13

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Ai?eoeaae/ Ieaia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 336.71

Aaiee ia aaethoiiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.04.01 – o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:Aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ii?ic Aiaoie?e
Ieeieaeiae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aaie?anueei? ni?aae

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:Aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Inaaeaoeue Naiai
Noaiaiiae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e o?iain?a i?aei?e?inoa ? no?aoiai? ni?aae

Eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe Aaaea?anueea Oaoyia Aiaoie??aia, canooiiee
aee?aeoi?a aeaia?oaiaioo aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo
Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a a?ioiaiai ia?ao ? e?aaeeoo, i.
Oa?iii?eue

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “22“ aa?aciy 1999?ieo i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 006. 02. I?e Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith 252057, Ee?a –57,
i?ini. Ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoae, 317

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee: “ 19 “ ethoiai 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A.I.
Iiaeae??ueia?i

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?aeia?iaei? aaethoi? e?ece ? cieaeaiiy eo?no
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe noaee i?e/eiith aaaaoueio i?iaeai ia
oe?a?inueeiio aaethoiiio ?eieo. I?ioean eiai oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
iio?aao? ia o?eueee inieneaiiy ? ioe?iee ci?i, ye? ia iueiio
a?aeaoaathoueny a eiioaeno? aaiethoe?? na?oiai? aaethoii? nenoaie, aea e
aeei?enoaiiy iaoai?ci?a oa ?ino?oiaio?a na?oiaiai aaethoiiai ?eieo a
oe?a?inuee?e i?aeoeoe?.

Oe?a?ia, ye ?anioae?ea eieeoiueiai N?N?, iaiaea iiaii? naiino?eiino? ia
i?aeia?iaeiiio ?eieo, ? an? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? ?c ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iith
ae?yeuei?noth ae??ooaaeeny o Iinea?. Oiio, ye iane?aeie, a Oe?a?i? ia
i?iaiaeeeiny aeinoaoi?o aeine?aeaeaiue ieoaiue, ye? iia’ycai? c
aaethoii-e?aaeeoieie a?aeiineiaie.

Iiaeeaeaiiy ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie noaei ia?aaeoiiaith
aeey ?icoe?aiiy i?aeia?iaeii? ae?yeueiino? aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie.
Aaieai, ye iaoe?iiaeueiei e?aaeeoiei ?inoeoooai iaeaaeeoue i?ia?aeia
?ieue o cae?eniaii? iia?aoe?e i?ae o/anieeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa
i?aeia?iaeiiai aaethoieo ?eie?a.

Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui ae?yeuei?noue eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ia aaethoiiio
?eieo noaaeoue ia?aae aeiiii?/iith iaoeith ieceo neeaaeieo i?iaeai, ye?
iio?aaothoue iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy oa i?aeoe/iiai ae??oaiiy.

A Oe?a?i? aeine?aeaeaiith ie?aieo ieoaiue ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ia
aaethoiiio ?eieo i?enay/ai? ?iaioe O.A. Aaaea?anueei?, A.I. Ii?ica,
N.ss. Iai?iaeieea,. N.N. Inaaeoey, I.?. Naaeoea, A.O. Nooi?i?ii?, A.I.
Noaiaiaiea, I.I. Oa?iaa, O.Ae. Oa?iai?, A.I. Oaaeiniaa, A.N. O?e?iaiea,
A.A. THuaiea. Na?aae aeine?aeaeaiue ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, ye? c?iaeee
aaaiiee aianie o ?icaeoie oai??? oa i?aeoeee aaethoiiai ?eieo oa
ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ia iueiio ne?ae a?aecia/eoe ?iaioe I.E Aoie?ia, E.
Aae?aaaia, A.Ae. Aieoaia?/a, Aeae. Aeai?aena, A.E. Aei?ii?ia, I.E.
E?anaa?ii?, ?.ss. Iineiaa, I. Iaa?i, Ae.TH. Ieneoeiaa, ?. I. Ieaoiiiai?,
E. ?aaeoaaea, Aeae. N?ie?, A.I. Onine?ia, I.A. Oaaei?iaa oa aaaaoueio
?ioeo.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ?ia?o a?o/eciyieo aeiiii?no?a ci???ioiaaia ia
aeyaeaiiy caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aaethoiiai ?eieo oa
ae?yeueiino? eiai noa’?eo?a. Cia/ii iaioa oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny aiae?co
i?iaeai, c yeeie noeeathoueny aaiee a i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? ia
aaethoiiio ?eieo. Aaaeeea?noue oe??? i?iaeaie, iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue ??
aea/aiiy oa ?ic?iaee a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei,
aecia/eee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia ye neeaaeiaa eiiieaenii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie “Aaie?anueea
nenoaia Oe?a?ie: ?? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01-96 V 023340 ), yea
?ic?iaeyeany eieaeoeaii eaoaae?e aaie?anueei? ni?aae Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aeyaeaiiy nooiino? ? no/anieo iniaeeainoae ae?yeueiino?
aaie?a ia aaethoiiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie ? ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ??
aaeineiiaeaiith. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoei iinoaaeaii ? ae??oaii
ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ice?eoe iaoai?ci ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aaethoieo ?eie?a ? aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? ?o ?icaeoeo;

— i?iaanoe eiiieaeniee aiae?c aaethoiiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie c aeoeaioii oaaae
ia i?iaeaiao, iai?yieao oa ia?niaeoeaao iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo;

— aeyaeoe nooi?noue, no/ani? ?ene ? ooieoe?iiaeueio niaoeeo?eo
ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ia aaethoiiio ?eieo;

— noi?ioethaaoe iaoiaee/i? oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, uiaei
i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e c ?iicaiiith aaethoith.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noa?a aaethoii-e?aaeeoieo a?aeiinei, ye?
aeieeathoue o i?ioean? ?icaeoeo oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaethoiiai ?eieo
Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea nenoaia eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ye
?inoooeoe?eia iniiaa aaethoiiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoeei–iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? no/ani?
aeinyaiaiiy a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo a aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? c
i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aaethoiiai ?eieo ? aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia aea/aii? caeii?a
i?eeiyoeo Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie, iinoaiia oa aeae?ao?a Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a, oeac?a I?aceaeaioa, ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue ae?yeuei?noue
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo ?inoeooo?a, ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aaieo Oe?a?ie, iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e
(Na?oiaiai aaieo, Aaieo I?aeia?iaeieo ?ic?aooie?a). Aeena?oaoe?y oaeiae
aaco?oueny ia canoinoaaii? iaoiae?a nenoaiiiai aiae?co,
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/ieo, a?ao?/ieo, a?oioaaiiy, aea??eiaiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy, ?noi?eei-eia?/ii? a?aoiaioaoe??. Aeey aiae?co eiie?aoieo
aeiiii?/ieo yaeu ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ia aaethoiiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie
aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie, “Oe?aen?iaaieo”,
aaieo “Aaaeue”, “Oe?a?ia” oa ?io.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa
i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aaethoiiai ?eieo iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie a iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao oa
ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ia oeueiio ?eieo.

