1

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

OeAIO?AEUeIEE AIOAI?*IEE NAAe ?i. I.I.A?EOEA

Ae?AEUe A?EOI? OAAeI?IAE*

OAeE 581.9

AAeAAIOEAIA OEI?A CAE?CIEOeUe EOAAINUeEI? IAEANO?

( CAAAEUeIEE AIAE?C OA I?IAEAIE IAOO?AE?CAOe??)

03.00.05 — aioai?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Eoaainueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio

oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiiiiey Ieeiea ?aaiiae/ caa.
eaoaae?e a?ieia??

Eoaainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee I?ioiiiiiaa A??a
A?eoi??aia,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
?inoeoooo

aioai?ee ?i. I.A. Oieiaeiiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

— eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,
noa?oee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee Ia?thoe?ia
Aaeaioeia sse?aia,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Oeaio?aeueiiai

aioai?/iiai naaeo ?i. I.I.A?eoea
IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao Eaa?iaoo

I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a
aioai?ee, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 19 aa?aciy 1999?. i 10-00 aiaeei? iacan?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.26.215.01 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe i?e
Oeaio?aeueiiio aioai?/iiio naaeo ?i. I.I.A?eoea IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252014 i. Ee?a, aoe Oei??yc?anueea,1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oeaio?aeueiiai
aioai?/iiai naaeo ?i.I.I. A?eoea IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252014

i. Ee?a, aoe Oei??yc?anueea,1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 12 ethoiai 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
A.I.Ioce/oe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaeaaaeeea?oith noi?iiith i?ioeano o?ainoi?iaoe??
oei?e, ui oaeaeei i?io?ea? a Eoaainuee?e iaeano? ? caaaa/aiiy ??
caiinieie (aaeaaioeaieie) aeaeaie ?ineei. Aiie i?iieeathoue o i?e?iaei?
o?oioeaiice oa ?ineeii? oa?oiiaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo i?noeac?inoaiue ?
ia??aeei aecia/athoue ?o neeaae oa no?oeoo?o.

Iaeiei c iniiaieo aeaea?ae iiyae e ?iciianthaeaeaiiy aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei
ooo ? cae?cie/i? oeyoe, aeiaaeeia yeeo ia?aaeuo? 3,5 oen. ei. Ia ieo, ye
a iniaeeaeo aeioiiao, neeaaeathoueny nai???aei? ?ineeii? oa?oiiaaiiy c
ia?aaaaeii aaeaaioeaieie aeaeaie ?ineei, ca?aeee inoaii? i?a?othoue o
i?eeaae? o?oioeaiice ? caaaa/othoue aai?eaaiio oei?o. Na?aae caiinieo
?ineei iaiaei ye ce?nieo ? ea?aioeiieo ao?’yi?a, iaaacia/ieo, io?oeieo ?
aea?aaiieo aeae?a, oae ? ?ineei, ye? iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie a
ainiiaea?nueeiio e iaoeiaiio a?aeiioaiiyo, ?aca?aii i?e?i- ?
iae?iaaiethoe?eieo ci?i o i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeu? (N.N.Oa?eaae/, 1966;
A.A.I?ioiiiiiaa, 1973; A.E.Neai?oeia, ?.?.?onaiiaa, 1973;
A.A.Iaeeoaaa,1980; A.?.Ia?oaiao oa ?i., 1981; I.A.Aaa?a, 1989;
A.E.Neai?oeia, TH.E.Iaeooe?ia, 1989 oa ?i.). Oiio aea/aiiy /ano, oeyo?a
oa ina?aaee?a iiyae iiaeo aeae?a, ?ioaineaiino? i?a?aoe?e, iiaeeeainoae
aei cae??ieaiiy oa i?iieeiaiiy o i?e?iaei? oa ii?ooai? o?oioeaiice,
ainiiaea?nueeiai cia/aiiy aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei, ui iio?aieythoue a
iaeanoue cae?cie/ieie oeyoaie, ia? nueiaiaei? aeey iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie
iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueia cia/aiiy.

