I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Ao-Oa?ao? Ea??i Aoiaae

OAeE 6A.584-089;616-001.5:616.7 — 084

Aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia e?eoaaiiy aeenoaeueieo ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a
aii?eee ? i?io?eaeoeea

ooieoe?iiaeueii? iaaeinoaoiino? iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo

14.01-21 — O?aaiaoieia?y ? i?oiiaae?y

Aaoi?aoa?aoaeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa
iaaee/ieo iaoe

A?iieoey — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?aaiaoieia??, i?oiiaae?? ? AIO
A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iao?i Ieoaeeiae/ AEoe

eaoaae?a o?aaiaoieia??, i?oiiaae?? oa AIO A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Neey?aiei ?aaai Oeiio?eiae/,

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,

aea?/? Eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, ae.i.i., i?ioani? eaoaae?e
o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
aeaaeai?ea I.I. Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie

Oaa/oe A?eoi? ?aaiiae/,

ae.i.i., i?ioani?,

aee?aeoi? Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai IAe?

?aaa?e?oaoe?? ?iaae?ae?a IIC Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oe?a?inueeee IAe? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? IIC Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. a 12.00 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee E05.600.01 i?e A?iieoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa (286018, i. A?iieoey, aoe.
Ie?iaiaa 56).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa (286018, i.
A?iieoey, aoe. Ie?iaiaa 56).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 23 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

e.i.i., aeioeaio I.?. Iieeaeueei

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. O?aaiaoe/i? iioeiaeaeaiiy ieaeiuei? o?aoeie
aii?eee ca aeaieie ??cieo aaoi??a neeaaeathoue a?ae 31,7 aei 38,9%
(Oaiioi?eia TH.A., 1997; Eaeiaa?c A.E. c ni?aaao., 1985). A oie aea /an
eeoa aeaye? a?o/eciyi? aaoi?e aeae?eythoue a ie?aio a?oio ia?aeiie
aeenoaeueiiai ae?aiaoaai?o?co aii?eee, ?icaeyaeath/e ?o ye aeooaeueio
i?iaeaio (Aie?i E.I., 1991, 1994). A iin?aieeo aeey e?ea??a i?ae
?aaeaeoe??th TH.A. Oaiioi?eiaa (1997), i?i ia?aeiie aeenoaeueiiai
ae?aiaoaai?o?co eeoa caaaeo?oueny a ?icae?e? i?i ae?ao?ca?i? ia?aeiie
aii?eee; i?/iai ia neacaii i?i iniaeeaino? ia?aeii?a oe??? eieae?caoe??
? a iin?aieeo aeey e?ea??a A.I. Ieaene (1996).

Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/i? oni?oe no/anii? o?aaiaoieia?? ? i?oiiaae?? o
ieoaiiyo iia?aoeaiiai ? eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a oe???
eieae?caoe??, aiie ? aein? neeaaeathoue na?eicio i?iaeaio (Eaeiaa?c A.E.
c ni?aaao., 1985; Caeaanueeee I.E. c ni?aaao., 1994; Nooaeue Aeue Oioae,
1983; P.J. Brumback and W.C. McGarvey, 1995) ? a 23,8% aeiaaee?a ?o
e?eoaaiiy ia caaacia/o? caaeia?eueieo a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a (Nooaeue
Aeue Oioae, 1983). Freedman et al (1995) a?aecia/a?, ui ia?aeiie
aeenoaeueii? o?aoeie aii?eee noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ??ciiiai?oieie
oneeaaeiaiiyie o 8% aeiaaee?a, ui iiynith?oueny iniaeeainoyie
aiaoii?/ii? aoaeiae oe??? ciie, ii?yae c? cia/ieie a?iiaoai?/ieie
aeiiaaie aei aii?eee, yea iana iii?i? iaaaioaaeaiiy (E.E. E?oiei, 1974;
TH.O. ?aiaoue?a, 1989).

Iac?o/i?noue i?e e?eoaaii? ia?aeii?a ieaeiuei? o?aoeie aii?eee
iaoiiaeaia oei, ui aeenoaeueiee o?aaiaio aeoaea iaeee ? ia aeicaiey?
aeinyaoe aeinoaoiuei noaa?eueii? o?enaoe?? ?io?aiaaeoeey?ieie
eiino?oeoe?yie. Oeueiio caaaaea? ? ?icoe?aiiy e?noeiaiiiceiaiai eaiaeo.
A oie aea /an, noaa?eueiee inoaineioac ieanoeiith, yeee io?eiaa oe?iea
canoinoaaiiy a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y, oo?oaeiaiee ia o?eueee iaeeie
?ici??aie aeenoaeueiiai e?noeiaiai o?aaiaioo, aea e aee?eaeaiiyi ieiueie
e?noee, ii?yae c a?aenooi?noth ianeao i’yeeo oeaiei.

Aioo??oiueinoaeiaia? ia?aeiie aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiao ae?ae neeaaei?
a ieai? eiai ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? aaaeooue aei cia/ii? ao?aoe ooieoe?? a
ca’yceo c ii?ooaiiyi ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noaeiaiaeo iiaa?oiiue ? ?icaeoeii
?aiiueiai a?o?ico (Eaeiaa?c A.E. c ni?aaao., 1985, Aieei I.I. c
ni?aaao., 1991). Ana oea aea? i?ea?ae aei iiaeo iiooe?a iaea?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy aeaii? iaoieia??, caaacia/oth/iai iaae?eio
o?enaoe?th e?noeiaeo a?aeeaie?a ? ?o noaa?euei?noue ia anueiio i?ioyc?
e?eoaaiiy, a?aeiiaeaiiy aiaoii?/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?e
aioo??oiueinoaeiaiaeo iioeiaeaeaiiyo.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy

I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy “iecueeeo” ia?aeii?a aii?eee oeyoii
?ic?iaee iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai e?eoaaiiy
oe??? iaoieia?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio iioeiaeaeaiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy

1. Aea/eoe ? i?aaenoaaeoe iaeaeeae/? ? a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy
ca ??cieie iaoiaeeeaie ??cieo oei?a “iecueeeo” ia?aeii?a aii?eee.

2. Aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo
iaoai?ci?a iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo oai?eo c caeeoeiaeie aiaoii?/ieie
a?aeoeeaiiyie a?ae ii?ie i?ney ia?aianaieo aeenoaeueieo ia?aeii?a
aii?eee.

3. Aacoth/enue ia no/ani?e eeaneo?eaoe??, aecia/eoe iieace aei ??cieo
oei?a iia?aoeaiiai ? eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a ieaeiuei?
o?aoeie aii?eee.

4. ?ic?iaeoe iia? aoaeoeai? niiniae e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a ieaeiuei?
o?aoeie aii?eee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1. Noai?aii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio iaoiaeeeo aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai e?eoaaiiy
ia?aeii?a aeenoaeueiiai ae?aiaoaai?o?ca aii?eee ia iniia? a?aooaaiiy
oa?aeoa?o ? oeio ia?aeiia, eiai e?iaiaoeee, noaio oe??yieo iie?ia?a ?
i’yeeo oeaieie a cii? iioeiaeaeaiiy.

2. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? ? a?iiaoai?/ii iaa?oioiaai? iia? aoaeoeai? niiniae
iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a aeenoaeueiiai ae?aiaoaai?o?ca aii?eee.

3. Aia?oa aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? ? aeeiai?eo ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/ieo
ci?i a iii?ii-?ooiaiio aia?ao? oai?eo, ye? iaee aeaye? aiaoii?/i?
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?ie i?ney ia?aianaieo aeenoaeueieo
ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a aii?eee.

4. I?aaenoaaeaii ea?oeio ci?i ia?eoa??eiiai e?iaiia?ao o oai?eo c
iane?aeeaie “iecueeeo” ia?aeii?a aii?eee ? aca?iica’ycie ?o c
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieie ?aaeoe?yie c aieo iii?ii-?ooiaiai
aia?aoo.

5. ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeaio iaoiaeeeo aeiiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee ?
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai aaaeaiiy oai?eo c “iecueeeie” ia?aeiiaie aii?eee ia
iniia? aeei?enoaiiy aiceiioa?ai?? ? ei?aeoe?? ii?ooaiue
i?e?ioee?eoeyoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

?ic?iaeaia iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaia nenoaia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai e?eoaaiiy
“iecueeeo” ia?aeii?a aii?eee c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeo iaoiaeee e?eoaaiiy ?
i?io?eaeoeee i?neyo?aaiaoe/ieo ci?i, aea? iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeueoe
ye?noue e?eoaaiiy oa ciaioeoe a?aenioie aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieo
ci?i a iii?ii-?ooiaiio aia?ao?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

I?iaaaeaiee e?oa?aoo?iee iiooe, naiino?eii ianoaaeaii 148 oai?eo c
a?aeaeaeaieie iane?aeeaie e?eoaaiiy aeenoaeueieo ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo
ia?aeii?a e?noie aii?eee, i?iaaaeaii a?iiaoai?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iia?aoe?? iao?aeiiai aaeioiaiai iie?neiinoico, e?eoaaii 106 oai?eo c
aeenoaeueieie ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieie ia?aeiiaie aii?eee, c ieo 62
iia?iaaii. I?iaaaeaii noaoenoe/iee aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e (1996, 1997, 1998 ?.?.), can?aeaiiyo A?iieoeueeiai
iaeaniiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a (1996, 1997),
iaeanieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (A?iieoey,
1996, 1997, 1998; sseoa, 1996; Iaeana, 1998), eiioa?aioe?yo iieiaeeo
a/aieo (A?iieoey, 1997; Ee?a, 1997), 1 Oe?a?inueeiio c’?cae?
i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a (Ee?a, 1997).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue

Cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a aaeioiaiai oa iao?aeiiai iie?neiinoico
ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo A?iieoeueei? iaeanii? oa 2-i? i?nueei?
e?ea?aiue, ?aeiiieo e?ea?aiue A?iieoeueei? oa AEeoiie?nueei? iaeanoae,
ee?i?e Oe?a?inueeiai IAe? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??, Oe?a?inueeiai
IAe? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ?iaae?ae?a.

Ioae?eaoe??

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o a
oeaio?aeueieo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao, aeaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.
Ioi?ieaii 5 ?aoe?iiae?caoi?nueeeo i?iiiceoe?e, iiaeaia cayaea ia
aeiao?ae.

Ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 136 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ?
neeaaea?oueny c aaaaeaiiy, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, 5 ?icae?e?a, i?enay/aieo
caaaeuei?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ianoaaeaieo oai?eo ? iaoiaeeeai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aeaeaeaiei iane?aeeai e?eoaaiiy, aeeiai?oe?
aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo o oai?eo c
caeeoeiaeie aiaoii?/ieie ii?ooaiiyie i?ney ia?aianaieo aeenoaeueieo
ia?aeii?a aii?eee, e?eoaaiith aeenoaeueieo ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo
ia?aeii?a. Ie?aii aeae?eai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, caeeth/aiiy ?
aeniiaee. Ia?ae?e e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 48 a?o/eciyieo ? 73 ?iicaiieo
aeaea?ae. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 10 oaaeeoeyie ? 24 iaethieaie.

Iniiaiee ci?no

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia 147
oai?eo, ye? io?eiaee aiane?aeie o?aaie ia?aeiie aeenoaeueiiai a?aeae?eo
aii?eee, a oaeiae 148 oai?eo, ye? iaee a aiaiiac? iioeiaeaeaiiy
aeenoaeueiiai ae?aiaoaai?o?ca. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieiae/i?, a?iiaoai?/i?, eaai?aoi?i?, aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/i?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?e aea/aii? a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a /ieia?e?a
aoei 99 (66,89%), ae?iie — 49 (33,11%). O a?oe? 20-29 ?ie?a ianoaaeaii
20 oai?eo (13,51%), 30-39 ?ie?a — 30 in?a (20,27%), 40-49 ?ie?a — 41
oai?ee (27,71%).

Iiaooiaa o?aaia iaea i?noea o 71 (52,03%) aeiaaeeo,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea — o 2 (1,35%), ae?iaie/a — o 13 (8,78%) oai?eo.
2 (1,35%) iioa?i?eeo iaee nii?oeaio o?aaio, 27 (18,24%) — aaoiaei?iaeio,
?io? aeaee o?aai iaee 27 (18,24%) oai?eo.

A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y Itheea?a, yea, ia iaoo aeoieo,
iaea?eueo iiaii a?aeia?aaea? iniaeeaino? iioeiaeaeaiue, c?o/ia i?e
aea/aii? a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c aeaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? na?aae e?eiaaieo iaie oai?eo aei a?oie
A aoee a?aeianai? iioeiaeaeaiiy o 67 (65%) /ieia?e, a?oio A neeaee
iioeiaeaeaiiy o 9 in?a (8,8%), ia?aeiie a?oie N eiinoaoiaaii o 26
(25,5%) oai?eo. I?e anoaiiaeaii? ae?aaiico oi?ioethaaee eiai oaeei
/eiii, uia ia ia?oiio i?noe? aoa a?aecia/aiee oa?aeoa? ia?aeiio c
o?aooaaiiyi iioeiaeaeaiue i’yeeo oeaiei, iio?i eiai eieae?caoe?y
(aeenoaeueiee) oa eiai a?aeiioaiiy aei noaeiao. A e?ioe? ae?aaiico
i?eaiaeeoueny iiaia ?icoeo?iaea o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei eeaneo?eaoe??
Itheea?a.

I?e ianoaaeaii? oai?eo ie??i o?aaeeoe?eii? ?aioaaiia?ao??
aeei?enoiaoaaee ?aioaaiieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iioeiaeaeaiiai naaiaioo a
iieiaeaii? “noiy/e”, ui aeicaieyei aeyaeoe iineeaiiy /e ciaioaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?? ? i?aeaeaeo?a a oiiaao iaaaioaaeaiiy. Noai i?ia?ae?caoe??
e?noeiai? oeaieie ioe?ithaaee ii i’yoeiaeo e?noeao iioeiaeaeaii? oa
caei?iai? e?ioe?aie ca aeiiiiiaith i?eeaaeo ACH?LLES+ (LUNAR CORP).
Iieacieee ii??aithaaee ?c na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/iei aeey aeaiiai a?eo ? c
a?coaeueiith ye?niith ioe?ieith nooiaith eieaeueiiai inoaiii?ico
aeenoaeueiiai iaoaai?o?ca, c?iaeaiith ca cae/aeiith ?aioaaiia?aiith.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee , ui cieaeaiiy iieacieea ST?FFNESS ia 20% ?
a?eueoa ii a?aeiioaiith aei a?eiai? ii?ie ? iani?eyoeeaith
i?iaiinoe/iith iciaeith ? na?ae/eoue i?i c?ea
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo iaoai?ci?a ia oii? ?icaeoeo
aeaoi?ioth/iai a?o?ico ? aia?iiae?io?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue a i’yeeo
oeaieiao. Iaie a?aecia/aii a?eueoo /anoioo oeeo ii?ooaiue i?ney
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aaaaoiineieeiaeo aioo??oiueinoaeiaiaeo ia?aeii?a,
ia?aeii?a ia oii? aaaeei? o?aaie i’yeeo oeaiei. A oeeo oiiaao
inoaineioac ianeaieie iae?noeiaeie ieanoeiaie iiaea noaoe aeinoaoiuei
o?aaiaoe/iei ? i?eiooo? aei iiooeo a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo iaoiaeee.