Iaea?eueo aaaii? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoeiao iiaecio
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio:

— ooi/iaii oeoia/aiiy eaoaai??? “aaethoiiai ?eieo” oa “?a?i?eieo”;

— aecia/aii iioaioe?eio aioiai?noue oe?a?inueeeo aaie?a aei ae?yeueiino?
ia aaethoiiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie c o?aooaaiiyi eiai oaia??oiueiai noaio;

— ioe?iaii ?ieue eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a o ooieoe?iioaaii? aaethoiiai ?eieo
oa ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?;

— cai?iiiiiaaii iia? oi?ie o?iainoaaiiy i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?;

— iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a
aeey oaaeaeoaaiiy aaethoieo ?ecee?a;

— aeyaeaii neaae? oa neeuei? noi?iie ae?yeueiino? a?o/eciyieo aaie?a ia
aaethoiiio ?eieo oa iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? ? ?aaeuei? oiiae
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy i?iaaaeaiiy aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e c
?iicaiiith aaethoith;

— cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaiooaeuei? noaie i?i?i?caoe?? ?ecee?a, iia’ycaieo c
?iaioith noa’?eo?a ia aaethoiiio ?eieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? ?o
aeei?enoaii? o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo i?e aeeeaaeaii? iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i “A?io?
oa e?aaeeo”, “Aaie?anueea ni?aaa”, “Aaie?anueeee iaiaaeaeiaio”.
Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? o i?aeoeeo ?iaioe aaie?a
Oe?a?ie aeicaieeoue aecia/eoe ?o eiieo?aioi? iiceoe?? ia aioo??oiueiio
oa ciai?oiueiio o?iainiaeo ?eieao, i?aeaeueoue ??aaiue no?aoaa?/iiai
ieaioaaiiy, aeanoue iiaeeea?noue iia?aoeaii aieeaaoe ia ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e c ?iicaiiith aaethoith.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aaie?anueei? ni?aae Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo o 1995 – 1998 ?ieao.
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo aaethoiiai ?eieo oa
ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ia iueiio aeiiia?aeaeeny ia eiia?an? “Aoaeoeai?noue
?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee” (Ee?a, 1998), i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaie?anueea nenoaia Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie
noaiiaeaiiy oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo” (Ee?a, 1998). ?yae i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e io?eiaee noaaeueio ioe?ieo oa i?eeiyo? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
Aea?aeaaiei aenii?oii-?iii?oiei aaieii Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 4 ?iaioe
caaaeueiei ianyaii 2.1 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e.

Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 175 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 8 oaaeeoeue, 17 ?enoie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae neeaaea? 9 noi??iie.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss OA ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, a?aeia?aaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio
oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi noo? aaethoiiai ?eieo, aecia/aii eiai
cia/aiiy o aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, a oaeiae aeaii ioe?ieo
i?noey aaie?a o i?ioean? eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Aecia/aiiy i?aaeiaoo aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, — aaethoiiai ?eieo, —
iano?eueee, caeaaaeinue ae i/aaeaeiiai iiiyooy, iani?aaae?, aeiaaa?
iiia?aaeiueiai aeeaieiai aiae?co. A aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iaia?
iaeiicia/ii? aeoiee, uiaei eiai aecia/aiiy, aea aeoiaey/e c oeo
ooieoe?e, ye? a?i aeeiio? o nenoai? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee (anoaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaeo eo?n?a aaetho; aeeiiaiiy ?ie? iaoai?cio aeoioeyoe?? ?
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo aaethoieo eioo?a ye o iaoe?iiaeueiiio oae
? na?oiaiio ianooaa?; aeeiiaiiy ?ie? eaiaeo i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?ai?uaiiy
eai?oae?a; ?icoe?aiiy iiaeeeainoae o?yaeo ? oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo o
cae?eniaii? nai?? iiiaoa?ii? iie?oeee) aa?oi ?icaeyaeaoe aaethoiee ?eiie
ye noa?o aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ii iia?aoe?yo eoi?ae? oa i?iaeaaeo
?iicaiii? aaethoe, oe?iieo iaia??a a ?iicaii?e aaetho?, a oaeiae
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ?iicaii?e aaetho?.

Aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie i?ae o/anieeaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei iaiiaeeea?
aac iai?io iaei??? a?ioiai? iaeeieoe? ia ?ioo. I?iii?oe??th, o ye?e
iai?ith?oueny aaethoa iaei??? e?a?ie ia aaethoo ?ioi? – aenooia?
aaethoiee eo?n. ?ioeie neiaaie, eiaeia iaoe?iiaeueia a?ioiaa iaeeieoey
ia? aaethoiee eo?n – oe?io, ae?aaeaio o ?iicaii?e aaetho?.

Ieoaiiy i?i oae caaiee ?aaeueiee ??aaiue aaethoiiai eo?no ? iaeiei ?c
neeaaeieo ye o oai??? oae ? o i?aeoeoe?. A?eueo iaio i?inoi aiii
ae??ooaaeinue a oiiaao cieioiai noaiaea?oo, eiee aaethoiee ? iiiaoiee
ia?eoao aecia/aany ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ai?noo a?ioiaiai iaoaeo. I?ioean
aeaiiiaoecaoe?? cieioa cia/ii oneeaaeiea iaoai?ci aaethoiiai
eo?nioai?aiiy. I?ioa ni?iae i?iaiicoaaiiy aaethoiiai eo?no ?iaeeeny aaea
aeaaii.

Iaea?eueo iiioey?iith ? iaaooue iaeaeaai?oith oai???th aecia/aiiy
aaethoiiai eo?no ? oai??y ia?eoaoo eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino?, aenoiooa
ua o 1556 ?ioe? Ia?o?iii Iaaa?i, a i?ci?oa noaea i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoueio aeiiii?no?a, oaeeo ye Ae. ??ea?aei, Ae. THi, A.
Eannae. Nooue oai??? iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaoa ioe?iea ?iicaiii? aaethoe
caeaaeeoue a?ae a?aeiinii? eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino? aeaio aaetho o
nai?o e?a?iao, oiaoi i?iiiioth/e iaaio e?euee?noue iaoi? aaethoe, ie
i?iiiio?ii a ae?eniino? ?? eoi?aaeueio ni?iiiaei?noue ii a?aeiioaiith
aei oiaa??a oa iineoa ?ioi? e?a?ie.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui ia?eoao eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino? ? eeoa iaeiei ?c
eiiiiiaio?a, ui ooai?ththoue aaethoiee eo?n, o no/aniiio aiae?c? ci?ie
oaiaeaioe?e eiai oi?ioaaiiy ? ?ooo, ?icaeyaea?oueny aieea iecee
oaeoi??a:

— iieacieee aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo;

— ci?ia a?ioiai? iane ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo;

— ??aaiue ?ioeyoe?? oa ?ioeyoe?ei? i/?eoaaiiy;

— ??aaiue i?ioeaioii? noaaee;

— ieaoini?iiiaei?noue e?a?ie ? aeia??a aei iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe ia
na?oiaiio ?eieo.

Ii?yae ?c oaeoi?aie no?oeoo?iiai oa?aeoa?o ia iiieo ? i?iiiceoe?th
aaethoe ae?thoue oaeoi?e eii’thieoo?iiai oa?aeoa?o: niaeoeyoeai?
iia?aoe?? ia aaethoieo ?eieao oa nooi?iue ?icaeoeo ?ioeo naeoi??a
o?iainiaiai ?eieo.

?c ?icoe?aiiyi ? iiaeeaeaiiyi i?ioean?a ?ioaa?aoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai
aeeooy ii??aiyiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aa?oinoae i?ioiaeeoue o ana a?eueoeo
ianooaaao, a o aaethoieo eo?nao, ye iane?aeie, ciaoiaeyoue
a?aeia?aaeaiiy oae? aeiiii?/i? eaoaai??? ye ca?ia?oia ieaoa, aeo?aoe
ae?iaieoeoaa, i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, oaiie aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy
oiui.

sseui ae aano?aaoaaoeny a?ae oai?aoe/ieo aeeneon?e ? iaoe ia oaac? nooo
oaoi?/i? aniaeoe i?iaeaie eo?nioai?aiiy, oi ?aaeueiei aaethoiei eo?nii
ne?ae aeciaoe oaea eiai cia/aiiy, yea aeicaieeoue aeinyaiooe
aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? ??aiiaaae. I?ae aioo??oiueith ??aiiaaaith
ne?ae ?icoi?oe a?aenooi?noue aeao?oeeoo oiaa??a ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo
(i?e ii?iaeueiiio ??ai? aac?ia?ooy), a ciai?oiueith ??aiiaaaith
aaaaeathoue neooaoe?th, i?e ye?e aoaeue-yeee aeenaaeain ca iioi/ieie
iia?aoe?yie o?iaino?oueny ca ?aooiie aaoiiaoe/iiai ?ooo eai?oaeo.

I?eeiath/e aei oaaae ia?icaeiai?noue ia iaoiio ?eieo ?ooo eai?oae?a ?
a?aenooi?noue ae??aeo noeioe?a aeey ?ici?uaiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo, a
oaeiae iaaaoeai? iane?aeee ??ceiai ?oeioaaiiy ?nioth/i? no?oeoo?e
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? ?aaeueiei eo?nii ne?ae aaaaeaoe oaeee eo?n, yeee ae
caaacia/oaaa ?ioa?ane aenii?oa??a oa ?iii?oa??a.