Iaoa e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith e caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei
i?ciaiiy oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eo aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei ii oa?eoi???
Eoaainueei? iaeano? oa a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi??? ?o ?icnaeaiiy; aeyaeaiiy
i?noey aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioa a caaaeuei?e oei?? ?aa?iio oa
Eoaainueei? iaeano?; neeaaeaiiy aiioiaaieo eiiniaeo?a aaeaaioeaiiai
noaaeaiaioa oei?e cae?cieoeue Eoaainueei? iaeano? e caaaeueiiai nieneo
?ineei cae?cie/ieo i?noeac?inoaiue; ioe?iea noaio iiioeyoe?e iiaeo
aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei oa i?iaiic ?o ?icaeoeo ia cae?cieoeyo ? a i?eeaaeeo
oa?eoi??yo; aeyaeaiiy nooiaiy aoiaeaeaiiy aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a aei
neeaaeo ??cieo ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiue Eoaainueei? iaeano?, ?o
nenoaiaoe/ii?, aaia?ao?/ii?, oei?iaaiaoe/ii?, aeieia?/ii? i?e?iaee oa
iniaeeainoae; ?iciiae?e aeae?a aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei ca ainiiaea?nueeeie
yeinoyie oa ioe?iea ?o ca oeeie iieacieeaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Oia?oa neeaaeaiee aiioiaaiee eiiniaeo oei?e cae?cieoeue
oa aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioa Eoaainueei? iaeano?, aeyaeaii ? anaa?/ii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii 20 iiaeo aeey iaeano? aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei; aeaia
oa?aeoa?enoeea noaio iiioeyoe?e aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei o cae?cie/ieo oa
i?eeaaeeo ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiiyo; ?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia ioe?iea
oa?aeoa?o iaoo?ae?caoe?? aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a; i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
iaoo?ae?caoe?? aaeaaioeaiiai eiiieaeno cae?cieoeue o cae?cie/ieo oa
i?eeaaeeo aeioiiao; aeyaeai? iia? oeyoe oa ina?aaeee oi?ioaaiiy
aaeaaioeaiiai eiiieaeno cae?cieoeue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Iaoa??aee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoee aeei?enoai? a
?iaio? ea?aioeiii? ?iniaeoe??, oi?aae?iiy cae?cie/ieo aei??a,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie, o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeniiaeaie ea?aioeiii? ?iniaeoe??, oi?aae?iiy
cae?cie/ieo aei??a Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy ina?oe. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny
i?e neeaaeaii? aecia/ieea ?ineei Eoaainueei? iaeano?, iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie ?icaeoeo aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Eoaainueei?
iaeano? (Eoaainuee, 1997); ea?aioeiieo i?iaiic?a oiui.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a — cai?iiiiiaaia ?aeay, aeeiiai? iieueia?
ianoaaeaiiy, aei??thaaiiy, iae?ee, aecia/aiiy, neeaaeaiee aa?aa??e,
aiioiaaiee nienie, eiiniaeo oei?e, iaienai? ?iaioe aai ie?ai? ?icae?ee
?ia?o ca oaiith aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/i? oa ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy
aaeaaioeaii? oei?e cae?cieoeue;

— caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea, aeaeiaee neeaae, nenoaiaoe/ia no?oeoo?a
oei?e cae?cieoeue;

— oaeniiii?/ia, a?iii?oieia?/ia, aeieiaioeaiieia?/ia, ea?iieia?/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee e ainiiaea?nueea ioe?iea aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioa oei?e
cae?cieoeue Noiaeo Oe?a?ie;