47 oai?ei aeeiiaii ?aiaacia?ao?th ieaei?o e?ioe?aie c iaoith aeyaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae e?iaiia?ao i?ney aeenoaeueieo ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a
aii?eee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o 7 c ieo ia oii? cieaeaiiy ioeueniaiai
a?oa??aeueiiai e?iaaiaiiaiaiiy a o?aaiiaai?e aii?eoe? iaei i?noea
cieaeaiiy aaiiciiai a?aeoieo (?aia?ao?/iee ?iaeaen a na?aaeiueiio neeaa
0,52), oiion noaeei a ii??aiyii? c? caei?iaith e?ioe?aeith aoa
i?aeaeuaiee a na?aaeiueiio ia 16%. An? 7 oai?eo e?eoaaeeny iae?noeiaeie
ieanoeiaie ia 7-8 aaeio?a.

O 26 oai?eo i?e iii??ii ae?aaeaiiio aieueiaiio neiae?ii? a
aii?eeiainooiiaaiio noaeia? aoa cieaeaiee a?oa??aeueiee e?iaiia?a
(/ano?oa ii a?ia?oii?/iiio oeio) c ??ceei ciaioaiiyi ?aiaacia?ao?/iiai
?iaeaeno (0,264). Oe? ci?ie noi?iaiaeaeoaaee i?neyo?aaiaoe/iee
aeaoi?ioth/ee a?o?ic ? a?aeiia?aeaee ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/iei iciaeai
c?eao eiiiainaoe??. O 13 oai?eo a?aecia/aii i?aeaeuaiiy nenoie?/iiai
ia’?io e?iaioieo aei 5,55 ie ? oaeeeiiiai ia’?io e?iaioieo aei 431ie, ui
aoei oa?aeoa?ii aeey ianoaaeaieo c? no?eeeie iaa?yeaie nooii? ? aii?eee.

Oaeei /eiii, aeua ia?a?aoiaai? ?aiaacia?ao?/i? noaie ? nai???aeiei
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi aaaeeino? o?aaie ? nooiaith ooieoe?iiaeueiino?
i?iaaaeaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

59 oai?ei o a?oe? a?ae 22 aei 50 ?ie?a i?iaaaeaii a?iiaoai?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio ioe?ithaaeanue ii??i?noue iaio e?ioe?aie
/a?ac 2-12 ?ie?a i?ney ia?aianaii? o?aaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny
ia niaoe?aeueieo aeaeo?iiieo oa?acao, iiieeea neeaea 0,15%.

Na?aae an?o ianoaaeaieo o 19 oai?eo ia aoei i?yeeo nea?a (1 a?oia), 18
(2  a?oia) iaee iii??iee a?eue a aii?eeiainooiiaaiio noaeia? i?ney
o?ce/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, 22 (3 a?oia) oai?eo a?aecia/aee ae?aaeaiee
a?eue a o?aaiiaai?e e?ioe?aoe?, “noa?oiaee” a?eue. Eiio?ieueio a?oio
neeaee 15 caei?iaeo ?ia?oiee?a a a?oe? a?ae 21 aei 49 ?ie?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o an?o oai?eo i?ney ia?aianaieo aeenoaeueieo
ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iaee i?noea a?iiaoai?/i? ci?ie, ui
i?iyaeyeenue ciaioaiiyi iaaaioaaeaiiy ia o?aaiiaaio e?ioe?aeo. C?
ca?eueoaiiyi a?eo oai?eo ? oa?i?io i?ney o?aaie iii?icaeaoi?noue
iioeiaeaeaii? e?ioe?aee o iaoe??io?a 2 ? 3 a?oi ciaiooaaeanue, ui
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue ?icaeoeii aeaaaia?aoeaieo ci?i a aii?eeiainooiiaaiio
noaeia? ? noaeiaao nooii?. Na?aae oai?eo 1 a?oie aecia/aeany oa ae naia
caeiiii??i?noue, iaeiae ae?aaeaiiy aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiiy aoea iaioith.

Aeey aecia/aiiy a?iiaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaie niiniao
iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy aeenoaeueieo ia?aeii?a aii?eee ca aeiiiiiaith
iao?aeiiai aaeioiaiai iie?neiinoico, ia 12 o?oiao (23 aii?eee) ia
niaoe?aeueii neiino?oeiaai?e onoaiiaoe? i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?oeiino? niieo/aiiy ia ?ic?ea ? aei aieiaiai ci?uaiiy. Ia 5 aii?eeao
aecia/aee no?ee?noue i?ney o?aaeeoe?eii? aaeioiai? o?enaoe??
aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee 2-3 aaeioaie ca nenoaiith AI. I?e oeueiio neea
?ic?eao niieo/aiiy neeaea a?ae 121 aei 141 ea (a na?aaeiueiio 131,4 ea)
ca a?nnth, ? a?ae 132 aei 147 ea (a na?aaeiueiio 139 ea) aei aieiaiai
ci?uaiiy.

I?ney aeeiiaii? iia?aoe?? iao?aeiiai aaeioiaiai iie?neiinoico ci?uaiiy
ca a?nnth aeinyaiooi i?e nee? a?ae 194 aei 229 ea (a na?aaeiueiio 204,6
ea), ci?uaiiy i?ae eooii a?aeaoaaeiny i?e coneee? a?ae 201 aei 224 ea (a
na?aaeiueiio 214 ea).

Oaeei /eiii, io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i cia/ii a?eueoo a?iiaoai?/io
i?oei?noue niieo/aiiy e?noie i?e aeei?enoaii? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaie
iaoiaeeee a ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie i?eeiiaie aaeioiai? o?enaoe??.

A?aeaeaeai? iane?aeee e?eoaaiiy “iecueeeo” ia?aeii?aaii?eee i?ney ??cieo
iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy

Aiae?coth/e a?aeaeaeai? iane?aeee e?eoaaiiy 148 oai?eo, ie i?eeoee aei
aeniiaeo, ui aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy aac aeinoaoiueiai
aiae?co ? ioe?iee aaaeeino? iioeiaeaeaiiy, caaaeueiiai noaio oai?iai,
ii?ooaiiy oa?i?io ?iiia?e?caoe??, /anoi i?ecaiaeeoue aei iacaaeia?eueieo
iane?aee?a. Na?aae ?aii?o ne?ae a?aecia/eoe caiaeuei? oneeaaeiaiiy
iia?aoe?eii? ?aie — 10 in?a (6,8%), o?io?/i? ii?ooaiiy — 6 in?a (4,1%),
ianoaa?euei?noue o?enaoe?? — 2 iniae (1,4%), eio?? nooo?ai a?aeaeeeny ia
a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoaoao. Na?aae i?ci?o oneeaaeiaiue aeii?iothoue
i?neyo?aaiaoe/iee ? i?neyiia?aoe?eiee inoaii??e?o — 8 oai?eo (5,4%),
aeaoi?ioth/ee a?o?ic aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiao — 23 in?a (15,5%),
oiia?eueiaia eiinie?aeaoe?y — 11 oai?eo (7,4%), iani?aaaei?e noaeia
aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee — 4 oai?eo (2,7%), iai?aaeeueia eiinie?aeaoe?y
a?aeeaie?a — 11 oai?eo (7,4%).

O 7 ianoaaeaieo (4,7%) aoee ae?aaeai? noaeeii? ii?ooaiiy nooii? ?
aii?eee, ye? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue iaa?yeii i‘yeeo oeaiei.

Iaaei??ia ?iiia?e?caoe?y iaea i?noea a 5 aeiaaeeao (3,4%),
iai?aaeeueiee, ia?aoe?iiaeueiee aea?? o?enaoi?a eiinoaoiaaiee iaie a 15
aeiaaeeao (10,1%).

?iaae?aeaie 2 a?oie noaee 4 iniae (6.%), 3 a?oie — 10 in?a (6,8%).

C /enea ianoaaeaieo a a?aeaeaeaiiio ia??iae? nea?ae ia a?eue iaee 27
in?a (18,2%), o 24 in?a (16,2%) a?aecia/aeinue eoeueaaiiy a?ae eaaeiai
aei iii??iiai.

