?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?I. A.N.NEIAI?IAeE

IAOe?IIAEUeII? AEAAeAI?? IAOE OE?A?IE

OAeE 16 : 13; 519.766

EIEIO?EIAA Iaoae?y Aiae???aia

Ae?AEIA: EIA?EI-O?EINIONUeEEE AIAE?C

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.06 — eia?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? eia?ee o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

OIIAIEI ??eia A?eoi??aia,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e eia?ee
o?einionueeiai

oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: 1. Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe

IIAEUessI*EE Aaeaioei Eineiiae/,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee

IAI Oe?a?ie.

2. Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe,
i?ioani?

IA?AOIINUeEEE Ai?en Ieaenaiae?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo iie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo
oe?a?ii-?in?enueeeo

a?aeiinei i?e ?aae? aaciaee ? iai?iie
Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oeaio? aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i
14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.161.01 aeey
caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
(eaiaeeaeaoa) iaoe a ?inoeooo? o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie
ca aae?anith:

252001, Ee?a — 1, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

252001, Ee?a — 1, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 18 ” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Aiae?in
?.?.

16

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaei??th c iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieo ?en
o?einio?? ? eoeueoo?e OO noie?ooy ? caa?iaiiy aei oaiiiaio ni?eeoaaiiy,
aac inieneaiiy yeiai iaiiaeeeai aei e?ioey inyaiooe, ui oaea ethaeeia.
Ca oaeeo oiia iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeeeeea? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiiyooy
ae?aeiao, ??ciiiai?oieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e eiai a ?noi??? oa no/aniino?.
Aiii ? aeooaeueiei o aeaio aniaeoao: aeey o?einionueeiai ciaiiy a
oe?eiio (ciai?oi?e aniaeo) ? aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo eia?ee ye iaoee
(aioo??oi?e aniaeo). Ia?oee ia?aaeaa/a? ianaiia?aae ?icaeyae
eeaneo?eaoe?? oei?a ni?eeoaaiiy, aeyaeaiiy a?aeaeoe?a, ye? iaeeaaea? oei
noni?euenoaa (eieaeoea?noe/iee /e ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/iee) ia iaioth/?
noee? eiioi?eaoe??, aecia/aiiy aca?iica’yceo i?ia?aeieo oei?a
ni?eeoaaiiy c a?aiaeia?aoeaaie iaaieo ?noi?e/ieo aiio oiui.

Aeey eia?ee iiae?aia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeooaeueiei c oaeeo i?e/ei.
Ii-ia?oa, oey iaoea ia caeeoa?oueny inoi?iiue nooo?aeo c?ooaiue o
o?einio??. Oea aeyaey?oueny o noaiiaeaii? iaeeane/ii? eia?ee, yea
ni?yiiaaia ia?aaeon?i ia iiaeaethaaiiy aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy. Ii-ae?oaa,
ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue eiioi?eaoe?? aeieeathoue oae? iai?yie
no/aniiai eia?/iiai ciaiiy, ye eia?ea aca?iiae?? oa eia?ea nioe?aeueii?
ae??. Ooo i?ia?aeio ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aiae?c i?aeoe/ieo i??eoaaiue, ui
ni?yiiaai? ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ae??, oiae? ye ?ai?oa eia?ea aea/aea
ia?aaaaeii oai?aoe/i? i??eoaaiiy. Ii-o?ao?, eiai?oeaia iiaeaethaaiiy
aeeneo?no a iaaeao no/anii? eia?ee a?aeiia?aea? caieoai eiiieaenieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeaie ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo, a oaeiae aea? ciiao cynoaaoe
oiiae ??ciiiai?oieo eiai?oeaieo iiae?e, ui iathoue aaeeea cia/aiiy a
ae?aeic?.

Nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. I?iaeaia ae?aeiao, eiioi?eaoe??,
ni?eeoaaiiy ia no/aniiio aoai? ? i?aaeiaoii oaaae iaeaea an?o
aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i (e?iaa?noeee, iie?oieia??, ineoieia??,
nioe?ieia?? oa ?i.). O o?einio?? OO no. iaa?oue aeae?eythoue ie?aiee
iai?yiie — i?iaoeueea eiioi?eaoeaia o?einio?y, iacaa yeiai aiai?eoue
naia ca naaa. A?i i?aaenoaaeaiee ianaiia?aae oai??yie E.I.Aiaey oa
TH.Aaaa?iana.

Na?aae ?ioeo cao?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue nooo?aa cia/aiiy iathoue:
?ic?iaeaia ?.Aeae.Eiee?iaaoaeii eia?ea caieoaiue oa a?aeiia?aeae o
iaaeao iaoiaeieia?? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe, ae?aeia o eiioaeno? a?aeiioaiiy
aei ?ioiai a ae?aeia?/i?e aio?iiieia?? I.Aoaa?a, oaia ?ioa?noa?eoeaiino?
o i?aaenoaaiee?a oaiiiaiieia?/iiai iai?yio (A.Aonna?eue, I.Aaeaeaaaa?),
iiiyooy “iiaii? a?e” o E.A?oaaiooaeia, iiiyooy “?iciiaa” ? “?icoi?iiy”
a aa?iaiaaoeoe? A.A.Aaaeaia?a, oai??y iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a o eiioaeno?
aiae?oe/ii? o?einio?? (Aeae.E.Ino?i, I.O.No?inii, Aeae.?.Na?e oa ?i.),
aiae?c aeeneo?no a “a?oaieia?? ciaiiy” I.Ooei, iiiyooy
“iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? ??ii??” o ?.?i?o?.

O no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e o?einio?? oaia ae?aeiao ye eia?/iiai aiae?co
aeeneo?no iinoa? a eiioaeno? eia?ee, nai?ioeee oa o?einio?? iiae a
?ic?iaeao N.I.Aaneeue?aa, E.E.AEiey, A.O.?oio?aoiaa, A.?.Eiiaa?nueeiai,
N.A.E?einueeiai, A.E.Iiaeueyi/eea, A.I.Ia?aoiinueeiai, I.A.Iiiiae/a,
A.A.Ii/aioeiaa, ?.A.Oiiaiei oa ?i., a eiioaeno? aiae?co oaiiiaio
eiioi?eaoe?? o E.A.Neoie/aiei, a eiioaeno? aiae?co aoe/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee
a i?aoeyo A.I.??iieaiea, a eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeaiue eiioi?eaoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o aoooy ethaeeie a eoeueoo?? a iaaeao iioieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo
(?.E.Aeno?eoeueeee, A.A.Iaeaoia, N.A.I?iea?a). Nooo?aa cia/aiiy ia?
oaeiae caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea Iinoiiaea?io A.N.Eoeyioeai oa
I.I.Niaieue.

O ?aaeyinuee?e o?einio?? i?iaeaia eiioi?eaoe?? aiae?coaaeanue ye
niaoeeo?ea noa?eo-noa?eoieo a?aeiinei (I.I.Aaoo?i, A.N.A?aea?,
A.I.Aieioeiia oa ?i.). A?aeiia?aei? eia?ei-i?ciaaaeuei? aniaeoe yaeua
ni?eeoaaiiy, a oaeiae i?noea ? ?ieue caieoaiiy a oeueiio i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeoaaee A.O.Aa?eia, A.I.Ea?iiae/, O.N.E?iaioia, E.A.Iaoa??aa,
I.I.Iao?oeia, TH.I.Iao?ia, E.A.Na?aa?a, I.I.Nieieia oa ?i.