I?e a?aenooiino? ?aaeaiaioaoe?e aaethoiiai iai?io, oi?ioaaiiy aaethoieo
eo?n?a i?ioiaeeoue o iaaeao eeane/iiai ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio, oiaoi
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe??. Aoaeue-yeee iai?? eoioaaoe /e
i?iaeaaaoe a?oioo?oueny ia inoaii?e a?aeii?e aaee/ei? aaethoiiai eo?no.
sseui iiceoe?? iieoioe?a ? i?iaeaaoe?a, ye? aeieeaathoue c oeueiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o??aiiaaaeothoueny, oi aaee/eia aaethoiiai eo?no
caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiith. Aoaeue-yea ii?ooaiiy ??aiiaaae i?ecaiaeeoue aei
eiai ci?ie. Oey ci?ia o naith /a?ao ni?e/eiy? i?ioeeaaei? c?ooaiiy o
iiceoe?yo iieoioe?a ? i?iaeaaoe?a, ye? i?eiooothoue ?ooaoeny ?eiie aei
??aiiaaae. A?ae oeeo ci?i caeaaeeoue ? ?oo eai?oae?a ? aeaoe ?ic?aooie?a
ca eiio?aeoaie ? no?iee ieaoaae?a.

Eiaeiee oeaio?aeueiee aaie iiaea i?iaiaeeoe iie?oeeo aaethoieo eo?n?a ?
aieeaaoe ia oi/eo ??aiiaaae ?eieo, ci?ithth/e naith aaethoio iiceoe?th.
A?i iiaea i?ecoieiyoe iaae?iiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe, i?iaeath/e
?iicaiio aaethoo ? ia aeiioneaoe ?? c?inoaiiy — aenooiath/e iieoioeai
?iaaethoe. O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo a?i ae/a?io? nai? aaethoi? ?aca?ae, o
ae?oaiio a?i ?o ca?eueoo?. Nenoaiaoe/i? ?ioa?aaioe?? iaia’yceia? aeey
caaacia/aiiy nenoaie o?eniaaieo aaethoieo eo?n?a, iiae?aieo aei oeo, ui
ia?aaeaa/aee aeey an?o aaetho A?aooii-Aoaenuee? oaiaee. ? iaaiaee,
“/enoa ieaaaiiy” ae?aaea?oueny o oiio, ui oeaio?aeueiee aaie iiai?noth
oo?eio?oueny a?ae iia?aoe?e ia aaethoiiio ?eieo.

Aii?yaeeoaaiiy eieeaaiue eo?no iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe ia aaethoiiio
?eieo – oea iaeia c iniiaieo caaaeaiue oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo. Aeey
oeueiai a?i aeei?enoiao? aea?aeaai? aaethoi? ?aca?ae ? e??i oiai iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiceee i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ?ioeo oeaio?aeueieo
aaie?a ? iaa?oue eiia?oe?eieo.

I?ioa yeui iioi/i? ieaoaae? iathoue o?eaaea ? cia/ia ii?ooaiiy
??aiiaaae, oi oeae aeae ?ioa?aaioe?e oaeaeei ciaeaea nai? iaae?. Eeoa
iie?oeea, ni?yiiaaia ia ca?eueoaiiy i?eaaaeeaino? ?ici?uaiiy eai?oaeo o
iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaetho? /e ia oa, uia aeeeeeaoe ?ioa?an ?aceaeaio?a aei
caiice/aiiy a ?iicaii?e aaetho?, iiaea aeicaieeoe caaacia/eoe iiao
??aiiaaao ia ?eieo.

Oiiaaie oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaethoiiai ?eieo ? iaoiaee iiiaoa?ii?
? athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee iaoe?eaii? ia oa, uia:

— caaacia/eoe aeinoaoi? ? iino?ei? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aaethoe ia ?eiie,
oeyoii cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo noeioe?a aeey aenii?oa??a;
iieaaooth/e ieoi? i?ioeaaeo?e; caeo/ath/e ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a oa
aeei?enoiaoth/e aaethoi? ?ioa?aaioe?? oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo.

— caaacia/oaaoe aeinooi ?iii?oa??a ia aaethoiee ?eiie oeyoii a?aei?ie
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeicaie?a ia i?eaeaaiiy aaethoe oa i?ea?ea?a aeey
“e?eoe/iiai ?iii?oo”.

Oaeiae aeoaea aaaeeeai, uia aeey i?aeo?eiee ?icaeoeo aaethoiiai ?eieo,
oeaio?aeueiee aaie aa?aiooaaa ?aei?noue oiia aeey an?o o/aniee?a ?eieo,
aeeth/ath/e ? nai oeaio?aeueiee aaie ? o?yae, ye? iiaeii? eoioaaoe
aaethoo ia ?eieo ia caaaeueieo canaaeao (aeiyoeii iiaea aooe eeoa
i?eaeaaiiy ?iicaiii? aaethoe aeey noai?aiiy io?oe?eiiai aaethoiiai
?aca?ao /e iiaaoaiiy ciai?oiuei? caai?aiaaiino?).

Aea?aaeaiaioaoe?y aaethoiiai ?eieo ciaioo? aee?eaeaiiy eia?ee ?eieo, a
a?aee?eooy ei?aeii?a aeicaiey? ooieoe?iioaaoe oaeoi?o eiieo?aioe?? o
caaeiaieaii? iaoe?iiaeueieo iio?aa, iaaeath/e aeey oeueiai caiuaaeaeaiiy
??cieo e?a?i. C ii/aoeii no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee, Oe?a?ia
a?ae/oea aino?o iio?aao o o?iainiaeo ?ano?nao, ye? iio??ai? ia eeoa aeey
i?aeo?eiee i?iaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i, aea e aeey noai?aiiy a?eueo
e?aa?aeueieo ieao?aeieo ?aaeei?a oa a?aeiiaeaiiy aaethoieo ?aca?a?a.
Oiio aeo?ae Oe?a?ie ia ?a?iaaethoiee ?eiie, aacia?a/ii ? iiceoeaiei
yaeuai aeey oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee.

?a?iaaethoiee ?eiie – oea ?eiie, ia yeiio i?iaiaeyoueny iia?aoe?? ii
caeo/aiith ? ?ici?uaiith a?eueieo eioo?a ae?aaeaieo o aaetho?,
a?aei?ii?e a?ae aaethoe e?a?ie o/anieea oeeo iia?aoe?e. Oiio oe?
iia?aoe?? iai?aeeyaathoue aaethoiiio ?aaoethaaiith. ?a?iaaethoiee ?eiie
aea? iiaeeea?noue a?eueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiieoo oa i?iiiceoe?? ia
o?iainia? ?ano?ne o na?oiaiio ianooaa?. A?i i?iiiio? o?yaeai, aaieai oa
i?aei?e?inoaai caaeiaieueiyoe ?o iio?aae o eiooao, ia caa?oath/enue aei
aioo??oiueiai ?eieo, yeee iiaea aooe caiaaeoi aocueeei /e caiaaeoi
ca?aaeaiaioiaaiei aai aei aioo??oi?o ?eie?a ?ioeo e?a?i, ye? iiaeooue
aooe aaaeeiaeinooiieie. E??i oiai ?a?iaaethoiee ?eiie iaaea? aeiiii?/iei
aaaioai aaaeeea? caniae caoenoo a?ae aaethoieo ?ecee?a ?, iae?iaoeue,
a?i noeioeth? eiieo?aioe?th oa aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe aa?o?noue
aaie?anueeiai iina?aaeieoeoaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaii iia?aoe?? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a c
?iicaiiith aaethoith. O e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith ? Oe?a?i?
cie?aia, iaaeiioe?ith?oueny cia/aiiy aaethoiiai ?eieo oa ?ie? aaie?a o
eiai aoaeoeaiiio ooieoe?iioaaii?.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio noa’?eo?a aaethoiiai ?eieo, ye? i?iaiaeyoue i?ae
niaith oaiaee eoi?ae? i?iaeaaeo aa?oi aeae?eeoe i?aeaaie?anueeee,
ee??ionueeee oa aio?aeiaee.