Aeey e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a aeei?enoiaoaaeenue an? oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeai?
? caaaeueiia?aeii? iaoiaeeee. O 33 oai?eo (22,3%) iniiaiei iaoiaeii
e?eoaaiiy aoei neaeaoia aeoyaoaaiiy, o 19 (12,8%) aoea aeei?enoaia
a?iniaa ?iiia?e?caoe?y, ?io?aiaaeoey?iee neioac noa?aeiai Aiaaeaiiaa o 3
oai?eo (2,0%), o 11 in?a (17,4%) aeeiiaii iae?noeiaee neioac ieanoeiaie,
a 29 (19,6%) aeiaaeeao aeei?enoiaoaaee eiii?an?eii-aeeno?aeoe?eiee
neioac aia?aoii ?e?ca?iaa, inoaineioac aaeioaie i?iaaaeaiee 35 (23,7%)
oai?ei, ?io? aeaee o?enaoe?? — 9 (6,3%) oai?ei.

I?iaiaey/e ?aoaeueiee aiae?c iane?aee?a e?eoaaiiy “iecueeeo” ia?aeii?a
aii?eee ca ??cieie iaoiaeeeaie, ie i?eoiaeeii aei aeniiaeo, ui
o?aaeeoe?eiee neioac aaeioaie, ia aeeaey/enue ia eiai a?aeiinio
i?inoioo, aea? iaee?au? ?acoeueoaoe, iaeiae, iaoiaeeea iio?aao?
aaeineiiaeaiiy aeey iaaeeaeaiiy ?? ca i?oeiiinoieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aei
oiia noaa?eueii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai inoaineioaco. I?e oeueiio iiaeii?
caa??aaoenue oae? ia?aaaae aaeioiai? o?enaoe??, ye iaea iaoaei?ii?noue ?
iaea o?aaiaoe/i?noue.

Aeeiai?ea aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo o oai?eo
c caeeoeiaeie aiaoii?/ieie ii?o-oaiiyie i?ney ia?aianaieo aeenoaeueieo
ia?aeii?a aii?eee

Iaei??th c caaea/ iaoi? ?iaioe aoei aea/aiiy a aeeiai?oe? aiaoii?/ieo ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo o??? a?oie oai?eo c
“iecueeeie” ia?aeiiaie aii?eee, eio?? iaee a iioeiaeaeaiiio naaiaio?
caeeoeia? aiaoii?/i? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?ie. O 9 oai?eo eiinoaoiaaii
aei?i/aiiy o?aaiiaaii? aii?eee a?ae 1,5 aei 3,5 ni, o 12 — aaeueaonia
a?aeoeeaiiy ia 6-19°, o 12 — aa?onia a?aeoeeaiiy ia 8-14°; aa?onia
a?aeoeeaiiy a niieo/aii? c aioaeo?aaoe??th — o 3 oai?eo, ? a niieo/aii?
c ?aeo?aaoe??th — oaeiae o 3. O 10 iaoe??io?a aaeueaonia a?aeoeeaiiy
ii?aeioaaeiny c ?aeo?aaoe??th, o 15 in?a iaea i?noea iaiiaia
a?aeiia?aei?noue noaeiaiaeo iiaa?oiiue aiane?aeie aioo??oiueinoaeiaiaeo
ia?aeii?a. Aeeiai?ea niinoa?aaeaiiy neeaea a?ae 1 aei 12,5 ?ie?a.

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui an? ia?ae?/ai? aiaoii?/i? a?aeoeeaiiy iinooiiai, a
i?ioean? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?ecaiaeeee aei cieaeaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae naaiaioa ? e?ioe?aee a oe?eiio,
iacaaeia?eueii aieeioee ia ooieoe?th ?ioeo a?aeae?e?a iii?ii-?ooiaiai
aia?aoo. I?e oeueiio ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oiiaao ci?ie noaoeei-aeeiaie/iiai
noa?aioeio i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?ia?anoth/iai ia?aiaaaioaaeaiiy noi?aeieo
noaeia?a, e?noie, ui nii/aoeo noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icaeoeii
aaeaioaoe?eii-eiiiainaoi?ieo ci?i, a a iiaeaeueoiio —
aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieie o?aaeaiiyie iaea?eueo iaaaioaaeaieo
a?aeae?e?a iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo.

Oae, na?aae oai?eo c aei?i/aiiyi o?aaiiaaii? e?ioe?aee eiiiainaoe?y
cae?enithaaeany ca ?aooiie ia?aeino oaca a noi?iio aei?i/aiiy, N-
iiae?aiiai aee?eaeaiiy o?aaoa a i?ioeeaaeio noi?iio, ui cia/ii
i?aaethaaei aei?i/aiiy, aeicaieyei oai?ei caaeia?eueii ia?anoaaoeny ? c
/anii i?ecaiaeeei aei ciaioaiiy eoeueaaiiy. Iaeiae, /a?ac 5-6 ?ie?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oaeeo oiiaao o 4 oai?eo c aei?i/aiiyi e?ioe?aee ia
3-3,5ni ie a?aecia/aee cieaeaiiy ? c?ea eiiiainaoi?ieo iaoai?ci?a a
o?aao? o aeaeyae? o?eniaaiiai N-iiae?aiiai neie?ico, iiia?aeiaiai
inoaioiiae?ico c ?aaeeeoey?iith neiioiiaoeeith.

Ci?ie noaoeei-aeeiai?/iiai noa?aioeio i?e aaeueaoniiio a?aeoeeaii?
aii?eee nii/aoeo eiiiainoaaeeny ou?eueiaiiyi no?oeoo?e aeenoaeueiiai
iaoaai?o?ca aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee c iaae?aeueiiai e?ath, ciaioaiiyi /e
iiaiei cieeiaiiyi aaeueaonii? i???ioaoe?? aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiaa ca
?aooiie eiiiainaoi?ii? eiii?an?? aoa/anoi? ?a/iaeie iaoaai?o?co.

O?eaaea iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ? c?eao eiiiainaoe?? ?
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny noaoiiae?aeueiei neea?icii iaoaai?o?ca
aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee a cii? eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiiy, ooai?aiiy
iaia?o?ic?a i?ae iaae?aeueiith e?noi/eith ? o?eii oa?aiii? e?noee, a a
iiaeaeueoiio — aeaaaia?aoeaieie ci?iaie a iueiio, aeaoi?ioth/iio a?o?ico
aii?eeiainooiiaaiai ? i?aeoa?aiiiai noaeia?a. Oaea aeeiai?ea ci?i
i?ecaaea aei oiai, ui aaea /a?ac 7 ?ie?a c iiiaioo o?aaie o an?o oai?eo
c aeaieie a?aeoeeaiiyie iaa i?noea ?ioaineaiee a?eue a
aii?eeiainooiiaaiio oa ?ioeo noaeiaao, iii?ia ooieoe?y e?ioe?aee ??cei
cieceeanue aiane?aeie ?icaeiooeo aeaaaia?aoeaieo ci?i.

I?e niieo/aii? aaeueaonii? aeaoi?iaoe?? c ?ao?ieo?aaoe??th aii?eee
iine?aeiai?noue iienaieo ci?i caa??aaeany, iaeiae, ia?aiaaaioaaeaiiy a
oaeeo oiiaao ianee ? ia?aaei? a?aeae?ee aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiao, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeiny ?icaeoeii ia?a?iaeueieo inoaio?o?a ia aeioe?
oa?aiii? e?noee.

I?e aa?oniiio a?aeoeeaii? aii?eee aaea /a?ac 8-10 i?nyoe?a c iiiaioo
iiaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iaie aoee aeyaeai? eiiiainaoi?i? ci?ie a
aii?eeiainooiiaaiio noaeia? o aeaeyae? ou?eueiaiiy no?oeoo?e
eaoa?aeueii? e?noi/ee ? i?eeyaath/i? aei ia? oa?aiii? e?noee. A
iiaeaeueoiio, i?e o?eaath/iio iaaaioaaeaii?, ia i?noe? eiiiainaoi?ieo
ci?i ?icaeaaany noaoiiae?aeueiee neea?ic, a iio?i — ? aeaoi?ioth/ee
a?o?ic.