Noaiiaeaiiy eiai?oeaii? ia?aaeeaie a no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo iaoiiaeth?
aiae?c ie?aieo aniaeo?a ni?eeoaaiiy a iaaeao caaaeueii? iiaeae?
eiioi?eaoe?? a i?aoeyo O.A. aai Aeaeea, A.O.?oio?aoiaa, ?.Eii?aaea,
O.Eaia?o, A.A.Iao?iaa, A.I.Na?a??aa oa ?i. Aeey oeueiai aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy ia? ?icaeyae caieoaiue oa a?aeiia?aeae, yeee cae?enieee a nai?e
oai?/ino? Aeae.O.Aeeai, I.Aaeiai, A.Aaaeaeoeueea, Ae.Ai?aeii,
Aeae.Eaeioo, ?.Ia??i, Aeae.?.Na?e, O.No?e, ss.O?io?eea. Iaeiae noai?aiiy
oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? ae?aeiao ua iiia?aaeo.

Aeey aiae?co iiiyooy “ae?aeia” iaiao?aeii oaeiae aeine?aeeoe eiai
o?ainoi?iaoe?? a ??ci? ?noi?e/i? aiioe. Oiio a ai?eciio? aaoi?nueei?
oaaae ia?aaoaaa ?icaeyae nioe?aeueii? oa eoeueoo?ii? iaoiiaeaiino? yaeua
ni?eeoaaiiy a ??ci? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa, ui cae?eniaiee o
i?aoeyo N.N.Aaa??ioeaaa, E.I.Aaoe?ia, I.E.Aania?iaa, I.I.A?ey?iaa,
A.ss.Ao?aae/a, A.A.Aona/aiea, I.A.?a?ia, O.O.Eann?ae?, I.O.Ein?aa, a
oaeiae caaaeuei? ?noi?eei-o?einionuee? oa ?noi?eei-eia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy E.I.A?aa?ii?, A.A.Ae/eiaa, ?.A.Aaa?oiai?, I.I.Aaeaeaiei,
TH.A.Eooaeiaa, A.A.Iaei?iaa, I.E.Iaia?aeaoa?e?, C.I.I?eaeaaeca,
N.N.Ia?aoeii?, A.N.Ia?nanyioea, I.N.Iiiiaa, I.A.Iiiiae/a,
I.A.?aaoiaieiai?, A.TH.Nieiaeiaa, I.?.Noyaee?ia oa ?i. Na?aae i?aoeue
?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai ieaio cao?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a, a yeeo i?noeoueny
oa?aeoa?enoeea a?aeiia?aeieo ?noi?e/ieo aiio, ui ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy
aeey aeae?eaiiy iiaeaeae ae?aeiao, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe oai?e
O.*.Eiienoiia, AE.Ea Aiooa, Aeae.?aaea oa Ae.Aioena??.

Ioaea, a no/ani?e o?einio?? oa eia?oe? noai?ai? oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae
aeey iinoaiiaee i?iaeaie eia?ei-o?einionueeiai aiae?co ae?aeiao.

Ia?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiioeaioe?? ae?aeiao, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny a
eiioaeno? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? o?einionueei? oa eia?/ii? aeoiee.

I?aaeiaoii aiae?co ? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae o?einionueei? oa eia?/ii?
iiaeae? ae?aeiao.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe — aeine?aeeoe
eia?ei-o?einionuee? canaaee aiae?co ae?aeiao ca aeiiiiiaith canoinoaaiiy
iiiyoue no/anii? o?einio?? oa i?eioeei?a eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy aeeneo?no.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? ae??ooaaeeny oae? caaaeaiiy:

n i?iaanoe eiiia?aoea?nonueeee aiae?c aeae?a ae?aeiao o o?einionueeeo ?
eia?/ieo eiioeaioe?yo aiio Aioe/iino?, Na?aaeiueia?//y, A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oa Iiaea?io;

n aeyaeoe aieea iniiaieo iioea?a Iinoiiaea?io ia no/ani? o?einionuee? oa
eia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?aeiao;

n cynoaaoe iiaeeeaino? eiai?oeaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iiaeaethaaiiy ae?aeiao
ca noaiith caieoaiiy/ a?aeiia?aeue;

n i?iaiae?coaaoe iniiai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo ?ioa??iaaoeaii? eia?ee;

n aecia/eoe eia?/i? noaie caieoaiue, aeei?enoiaoth/e eia?ei-eiai?oeaio
iiao;

n iiaoaeoaaoe eia?ei-eiai?oeaio iiaeaeue ae?aeiao Ieaoiia “Ai?a?e” ia
iniia? canoinoaaiiy i?eioeei?a eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aeeneo?no.

Oai?aoe/ia oa iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/ia
iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy o?nii iiaycaia c eiai oai?aoe/iith aacith, yeith ?
ianaiia?aae i?iaeaiia iiea no/anii? o?einio?? ? eia?ee. Ca aeiiiiiaith
oaeeo iniiaieo iiiyoue iinoiiaea?ii? o?einio??, ye: a?aiaeia?aoea
(AE.O.E?ioa?), ae?aeia (I.Aoaa?), aeeneo?n (TH.Aaaa?ian, ?.?i?o?),
aeeneo?neaia i?aeoeea (I.Ooei), ?ioaioe?y i?iiiaoey (I.O.No?inii,
Aeae.?.Na?e), ia?aoea (I.??euei?, AE.O.E?ioa?) oa ?i.
ia?ainieneththoueny oai?e i?ia?aeieo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo o?einio?a
(Ieaoiia, A??noioaey, Aaaonoeia, Aaaey?a, Oeeoea?iia, I.Eocainueeiai,
I?ei aeaeea I??aiaeiee, Eaioa, O?ooa, Oaee?iaa, Oae??aaoa oa ?i.) o
eiioaeno? aeii?ioth/eo o o? /ane oei?a ni?eeoaaiiy. Ioaea, a i?aoeyo
oeeo o?einio?a ?icaeyaeathoueny ia?aaeon?i iiiaioe, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
oie /e ?ioee aeae ae?aeiao, ui iaio? a iaaio ?noi?e/io aiioo. A
?acoeueoao? oaeiai ?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai oa ?noi?eei-eia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy cae??ieth?oueny ?iciiae?e oei?a ni?eeoaaiiy ia iiiieia oa
ae?aeia, a oaeiae iiaea?oueny eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a ae?aeiao.

?ioa iaoiaeieia?/ia oaiaeaioe?y, yea ? iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaycaia c aeae?eaiiyi a ?noi??? eieaeoea?noe/ieo oa
?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ieo noni?euenoa (A.A.Aona/aiei, I.A.?a?i, E.Iiiia?,
O.A.Oae?e oa ?i.). O cayceo c oeei cyniao?oueny, ye? oeie ni?eeoaaiiy ?
aeii?ioth/eie a oeo /e ?ioeo noni?euenoaao, oa ye oea a?aeia?aaea?oueny
o o?einionueeeo ? eia?/ieo oai?ao.

Ie??i oeueiai, eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a ae?aeiao ni?ey? iiaoaeia?
o?einionueei? iiaeae? oaeiai oaiiiaio ye ae?aeia, a iio?i aaea eiai
eia?ei-eiai?oeaii? iiaeae?. Oiaoi aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ia
oi?iaeueiiio ??ai? i?iaiaeyoueny i?ney oiai, ye cae?eniaii ?icaeyae
ci?noiaii? iiaeae?. Aeey oeueiai a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
aeei?enoiaothoueny iniiai? iiiyooy oai??? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a
(A.Aaaeaeoeueea, Aeae.O.Aeeai oa ?.Ia??i, ?.Eii?aae, Aeae.Eaeioo,
Aeae.?.Na?e oa ?i.). I?e iiaoaeia? ci?noiaii? iiaeae? ae?aeiao aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy iathoue oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy o iaaeao ?ioa??iaaoeaii? eia?ee
(A.O.Aa?eia, I.Aaeiai oa O.No?e, A.I.Ea?iiae/, TH.I.Iao?ia, ss.O?io?eea
oa ?i.). Ia ae?oaiio oi?iaeueiiio aoai? aiae?co i?iaeaie ae?aeiao
canoiniaothoueny i?eioeeie eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeeneo?no,
ye? ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aoeyo O.A. aai Aeaeea, A.O.?oio?aoiaa, O.Eaia?o,
A.I.Na?a??aa oa ?i.