Ia ?eiie aio?aeiai? aaethoe o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao i?eiaaea? aeecueei
iaeiiai a?aenioea caaaeueiiai ianyao aaethoiiai ?eieo. I?ioa o e?a?iao c
ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith a?i ia? iaaaaaoi a?eueoa cia/aiiy, ine?eueee
a?i neoaeeoue oi?iith no?aooaaiiy iniaenoeo iaeiie/aiue, caniaii, yeee
aeicaiey? ia?eoe aaei?i?no?aoeai? iaiaaeaiiy ia i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e c
aacaio?aeiaith ?iicaiiith aaethoith, a oaeiae a?i ? nai???aeiei
iie?oe/iei “aa?iiao?ii”.

Ianya ee??ionueeiai ?eieo a iniiaiiio caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaino? e?a?ie oa ?icaeoeo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a.
Iniiaith ae nenoaie aaethoieo iia?aoe?e ? i?aeaaie?anueeee aaethoiee
?eiie, ia yeee i?eiaaea? aeecueei 80 a?aenioe?a na?oiaiai ianyao
aaethoe. Noa’?eoaie oeueiai ?eieo, ye i?aaeei, ? oeaio?aeuei? oa
eiia?oe?ei? aaiee, ye? i?iyaeythoue iino?eio aeoeai?noue ia iueiio.

Aeey oni?oii? ?iaioe ia i?aeaaie?anueeiio ?eieo iaiao?aeii iino?eii
iaeiie/oaaoe ?acoeueoaoe uiaeaiii? ?iaioe aeey iiaeaeueoiai aiae?co
(iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, aoee /e ia aoee oeeaaeai? oaiaee). ?ieiee
aeioe?eueii iaeiie/oaaoe ? i?ii?aei? ?acoeueoaoe. Oea aeicaieeoue a
iiaeaeueoiio ?iaeoe a?eueo oi/i? i?iaiice ii ?eieo, iii?/aoe
??ciiiai?oi? ca’ycee aeaiiai ?eieo c ?ioeie o?iainiaeie ?eieaie,
i?eeiaoe iia?aoeai? ??oaiiy, yeui neooaoe?y ? ianoaiaea?oiith.

A e?eciaeo neooaoe?yo o a?eueoino? aaie?a, ye? caeiathoue aeoeaio
iiceoe?th ia i?aeaaie?anueeiio ?eieo, iiaeooue aeieeiooe na?eici?
i?iaeaie. ? oi/a, ye i?aaeei, ia??iaee e?ece ia iinyoue caoyaeiiai
oa?aeoa?o, ao?aoe aaie?a ca oeae /an iiaeooue aeyaeoeny aeineoue
cia/ieie, ui ? niinoa??aaeiny iauiaeaaii a Oe?a?i?. C 7 aa?aniy 1998
?ieo aoei caai?iiaii aaethoiiai?ii? iia?aoe?? c oaa?aeeie aaethoaie ia
i?aeaaie?anueeiio aaethoiiio ?eieo. IAO caai?iiea iia?aoe?? ia
i?aeaaie?anueeiio ?eieo c oe?eeth iaeo?ae?caoe?? niaeoeyoeaiiai oeneo ia
eo?n ? iineeaiiy ?aaoeueiaaiino? eo?no a?eaie aei aeiea?a NOA. Aeaia
??oaiiy cae/aeii aei?aaaeaia e?eciaith neooaoe??th, i?ioa aiii
aacia?a/ii i?ecaaei aei nei?i/aiiy aeioiae?a aaie?a a?ae aaethoiiai?iieo
iia?aoe?e ? ca?eueiaiiy ae?ea??a

E?ece ia i?aeaaie?anueeeo ?eieao aeieeathoue ia /a?ac ci?ie neooaoe?e ia
noi?aeieo aeoeaieo o?iainiaeo ?eieao, a /a?ac caaaeuei? oaeoi?e, ui
oyaiooue ca niaith aaceaae o an?e o?iainia?e nenoai? e?a?ie (a /anoi ?
na?o?).

I?aeaaie?anueeee aaethoiee ?eiie Oe?a?ie ia? ieceo iniaeeainoae (a
ii??aiyii? c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi i?aeaaie?anueeeo ?eie?a ?ioeo e?a?i)
iia’ycaieo o ia?oo /a?ao c? niaoeeo?eith no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae
aeiiii?ee e?a?ie. A?i aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe cia/i? i?eaooee ca ?aooiie
i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo, ii??aiyii c oeie ?eceeaie, ye? ianooue aaiee i?e
?iaio? ia aeaiiio ?eieo o noaa?eueiiio aeiiii?/iiio na?aaeiaeu? (?en.
1.).

sse i?aaeei, ?c ci?oeiaiiyi aeiiii?ee aeio?aei?noue i?aeaaie?anueeiai
aaethoiiai ?eieo ciaioo?oueny. I?ioa ia ciaioaiiy aeio?aeiino? a?ae
iia?aoe?e ia ?eieo Oe?a?ie aieeioee oaeaeoa e?ecia? neooaoe?? a
aeiiii?oe? ? iaiaaeaiiy IAO ia i?iaaaeaiiy aaethoieo iia?aoe?e i?ae
noaa?euei?noue aeiiii?ee.

Iniiai? oaeoi?e, ye? aecia/athoue noai i?aeaaie?anueeiai aaethoiiai
?eieo Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei?:

-iecueea ia?aaeaa/oaai?noue ci?ie eo?no a?eai? ii a?aeiioaiith aei
?iicaiieo aaetho;

-a?aenooi?noue ?icaeiooiai ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a;

— ia?icaeioo?noue canoaaii? nenoaie;

-iaiine?aeiai? ae?? o?yaeo;

— iaaeinooii?noue aei ?ioi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o aeey aaaaoueio
noa’?eo?a ?eieo;

— neaaea ?iaioa oe?a?inueeeo aaie?a ia i?aeia?iaeiiio aaethoiiio ?eieo;

— a?aenooi?noue aeinoaoiueiai aeina?aeo ?iaioe ia ?eieo o aaie?anueeeo
i?aoe?aiee?a.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie i?aeaaie?anueeiai aaethoiiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie
aeicaieeoue ia?aeoe aei a?eueo neeaaeieo aeae?a o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino?
? ae??oeoe /anoeio caaaeaiue iia’ycaieo c? no?aoaa??th ye ie?aii acyoiai
aaieo, oae ? aaie?anueei? nenoaie a oe?eiio.

Aaethoi? iia?aoe??, oiaoi oaiaee ii eoi?ae? oa i?iaeaaeo ?iicaiii?
aaethoe, ye i?aaeei iiae?eythoueny ia “eania?” oa “no?ieia?”. I?ioa oaea
eeaneo?eaoe?y ia aeicaiey? ?icaeyiooe ieceo a?aei?iiinoae oa?aeoa?ieo
aeey eiie?aoieo aeae?a oaiae c ?iicaiiith aaethoith, ye?
canoiniaothoueny a i?aeia?iaei?e i?aeoeoe?.

?icaeoie cania?a oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e, nenoaie aeaeo?iiieo i?aeaaie?anueeeo
ia?aeac?a ni?e/eiea iiyao ei?ioeino?ieiaeo eiiaa?n?eieo iia?aoe?e —
oaiae oeio “oiae” ? ”oii”

I?e cae?eniaii? aaethoieo iia?aoe?e aeoaea aaaeeeaei ? oi/ia
anoaiiaeaiiy aeaoe iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aaethoe – “aeaoe aaethooaaiiy” aeey
caaacia/aiiy i?eioeeio eiiiainiaaii? aa?oino?, ia iniia? yeiai ae??
aaethoiee ?eiie. Nooue i?eioeeio iieyaa? a oiio, ui i? iaeia ?c
noi??i-o/anieoeue iai?iii? oaiaee, ia iaaea? e?aaeeoo ?io?e. Oiio
aeee?ia c iinoaaeith aaethoe a aeaiue oeeaaeaiiy oaiaee aa?oi
aeei?enoiaoaaoe eeoa a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui aeey ?ic?aooie?a
aeei?enoiao?oueny aaethoa e?a?ie, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a a?eueo i?ci?e
/ania?e cii?.