I?e aa?oniiio aee?eaeaii? ia 10° ? a?eueoa ci?ie aeyaeai? ? a oe?e?e
iaeiaii?eeia?e e?nooe? o aeaeyae? ou?eueiaiiy ?? no?oeoo?e ia aenio?
aee?eaeaiiy, iioiauaiiy ae?ao?ca e?noee. Oae? ci?ie ia aoee o?eaaeeie,
oae ye ia aenio? aee?eaeaiiy ?icaeaaeeny iiaco/? ia?aeiie,
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? naaiaioa cieaeoaaeanue.

Aeey oai?eo c ii?ooaiiyi eiia?oaioiino? noaeiaiaeo iiaa?oiiue
aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiaa oa?aeoa?iei aoa ?ai?oi?e (12-18 i?nyoe?a
i?ney o?aaie) ?icaeoie aeaaaia?aoeaieo ci?i a noaeia?, ae?aaeai?noue
yeeo ciaoiaeeeany a i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo oai?eo, aaaeeino?
o?aaie, oa aaee/eie iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio a ia?i?e e?ioe?aoe?, i?ae
aieeaii i?aeaeuaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ?icaeaaeeny
aaeaioaoe?eii-eiiiainaoi?i? ci?ie o aeaeyae? a?ia?o?io?? iniiaieo a?oi
i’yc?a aii?eee ? noaaia, iioiauaiiy e??eiaiai oa?o ae?ao?c?a aeiaaeo
e?noie, caoaeaiiy ?o e?noeiai? ii?iaeieie. O oeeo naieo oai?eo a
iaeaooiueiio ie niinoa??aaee yaeua iaoieia?/ii? ia?aaoaeiae a noaeiaao ?
e?noeao (aeaoi?ioth/ee a?o?ic eie?iiiai noaeiao ? noaeia?a noiie,
ieineinooi?noue).

Oaeei /eiii, iaea?eueo iai?e?iieie a ieai? a?aeaeaeaieo iane?aee?a
e?eoaaiiy ? oae? iioeiaeaeaiiy aeenoaeueiiai ae?aiaoaai?o?co, ye?
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ii?ooaiiyi eiia?oaioiino? noaeiaiaeo iiaa?oiiue
aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiaa. Eooia? a?aeoeeaiiy aeenoaeueieo a?aeae?e?a
aii?eee aeeeeeathoue ?icaeoie aaeaioaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a, ye? a oiiaao
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iinooiiai cai?iththoueny aeaaaia?aoeaieie o?aaeaiiyie
ia?o ca ana aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiaa, noaeia?a nooii?. Aei?i/aiiy
e?ioe?aee aei 3,5 ni nooo?ai ia a?aeaeaa?oueny ia ooieoe?? ieaei?o
e?ioe?aie, oae ye ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oaeeo oiiaao ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ia?aiaaaioaaeaiiy aoaeue-yeeo ?o a?aeae?e?a /e naaiaio?a, iaeiae,
o?eaaea ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oaeeo oiiaao iiaea ni?e/eieoe aeaaaia?aoeai?
ci?ie a o?aao?.

E?eoaaiiy “iecueeeo” ia?aeii?a aeenoaeueiiaiae?aiaoaai?o?co
aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee

Aacoth/enue ia aiae?c? a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
aeenoaeueieie ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieie ia?aeiiaie, a oaeiae iniaeeainoyo
?icaeoeo iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo o oai?eo c caeeoeiaeie aiaoii?/ieie
ii?ooaiiyie a cii? iioeiaeaeaiiy, ie ?ic?iaeee i?eioeeiiao eiioeaioe?th
i?aeoiaeo aei e?eoaaiiy aeaii? eaoaai??? oai?eo:

1. Aea?? iioeiaeueiiai oa?i?io ao?o/aiiy c a?aooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?o
ia?aeiia, noaio i’yeeo oeaiei a cii? ia?aeiia, a?eo oai?eo.

2. Aeoeaia aeiiia?aoe?eia i?aeaioiaea c aeei?enoaiiyi cania?a, ui
ciaioothoue ?ecee ?aii?o ? i?ci?o i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue.

3. Aea?? iioeiaeueiiai iaoiaeo o?enaoe?? e?noeiaeo a?aeeaie?a, yeee
caaacia/o? aeinoaoith noaa?euei?noue i?e iae?e iaoaei?iiino?
eiino?oeoe?e.

4. I?aaiaiiy aei iiaiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy aiaoii?? iioeiaeaeaiiai naaiaioa,
iniaeeai i?e aioo??oiueinoaeiaiaeo iioeiaeaeaiiy.

5. Aeei?enoaiiy ao?aaiaoe/ii? oaoi?ee iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue c?
caa?aaeaiiyi e?iaiiinoa/aiiy e?noeiaeo a?aeeaie?a ? i’yeeo oeaiei.

6. ?aiiy aeoeaia iia?e?caoe?y i’yc?a iioeiaeaeaii? e?ioe?aee, noi?aeieo
noaeia?a.

Caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iioeiaeueieie no?ieaie iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy
aaaaea?oueny 6-7 aeiaa i?ney o?aaie, eiee cia/ii ciaioo?oueny iaa?ye
oeaiei, a c iei ? ?ecee caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue. Iaeiae, ai?iaaaeaeaia
iaie aeiiia?aoe?eia i?aeaioiaea oai?eo c aeei?enoaiiyi i?io?eaeoe/ieo
aeic aioea?ioee?a, o?aen?ia??ia, i?aia?ao?a i?eioeiiai? eeneioe,
i?noeaai? a?iioa?i??, aiceiieo i?aia?ao?a, aeicaieeea nei?ioeoe oeae
oa?i?i aei 3-4 aei?a, ui ia o?eueee ni?eyei nei?i/aiith o?eaaeino?
e?eoaaiiy, aea e iie?aueei a?aeaeaeai? iane?aeee.

I?e aeai?? iaoiaeo o?enaoe?? ie a?aoiaoaaee ia?o ca ana oa?aeoa?
ia?aeiio, eiai ca’ycie c aii?eeiainooiiaaei noaeiaii, noai i’yeeo oeaiei
a cii? e?noeiai? ?aie, caaaeueiee noai ? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iniaeeaino?
oai?iai, eiai a?e. Aieiaiith aeiiaith aoaeue-yeiai e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a
aii?eee yaey?oueny iaae?eia o?enaoe?y a?aeeaie?a c iiaiei ?o
ni?anoaaeaiiyi ? aeei?enoaiiyi i?i?iaeueiiai /enea o?enoth/eo
?iieaioao?a, iaei? ?o iaoaei?iiino?, ui aeicaieeei a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae? aanoe oai?eo aac cia/ii? aeiaeaoeiai? ?iiia?e?caoe??. I?e
a?aee?eoeo ia?aeiiao nii/aoeo aeinyaaee iiaiiai caai?iiy ?aie, iio?i aei
e?eoaaiiy i?aeoiaeeee ea?oth/enue aeua ia?a?aoiaaieie i?eioeeiaie.