C iaeyaeo ia aeuacacia/aia, iniiaieie iaoiaeaie aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?oe/iee iaoiae oa iaoiae eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy. *anoeiai aeei?enoiao?oueny oaeiae iaoiae oi?iae?caoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? o oe?ieiio
eiioaeno? ?noi?e/ieo aoai?a ?icaeoeo o?einionueei? oa eia?/ii? aeoiee
nenoaiaoe/ii ?icaeyioo? i?eioeeie eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
ae?aeiao.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaea?aeai? oa aeiinyoueny ia caoeno oae? ?acoeueoaoe:

n ia i?aenoaa? eiiia?aoea?nonueeiai aiae?co o?einionueeeo ? eia?/ieo
oaeno?a Aioe/iino?, Na?aaeiueia?//y, A?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa Iiaea?io
i?iaaaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a ae?aeiao ia iic??iee (aioo??oi?e,
iaa/aeueiee, ?eoi?e/iee, nio?noe/iee) ? ni?aaaei?e (ae?aeaeoe/iee,
?ioa?noa?eoeaiee) caeaaeii a?ae iaoe ae?aeiao, oa?aeoa?o oa
??aiii?aaiino? noa?eo?a;

n o ?acoeueoao? anoaiiaeaiiai aca?iicayceo i?ae noeeyie eiioi?eaoe?? oa
oeiaie noni?euenoa o ??ci? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee a aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie i?i noaa?aeaeaiiy a aiioo Iinoiiaea?io iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei
aiae?co eia?ee ae?aeiao, aea oeae oei ni?eeoaaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
?ioa?noa?eoeaiee ae?aeia;

n ooi/iaii, ui aeey aiae?co ae?aeiao oi?aa?naeueiei ? eia?ei-eiai?oeaiee
i?aeo?ae, yeee aaco?oueny ia aeyaeaii? eia?/ieo noai eiai?oeaieo iiae?e,
ui o?enothoue iaioaeueiee i?ino?? ethaeeie;

n aeyaeai? o?e iniiai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo no/anii? ?ioa??iaaoeaii? eia?ee
(eiiithoa?iee, eia?ei-iaoiaeieia?/iee oa eia?ei-?ioa?aeoeaiee) aeathoue
ciiao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeey iiaoaeiae eia?ei-eiai?oeaii? iiaeae?
ae?aeiao o oi?i? caieoaiiy/ a?aeiia?aeue iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ?
inoaii?e;

n eia?ei-eiai?oeai? noaie caieoaiue, ui i?iaiae?ciaai? a aeena?oaoe?? ye
i?yi? oa iai?yi? iiaeaii?a? aeoe, iaaiith i??ith aeicaieythoue iiaeieaoe
o?oaeiiu? a eia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo caieoaiue (aecia/aiiy eia?/ii?
ioe?iee caieoaiiy, cynoaaiiy iiaeono inoaiiueiai ye ?iia?aoeao,
aeyaeaiiy eia?/ii? no?oeoo?e caieoaiiy);

n iiaoaeiaaia eia?ei-eiai?oeaia iiaeaeue ae?aeiao Ieaoiia “Ai?a?e”, ye
aenie?eaoe?y o?einionueeeo oyaeaiue i?i ae?aeia o ieaoii?anueeeo oai?ao,
ci???ioiaaia ia aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae ? ia?niaeoea eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. O aeine?aeaeaii?
?ic?iaeai? eia?ei-o?einionuee? canaaee iiaiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei eiioi?eaoe?? ia i?aenoaa? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeae?a ae?aeiao,
ui a?aee?eaa? iia? iiaeeeaino? o eia?oe?, iaoiaeieia?? iaoee,
nioe?aeuei?e o?einio??, o?einio?? eoeueoo?e oa ?ioeo aoiai?oa?ieo
aeenoeeie?iao.

Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? iiaeeeainoae
canoinoaaiiy i?eioeei?a eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeeneo?no aei
aiae?co ae?aeiao a eiioaeno? ?noi?e/ieo aoai?a ?icaeoeo o?einionueei? oa
eia?/ii? aeoiee.

Oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue ciaeoe nai? canoinoaaiiy o
oea?ei? o?einio?? aeey iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ae?aeiao,
aca?iicayceo noee?a eiioi?eaoe?? e oei?a noni?euenoa, oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa c iaeyaeo ia aeii?ioth/? oeie ni?eeoaaiiy oa ?i.;
aeyaeoeny oe?iieie i?e ?ic?iaoe? ie?aieo eiioeaioe?e o aaeoc?
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny o aoc?anueeeo eo?nao
aai niaoeeo?nao c eia?ee, ?eoi?eee, o?einio?? iiae oa ?ioeo
o?einionueeeo aeenoeeie?i (o nioe?aeuei?e o?einio??, o?einio?? ?noi???,
o?einio?? eoeueoo?e); o niaoeeo?nao c naiaioe/ieo ? i?aaiaoe/ieo
aniaeo?a i?e?iaeii? iiae oiui.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaany ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e eia?ee o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaa i?aoey “Ieoaiiy ye i?aaeiao eia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy” aoea
iiaeaia ia eiieo?n ia caeiaoooy i?ai?e aeey iieiaeeo a/aieo oa
nooaeaio?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ui i?enoaeaeoaaeeny IAI Oe?a?ie
o 1996 ?., ? io?eiaea a?aiioo I?aceae?? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Caaaeuei? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
iaoeiai-iiooeiaiio nai?ia?? “Noai?aiiy iiceoeaiiai ?i?aeaeo oeiee iiaiai
oeio” (Ee?a, 1996 ?.), ia eiioa?aioe?yo: “No/ania eia?ea: i?iaeaie
oai???, ?noi??? oa canoinoaaiiy a iaooe?” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1996 ?.),
“Aei? iaoee” (Ee?a, o?einionueeee oaeoeueoao Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
1997 ?., 1998 ?., 1999 ?.).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Ii?yaeie aeeeaaeaiiy iaoa??aeo aecia/a?oueny
iine?aeiai?noth aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?iaioa i?noeoue anooi, o?e ?icae?ee, aeniiaee, nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie oa noi?ioeueiaai? i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeacai? iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoith ia?oiai ?icae?eo “Eia?ei-o?einionueeee aiae?c ae?aeiao aei aiioe
Iinoiiaea?io” ? i?iaaaeaiiy eiiia?aoea?nonueeiai aiae?co o?einionueeeo
oa eia?/ieo oaeno?a /an?a Aioe/iino?, Na?aaeiueia?//y, A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?
Iiaea?io aeey cae?eniaiiy eeaneo?eaoe?? oei?a ni?eeoaaiiy ia i?aenoaa?
oaeeo /eiiee?a: iaoa, oa?aeoa? ? ??aiii?aai?noue noa?eo?a eiioi?eaoe??.
Aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaaeii o?einionueeeo oaeno?a ye iaoa??aeo
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia oei, ui eia?ea o aeuacacia/ai? ?noi?e/i?
ia??iaee aoea o?nii aieaoaia o o?einionueea ciaiiy, oai?e aaaaoueio
ieneeoae?a aaaeei /?oei ?iciaaeoaaoe ia aeania o?einionuee? oa aeania
eia?/i?. Eiiia?aoea?nonueeee aiae?c aea? ciiao oaeiae cynoaaoe
aca?iicaycee i?ae oeiaie ni?eeoaaiiy, oeiaie noni?euenoa
(eieaeoea?noe/ieie oa ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ieie) ? a?aiaeia?aoeaaie
a?aeiia?aeieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “Iniaeeaino? ae?aeiao o o?einio?? oa eia?oe? aiioe
Aioe/iino?” oaenoe i?ia?aeieo o?einio?a oiai /ano (nio?no?a, Ieaoiia,
A??noioaey, noi?e?a, Oeeoea?iia) ?icaeyaeathoueny c oi/ee ci?o
a?aiaeia?aoea?a oa aeii?ioth/iai oeio noni?euenoaa. Na?aae oaeno?a
eia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o a?aecia/ai? i?aoe? A??noioaey, ine?eueee o ieo aaea
aoee ni?iae ?iciiae?eo aeae?a ae?aeiao ia iniia? ?iciaaeoaaiiy oaeeo
aaeocae: ae?aeaeoeea, a?enoeea, ?eoi?eea, nio?noeea, o?einio?y. O
?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co anoaiiaeaii, ui oeie ni?eeoaaiiy a
oe?eiio iiae?eythoueny ia iiiieia oa ae?aeia. ?iaeaie ae?aeiao ?
ni?aaaei?e ? iic??iee, aeaeii ni?aaaeiueiai a Aioe/iino? aenooia?
ae?aeaeoe/iee ae?aeia, a aeaeaie iic??iiai — aioo??oi?e, ?eoi?e/iee oa
nio?noe/iee ae?aeiae. O ni?aaaeiueiio ae?aeic? noa?eoe ??aiii?aai?, a a
iic??iiio — i?. Eiie?aoi? aeaee ae?aeiao ?ic??ciythoueny ia i?aenoaa?
eiai iaoe, a aioo??oi?e ae?aeia — ua ia i?aenoaa? oyaiiai oa?aeoa?o
?ioiai noa?eoa. Iiiieia, ye ie?aiee noeeue eiioi?eaoe??, iinooiiai
caoiieth? iiceoe?? a ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio aeeoo? aioe/ieo noni?euenoa,
iaeiae iiee ui ia ? i?ia?aeiei oeiii ni?eeoaaiiy. Iniaeeaa i?noea a
aioe/i?e o?einio?? iin?aea? nio?noe/iee ae?aeia, ine?eueee nio?noe
aenooieee ae?acieeaie ?iaeea?aeoae?cio, a?aiaeia?aoeaii yeiai ?
iniaeno?nia, ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aiaeia?aoeao oi?aa?naeueii-caaaeueiiai,
oae caaii? ?aea? Einiino, ui aeanoeaa a oe?eiio aioe/iei noni?euenoaai,
ye eieaeoea?noe/iei.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao “Iiiyooy ae?aeiao a na?aaeiueia?/i?e o?einio?? oa
eia?oe?” i?enay/aiee aiae?co i?ia?aeieo oei?a ni?eeoaaiiy a aiioo
Na?aaeiueia?//y ia iaoa??ae? o?einionueeeo oaeno?a ianaiia?aae
Aaaonoeia, Aeeo?ia oa Aaaey?a. A?aei?/ai? o? iiaeeo?eaoe??, yeeo caciaee
iai?ai? noee? eiioi?eaoe?? iiia?aaeiuei? aiioe. Cie?aia, ae?aeaeoe/iee
ae?aeia Aioe/iino? o?ainoi?ioaaany a aeeniooe a na?aaeiueia?/ieo
oi?aa?neoaoao, noaa ia ni?aaaei?i, a iic??iei aeaeii ae?aeiao, ine?eueee
aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi ethaeeie oiae? aoa ia iiooe iaa?aeiiiai, a
iiaioaaiiy o??? ?noeie, yea aeaia ?e Aiaii. C iaeyaeo ia oea
aiae?co?oueny ?ieue ae?aeaeoeee, aai eia?ee, ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie
na?aaeiueia?/iiai o?ea?oio (i?aoe? Aaaonoeia, Aiaoe?y, Aaaey?a). A aiioo
Na?aaeiueia?//y cyaey?oueny iiaee aeae ae?aeiao — iaa/aeueiee, ui yaey?
niaith aeayea ii?aeiaiiy ae?aeaeoe/iiai oa ?eoi?e/iiai aeae?a c
ia?aaaaeaiiyi oa?aeoa?enoee inoaiiueiai (oai?/?noue Aeeo?ia). Aioo??oi?e
ae?aeia caa??aa? nai? cia/aiiy, iniaeeai a ia??iae ooaa?aeaeaiiy
o?enoeyinoaa (?iaioe Aaaono?ia).

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? “Ae?aeia?/i?noue aoiai?noe/ieo eiioeaioe?e” /a?ac
?icaeyae oai?/iai aei?iaeo ?oae?enueeeo aoiai?no?a iieacaii, ui iai?aiei
aeey oeueiai ia??iaeo ? ?eoi?e/iee aeae ae?aeiao. Oaea noaiiaeua
coiiaeth?oueny iniaeeaei noaaeaiiyi aoiai?no?a aei Aioe/iino? e i?aoi?a.
Iaeiae aieiaiei iiiaioii aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ca?iaeaeaiiy iiaiai
aeaeo ni?aaaeiueiai ae?aeiao, a naia ?ioa?noa?eoeaiiai. ??/ o o?i, ui
?aianainiee ae?aeia o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iacaaa?oaiee ? iiceoe?y aaoi?a
iiaea aooe c?icoi?eith eeoa a eiioaeno? ?ioeo eiai oai??a (iai?eeeaae,
iieai?ea i?ae Aeae.I?ei aeaeea I??aiaeiea oa A.Aa?aa?i i?i ?eoi?eeo).
Oaea neooaoe?y iiynith?oueny ci?iith a?aiaeia?aoeao: ia ci?io
na?aaeiueia?/i?e ?aea? Aiaa i?eoiaeeoue ?aeaae “oi?aa?naeueii?
ethaeeie”.

O /aoaa?oiio ia?aa?ao? “Iiiieia?/i?noue o?einionueeeo oa eia?/ieo
eiioeaioe?e aiioe Iiaea?io” ia i?eeeaae? oai??a ianaiia?aae O?ooa ?
Aaaaey iaa?oioiao?oueny aeo?ae ia ia?o? iiceoe?? iiiieiao, eiee eiaeiee
o?einio i?aaia noai?eoe nenoaio, yea ae?aaeaea a ?noeio a inoaii?e
?inoaioe??. Ae?aeia oe??? aiioe i?aaenoaaeaiee a iniiaiiio iic??ieie
aeaeaie (iai?eeeaae, aioo??oi?e ae?aeia o oai?/ino? Oaee?iaa).
Iiiieia?/i?noue a?eueoino? o?einionueeeo oa eia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e aiioe
Iiaea?io iiaycaia c oi?ioaaiiyi ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ieo noni?euenoa, a yeeo
aecia?oueny aaoiiii?y ?iaeea?aea. Ana oea coiiaeth?oueny a?aiaeia?aoeaii
ethaeeia ye noa?eoa, ye?e i?ioenoi?oue na?o ye ia?eo ? aeey yei? a
i?eioeei? iaia? iaae. Iaeiae o oie ia??iae aoee e ?io? oaiaeaioe?? o
o?einio??, ye? niia?aeoaaee, iai?eeeaae, i?iaoeuee? ?iiaioeee, ui
iniaeeai iaaieiooaaee ia ae?aeic?, ? Oae??aao, o oai?/ino? yeiai
io?eiaee eaoaai??aeueiee noaoon iiiyooy ss ? Oe.