— noai iiioeyoe?e aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioa cae?cieoeue ? nooi?iue eiai
iaoo?ae?caoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaiaai? ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e aioai?ee Iineianueeiai AeIO ?i. Eai?ia (1989-1992??.); eaoaae?e
a?ieia?? Eoaainueeiai AeIO (1989-1998??.); ia?aae? Iineianueeiai
oiaa?enoaa aeine?aeiee?a i?e?iaee (1989?.); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? IAeIO (1991?.); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie no/anii?
aioai?ee” (Iae?oiiieue, 1992?.); nueiiiio c’?cae? Aaia?ao?/iiai
oiaa?enoaa (Ee?a, 1995?.); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? Eoaainueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?ioi?aa?neoaoo (1997?.); ui??/ieo ae?iaie/eo ia?aaeao
iaeanii? ea?aioeiii? ?iniaeoe??, oi?aae?iue cae?cie/ieo aei??a,
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ina?oe.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e (227 iaeiaioaaiue) ? aeiaeaoe?a.
Caaaeueiee ianya ?? — 249 noi?. Aiia ?ethno?iaaia 22 ?enoieaie oa 24
oaaeeoeyie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

?ICAe?E I. I?E?IAeIE*I-AAIA?AO?*I? OA ?NOI?E*I? IA?AAeOIIAE OI?IOAAIIss
AAeAAIOEAII? OEI?E CAE?CIEOeUe NOIAeO OE?A?IE

1.1. Ei?ioeee ia?en aea/aiiy oei?e cae?cieoeue oa ?o aaeaaioeaiiai
noaaeaiaioa. ?noi??y aea/aiiy oei?e cae?cieoeue neeaaea?oueny c
aeae?eueeio aoai?a. Ia?oee aoai iia’ycaiee c iiyaith cae?cieoeue ye
iniaeeaeo i?ea’ycie aei i?noeaainoae, a yeeo aeyaeyee iia? ?ineeie
(I.Ruprecht, 1860). Ae?oaee — ?c neeaaeaiiyi caeaaeiinoae i?ae
e?euee?noth aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a oa oa?aeoa?ii ? /anoioith ia?aaacaiue
aaioaae?a (E.Lehmann, 1895, ?.O.Oiaeueaaocai, 1897 oa ?i.). O?ao?e — ?c
aea/aiiyi caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo e oi?ioaaiiy cae?cie/ii? oei?e,
aeae?eaiiyi aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei a ie?aio a?oio c ae?oeoaaiiyi ia?oeo
iaeyaeiaeo ?ia?o aaeaaioeaii? oei?e (I.?.Eioia, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1927;
I.?.Iaca?ia, 1925, 1927; Ae.?.E?oa?iia, 1926; A.?.Iaeueoeaa, 1931
?.I.Aeia?ioe?a, 1939). *aoaa?oee — iiaeaeueoei aea/aiiyi
a?iii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a, iai?yie?a i?a?aoe?e,
ainiiaea?nueeei aeei?enoaiiyi oiui (?.E.Ea?eiiia,1951, 1958; N.A.Eioo,
1953; I.?.Eioia, 1958, 1961; ?.?.Eaa?ia, 1956). I’yoee — inoaoi/ii
aeeeaaeai? iiaeyaee ia iai?yiee caiino e ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ineei
cae?cie/iei o?ainii?oii, neeaae ? iioiaeaeaiiy iiaeo aeae?a
(A.A.I?ioiiiiiaa, 1966, 1973, 1991; ?.A.Aei?iainoaenueea, 1972; oa ?i.).
Oinoee — oa?aeoa?eco?oueny anaa?/iei, oe?ieiianooaaiei ? eiiieaeniei
aea/aiiyi oei?e cae?cieoeue (N.E.Iinye?i, 1991, 1992; A.E. Oiooa?,
?.?.Ao?aea, 1992; A.E.Oiooa?, 1993 oa ?i.). I?ioa a?aeiiinoae i?i
iaoo?ae?caoe?th aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei iaaeinoaoiuei. Aniaeoe cae??ieaiiy
aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a ?icaeyaeathoueny ia iniia? iaaeiaaio?eaaeeo (1-2
?iee) ? a?coaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue, ia aeine?aeaeaiiyo , i?iaaaeaieo ia
iaiaaeaieo iaeaeai/eeao /e oa?eoi??yo c aeei?enoaiiyi noa’?eoeaieo
ioe?iie noaio ?ineei. Aei oiai ae iaea?aeai? oe? aeai? a oiiaao, ui
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oiia Noiaeo Oe?a?ie.Oiio oe? iaoa??aee aeiaaathoue
aeiiiaiaiue, ooi/iaiue oa aeiii?aoethaaiue.