I?e iioeiaeaeaiiyo oeio A (67 in?a) ia?aaaao iaaeaaaee iia?aoeaiiio
e?eoaaiith ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaie iaoiaeeeith aaeioiaiai ? iao?aeiiai
iie?neiinoico. Ao?o/aiiy i?iaiaeeee i?ae nieiiiiiceiaith aianoac??th
i?ney ?aoaeueiiai aea/aiiy ?aioaaiia?ai c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?aaeiueiai ?
ia?aaeiueieaoa?aeueiiai aeinooi?a. Nii/aoeo o?enoaaee a?aeeaiee 2 /e 3
ei?oeeaeueieie aaeioaie c aeio?eiaiiyi oaoi?ee AI. Iio?i, a?aenooieaoe 1
ni aeua ? ieae/a e?a?a e?noeiai? ?aie, /a?ac aaeeeiaii?eeiao e?noeo a
iai?yieo iaeiaii?eeiai? aaiaeeee ii iaeiiio niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiiio
iaie iiaeiaaeaiiio aaeioo c iiaiith ??cueaith. I?e oeueiio
aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiae ?ic?iaeaiee iaie neioni?aeaeueiee i???ioe?, yeee
caaacia/o? i?aaeeueia iai?aaeaiiy i?e aaaaeaii? aaeio?a. Aaeioe
caaaei/oaaeenue oae, uia iaeiaii?eeiaa e?noea ci?uoaaeanue
(i?aeoyaoaaeanue) aei aaeeeiaii?eeiai?, ooai?thth/e, oaeei /eiii, iaaio
iai?oao aeey a?eueo noaa?eueii? o?enaoe??.

Ca aeaiith iaoiaeeeith i?iiia?iaaii 34 in?a. *a?ac 3,5 i?nyoe? an? aiie
iiai?noth iaaaioaaeoaaee i?iiia?iaaio e?ioe?aeo, ?ooe a noi?aeieo
noaeiaao aoee a iiaiiio ianyc?, ?aioaaiieia?/ii ?a?no?oaaeeny iciaee
c?iuaiiy ia?aeiio.

I?e iiia?a/ieo ia?aeiiao (oei A1.3) o 2 oai?eo i?ney ni?anoaaeaiiy
a?aeeaie?a ia neaeaoiiio aeoyaoaaii? aeei?enoaii iaoiae ia?ao?anii?
aaeioiai? o?enaoe??. A i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? aeei?enoiaoaaeany
caaeiy a?iniaa oeia, iio?i ooieoe?iiaeueia oee?eoey?ia iia’ycea c
“eaaeo/eii” aei 2,5 i?nyoe?a. C?iuaiiy ia?aeii?a ianooieei /a?ac 3
i?nyoe?. Oaea ae iaoiaeeea aeei?enoiaoaaeany o oai?eo i?e niieo/aii?
einiai aai einiiiia?a/iiai iaoao?ca?iiai ia?aeiia c ia?aeiiii
iaae?aeueii? e?noi/ee ? ?ic?eaii aeenoaeueiiai i?aeaa?oeiaiai
neiaeaniica. Iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? eiinoaoiaaii iaie a
na?aaeiueiio /a?ac 93 aei?.

I?e a?aee?eoeo ia?aeiiao oeio A2 ia?aaaao iaaeaaaee ?aiiueiio e?eoaaiith
a aia?aoao ciai?oiuei? o?enaoe?? c iaeii/aniei aai iinooiiaei
ni?anoaaeaiiyi e?noeiaeo a?aeeaie?a. I?e cae?eoeo ia?aeiiao c
iaiioeiaeaeaiith iaeiaii?eeiaith e?noeith i?ney 2-3 aeaiiiai aeoyaoaaiiy
ca i’yoeiao e?noeo aeeiioaaee iia?aoe?th aaeioiaiai iie?neiinoica ca
aeacaiith aeua iaoiaeeeith. Ciai?oiy a?iniaa iia’ycea c “eaaeo/eii”
aeei?enoiaoaaeany ia i?ioyc? 2-2,5 i?n, iiaia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?ioe?aeo
o 5 iia?iaaieo oai?eo aeicaieaii /a?ac 3 i?nyoe? i?e eiinoaoaoe??
c?iuaiiy ia?aeiia.

Oai?? c iioeiaeaeaiiyie oeio A3 iio?aaoaaee i?aeaioia/iai neaeaoiiai
aeoyaoaaiiy ia i?ioyc? 2-3 aei?a, iio?i 2 oai?ei aoei aeeiiaii
iia?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy ca iaoiaeeeith iao?aeiiai aaeioiaiai iie?neiinoico.
Ciai?oiy ooieoe?iiaeueia iia’ycea aeei?enoiaoaaeany a no?iee a?ae 2 aei
3 i?n. A 9 aeiaaeeao, i?e aeinoaoi?e aeiaaeei? aeenoaeueiiai o?aaiaioa,
aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae iie?neiinoico. O 10 iia?iaaieo oai?eo c?iuaiiy
ia?aeii?a a?aeaoeiny a na?aaeiueiio /a?ac 103 aei?, o iaeiiai iaei
i?noea iiaoi?ia o?aaia, ui iio?aaoaaei i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?iiia?e?caoe?? aei
5 i?nyoe?a.

I?e oeo naieo oeiao ia?aeii?a o niieo/aii? c iioeiaeaeaiiyie
iaeiaii?eeiai? e?noee, ia 9 e?ioe?aeao (8 oai?eo) ?aoe?iiaeueiei, ia iao
iiaeyae, aoei aeei?enoaiiy aia?aoa ?e?ca?iaa c eiiiaiiaeith ia aii?eoe?
? e?noeao noiie. ?aiiceoe?y a?aeeaie?a aeinyaaeany a aeeiai?oe?. O an?o
iia?iaaieo iiaia c?iuaiiy ia?aeii?a aeinyaiooi a na?aaeiueiio /a?ac 129
aei?a.

I?e /anoeiai aioo??oiueinoaeiaiaeo ia?aeiiao oeio A1, A2 aeei?enoiaoaaee
o?enaoe?th ei?oeeaeueieie /e iaeaiey?ieie aaeioaie (6 aeiaaee?a) aac
iiaeaeueoi? ciai?oiuei? ?iiia?e?caoe??, ui aeicaieeei aeinyaoe iiaiiai
c?iuaiiy ia i?ioyc? 2,5 i?nyoe?a. Aeeeth/aiiy neeaee ia?aeiie A1.3., ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaaaoiineieeiaei iioeiaeaeaiiyi aeenoaeueiiai
iaoao?ca c ia?aoiaeii ia noaeia (3 oai?eo). A oaeeo aeiaaeeao i?e
iayaiino? iaoao?ca?iiai ?ieiia?oaioiiai a?aeeaiea, ui ?icoaooaaany
aeeae/a aei iaae?aeueiiai /e eaoa?aeueiiai e?ath noaeiao, i?iaiaeeee
onoiaiiy ci?uaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith neaeaoiiai aeoyaoaaiiy na?aaei?ie
aaaaie, i?ney /iai ia?aoiaeeee ia o?enaoe?th a aia?ao? ?e?ca?iaa. I?e
oeaio?aeueiiio ?icoaooaaii? ?ieiia?oaioiiai a?aeeaiea, ui neeaaea? iaio
i?ae 1/5 noaeiaiai? iiaa?oi?, o?enaoe?th cae?enithaaee ia?o? 2-3 oeaei?
a a?inia?e oei?, iio?i 1,5 i?nyoe? a a?inia?e iia’ycoe? c? no?aiaiii, a
iiaeaeueoiio — a ooieoe?iiaeuei?e iia’ycoe? “c eaaeo/eii” aei iiaiiai
c?iuaiiy. Iiae?aia cai?ia iia’ycie iiceoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia no?ieao
o?enaoe??, a ?o ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue ia?aoeiaeaea? ?icaeoeo inoaiii?ico
oa cia/ii nei?i/o? ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiee oa?i?i. I?e a?aee?eoeo ia?aeiiao
oaeiai oeio a on?o aeiaaeeao aeei?enoiaoaaee aia?aoe ciai?oiuei?
o?enaoe??.