Ia i?aenoaa? oaeiai aiae?co i?iaaaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a ae?aeiao; ia
iniia? ??aiii?aaiino? eiai o/aniee?a na?aae ?iae?a ae?aeiao aeae?eaii
ni?aaaei?e ? iic??iee. Eiie?aoi? aeaee a iaaeao eiaeiiai ?iaeo
?ic??ciai? caeaaeii a?ae iaoe ae?aeiao, a aioo??oi?e ae?aeia aeae?eaiee
ua ia i?aenoaa? oiai, ui a iueiio ?aaeueii i?enooiy eeoa iaeia ethaeeia,
a ?ioee noa?eo ia? oyaiee oa?aeoa?. Iiaeaiee ci?noiaiee iien aeae?a
iic??iiai ae?aeiao (aioo??oiueiai, iaa/aeueiiai, ?eoi?e/iiai oa
nio?noe/iiai) ? ni?aaaeiueiai (ae?aeaeoe/iiai oa ?ioa?noa?eoeaiiai).
C?iaeaia ni?iaa oaeiae cynoaaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oei?a ni?eeoaaiiy c
oeiaie noni?euenoa oa a?aiaeia?aoeaaie iaaieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a.
Iacaaaeath/e ia a?aei?iiino? o cayceao i?ae ethaeueie a eieaeoea?noe/ieo
(i?aai?/i? caycee) oa ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ieo (aoii?noe/i? caycee)
noni?euenoaao, iaioth/ei oeiii ni?eeoaaiiy a ieo aenooia? aai iiiieia,
aai iic??iee ae?aeia. Aeo?ae ia ia?o? iiceoe?? ni?aaaeiueiai ae?aeiao a
aiioo Iinoiiaea?io noaa iiaeeeaei caaaeyee a??aiiaaaeaiith aeaio
a?aiaeia?aoea?a, ye? ie?aii i?aaenoaaeai? a eieaeoea?noe/ieo e
?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ieo noni?euenoaao (oi?aa?naeueii-caaaeueia oa
iniaeno?nia, ?iaeea?aeoaeueia).

Iaoith ae?oaiai ?icae?eo “Ae?aeia o o?einio?? oa eia?oe? OO no.” ?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao iniiaieo iioea?a aiioe Iinoiiaea?io ia
o?einionuee? oa eia?/i? eiioeaioe?? ae?aeiao. Acaaae? aeey an???
o?einio?? OO no. ? oa?aeoa?iei ia?ao?ae a?ae o?einio?? noa?eoeaiino? aei
o?einio?? ?ioa?noa?eoeaiino?. Eia?ea ia caeeoa?oueny inoi?iiue nooo?aeo
c?ooaiue o o?einio??, oiio ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?ioa?noa?eoeaiiai ae?aeiao a
aiioo Iinoiiaea?io iaeeaaea? ia eia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiee a?aeaeoie.
Oea aeyaey?oueny, cie?aia, a oiio, ui oao?aoe? o aaeoc? eia?ee
caeiathoueny oaia? ia eeoa aiae?cii iiae iaoee, ui oa?aeoa?ecoaaei
eia?/i? oai??? ii/aoeo OO no., a iaiaaathoueny noai?eoe oai??th
i?e?iaeii? iiae, yeo iiaeia aoei a oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe a oiio /ene? e
i?e ?ic?iaoe? no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “Iiiyooy ae?aeiao a ae?aeia?/i?e aio?iiieia??
I.Aoaa?a” iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eaia ?icaeyaeo eiioeaioe?? a?aeiiiai
o?einioa a ?aeo?n? oeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?aeae, ye? a?i aeneiaea uiaei
ae?aeiao. Oea, ii-ia?oa, o?enaoe?y ??aiii?aaiino? o/aniee?a eiioi?eaoe??
ye nooo?ai? iciaee ni?aaaeiueiai ae?aeiao; ii-ae?oaa, aeoiea i?i oa, ui
a i?ioeanao ni?eeoaaiiy ui?aco noai?th?oueny noa?a “i?ae”; ii-o?ao?,
aeae?eaiiy I.Aoaa?ii aiioe oeaooiaaiino? (ethaeeia a?ae/oaa? naith
i?e/aoi?noue aei /iainue caaaeueiiai) oa aiioe aaci?eooeueiino?
(a?ae/oooy iiaii? naiioiino? o na?o?) aea? ciiao iiaa/eoe aeaee ae?aeiao
a aeeiai?oe?. ?icaeyioo? iieiaeaiiy ae?aeia?/ii? aio?iiieia?? iathoue
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey noai?aiiy o?einionueei? iiaeae? ae?aeiao,
ine?eueee a ieo cao?eniaai? ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? no?oeoo?a e iniiai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oaeiai oeio ni?eeoaaiiy, ye ae?aeia.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao “Ae?aeia ? eia?ei-o?einionueeee aiae?c i?e?iaeii? iiae”
i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiiyi eiioi?eaoe?? a iaaeao ??cieo iai?yi?a
o?einio?? iiae oa eia?ee (eiioeaioe?? A.I.Aieioeiiaa oa I.I.Aaoo?ia,
oai??y iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a (Aeae.E.Ino?i, I.O.No?inii, Aeae.?.Na?e),
aa?iaiaaoeea A.A.Aaaeaia?a, no?oeoo?ae?ci I.Ooei). Aiae?c iieiaeaiue
oeeo eiioeaioe?e uiaei ae?aeiao aea? ciiao cao?enoaaoe iniiai?
iniaeeaino? ?ioa?noa?eoeaiiai ae?aeiao a aiioo Iinoiiaea?io:
??aiii?aai?noue o/aniee?a aan?aee, aeoeai?noue iaio noa?eo?a, noai?aiiy
ni?eueiiai i?inoi?o, yeee iiaeia iacaaoe eiai?oeaiei i?inoi?ii, aaeaea
aieiaiei ? ni?aaa, ui iaaiai?th?oueny, oiaoi i?aaeiao ?iciiae. Aecia/aii
oaeiae, ui iiiyooy “ae?aeia” ? “aeeneo?n” ia ? oioiaeieie c iaeyaeo ia
oa, ui aeeneo?nii iiaea aenooiaoe aoaeue-yea iiaeaii?aa ni?eeoaaiiy,
yeui aiii i?noeoue o nia? i??eoaaiiy. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia oai???
iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a (OIA), yea ? i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iith oai???th, ine?eueee
ia?aaoaa? ia noeeo o?einio??, eia?ee oa e?iaa?noeee. E??i oiai, naia
iniiai? iiiyooy OIA aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e eia?/iiio aiae?c? ae?aeiao a
ianooiiiio ?icae?e?, iniaeeai i?e aeine?aeaeaii? caieoaiue ye aaaeeeaiai
no?oeoo?iiai eiiiiiaioa ae?aeiao a oi?i? caieoaiiy/ a?aeiia?aeue.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? “?oa?noa?eoeaiee oa?aeoa? ae?aeiao ?
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueia i?aaiaoeea” ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? ?aea?
eiioi?eaoeaii? o?einio??, ui ? aeineoue aaaiiei iai?yiii no/aniiai
o?einionueeiai ciaiiy. A?aecia/a?oueny cia/ei?noue ?aea? E.I-Aiaey uiaei
ii?aeiaiiy o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueii? o?einio?? na?aeiiino? c aiae?oe/iith
o?einio??th iiae. Aeey aiae?co ae?aeiao aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue i?aoe?
TH.Aaaa?iana, yeee ?ic??ciy? eiioi?eaoeaio ae?th oa aeeneo?n ? aecia/a?
i?aaeea inoaiiueiai. O oeueiio ia?aa?ao? c?iaeaia ni?iaa ?icaeyiooe
iieai?eo i?ae i?eoeeueieeaie eiioi?eaoeaii? o?einio?? oa i?aaenoaaieeaie
i?aaiaoecio e ia?aoea?noeee. Eaiaiai niioeeaiiy ? aieiaia ?aeay
eiioi?eaoeaii? o?einio?? — ?aeay eiinainono, yea neoao? e?eoa???i aeey
?ic??ciaiiy ii?iaeueieo oa aiiiaeueieo aeeneo?n?a. Iaeiae niaoeeo?ea
o?einio?? Iinoiiaea?io iieyaa? a oiio, ui a neooaoe?? a??aiiaaaeaiiy
a?aiaeia?aoea?a ia ?nio? i?aenoaa aeey iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae ii?iaeueiiio
aeeneo?no ia?aae aiiiaeueiei. Iniiaiei ? ia eiinainon, a ia?aeia?y, ia
/iio ? iaiieyaathoue e?eoeee eiioi?eaoeaii? o?einio??, cie?aia ?.?i?o?
oa AE.-O.E?ioa?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia ?icia?o?noue ??ciiiai?oieo o?einionueeeo iai?yi?a aiioe
Iinoiiaea?io, a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co a?aecia/ai? iaai?
ni?euei? ?ene, ye? iieyaathoue o o?enaoe?? a o?e /e ?io?e i???
iniaeeainoae ?ioa?noa?eoeaiiai ae?aeiao. Oe? iniaeeaino?
(??aiii?aai?noue noa?eo?a ni?eeoaaiiy, iai?? aanoe aan?aeo, i???ioaoe?y
ia ?ioiai, noai?aiiy ni?eueiiai eiai?oeaiiai i?inoi?o oa ?i.)
aenooiathoue iniiaieie /eiieeaie o?einionueei? iiaeae? ae?aeiao.