Ine?eueee ei?ioeino?ieia? oaiaee ? iniiaiei oaeoi?ii aecia/aiiy
e?ea?aeiino?, a?aeiia?aeiee ianya oeeo oaiae, ye i?aaeei, ia?aaeuo?
ianya eioo?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a iia?aoe?yo c a?eueo o?eaaeei
no?ieii. I?ioa aeine?aeaeaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo oa i?aeoe/ieo iio?aa
?icaeoeo aaethoiiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue
noai?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo no?ieiaiai ?eieo, yeee aeicaiey?:

— ae?iaieeai oa niiaeeaa/ai iae??ciiiai?oi?oi? i?iaeoeoe?? oieeiooe /e
ciaioeoe oe?iiaee ?ecee i?e ?aae?caoe?? /e eoi?ae? oiaa??a;

— aenii?oa?ai oa ?iii?oa?ai ciaioeoe ?ecee i?e ci?i? aaethoiiai eo?no.
Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy o ca?eueoaii? aeoeaiino? ia oeueiio ?eieo iathoue
?iicaii? ?iaanoi?e, ye? caoe?eaaeai? aeeaaeaoe eiooe a oe?a?inuee?
o?iainia? ?ino?oiaioe oa no?aooaaoe naaa a?ae ?ecee?a ci?ie eo?no a?eai?
aei ?iicaiieo aaetho c oe?eeth ?aiao??aoe?? i?eaooe?a;

— aeanieeai o?iainiaeo aeoea?a cano?aooaaoe naaa a?ae ?eceeo iaae?iiy ?o
eo?niai? aa?oino?, a iice/aeueieeai a?ae ?eceeo ci?ie i?ioeaioieo
noaaie.

Ioaea, no?ieiaee ?eiie, ca nai?i i?ecia/aiiyi ia? neoaoaaoe iaoai?ciii
no?aooaaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ecee?a a oiiaao ianoaa?eueii? aeiiii?/ii?
eii’thieoo?e. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeueiai ?eieo aea? ciiao noa’?eoai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy iaeneiaeueii i?i?i?coaaoe nai? ?eceee. I?eaaaeeaei a?i
? ua e oiio, ui i?iiiio? aenieii?eaooeia? ?ino?oiaioe ?iaanooaaiiy
a?eueieo eioo?a.

?icaeoie iiae?e ia aaethoiiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie na?ae/eoue, ui ?iaioa c
aaethoieie aea?eaaoeaaie ae?ae iaiao?aeia.

Inoaii?i /anii a Oe?a?i? ana a?eueoa aaie?a caeiathoueny e?aaeeooaaiiyi
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?. E?aaeeooaaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny ye ca ?aooiie aeanieo
aaethoieo eioo?a oae ? ca ?aooiie e?aaeeo?a, io?eiaieo a?ae ?iicaiieo
aaie?a oa i?aeia?iaeieo o?iainiaeo i?aai?caoe?e ca i?aeaea?aeaaieie oa
i?aeo?yaeiaeie oaiaeaie.

*anoea aeaeaieo e?aaeeo?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho? o caaaeueiiio ianyc?
aeaeaieo e?aaeeo?a iino?eii c?inoa? (?en. 2.).

Oea iiynith?oueny ? ?icaeoeii ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie oa
?icoe?aiiyi i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?, ? oei oaeoii, ui e?aaeeooaaiiy a
?iicaii?e aaetho? ? ae??aei ?ino?oiaioii no?aooaaiiy ?ioeyoe?eieo
?ecee?a

Aaie?anuee? nenoaie a ??cieo e?a?iao iathoue nai?, ?ieiee niaoeeo?/i?
oi?ie o?iainoaaiiy i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? (?en. 3). Iaaeaeue
aeuai?eaaaeaia ??ciiiai?ooy iaoiae?a o?iainoaaiiy ye aenii?oo oae ?
?iii?oo iaoeie aaieaie ia aeei?enoiao?oueny, ciaoiaeyoue canoinoaaiiy
eeoa aeaye? c ieo, ye? iinyoue a iniiaiiio ei?ioeinoieiaee oa?aeoa?. Oea
iia`ycaii c aaaaoueia i?e/eiaie: iano?eeith iie?oeeith aea?aeaae ia
oa?ai? aenii?oii-?iii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy; a?aenooi?noth ?aaeueieo
iiaeeeainoae no?aooaaiiy aaethoieo e?aaeeo?a oa ?yaeii ?ioeo. Oiio
aieiaieie e?eoa??yie, ia iaoo aeoieo, i?ae /an ?icaeyaeo caya
iice/aeueieea i?e io?eiaii? aaethoiiai e?aaeeoo aenooiathoue:

— aaethoia ieoii?noue i?iaeoo;

— o?iainia? iiaeeeaino? iice/aeueieea ye? a caaacia/oaaee iiaa?iaiiy
e?aaeeoo;

— aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue e?aaeeoiiai i?iaeoo.

E?aaeeoe a ?iicaii?e aaetho? iiaeii? aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ia oe?e?
cacia/ai? a e?aaeeoiiio aeiaiai??. Oe? oe?e? aecia/athoueny ia i?aenoaa?
eiio?aeoo /e aeiaiai?o c ?iicaiiith o??iith /e o??iith-?aceaeaioii, yea
niaoe?ae?co?oueny ia cae?eniaii? ?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e. Oe?eue i?iaeoo a
aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao aecia/a? no?iee e?aaeeooaaiiy, a?ao?e aeei?enoaiiy
oa a?ao?e ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao. sse i?aaeei, no?ie e?aaeeoo
iaiaaeo?oueny i/?eoaaiei no?ieii i?iaeoo oa i/?eoaaiith caeaoi?noth
ee??ioa ianeoaiaoaaoe ai?a.

I?iaeaia iaiiaa?iaiiy e?aaeeo?a noi?oue ca?ac ia?aae oe?a?inueeeie
aaieaie aeoaea aino?i. Oiio i?e oeeaaeaii? aeiaiai?o c iice/aeueieeii
ne?ae ia?aaeaa/eoe oo?aoi? naieoe?? ca ii?ooaiiy a?ao?eo iiaaoaiiy
e?aaeeoo.

Aaaeeeai oaeiae ?ic?iaeoe /?oeee iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? iaeia, aa?aio?e o
aeiaaeeo iaaeeiiaiiy ciaia`ycaiue, a oaeiae aeiaaaoe a?ae iioaioe?eieo
iice/aeueiee?a i?e i?aaenoaaeai? iaeaoo aeieoiaio?a ia ?icaeyae
i?aaenoaaeaiiy aeieoiaioo, yeee ae cana?ae/oaaa iiia?aaeith iieaoo iei
eii?n?? ca aiae?c iaeaoo aeieoiaio?a.

I?aeo?ae aaie?a aei iie?oeee aaethoiiai e?aaeeooaaiiy iiaeiai
i???iooaaoeny ia aeinyaiaiiy iaea?eueoi? aoaeoeaiino? i?e aeio?eiaii?
aeiionoeiiai ??aiy ?eceeo. Oea aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ?aoaeueiiai
aea/aiiy o?iainiaiai noaiiaeua iice/aeueieea, aeeaieiai ciaiiy ?eieo oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy oaiaeaioe?e eiai ?icaeoeo.

I?e cae?eniai? e?aaeeooaaiiy a ?iicaii?e aaetho? iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe ia
eeoa aenieee ??aaiue i?eaooeiaino? oeeo iia?aoe?e, aea e aenieee
nooi?iue ?o ?eceeo, iia`ycaiee c iia?eueiei i?ioiaeaeaiiyi i?aeia?iaeieo
ieaoaae?a; neeaaei?noth canoinoaaiiy caeiio “I?i canoaao” i?e
?aae?caoe?? noaie caaacia/aiiy iiaa?iaiiy e?aaeeoo a neeo caaeuaii?
aa?oino? iioa??aeueiiai ioi?ieaiiy aeiaiai?o canoaae; ci?iith aaethoieo
eo?n?a.