Iioeiaeaeaiiy oeio A3.3, ye? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny cia/ieie ii?ooaiiyie
eiia?oaioiino? noaeiaiaeo iiaa?oiiue, e?eoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee nii/aoeo ia
neaeaoiiio aeoyaoaaii? ia i?ioyc? 10-15 aei?a, a?eueo aaeee? a?aeeaiee,
ii i??? a?aeiiaeaiiy ?o eiia?oaioiino?, o?enoaaee o?aineooaiii oieoeyie,
iio?i aeei?enoiaoaaee aeuacacia/aio noaio e?eoaaiiy a ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iia’yceao. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui i?aaenoaaeaiee aa??aio e?eoaaiiy ia
caaaeaee aeeeth/a? a iiaeaeueoiio aeaaaia?aoeaia o?aaeaiiy
aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiao, ui ? aoei a?aecia/aii iaie o 1 oai?iai
/a?ac 4 ?iee i?ney o?aaie.

I?e aecia/aii? oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a oeio N1, N2 iniiaia cia/aiiy
iaaeaaaee oaeei iieacieeai, ye oe?eia aeenoaeueiiai a?aeeaiea ?
a?aenoaiue iiia?a/ii? e?i?? ceaio aei noaeiaiai? u?eeie, nooi?iue
ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a, oe?e?noue iaeiaii?eeiai? e?noee. I?e oe?e?e
iaeiaii?eeia?e e?nooe? ? oe?ei? aeenoaeueiiai a?aeeaiea 1,5-2,0 ni
aeeiioaaee iia?aoe?th aaeioiaiai iie?neiinoico. A iiaeaeueoiio —
ciai?oiy ?iiia?e?caoe?y a ooieoe?iiaeueieo iia’yceao aei 3,5-4 i?nyoe?a.

C 4 iia?iaaieo iaie oaeeo oai?eo na?aaei? no?iee c?iuaiiy neeaee 123
aei?, iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? a?aeaoaaeiny ca 136 aei?a.

I?e a?aenooiino? oiia aeey aeeiiaiiy iao?aeiiai aaeioiaiai iie?neiinoico
a on?o ?ioeo aeiaaeeao (7 oai?eo) iaie aeei?enoiaoaaany aia?ao
?e?ca?iaa, e?eoaaiiy a yeiio oiiaii iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe ia aeaa aoaie.
Ia?o? 10-12 aei?a i?ney o?enaoe?? a?aeeaie?a aeinyaaee noaa?e?caoe??
a?aeeaie?a aeey i?io?eaeoeee aieueiaiai neiae?iio oa iaa?yeo, iio?i,
ea?oth/enue aeaieie eiio?ieueii? ?aioaaiia?ao??, aeeiioaaee cae?eoo
ei?aeoe?th a?aeeaie?a c aeei?enoaiiyi aeiaeaoeiaeo oieoeue.
Noaa?e?caoe?th aia?aoa caaa?ooaaee aei e?ioey 3 oeaeiy.

Na?aaei? no?iee e?eoaaiiy oaeeo oai?eo neeaee 169 aei?a, a?aeaeaeai?
?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy o an?o oai?eo ?icoe?iai? ye caaeia?euei?.

O 14 oai?eo c N3 oeiii ia?aeii?a a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a noiyei ieoaiiy
i?i caa?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aee (8 in?a), yeei i?ney ia?aeiii? o??o?a?/ii?
ia?iaee ?ai aeeiiaia o?enaoe?y a aia?ao? ?e?ca?iaa. 9 oai?eo
ciaoiaeeeeny ia neaeaoiiio aeoyaoaaii? ia i?ioyc? 6-29 aei?a, iio?i 6 c
ieo i?iaaaeaia o?enaoe?y a?aeeaie?a a aia?ao? ?e?ca?iaa, a 6 aeiaaeeao
aeei?enoaia oee?eoey?ia a?iniaa iia’ycea. Na?aaei? no?iee o?enaoe?? o 11
oai?eo neeaee 164, o ?ioeo iaoe??io?a iaee i?noea ??ci? ?aii? ? i?ci?
oneeaaeiaiiy, 3 oai?ei aeeiiaii a?o?iaeac aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiao.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui iaeaeeae/? ? a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy
oai?eo c N3 oeiii ia?aeii?a aoee iacaaeia?eueieie ? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue
ae?aaeaieie eiio?aeoo?aie a aii?eeiainooiiaaiio noaeia?, aieueiaei
neiae?iiii, i?ia?anoth/eie c /anii. Aeioe?eueii, ia iao iiaeyae, a oaeeo
aeiaaeeao i???iooaaoeny ia iia?aoe?th ia?aeiiiai a?o?iaeaco.

Aeniiaee

1. Aeenoaeuei? ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?i? ia?aeiie e?noie aii?eee ? oyaeeeie
iioeiaeaeaiiyie, ye? ia caaaeaee i?aeaeathoueny iiai?e ei?aeoe??
aiaoii?? naaiaioa caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie e?eoaaiiy (o?enaoe?eiei,
aenoaic?eiei, iae?noeiaeie ieanoeiaie) ? a 18,9% ca iaoeie aeaieie
cae?i/othoueny aiaoeyoe?eieie a?aeoeeaiiyie a?n? aii?eee,
?ieiia?o?ioi?noth noaeiaiaeo iiaa?oiiue, aei?i/aiiyi e?ioe?aee.

2. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoa a oiiaao aiaoii?/ieo
iaa?aeiia?aeiinoae a aeenoaeueieo a?aeae?eao aii?eee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
?icaeoeii eiiiainaoi?ieo ci?i a iaea?eueo iaaaioaaeoaaieo a?aeae?eao
iioeiaeaeaiiai naaiaioa, iio?i a ia?i?e e?ioe?aoe? ? o?aao?, ye?
iie?auothoue ooieoe?th iii?e ? ?ooo.

3. O?eaaea ooieoe?iiaeueia iioeiaeaeaii? e?ioe?aee i?ecaiaeeoue aei
cieaeaiiy ? c?eao i?iya?a eiiiainaoe?? ? ?icaeoeo
aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieo o?aaeaiue e?noie ? noaeia?a a o?e nai?e
iine?aeiaiino?, a ye?e ?icaeaaeeny eiiiainaoi?i? ci?ie.

4. E?eoaaiiy aeenoaeueieo ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo iioeiaeaeaiue iiaeiii
i?iaiaeeoeny c a?aooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?o ? iniaeeainoae ia?aeiio, eiai
eieae?caoe??, a?aeiioaiiy aei aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiao, noaio i’yeeo
oeaieie a cii? iioeiaeaeaiiy. Aeoeaia aeiiia?aoe?eia i?aeaioiaea
(neaeaoia aeoyaoaaiiy, aiceii- oa aioeaaeoa??aeueia oa?ai?y)
aeicaieythoue nei?ioeoe aeiiia?aoe?eiee oa?i?i aei 4-5 ae?a, ciaioothoue
?ecee caiaeueieo ? a?iiieanoe/ieo oneeaaeiaiue.

5. I?e o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? aeenoaeueieo ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a
aii?eee i?e a?aeiia?aeieo oiiaao ia?aaaao ne?ae iaaeaaaoe
iaeio?aaiaoe/iei ? iaeiiaoaei?iiei iaoiaeeeai, aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny
aaeioiaee oa iao?aeiee aaeioiaee iie?neiinoic, ye? caaacia/othoue aenieo
noaa?euei?noue o?enaoe??, iiaeeea?noue ?aiiueiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy.

6. I?e cia/ieo aioo?eoiueinoaeiaiaeo iioeiaeaeaiiyo aeenoaeueiiai
a?aeae?eo aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee (oei A3, N3) iaoiaeii aeai?o ? aia?aoe
ciai?oiuei? o?enaoe??, ye? caaacia/othoue iiaeeea?noue iinooiiai?
?aiiceoe?? a?aeeaie?a oa ?o noaa?e?caoe?th

I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??

1. Aea?? oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy aeenoaeueieo ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a
aii?eee ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe c o?aooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?o ia?aeiio, eiai
a?aeiioaiiy aei aii?eeiainooiiaaiai noaeiao, nooiaith iioeiaeaeaiiy
i‘yeeo oeaiei, oe?e?niino? iaeiaii?eeiai? e?noee.