Iaoith o?aoueiai ?icae?eo “Eia?ei-eiai?oeaiee i?aeo?ae aei iiaeaethaaiiy
ae?aeiao” ? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae ? ia?niaeoea eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy ae?aeiao ia i?aenoaa? iiaoaeiae iiaeae? ae?aeiao Ieaoiia
“Ai?a?e”. Aeey oeueiai ?icaeyaea?oueny eiai?oeaia ia?aaeeaia a no/anieo
eia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aecia/athoueny i?noea e ?ieue caieoaiiy oa
a?aeiia?ae? a no?oeoo?? ae?aeiao, a oaeiae canoiniaothoueny i?eioeeie
eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeeneo?no aei iiaoaeiae eiie?aoii?
iiaeae? ae?aeiao.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “Eiai?oeaia ia?aaeeaia a no/anieo eia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo” ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? aniaeoe eiioi?eaoe??, ye?
aeae?eea o nai?o ?iaioao A.O.?oio?aoia (noa?eoeai?noue, ?aaeuei?noue,
ii?iaoeai?noue) oa ?o ae?aaeaiiy a ??ciiiai?oieo aeaeao ae?aeiao. C
iaeyaeo ia iiia?aaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioa?noa?eoeaiiai ae?aeiao
a?aecia/aii, ui aieiaiei ? ae?oaee aniaeo. Aeey eiai o?enaoe??
aeei?enoiaothoueny iiiyooy “eiai?oeaia iiae?y”, a oaeiae iiiyooy
“iaioaeueiee i?ino?? ethaeeie”, ui ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy a eiai?oeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ye iaaia “iiaeaeue na?oo”, yea iaeaaeeoue noa?eoo ? ia?
aeey iueiai oaeee naiee iioieia?/iee noaoon, ui e iiae?? ciai?oiuei?
ae?eniino?. Iniiaieie cia/oueie aeaeaie eiai?oeaieo iiae?e a i?ioean?
ae?aeiao aenooiathoue ai?noai?/i?, ?ioaioe?ei? oa ?ioa?aeoeai?. E??i
oiai, iiaea?oueny iien eia?ei-eiai?oeaii? iiae, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny
iio?i aeey aiae?co ??cieo eiai?oeaieo iiae?e i?e ?icaeyae? ae?aeiao ii
noai? caieoaiiy/ a?aeiia?aeue.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? “?ioa??iaaoeaia eia?ea: i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae”
aiae?cothoueny iniiai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo no/anii? ?ioa??iaaoeaii? eia?ee
(eiiithoa?iee, eia?ei-iaoiaeieia?/iee oa eia?ei-?ioa?aeoeaiee).
Iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui aeey iiaeaethaaiiy eiioi?eaoe?? iaea?eueo
i?eeiyoieie ? ?ic?iaee a iaaeao eia?ei-?ioa?aeoeaiiai iai?yio, ine?eueee
naia a?i ni?yiiaaiee ia ?aeiino?oeoe?th noai ni?eeoaaiiy. Acaaae?
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioa??iaaoeaii? eia?ee i?ioiaeeei ye ?icoe?aiiy eeane/ii?
eia?ee, oiio i?e ni?iaao aeine?aeaeaiiy caieoaiiy oaaao iaoeiaoe?a
i?eaa?ioee ianaiia?aae oae? i?iaeaie: 1) ye? eia?/i? ioe?iee iiaeia
i?eienaoe caieoaiiyi, aaeaea aiie ia i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiee i?eioeei eeane/ii? eia?ee — i?eioeei aeaicia/iino?; 2)
yeui caieoaiiy aenooiathoue ye ?iia?aoeae, oiae? aei yeiai iiaeono ?o
ne?ae ca?aoiaoaaoe; 3) ye eeaneo?eoaaoe caieoaiiy; 4) yea eia?/ia
no?oeoo?a caieoaiue. Cao?eniaaii, ui iiaeon ?iia?aoeaa, yeee aeanoeaee
caieoaiith, ? I?IOAIIss I?I IIA?AeIIEAIIss. No?oeoo?a caieoaiiy ia? oae?
eiiiiiaioe: 1) o?enaoe?y aaea a?aeiiiai ciaiiy, yea i?noeoueny a
i?anoiiceoe?? caieoaiiy; 2) o?enaoe?y iaa?aeiiiai, ui iiaeaiaa eiai
iniia?; 3) eiioaeno aeaieioaiiy caieoaiiy, aei yeiai aoiaeyoue oaeiae ?
eiai?oe?? o/aniee?a aca?iiae??.

O?ao?e ia?aa?ao “Eia?/i? noaie caieoaiue oa a?aeiia?aeae” i?enay/aiee
ye?ac ni?iaai noaiaoecoaaoe caieoaiiy oa a?aeiia?ae?, aeei?enoiaoth/e
eia?ei-eiai?oeaio iiao. Iiae?e caieoaiue a?aeaoaa?oueny caeaaeii a?ae
oiai, yeiio no?oeoo?iiio eiiiiiaioo i?eae?ey?oueny iaea?eueoa oaaaa.
Ii-ia?oa, ?noeii?noue/ oeai?noue i?anoiiceoe?? caieoaiiy aecia/a? eiai
ei?aeoi?noue aai iaei?aeoi?noue. Ii-ae?oaa, ia i?aenoaa? oa?aeoa?o
iaa?aeiiiai, ui i?noeoueny a caieoaii?, ?o iiae?eythoue ia /e-caieoaiiy
e ui-caieoaiiy. Ii-o?ao?, caeaaeii a?ae eiioaenoo iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe
noaiaea?oio eiia?iaoe?th ia? “caieoaiiy/ a?aeiia?aeue” ia ??ai?
nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae??, ye oea c?iaeaii a eiioeaioe?? O.Eaia?o.

Aeoiaey/e c iniiaieo iiiyoue oai??? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, caieoaiiy
aeioe?eueii iiae?eeoe ia i?yi? oa iai?yi? iiaeaii?a? aeoe caeaaeii a?ae
iai??o i?iiiaoey. Aei caieoaiue ye i?yieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a a?aeianaii
aeia?aeeiaa, a aei iai?yieo — an? ?io? ??ciiaeaee caieoaiue
(iaaeaaia?/ia, caieoaiiy-i?ioaiiy, ?eoi?e/ia oa ?i.) c iienii
a?aeiia?aeieo eiai?oeaieo iiae?e. O oaeee niin?a cao?eniaaii no?oeoo?o
caieoaiiy oa iniiai? a?aei?iiino? i?ae ??ciiaeaeaie caieoaiue.