1.2 I?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy oei?e cae?cieoeue. Oei?a
cae?cieoeue Noiaeo Oe?a?ie neeaaeaeanue ia oii? ?aa?iiaeueii? oei?e ye
aio?iiiaaiia aeeth/aiiy. Aeine?aeaeoaaia oa?eoi??y ?icoaoiaaia ia
e?aeiueiio Noiae? Oe?a?ie e neeaaea? iaeaea 30 oen. ei 2. ?aeue?o ??
oaeeynoee c aenioith iaae ??aiai ii?y 100-150 i. Iaea?eueo cieaeaiith
/anoeiith oa?eoi??? ? aeieeia ?.N?aa?nueeee Aeiiaoeue(30-50 i), yea
ia?aoeia? iaeanoue c i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo ia i?aaeaiiee no?ae. Ia i?ai?/
a?ae N?aa?nueeiai Ae?ioey aenioa oa?eoi??? iaae ??aiai ii?y neeaaea?
100-150 i, ia aiaei?iciiae?eao aei 200-250 i; ia i?aaeaiue —
ciaoiaeeoueny Aeiiaoeueeee e?yae c aenioith oa?eoi??? 200-300 i, a a
ie?aieo i?noeyo — 350-370 i. Ia e?aeiueiio i?aaei? iaeano? aenioa
oa?eoi??? ciiao cieaeo?oueny aei 50-70 i. Nai???aei?noue aio?iiiaaiiiai
?aeue?oo Eoaainueei? iaeano? aeyaey?oueny a /eneaiieo oa?eeiiao,
ea?’??ao, ??eaaoe?eieo nii?oaeao, aono?e n?ooe? aaoiiia?eueieo oa
cae?cie/ieo aei??a. A?ae?ia?ao?/ia n?oea aeeth/a? a?ey 300 ??/ie ? ica?.
A?oioiaee iie?ea aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? iaaecae/aeii no?ieaoee (170
a?aei?iiinoae) c ia?aaaaith /i?iicai?a cae/aeieo, ??ciith i??ith cieoeo.
Ee?iao eiioeiaioaeueiee ?c ia??aiii??iei ?iciiae?eii iiaae?a ca ?ieaie e
i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, aea?eei iinooeeaei e?oii, oieiaeiith
ceiith c iano?eeei ni?aiaei iie?eaii oa /?oei aeyaeaieie iaeaeaaeyie,
iinooaie oa nooia?yie. Na?aaeiy ??/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y ia oa?eoi???
iaeano? nyaa? 7-9N. Iaeneiaeueia na?aaeiueii?ny/ia oaiia?aoo?a 21-24N
niinoa??aa?oueny a eeii?, a i?i?iaeueia -7,0 — -8,5N — o n?/i?.
Caaaeueia o?eaae?noue aacii?iciiai ia??iaeo — 210-240 aei?a, a noia
aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? ia?aaeuo? 3000N. Na?aaeiy aaaaoi??/ia noia iiaae?a
neeaaea? 400-450 ii, c? cia/ieie eieeaaiiyie ca ?ieaie (a?ae 250 aei 800
ii) ? ii oa?eoi??? iaeano? (50-400 ii ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae). *anoi
aoaathoue iinooe e nooia??. Oaeei /eiii, a?ae?ioa?i?/i? oiiae
aecia/athoue a iaeano? ena?iii?oiee oei ?ineeiiino?.

