?. a?e.).

AIIOAOe?ss

Aaneianueeee ?.TH. Ae?yeuei?noue Aee?aeoi??? OI? (eenoiiaae 1918 ?. –
ea?oaiue 1919 ?.). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aiae?co iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? OI?
ia ia?oiio aoai? ?nioaaiiy. Aena?oeththoueny ia?aaeoiiae oa i?e/eie ??
noai?aiiy, ia?aa?a iiae?e, ca yeeo aiia i?eeoea aei aeaaee.
Aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo
?inoeooo?a OI? iai?ee?ioe? 1918 – o ia?o?e iieiaei? 1919 ??. O noa??
aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee aiae?cothoueny aa?a?i?, i?iieneia?, o?iainia?,
?ae?a?ei?, eoeueoo?i? oa ?io? ?aoi?ie ?anioae?eainueeiai o?yaeo.
Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue Aee?aeoi??? aena?oeth?oueny ia oe?
aaiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? aeiaeiea Oe?a?ie, ?icaeyaeathoueny i?e/eie,
eio?? iaoiiaeee ci?ie o i?aeia?iaei?e iie?oeoe? OI?.

C?iaeaii ni?iao i?iaiae?coaaoe noni?eueii-iie?oe/io aoiinoa?o a
?anioae?oe? oa ?? aieea ia iie?oeeo oe?a?inueeiai o?yaeo. Aiaeii/an
i?inoaaeaii ci?ie o neeaae? Aee?aeoi??? oa eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a OI?, ?oi?e
ca’ycie c iiae?yie a Oe?a?i?: iieacai? i?e/eie, oa?aeoa? ? iane?aeee
o?yaeiai? e?ece, ui ni?oeaea ?anioae?eo iaaani? 1919 ?ieo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: OI?, Aee?aeoi??y, ?aaea i?i?no??a, aioo??oiy iie?oeea,
ciai?oiy iie?oeea, iianoaiiy, o?yaeiaa e?eca.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaneianeee ?.TH. Aeayoaeueiinoue Aee?aeoi?ee OI? (iiya?ue 1918 a. –
ai?aeue 1919 a.). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. – Aeiai?iiao?ianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe Aee?aeoi?ee
OI? ia ia?aii yoaia nouanoaiaaiey. Inaauathony i?aaeiinueee e i?e/eiu aa
nicaeaiey, oiae niauoee, i?e eioi?uo iia i?eoea e aeanoe. Enneaaeoaony
i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo einoeoooia OI?
a eiioea 1918 – a ia?aie iieiaeia 1919 aa. A noa?a aioo?aiiae iieeoeee
aiaeece?othony aa?a?iua, i?iiuoeaiiua, oeiainiaua, ?aeeaeiciua,
eoeueoo?iua e ae?oaea ?aoi?iu. Aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay aeoeaiinoue
Aee?aeoi?ee inaauaaony ia oiia aaiiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee aie?oa Oe?aeiu,
?anniao?eaathony i?e/eiu, iaoneiaeaoea eciaiaiey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iieeoeea OI?.

I?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea i?iaiaeece?iaaoue iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneoth
aoiinoa?o a ?anioaeeea e aa aeeyiea ia iieeoeeo oe?aeineiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Aianoa n oai i?ineaaeeaathony eciaiaiey a ninoaaa
Aee?aeoi?ee e eaaeiaoa ieieno?ia OI?, eo naycue n niauoeyie ia
oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu: iieacaiu i?e/eiu, oa?aeoa? e iineaaenoaey
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai e?ecena, ioaaoeaoaai ?anioaeeeo aaniie 1919 aiaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: OI?, Aee?aeoi?ey, Niaao ieieno?ia, aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea,
aiaoiyy iieeoeea, ainnoaiea, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue e?ecen.

THE SUMMARY

Vaskovsky R.U. Activity of the Directory of UNR (November, 1918 – April,
1919). – Manuscript.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
historical sciences on a speciality 07.00.01 – history of Ukraine. –
Dniepropetrovsk state university, Dniepropetrovsk, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to a research of a historical phenomenon of the
Ukrainian Directory at the first stage it of existence – from a middle
of November, 1918 prior to the beginning May, 1919, of its purposes,
essence, forms and methods of political activity. The process of
becoming and operation of the UNR’s state institutes in an extremity
1918 – in first half 1919 aa is researched.

The Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic was created by November
14, 1918 with the purpose of organization and conducting of national
revolt against of a P.Skoropadsky’s hetmanian regime. An immediate cause
it of creation and beginning of revolt has become a sharp modification
of a political rate of the Ukrainian State owing to emerging the
Hetman’s federative letter. The success of revolt was caused by three
circumstances. At first, it was maintained by majority of the population
of Ukraine, first of all by deprived stratums. Secondly, almost all
hetmanian military shapings, by perceiving the letter of Skoropadsky
about federation with Russia as threat to the Ukrainian independence,
transmitted on the party of the Directory. Thirdly, German and
Austrian-Hungarian troops, which were on territory of Ukraine, have
declared about the non-interference to struggle between hetmanian
government and Directory.

By coming to an authority, the Directory planned to pursue the policy
identical to a rate of the previous UNR’s government, for want of it
frequently non-critically perceiving its experience and repeating of its
error. In addition, tending to allow urgent problems for republic, the
Directory has appeared in the difficult international situation. It have
predetermined not only increased interest to the Ukrainian territories
of the closest neighbours – Russia, Poland, Romania, but also (and this
most important) inability to successfully conduct active, purposeful
diplomatic activity, absence of strong efficient army reformed from
rebel units. Therefore, though the main principle of international
policy of the Ukrainian government professed amicable neutrality with
all countries, UNR was obliged to protect the boundaries from several
enemies. However actual forces did not suffice, that has leaded to
disastrous defeats at the front.

Tending to rescue a position, the Directory has addressed for the help
to countries of Antanta (descent of which has landed in December, 1918
in the south of Ukraine) in hope, that the problem of UNR’s independence
will be positively decided on the Parisian peace conference. The long
and often rounds of negotiations of delegations of the Directory with
the French military command in Ukraine have not resulted in anything.
For the lasts it was preferred to see in military formings of UNR a
force, which could help to restore «uniform and indivisible Russia»,
while the Directory did not want to be waived in the basic principles
and first of all – creation of independent democratic Ukraine. As is
abortive the operations of republican delegacy on peace conference in
Paris in a 1919 were completed too.

By one from the main problems, which most has given to know about itself
to the Ukrainian government in the winter – in the spring of 1919, there
was an absence of uniform state ideology. When propagandist work in
people masses played a determinant role, and in particular – among the
Ukrainian peasantry, the operations of UNR’s state institutes in this
direction were highly irresolute and ineffective. As a result, it was a
falling of popularity of the Directorial authority among the population.
Besides the permanent oscillations of the Ukrainian government, absence
of precise political reference points of republic loosened also those
military parts, which still remained to be faithful to the state power.

The new defeats at the front together with a unfavorable international
conjuncture have deepened even more a crisis situation in managing
circles of UNR, connected with a divergence in views on construction of
the state. The consignments and groups, which participated in revolt,
have not found in themselves of proper political wisdom to be lifted
above party interests and to be united for the sake of saving country.
At the same time in structure of government on stretch of first half of
1919 the modifications happened which had by the outcome further
concentration of power in arms of S.Petlura. It is necessary to mark,
that the question was not about dictatorial authorities of the UNR’s
leader, and rather about the presidential form of government in
republic, which was later predicated legitimately.

But, despite of all difficulties, which have prevented an embodiment of
the projects of the Directory in an extremity 1918 – in first half of
1919, it has played an issued role in the Ukrainian revolution 1917-1920
years. Creation of the Directory and its activity have demonstrated
stability of the democratic tendencies among broad stratums of the
Ukrainian population and in particular among its political management.
The government of UNR has not stopped the existence in the spring – in
the summer of a 1919, by appearing in disastrous a checkmate situation.
That it kept to act and hereinafter (both on international arena, and
inside country), leaning extremely on own forces, definitely testified
for its viability. Nevertheless there were decisive circumstances in
that time, which did not depend on personal liberty and possibilities of
the UNR’s chiefs.

Key words: UNR, Directory, Ministerial Council, internal policy,
external policy, revolt, cabinet crisis.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo . Oi?iao 60o90/16. Iai??
ae?oea?nueeee.

Ae?oe ieineee. Aa?i?oo?a Times New Roman Cyr. Oiia. ae?oe. a?e. 1.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ? .

?ioai?eio AeAeO, 320050, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-50, aoe. Eicaeiaa, 4a

Oe?aae 100 i?ei??iee?a.

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?eaaeea ?.E. ?ica?ii ao?aeoacii-iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? Aee?aeoi??? ia
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