Na?aae a?aeiia?aeae iiaeia ?ic??cieoe i?aaeeuei? oa iai?aaeeuei? ia
i?aenoaa? oiai, /e ni?aa?aeiinyoueny aiie c iniiaith caieoaiiy, a ia
i?aenoaa? ?o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?aaeueiino? — ia ?noeii? oa oeai?, ye ?
aeane?eioeai? aeneiaethaaiiy.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ooiaeaiaioaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee caieoaiue (ei?aeoi?/
iaei?aeoi?) oa a?aeiia?aeae (i?aaeeuei?/ iai?aaeeuei?) aeae?eythoueny c
iaeyaeo ia aca?iicaycie i?ae ieie a i?ioean? ae?aeiao, aaeaea ?ic?iaee a
iaaeao an?o i?aeoiae?a ?ioa??iaaoeaii? eia?ee na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
caieoaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeue iaiiaeeeai ?icaeyaeaoe ie?aii.

O /aoaa?oiio ia?aa?ao? “Eia?ei-eiai?oeaia iiaeaeue ae?aeiao Ieaoiia
“Ai?a?e”” ?iaeoueny ni?iaa ia?aa??eoe oai?aoe/ia iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
oai?e Ieaoiia ? aioo??oi?ie ae?aeiaaie /a?ac aiae?c iiaoaeiaaii?
eia?ei-eiai?oeaii? iiaeae? ae?aeiao “Ai?a?e”. Iieaco?oueny, ui Nie?ao c
naiiai ii/aoeo a??eoue a iaaia iieiaeaiiy (?eoi?eea — oea ia
ienoaoeoai), yea ? aioeoacith aei aeoiee Ai?a?y, ? iaiaaa?oueny ua ?ac o
aan?ae? ia?aa??eoe eiai. O ieaoii?anueeeo oai?ao ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui
caaaeyee oae?e ia?aa??oe? a iieiaeaiiy Nie?aoa iia??youe on?, yeui ? ia
o/anieee ?iciiae, oi, i?eiaeii?, /eoa/?. A oa, ui ni?a?iciiaieee Nie?aoa
ia i?eeiathoue eiai iieiaeaiiy, ia ia? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iei ?noeiiiai ciaiiy.

Acaaae? eia?ei-eiai?oeaia iiaeaethaaiiy ae?aeiao ? aeineoue ei?eniei
aeey ooi/iaiiy iaaieo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue. O aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
naia caaaeyee iiaoaeia? iiaeae? ae?aeiao Ieaoiia “Ai?a?e” noaei
iiaeeeaei aecia/eoe, ui nie?ao?anueea ??ii?y ? caniaii i?eaa?oaiiy
oaaae, aea ia i?ioean aeinyaiaiiy Nie?aoii ?noeiiiai ciaiiy nooo?ai ia
aieeaa?. E??i oeueiai, ia i?eeeaae? aeaii? eia?ei-eiai?oeaii? iiaeae?
ae?aeiao iiaeia i?ine?aeeoaaoe i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy noa?eoeaiiai
ai?noai?/iiai noaio (a??oaaiiy) ia ?ioa?noa?eoeaia ciaiiy.

O aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaothoueny oa iaaiai?ththoueny ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
aeaii? oaie.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? i?eeoia
aei oaeeo aeniiae?a:

n ia i?aenoaa? eiiia?aoea?nonueeiai aiae?co o?einionueeeo ? eia?/ieo
oaeno?a Aioe/iino?, Na?aaeiueia?//y, A?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa Iiaea?io
i?iaaaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a ae?aeiao ia iic??iee (aioo??oi?e,
iaa/aeueiee, ?eoi?e/iee, nio?noe/iee) ? ni?aaaei?e (ae?aeaeoe/iee,
?ioa?noa?eoeaiee) caeaaeii a?ae iaoe ae?aeiao, oa?aeoa?o oa
??aiii?aaiino? noa?eo?a;

n o ?acoeueoao? anoaiiaeaiiai aca?iicayceo i?ae noeeyie eiioi?eaoe?? oa
oeiaie noni?euenoa o ??ci? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i
noaa?aeaeaiiy a aiioo Iinoiiaea?io iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co eia?ee
ae?aeiao, aea oeae oei ni?eeoaaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?ioa?noa?eoeaiee
ae?aeia;

n ooi/iaii, ui aeey aiae?co ae?aeiao oi?aa?naeueiei ? eia?ei-eiai?oeaiee
i?aeo?ae, yeee aaco?oueny ia aeyaeaii? eia?/ieo noai eiai?oeaieo iiae?e,
ui o?enothoue iaioaeueiee i?ino?? ethaeeie;

n aeyaeai? o?e iniiai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo no/anii? ?ioa??iaaoeaii? eia?ee
(eiiithoa?iee, eia?ei-iaoiaeieia?/iee oa eia?ei-?ioa?aeoeaiee) aeathoue
ciiao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeey iiaoaeiae eia?ei-eiai?oeaii? iiaeae?
ae?aeiao o oi?i? caieoaiiy/ a?aeiia?aeue iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ?
inoaii?e;

n eia?ei-eiai?oeai? noaie caieoaiue, ui i?iaiae?ciaai? a aeena?oaoe?? ye
i?yi? oa iai?yi? iiaeaii?a? aeoe, iaaiith i??ith aeicaieythoue iiaeieaoe
o?oaeiiu? a eia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo caieoaiue (aecia/aiiy eia?/ii?
ioe?iee caieoaiiy, cynoaaiiy iiaeono inoaiiueiai ye ?iia?aoeaa,
aeyaeaiiy eia?/ii? no?oeoo?e caieoaiiy);

n iiaoaeiaaia eia?ei-eiai?oeaia iiaeaeue ae?aeiao Ieaoiia “Ai?a?e”, ye
aenie?eaoe?y o?einionueeeo oyaeaiue i?i ae?aeia o ieaoii?anueeeo oai?ao,
ci???ioiaaia ia aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae ? ia?niaeoea eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy.

C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? oae? ?iaioe:

1. Caieoaiiy ye i?aaeiao eia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. //Aei? iaoee 10-11
ea?oiy 1997 ?ieo: Iaoa??aee iaoe. aeii. oa aenooi?a nooae., ani??aio?a,
aeieoi?aio?a, aeeeaaea/?a. /Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.
O?einionueeee oaeoeueoao. *. 1. -E.: ?AOe “Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao”,
1997.-N.44-49.

2. Iniaeeaino? ae?aeiao a aioe/i?e o?einio??. // Aei? iaoee 9-10 ea?oiy
1998 ?ieo: Iaoa??aee iaoe. aeii. oa aenooi?a nooae., ani??aio?a,
aeieoi?aio?a, aeeeaaea/?a. /Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.
O?einionueeee oaeoeueoao. -E.: ?AOe “Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao”,
1998.-N.117-121.

3. Ae?aeia ? iiaea?ia o?einio?y. //I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.
?noi??y. O?einio?y. Nioe?ieia?y. ? 119 (186). Eenoiiaae 1998 ?.-N.74-80.

4. I?iaeaia ae?aeiao a o?einio?? ii/aoeo ? na?aaeeie OO no. //A?niee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. O?einio?y. Iie?oieia?y. -1999.-? 29.-N.36-38.