Oi?aae?iiy e?aaeeoiei ?eceeii ? iaeiei c iniiaieo a aaie?anuee?e ni?aa?.
I?ioean oi?aae?iiy e?aaeeoaie caneoaiao? iniaeeai? oaaae, oiio ui a?ae
eiai yeino? caeaaeeoue oni?o ?iaioe aaieo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c
aeine?aeaeaiiyi noaiiaeaiiy aaethoii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie. No?oeoo?a
aaethoiiai ?eieo eiaeii? e?a?ie aaaaoi a /iio caeaaeeoue a?ae iie?oeee
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, a?ae i??e ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a o aaethoii-e?aaeeoi? oa o?iainia? a?aeiineie, yea i?iaiaeeoueny
/a?ac aaethoia ?aaoethaaiiy, ni?yiiaaia a ia?oo /a?ao ia i?aeo?eiaiiy
noaa?eueiiai aaethoiiai eo?no ? ae??aithaaiiy ieao?aeiiai aaeaino
e?a?ie.

Iie?oeea aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac iaoai?ci aaethoieo
iaiaaeaiue ? aaethoiiai eiio?ieth. Aaethoi? iaiaaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/athoue
iaai? caoiaee ii ?aaoethaaiith aaethoieo iia?aoe?e ?aceaeaio?a oa
ia?aceaeaio?a, i?iaaaeaiith ieie ieaoaae?a, ?iaanoeoe?e, ii?yaeeo
ia?aeac?a iaoe?iiaeueii? oa ?iicaiii? aaethoe ca ei?aeii, ii?yaeeo
?aiao??aoe?? i?eaooeo. Aaethoia ?aaoethaaiiy, iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye
eiiieaen caoiae?a (caeiiiaeaa/eo, aaei?i?no?aoeaieo, aeiiii?/ieo,
i?aai?caoe?eieo) oa ye neeaaeiao aaethoii? iie?oeee e?a?ie, ni?yiiaaii?
ia anoaiiaeaiiy ii?yaeeo i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e c aaethoieie oe?iiinoyie
? i?e?aeiaiiy e?a?ie aei na?oiaiai aaethoiiai ?eieo

A?eueo?noue e?a?i, eio?? iathoue ca?ac a?eueiee aaethoiee ?eiie oa
a?eueiieiiaa?oiaaio aaethoo (iaeaea an? e?a?ie Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, NOA,
ssiii?? oa ?io?) a nai?o aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo aeei?enoiaoaaee
iie?oeeo aei?noeeo iaiaaeaiue uiaei ?ooo eai?oaeo oa i?iaaaeaiiy
iioi/ieo aaethoieo iia?aoe?e aei oiai, ye c’yaeeanue iiaeeea?noue
iiai?noth a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae ieo.

Eiee aaethoi? ?eiee noathoue a?aee?eoeie, aea?aeaa? o?aaa i?eeeanoe
/eiaei coneeue, uia ia?aai?ioe iane?aeee a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii?
iaaeenoeeie?iiaaiino?. Uia oieeiooe ?eceeo, iia’ycaiiai c a?aeoieii
eai?oaeo, iano?ee?noth a?a?o?aaeieo iia?aoe?e o?yae iiaeiai i?iaiaeeoe
aeoaea caaaeaio iie?oeeo.

I?eieea eai?oaeo, ye i?aaeei, i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy eo?no
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe a ?aaeueiiio ae?aaeaii? ? iiaea aieeaaoe ia
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue ? aioo??oi? caiuaaeaeaiiy. I?ioa a?i iiaea iaoe
? aeanoaa?e?coth/ee aieea, ine?eueee iaaecae/aeii oaeaeei ?aaao? ia
ei?ioeino?ieia? iaaa?acaee o ooieoe?iioaaii? o?iainiai? nenoaie. sse
iieaco? aeina?ae, oae? neooaoe?? iiaeooue oaeaeei iioe?eoeny ia ?io?
e?a?ie ? iaa?oue ?aa?iie.

Iniiaieie oe?eyie aaethoiiai eiio?ieth ? caoeno aeiiii?ee e?a?ie a?ae
??ceeo eieeaaiue a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie oa ciaioaiiy aaethoieo
?aca?a?a, ni?e/eiaieo ?ooii eai?oaeo. A oaeiae caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii?, a oiio /ene? aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee.

?cieueiaai?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo aaethoieo ?eie?a iaeei a?ae iaeiiai, ia
caaacia/o? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy a?eueieo eioo?a aeey
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ye iaoe?iiaeueii?, oae ? na?oiai? aeiiii?ee. Oe?a?i?
aeia?a ciaeiia oey neooaoe?y, yea ia ni?ey? i? ?icaeoeo oi?a?ae?, i?
i?iieneiaino?.

Ii/aoie ?a?iiaenueei? oa na?oiai? o?iainiai? ?ioaa?aoe?? aeicaieeoue
iineeeoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue ?ici?uaiiy a?ioiaeo ?ano?n?a o na?oiaiio
ianooaa?. Aea?aaeaiaioaoe?y ?eie?a ? aaethoieo ?eie?a cie?aia,
aeicaieeoue ae?yoe oaeoi?o eiieo?aioe?? a caaeiaieaii? iaoe?iiaeueieo
iio?aa, iaaeath/e aeey oeueiai a?euei? a?ioia? eiooe ??cieo e?a?i.

Ia aeeaey/enue ia caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th aei noai?aiiy a?eueieo ?eie?a,
a aaaaoueio e?a?iao ?nio? ?oo ? a i?ioeeaaeiiio iai?yieo. Iaaei??iee
e?aa?ae?ci noa? i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aeiia ? noa? aaaeei
?icoi?oe ye? c ieo ne?ae caaeiaieueiyoe, a ye? i?.

Io?oe?ei? i?aaeea ? iieiaeaiiy eieeaathoueny i?ae oaeeie e?aeiiuaie, ye
iiai?noth eiio?ieueiaai? ?eiee, aei iiaii? naiaiaee a on?o aniaeoao.
?icaeoie aioo??oiueiai aaethoiiai ?eieo i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo e?a?i
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, NOA, ssiii??, a oaeiae ci?oeiaiiy ca’yce?a oeeo e?a?i
c i?aeia?iaeieie aaethoii-o?iainiaeie no?oeoo?aie i?ecaaee aei
i?iaaaeaeaiiy aaaeeeaeo ?aoi?i a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee ?
iineaaeaiith aaethoiiai eiio?ieth. A ?acoeueoao? ia aeaiee /an a oeeo
e?a?iao cia/ii ?icoe?ai? i?aaa ?aceaeaio?a ? a?aei?iai? iniiai?
iaiaaeaiiy ia iia?aoe??, ye? i?iaiaeyoue ia?aceaeaioe. ?aaoethaaiiy ?ooo
eai?oaeo noaei iinooiiai caaacia/oaaoeny ?eieiaeie iaoai?ciaie oa
?ino?oiaioaie a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee. Ii?iaeueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aaethoiiai ?eieo aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii iinooiiai? e?aa?ae?caoe??
??ciiiai?oieo iaiaaeaiue.

Aaaeath/e aeinyaiooe noaa?e?caoe?? noaio aaethoiiai ?eieo aea?aeaaa
iiaea ao?o/aoeny a eiai ae?yeuei?noue ye ia noi?ii? iiieoo, oae ? ia
noi?ii? i?iiiceoe?? ?iicaiii? aaethoe. Ui noino?oueny aeiiii?/ieo
caoiae?a aieeao, oi aiie, a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao?, caiaeyoueny aei
aieeao ia aeeiai?eo aaethoiiai eo?no. Iaeiae a Oe?a?i?, c ia?icaeiaiei
aaethoiei ?eieii, canoiniaothoueny ? iaaeiiii?/i? caoiaee, ye?
caaacia/othoue ca?eueoaiiy i?iiiceoe?? ? ciaioaiiy iiieoo ia ?iicaiio
aaethoo oeyoii iaaii? ?aaeaiaioaoe??, yea a?aei?iy?oueny ii i???
aeinyaiaiiy iaaii? oe?e?.