2. I?e e?eoaaii? cae?eoeo ia?aeii?a oe??? eieae?caoe?? ia?aaaao ne?ae
iaaeaaaoe iaeio?aaiaoe/iei, iia?aoeaiei iaoiaeeeai c aeei?enoaiiyi oaeeo
iaeiiaoaei?iieo eiino?oeoe?e, ye iaeaiey?i? oa ei?oeeaeuei? na?aaei? oa
iiaeiaaeai? aaeioe.

3. I?e oe?e?e iaeiaii?eeia?e e?nooe? aeioe?eueii aeeiioaaoe iia?aoe?th
aaeioiaiai oa iao?aeiiai aaeioiaiai iie?neiinoico, ye? caaacia/othoue
aiaoii?/ia ni?anoaaeaiiy oeaie?a, aeinoaoith ?o o?enaoe?th.

4. A?aee?eo? ia?aeiie c iacia/iith o?aaiith i‘yeeo oeaiei ne?ae e?eoaaoe
ia neaeaoiiio aeoyaoaaii? aei caaithaaiiy ?aie c iine?aeoth/ei
iia?aoeaiei e?eoaaiiyi. I?e cia/ieo iioeiaeaeaiiyo i‘yeeo oeaiei
aii?eee, a oaeiae i?e aaaaoiineieeiaeo aioo?eoiueinoaeiaiaeo o?aaeaiiyo,
iaoiaeii aeai?o ? aia?ao ciai?oiuei? o?enaoe??.

5. Canoinoaaiiy aiceiieo ? aioeaaeoa??aeueieo i?aia?ao?a o oai?eo c
aeenoaeueieie ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieie ia?aeiiaie aii?eie aeicaiey? cieceoe
aeiiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae aei 4-5 aei?a, cia/ii ciaioo? ?ecee caaaeueieo
oa a?iiieanoe/ieo oneeaaeiaiue.

Ia?ae?e ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ii oai? aeena?oaoe??

1. Oaeoeea e?eoaaiiy iecueeeo cae?eoeo ia?aeii?a aii?eee /Iaoa??aee V
?anioae?eainueei? o/aiai-iaoiaee/ii? oa iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
caa?aeoth/eo eaoaae?aie caaaeueii? o??o?a?? iaaeaoc?a Oe?a?ie. —
Oa?iii?eue. — 1996.- n. 101-102. Ni?aaao. I.I. AEoe, ?.TH. E?n?eue.

2. Aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia e?eoaaiiy iecueeeo cae?eoeo ia?aeii?a aii?eee ?
i?noea a iueiio noaa?eueii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai inoaineioaco /Iaoa??aee O11
c’?caeo o?aaiaoieia?a-i?oiiaae?a Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a. — 1996.- n. 37-38.
Ni?aaao. I.I. AEoe, ?.TH. E?n?eue.

3. Aeei?enoaiiy iie?ni?ao a aeiiia?aoe?ei?e i?aeaioiaoe? oai?eo c
a?aee?eoeie ia?aeiiaie e?noie aii?eee (Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Aoa?aioi? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy a no/ani?e iaaeeoeei?”).-
A?iieoey. — 1996.- n. 21-23. Ni?aaao. I.I. AEoe, ?.TH. E?n?eue.

4. Aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia e?eoaaiiy aeenoaeueieo ai?iaoao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a
aii?eee ? iaoiaeeea aeiiia?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee oai?eo /Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. — A?iieoey. — 1997.- n. 10-14.

5. Eieaeueiee inoaiii?ic i?e ia?aeiiao aeenoaeueiiai iaoaai?o?co
aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee /Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aa??ao?e/ii? i?oiiaae??”. — Ee?a. — 1996.- n. 111.
— Ni?aaao. A.I. O?uaiei, ?.TH. E?n?eue, O.A. Iaeiaii/oe.

6. Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea aeenoaeueiuo aeeaiaoayieoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia
aieaie //A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. —
A?iieoey. — 1998.- ?1.- c. 4-5.

7. Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia ea/aiea aeenoaeueiuo aeeayieiaoaoeca?iuo
ia?aeiiia aieaie (Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee). — Aeiieoea. — 1998. —
n. 22.

8. Iniaaiiinoe ia?eoa?e/aneie aaiiaeeiaieee o aieueiuo n ia?aeiiaie
aeenoaeueiiai aeeaiaoayieoeca aieaie e iaoiaeu ai?ueau n aa ia?ooaieyie.
//A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — A?iieoey.
— 1998.- ?2.- o. 2. — c. 368-369.

9. Aeeiai?ea aiaoiii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoa o
oai?eo c iane?aeeaie aeenoaeueieo ae?aiaoaai?o?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a aii?eee.
//A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — A?iieoey.
— 1998.- ?2.- o. 2. — c. 366-367.

10. Iaoaio ia aeiao?ae IIE 6A61A17/56 “Niin?a iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy
ia?aeii?a aeenoaeueiiai iaoaai?o?co aaeeeiaii?eeiai? e?noee” a?ae
30.09.98 ?. (aac ni?aaaoi??a).

Aiiioaoeey

Ao-Oa?aoe Ea?ei Aoiaae. Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia ea/aiea aeenoaeueiuo
aeeaiaoayieoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia aieaie e i?ioeeaeoeea ooieoeeiiaeueiie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa. Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony
?oeiienueth ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.21 — “O?aaiaoieiaey e i?oiiaaeey”. Aeiieoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao ei I.E. Ie?iaiaa. A
aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa, ia iniiaa eco/aiey aeeaeaeoeo e ioaeaeaiiuo
?acoeueoaoia ea/aiey ?acee/iuo oeiia “ieceeo” ia?aeiiia aieaie, auyaeaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey eiiiainaoi?ii-i?eniiniaeoaeueiuo iaoaieciia
iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa o aieueiuo n inoaoi/iuie aiaoiie/aneeie
ioeeiiaieyie io ii?iu e ia iniiaa nia?aiaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu
iieacaiey e ?acee/iui aeaeai iia?aoeaiiai e eiina?aaoeaiiai ea/aiey
ia?aeiiia ieaeiae o?aoe aieaie. A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu iiaua
yooaeoeaiua niiniau ea/aiey ia?aeiiia yoie eieaeecaoeee ia iniiaa
iaoiaeiiai aeioiaiai iieeneiinoica, a oaeaea iiaua iiaeoiaeu e
i?aaeiia?aoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaea e iineaiia?aoeeiiiiio aaaeaieth aieueiuo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa:

aeenoaeueiua aeeaiaoayieoeca?iua ia?aeiiu aieaie, aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia
ea/aiea, i?ioeeaeoeea, ooieoeeiiaeueiay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue
iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa

Annotation

Ash-Sharafi Karim Ahmed. Differential treatment of the distal
diametaepifesal fractures of crush and prophylactic of functional
insufficiently of supportingly-locomotory apparatus.

The thesis is to be submitted for Candidates Degree of Medical Sciences
in specialty 14.01.21 — traumatology and orthopedic. Vinnitsa Medical
University named by N.I. Pirogov. In this scientific work the
appropriateness of the development of compensation — adaptation
mechanisms of the supportingly-locomotory apparatus were revealed on the
basis of study the nearest and remote results of treatment the distal
diametaepifesal fractures. By using of modern classification the
evidences to the different types of operative and conservative treatment
of fractures of the lower third of crush were determined. Modern
effective methods of treatment of those fractures such as roundabout
screws sinosthosis were introduced, and also new approaches to the
preoperative preparation and postoperative conducting were elaborated.

Key words:

distal diametaepifesal fractures of crush, differential treatment,
prophylactic, functional insufficiently of supportingly-locomotory
apparatus.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 18.10.98. Oi?iao 60 ? 84 1/16

Iai?? ionaoiee. Ae?oe. a 1. Oe?aae 100

Caiiaeaiiy ?0210

© Aeaeaaieoeoai o??ie “AeaOa Eoae.”

Oaeaoii/oaen (0432)-39-92-02

Похожие записи