5. Caieoaiiy a no?oeoo?? ae?aeiao (eia?/iee aiae?c). //A?niee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. O?einio?y. Iie?oieia?y. -1999.-? 30.-N.39-41.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eieio?eiaa I.A. Ae?aeia: eia?ei-o?einionueeee aiae?c. Aeena?oaoe?y (ia
i?aaao ?oeiieno) ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?einionueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.06 — eia?ea. ?inoeooo
o?einio?? ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? eia?ei-o?einionueeei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oaeiai oeio
ni?eeoaaiiy, ye ae?aeia. Aeyaeythoueny oa eeaneo?eothoueny aeaee
ae?aeiao a ?noi??? o?einio?? oa eia?ee; aecia/a?oueny aieea iniiaieo
iioea?a Iinoiiaea?io ia no/ani? o?einionuee? oa eia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ae?aeiao; ooi/ith?oueny, ui aeey eia?/iiai aiae?co ae?aeiao
oi?aa?naeueiei ? eia?ei-eiai?oeaiee i?aeo?ae; ?ice?eaathoueny iniiai?
iai?yie ?icaeoeo no/anii? ?ioa??iaaoeaii? eia?ee; cyniaothoueny noaie
caieoaiue ye i?yieo oa iai?yieo iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a; aeyaeythoueny
iiaeeeaino? oa ia?niaeoeae eia?ei-eiai?oeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ae?aeiao ca
noaiith caieoaiiy/ a?aeiia?aeue (ia i?eeeaae? oai?o Ieaoiia “Ai?a?e”).

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?aeia, oei ni?eeoaaiiy, oei noni?euenoaa, eiai?oeaia
iiae?y, ?ioa??iaaoeaia eia?ea, caieoaiiy, a?aeiia?aeue,
eia?ei-eiai?oeaia iiaeaethaaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eieioeeiaa I.A. Aeeaeia: eiaeei-oeeinioneee aiaeec. Aeenna?oaoeey (ia
i?aaao ?oeiiene) ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.06 — eiaeea. Einoeooo oeeinioee eiaie
A.N.Neiai?iaeu IAI Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiaeei-oeeinioneei i?iaeaiai, naycaiiui n
enneaaeiaaieai oaeiai oeia iauaiey, eae aeeaeia. A oeaio?a enneaaeiaaiey
— aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey i?eioeeiia eiaeei-eiaieoeaiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey
e aiaeeco aeeaeiaa. Iino?iaieth eiie?aoiie iiaeaee aii?inii-ioaaoiiai
aeeaeiaa i?aaeoanoaoao nenoaiaoe/aneia ?anniio?aiea eiioeaioeee aeeaeiaa
a enoi?ee oeeinioee e eiaeee. Oe?ieee enoi?eei-oeeinioneee e
enoi?eei-eiae/aneee eiioaeno enneaaeiaaiey iiiyoey aeeaeiaa niinianoaoao
auyniaieth iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ?acee/iuo aeaeia aeeaeiaa aeey
iino?iaiey iiaeaee oaeiai oeia iauaiey ia niaea?aeaoaeueiii o?iaia. Ia
neaaeothuai o?iaia aiaeeca i?eiaiythony i?eioeeiu eiaeei-eiaieoeaiiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey, /oi iicaieyao ooi/ieoue ii?aaeaeaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee
niaea?aeaoaeueiie iiaeaee aeeaeiaa.

Ia iniiaa eiiia?aoeaenoneiai aiaeeca oeeinioneeo e eiae/aneeo oaenoia
ia?eiaeia Aioe/iinoe, N?aaeiaaaeiauey, Aic?iaeaeaiey e Iiaea?ia
i?iaaaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey aeaeia aeeaeiaa ia iieiue (aioo?aiiee,
iao/athuee, ?eoi?e/aneee, nioenoe/aneee) e aeaenoaeoaeueiue
(aeeaeaeoe/aneee, eioa?noauaeoeaiue) a caaeneiinoe io oeaee aeeaeiaa,
oa?aeoa?a e ?aaiii?aaiinoe noauaeoia. A ?acoeueoaoa onoaiiaeaiiie
acaeiinayce iaaeaeo noeeyie eiiioieeaoeee e oeiaie iauanoa a ?aciua
enoi?e/aneea ia?eiaeu a aeenna?oaoeee naeaeai auaiae ia ooaa?aeaeaiee a
yiioo Iinoiiaea?ia iiaiai iiaeoiaea e aiaeeco eiaeee aeeaeiaa, aaea yoio
oei iauaiey ?anniao?eaaaony eae eioa?noauaeoeaiue aeeaeia.

Ooi/iaii, /oi aeey aiaeeca aeeaeiaa oieaa?naeueiui yaeyaony
eiaeei-eiaieoeaiue iiaeoiae, aace?othueeny ia auaeaeaiee eiae/aneeo noai
eiaieoeaiuo niauoee, eioi?ua oeene?otho iaioaeueiia i?ino?ainoai
/aeiaaea. Auyaeaiiua o?e iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey a ?acaeoee nia?aiaiiie
eioa??iaaoeaiie eiaeee (eiiiuethoa?iia, eiaeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneia e
eiaeei-eioa?aeoeaiia) aeatho iniiaaiea ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aeey
iino?iaiey eiaeei-eiaieoeaiie iiaeaee aii?inii-ioaaoiiai aeeaeiaa
iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui yaeyaony iineaaeiaa iai?aaeaiea.
Eiaeei-eiaieoeaiua noaiu aii?inia, eioi?ua i?iaiaeece?iaaiu a
aeenna?oaoeee eae i?yiua e einaaiiua ?a/aaua aeou, a ii?aaeaeaiiie
noaiaie i?aiaeieaaatho o?oaeiinoe a eiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo aii?inia
(ii?aaeaeaiea eiae/aneie ioeaiee aii?ina, auyniaiea iiaeona iineaaeiaai
eae eiia?aoeaa, auyaeaiea eiae/aneie no?oeoo?u aii?ina). Iino?iaiiay
eiaeei-eiaieoeaiay iiaeaeue aeeaeiaa Ieaoiia “Ai?aee”, eae yenieeeaoeey
oeeinioneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeeaeiaa a ieaoiiianeeo i?iecaaaeaieyo,
i?eaioe?iaaia ia auyaeaiea aiciiaeiinoae e ia?niaeoea
eiaeei-eiaieoeaiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey.

Oai?aoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeee iiaoo iaeoe i?eiaiaiea eae a
iaeanoe oeeinioee aeey aeaeueiaeoeo enneaaeiaaiee aeeaeiaa, acaeiinayce
noeeae eiiioieeaoeee e oeiia iauanoa, oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iauanoaa a
caaeneiinoe io aeiieie?othuaai oeia iauaiey e o.ae., oae e a iaeanoe
eiaeee, iniaaiii a noa?a eiaeei-eiaieoeaiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey, a oaeaea
i?e ?ac?aaioea ioaeaeueiuo eiioeaioeee a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeaeia, oei iauaiey, oei iauanoaa, eiaieoeaiia
niauoea, eioa??iaaoeaiay eiaeea, aii?in, ioaao, eiaeei-eiaieoeaiia
iiaeaee?iaaiea.

SUMMARY

Kolotilova N.A. Dialogue: Logical-Philosophical Analysis. The
dissertation (manuscript) is for the Degree of Candidate of
Philosophical Science, speciality 09.00.06 — logic. G.S.Scovoroda
Institute of Philosophy, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is a logical and philosophical research of dialogue as
a type of communication. Kinds of dialogue in history of philosophy and
logic are revealed and classified; influences of Post-modern basic
motives over contemporary philosophical and logical conceptions of
dialogue are defined. The dissertation specifies, that logical-cognitive
approach is universal for the logical analysis of dialogue. Basic
directions of contemporary interrogative logic development are
described; scheme of questions as direct and indirect speech acts are
proposed; possibilities and perspectives of logical-cognitive modelling
of the question/ answer dialogue (illustrated by Plato’s “Gorgy”) are
revealed.

Key words: dialogue, type of communication, type of society, cognition,
interrogative logic, question, answer, logical-cognitive modelling.

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