O i?ioean? e?aa?ae?caoe?? aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, aeey aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a aeoaea aaaeeeai aeoiaeeoe ia c aano?aeoii? ei?eniino? /e
oe?aeeeaino? iayaiino? oiai /e ?ioiai iaiaaeaiiy. Iaia’yceiai ne?ae
a?aooaaoe ioe?ieo eiai aieeao ??cieie a?oiaie noa’?eo?a ?eieo c
a?aooaaiiyi ?o aieeao a noni?euenoa? ? ei?aeooaaoe c a?aooaaiiyi oeueiai
nai? ae??. A oeueiio, aeania, ? iieyaa? nooi?noue aoaeue-yei?, a oiio
/ene? ? aaethoii? iie?oeee. Ioaea o?yae oa oeaio?aeueiee aaie,
cae?enithth/e aaethoia ?aaoethaaiiy, iiaeii? aeoiaeeoe o nai?e i?aeoeoe?
c oiai, ui a oe?e noa?? ??ciiiai?oi? noa’?eoe aaethoiiai ?eieo iathoue
??ci?, ?ieiee i?ioeeaaei? ?ioa?ane.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?inoaaeo?oueny caeiiii??i?noue o
?icaeoeo aaethoiiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie oa ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i ? ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ?icaeiooee aaethoiee ?eiie aea? aeey noa’?eo?a ?eieo
iiaeeea?noue ia?eoe iaiaaeaiiy ye eaaaeueiei oae ? ia eaaaeueiei oeyoii.
Aoaeoeai?noue aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaiaaeaiue iaoiiaeth?oueny ye
iiaeeeainoyie aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, oae ? neeith niiioeaeueieo iioea?a
uiaei ?o ii?ooaiiy (iie?oe/ia ianoaa?euei?noue, ia?aaeuei?noue
aaethoiiai eo?no, aenie? noaaee iiiaeaoeoaaiiy).

Na?oiaee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue, ui e?a?ie c? neaaeith iae?iaeiiii?/iith
iie?oeeith ? iaaecia/aieie aeiiii?/ieie ia?niaeoeaaie ia iiaeooue
caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaiee eiio?ieue ca i?iaaaeaiiyi iia?aoe?e c ?iicaiiith
aaethoith iaa?oue i?e aeei?enoaii? “ae?aeii?anueeeo” caoiae?a
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aieeao. Aoaeoeaieie iiae?ai? iaiaaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
eeoa a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui aiie aeiiiaiththoueny nooo?aeie ia?aaaaaie
?ici?uaiiy eai?oaeo a iaoe?iiaeueio aeiiii?eo o ii??aiyii? c
iiaeeeainoyie aenii?oo eai?oaeo ca ei?aeii.

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe??

1.I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aaethoiiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie oa ae?yeueiino?
aaie?a ia iueiio, aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui nooi?iue
?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaethoiiai ?eieo iiaeiai aooe aaeaeaaoiei ia
o?eueee aeinyaiooiio ??aith aaiethoe?? na?oiaiai aaethoiiai ?eieo, aea e
??aith ?icaeoeo nenoaie ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei aeaii? e?a?ie.

2. ?icaeoie aaethoiiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie, c?inoaiiy ianyao
aenii?oii-?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e, ca?eueoaiiy ianyao ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy aeineoue aino?i iinoaaeee i?iaeaio i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?eceeo
iia?aoe?e c ?iicaiiith aaethoith. *a?ac iaaeinoaoith ?icaeiai?noue
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie, a?aenooi?noue ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e aeey
oe?a?inueeeo aaie?a, niaeo? iaoiae?a oaaeaeoaaiiy (ye? canoiniaothoueny
o ca?oa?aei?e i?aeoeoe?) aeoaea iaiaaeaiee, oiio a aeaieo oiiaao aa?oi
caa?iooe oaaao ia i?aaeeueiee aea?? aaethoe ?ic?aooie?a; ?aaoethaaiiy
aaethoii? iiceoe??; eiiaa?n?ei? oa a?a?o?aaei? iia?aoe??.

3. I?e iaaeinoaoiino? aeaea?ae e?aaeeooaaiiy ? cia/i?e caai?aiaaiino?
Oe?a?ie, a yeino? iaeiiai ?c niinia?a i?aai?caoe?? i?aeia?iaeii?
oi?a?ae? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeei?enoaiiy oi?i cono??/ii? oi?a?ae?.

4. ?aiao??aoe?y aaethoieo i?eaooe?a ?c-ca ei?aeiio ? ?o ca?aooaaiiy ia
?aooiee oiiaiiaaaeaieo aaie?a iiaeiia iaoe iaia’yceiaee oa?aeoa? aei oeo
i?? iiee ia aoaea aeinyaiooi no?eei? ? o?eaaei? ??aiiaaae ieao?aeiiai
aaeaino e?a?ie.

5. Aecia/ath/e iai?yie aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, aea?aeaai? i?aaie
iiaeii? i?eeiaoe aei oaaae ye ??cia cia/aiiy o??? /e ?ioi? a?oie
noa’?eo?a a aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo? e?a?ie, oae ? ??cio nooi?iue
caoe?eaaeaiino? ?o o ae??oaii? ie?aieo ieoaiue aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy.
Aeoaea aaaeeeai, uia i?e oeueiio ia o?eueee aoea a?aoiaaia “ieoiia aaaa”
?ioa?an?a ??ciiiai?oieo noa’?eo?a ?eieo, aea e uia o oe?eiio nenoaia
aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaea aeiiaai eia?ee, a ia yaeyea niaith
i?inoi noi?o ??cieo ??oaiue, iaoiiaeaieo eeoa no?eie?iiyi aei
eiii?ii?no.

6.Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie nenoaie aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiaeiai aooe
iine?aeiaiei, oi/a oaiie ci?i iiaeooue i?enei?thaaoeny /e
niia?eueithaaoeny, a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiie?aoii? aeiiii?/ii? oa
iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??. Oaeiae aeoaea aaaeeeai, uia o i?ioean? ?icaeoeo
nenoaie aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aoea i?enooiy iaaia iine?aeiai?noue ae?e
aeey oiai, uia ia ii?oooaaoe aeinyaiooo ocaiaeaeai?noue ?ioa?an?a
??ciiiai?oieo noa’?eo?a aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie.

7.Oeaio?aeueiee aaie, iacaaaeath/e ia iiaeaeueoo e?aa?ae?caoe?th
aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, iiaeiai ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe i?aaeea, ye? a
caaacia/oaaee a?eueoo i?oei?noue aaie?anueei? nenoaie oa noaa?euei?noue
aaethoiiai ?eieo, ine?eueee ia?aaaae aaethoiiai eiio?ieth iieyaathoue ia
eeoa o i?yiiio “iaoai?/iiio aieea?” ia o?iainia? iioiee i?ae Oe?a?iith ?
caei?aeiiii, aea e oaeiae ? a eiai no?eioth/iio ineoieia?/iiio aoaeo?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo

1.Ai?eoeaae/ I.A. ?a?i?eiie ? eiai iniiai? o?iainia? ?inooiaioe //A?niee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie. – 1997. -?5 – n.26-30. – 0,8 ae?. a?e.

2.Ai?eoeaae/ I.A. Oaiaeaioe?? ?ici?uaiiy aeaiiceoa?ieo ?icienie.
//A?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie. – 1997. -?11 – n.46-48. – 0,6
ae?. a?e.

3.Ai?eoeaae/ I.A. Aaethoia e?aaeeooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?: i?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae. // Aaie?anueea ni?aaa. – 1997. — ?2 – n.43-46. – 0,5 ae?.
a?e.

4.Ai?eoeaae/ I.A. I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo aaethoieo e?aaeeo?a.//
Aeiiii?ea oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo
oa ani??aio?a. Aei. 1. E.: EIAO, 1997. – n. 151-154.- 0,2 ae?. a?e.

Aiioaoe?y

Ai?eoeaae/ I.A. Aaiee ia aaethoiiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.04.01.- O?iaine a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo, —
Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ia aaethoiiio
?eieo. Eiei ieoaiue, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny o ?iaio? aeeth/a? aiae?c
no/aniiai noaio aaethoiiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie oa aeaee iia?aoe?e, ye? ia
iueiio i?iaiaeyoueny, ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy aaethoiiai eo?no. Cia/ia oaaaa
i?eae?eaia aaethoiiio ?aaoethaaiith ? aaethoiiio eiio?ieth, ye aeaiaioai
iae?iaeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i?. I?iaiae?ciaaii ia?oee aeina?ae
aeei?enoaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a c iaoith caaacia/aiiy oi?aae?iiy
aaethoieie ?eceeaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaethoiee ?eiie, aaethoia iiceoe?y, oaaeaeoaaiiy,
aaethoiee eo?n, aaethoia ?aaoethaaiiy.

Aiiioaoeey

Ai?eoeaae/ A.A. Aaiee ia aaethoiii ?uiea Oe?aeiu. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.04.01 –oeiainu, aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e e?aaeeo.-
Eeaaneee iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai aeayoaeueiinoe aaieia ia aaethoiii
?uiea, a oaeaea i?iaeaiai ?acaeoey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey naiiai aaethoiiai
?uiea. A no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie aeiiiieeie nouanoaoao iianiinoue
iaaeiioeaiee aaethoiiai ?uiea eae oaeiaiai, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony oaie
ooieoeeyie, eioi?ua ii auiieiyao a iauae nenoaia ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo yeaiaioia i?e ?aniio?aiee aaethoiiai ?uiea yaeyaony
aaethoiue eo?n. Aii?in i oae iacuaaaiii ?aaeueiii o?iaia aaethoiiai
eo?na aunooiaao iaeiei ec neiaeiaeoeo eae a oai?ee oae e a ia?aeoeea. A
eneaaeiaaiee naeaeaii aeoeaio ia oii, /oiau i?aaeoaeuenoai onoaiaaeeaaei
aaethoiue ?aaeei n o/aoii eiie?aoiie yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee e
eiie?aoiuo iieeoe/aneeo caaea/.

Aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoiuo ioiioaiee nia?aiaiiiai yoaia oa?aeoa?ii
ni/aoaiea ianoaaeeueiinoe, aeinoaoi/ii aunieie noaiaie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe
i?ioeania e iaeiia?aiaiii oaeoaeaiea eii?aeeiaoeee aaethoiie iieeoeee
ainoaea?noa a yoie iaeanoe. Eii?aeeiaoeey aaethoiie noa?u i?ienoiaeeo
eae ia o?iaia i?aaeoaeuenoa, oae e a ?aieao iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo
aaethoii-oeiainiauo i?aaiecaoeee. Eioaa?aoeey Oe?aeiu a ie?iaoth
yeiiiieeo i?aaeiieaaaao ?ino iaueaia iia?aoeee ia ie?iaii aaethoiii
?uiea. A ?aaioa ?aniio?aiu aii?inu o/anoey Oe?aeiu ia ?uiea aa?iaaetho e
a aeayoaeueiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoii-e?aaeeoiuo e oeiainiauo
i?aaiecaoeee.

A aeena?oaoeee ia?yaeo n iniiaiiieaaathueie eaoaai?eyie,
oa?aeoa?ecothueie iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoiua ioiioaiey, ?aniao?eaathony
aaaeiaeoea /a?ou nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey oe?aeineiai aaethoiiai ?uiea,
i?e yoii aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeaii aii?inai aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e
aaethoiiai eiio?iey eae yeaiaioa iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee a
Oe?aeia. Iiyoiio a ?aaioa ioia/aaony, /oi a i?ioeana eeaa?aeecaoeee
aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey /?acau/aeii aaaeii enoiaeeoue ia ec aano?aeoiie
iieaciinoe oiai eee eiiai ia?aie/aiey, a neaaeoao o/eouaaoue aai
aicaeaenoaea ia ?acee/iua a?oiu noaueaeoia ?uiea e eo aeeyiey ia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aaethoiiai ?uiea.

Eiiia?/aneei aaieai eae noaueaeoai aaethoiiai ?uiea i?eiaaeeaaeeo
aaaeiay ?ieue a inouanoaeaiee iia?aoeee iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie
iaoeeiiaeueiiai e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaethoiuo ?uieia. I?e ?aniio?aiee
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee eiia?/aneeo aaieia iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeaii n?i/iui
aaethoiui iia?aoeeyi, iaueai eioi?uo iinoiyiii ?anoao a ie?a e eioi?ua
inaaeaathony ana aieueoei /eneii oe?aeineeo aaieia.

Iniiauaaynue ia aeinoeaeaieyo ie?iaiai iiuoa eniieueciaaiea iiauo
oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia n oeaeueth iaania/aiey oi?aaeaiey aaethoiuie
?eneaie, a aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaii ia?aue iiuo eniieueciaaiey
yoeo eino?oiaioia eae niinia oaaeaee?iaaiey ?eneia a Oe?aeia e ?ane?uoi
ia?niaeoeau eo ?acaeoey.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa iniaia ianoi oaeaeaii i?iaeaiai oi?aaeaiey
ioe?uoie aaethoiie iiceoeeae, iineieueeo iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia n
eiino?aiiie aaethoie ianoo a naaa iianiinoe aeaaea a oneiaeyo
eeaa?aeueiiai aaethoiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e, eae i?aaeei, o?aaotho
?aaoee?othuaai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa. Iaeuecy
aeiionoeoue /oiau /?acia?iay eiioeaio?aoeey eiino?aiiie aaethou a
aaieao, ai- ia?auo, ouaieyea eioa?anu eiii?oa?ia (a yoi iiaeao i?iecieoe
a oneiaeyo iinoiyiiie aeai?aoeeaoeee eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou,
eiaaea aaiee aoaeoo iaeaieeaaoue eiino?aiioth aaethoo n oeaeueth
oaaeaee?iaaiey, /oi iaino?eo ni?in ia ?uiea) e ai-aoi?uo, iiauoaea ?ene
eeeaeaeiinoe aaieia a neo/aa iaaeaaii?eyoiiai eciaiaiey aaethoiuo
eo?nia. A ea/anoaa caueou io iiaeiaiuo iianiinoae oeaio?aeueiua aaiee
eniieuecotho onoaiiaeaiea eiiia?/aneei aaieai eeieoa ioe?uoie aaethoiie
iiceoeee. Iau/ii eeieo onoaiaaeeaaaony a aeaea i?aaeaeueiie aeiee
ioe?uoie /enoie (iaooi) iiceoeee aaiea (aeeeiiie eee ei?ioeie) ii
eaaeaeie eiino?aiiie aaethoa, n eioi?ie ii inouanoaeyao iia?aoeee ii
ioiioaieth e nianoaaiiiio eaieoaeo.

Aii?in i aaee/eia eeieoia, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo ioaeaeueiuie aaieaie
(aioo?aiiea eeieou) ioiineony e eaoaai?ee neiaeiuo i?iaeai. Ia i?aeoeea
aioo?aiiea eeieou yaeythony aieea ne?oioeacii ?an/eoaiiuie. *ai yoi
aeaeaaony oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie.

A oneiaeyo no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee oe?aeineie aeiiiieee iiyaeeenue
oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee. Oaeoaeaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae noaei i?aaeiinueeie
aeey ?anoe?aiey aaethoiuo ?ann/aoia n o/anoeai aaieia.

Aieueoia cia/aiea a aeenna?oaoeee oaeaeaii aii?inai i?aaiecaoeee e
oaoiieiaee ?ann/aoia n eniieueciaaieai aee?aaeeoeaa, eieanni, i?eieiaiey
a ?ann/aoao aaenaeae e i?aaeeiaeaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
eniieueciaaieth ?acee/iuo oi?i iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?ann/aoia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaethoiue ?uiie, aaethoiay iiceoeey, oaaeaee?iaaiea,
aaethoiue eo?n, aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea.

Annotation

Borishkevich O.V. Banks on the Foreign Exchange market of Ukraine. –
Manuscript.

Dissertation for the scientific degree of the Candidate of Economic
Sciences in the speciality 08.04.01 – Finance Currency Circulation and
Credit, Kyiv, National Economic University of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

This dissertatio is dedicated to issues of bancing activity on the
foreign exchange market. In the thesis include an analysis of the modern
situation on the foreign exchange market of Ukraine and transactions
effected on it. Considerable attention is paid to foreign exchange
regulation and control as elements of macroeconomic transformation in
Ukraine. The first experience of Financial instruments implementation to
provide for currency risks managment are analized.

Key words: foreign exchange market, currency position, hedging, rate of
exchange, foreign exchange regulation.

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