1.3 Oa?aeoa?enoeea noaio oa niaoeeo?/iiai aeioiio cae?cieoeue
Eoaainueei? iaeano?. Ia?oa cae?cie/ia aei?iaa aoea caoaeiaaia a 1877?.,
a aei e?ioey 19 no. any oa?eoi??y iaeano? aoea ae?eoa aonoith ia?aaeath
cae?cieoeue, aeiaaeeia yeeo nueiaiaei? a?eueoa 3.5 oen. ei. Aiie
ia?aoeiathoue ??/ee, ai?e, e?ne, oiaoi o? ia?aoeiaee, ye? ?ineeie ia
iiaeooue iiaeieaoe naiino?eii. Cae?cie/i? ianeie, ia caeiyo? i?noeaaeie
aeaeaie, noaee i?noeac?inoaiiyi aaaaoueio aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a. Iniiaiei
aaeanoiei iaoa??aeii aei??a ? uaa?iue, a?aa?e, i?nie, ??aeoa-?aeooeia?
iaoa??aee, oeae oa acaano. Caieyia iieioii, ye i?aaeei, i?aaenoaaeaia
a?oioaie oiai ?aeiio, aea i?ieeaaeaia cae?cieoey. Oe? a?oioe oi/ aeaui e
a?aei?o? ca ai?noii iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, aea a?aeiia?aeathoue aiaeiaai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua. Cia/iiai eieeaaiiy caciathoue ? ee?iaoiie
cae?cieoeue. ??cieoey na?aaei?o oaiia?aoo? i?ae aa?oeiaie aai ae?ieaie
oa ??aieiiith caieyiith iiaa?oiath neeaaeaea a?ae 0,7-2,8N aei 2,0-3,3N,
O i?ci?e in?ii?e oa ?aiiueiaaniyiee ia??iaee, eiee ua ieaeiy /anoeia
aoaeiae cae?cieoe? iaea iaaaoeaio oaiia?aoo?o, oi aa?oiy — iiceoeaio. O
e?oi?e ia??iae aaeanoia iiaa?oiy oa ?aeee iaa??aaeeny aei 50-60N ?
a?eueoa, caieyi? noeee e?ooeciith 35-42 — aei 35-39N, a i?aeioaa — eeoa
aei 27-28N. O aaniyiee oa in?ii?e ia??iaee caieyi? noeee cae?cieoeue
caaaeaee ia 2-4N oaie?o?, i?ae ??aia iiaa?oiy. ??cieoey oaiia?aoo?e
a?oioo i?ae i?aaeaiieie oa i?ai?/ieie noeeaie aeinyaaea ua a?eueoeo
aaee/ei. Cia/iiai eieeaaiiy ia anueiio i?io?eth cae?cie/ii? nii?oaee
caciaaaee e oiiae caieiaeaiiy. Ieceii? /anoeie nii?oae caaaeaee a?eueo
iane/ai? aieiaith, a e?euee?noue ?? ooo a?eueo-iaio noaea, i?ae o
aa?oi?o. O 0-30 ni oa?? a?oioo a oe?eiio aieiae aoei a?eueoa, i?ae o
ieaei?o, aea e aeia?iaoaaiiy c oeueiai oa?o aoei neeuei?oei.

?ICAe?E 2. IAOIAeEEA AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia i?ioyaii 1989-1998??. ca iaoa??aeaie
iieueiaeo, eaia?aeueieo oa eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iieueia?
ianoaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue a on?o aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeiiao Eoaainueei?
iaeano? ia?o?ooiei iaoiaeii. Cae?cieoe? aoee ?iciiae?eai? ia
aeanyoee?eiiao?ia? ae?eyiee, ye? ianoaaeoaaeenue a?ae 2-3 aei 5-6 ?ac?a
ca nacii c? neeaaeaiiyi caaaeueiiai oei?enoe/iiai ia?ae?eo aeyaeaieo
?ineei. Ciaeaeai? aaeaaioeai? aeaee ?ineei o?enoaaeenue aa?aa???i c
iienii i?noeac?inoaiue, iioe?aiiy, e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee, oaiioac
?icaeoeo ? o.ae. Onueiai c?a?aii a?eueoa 3,5 oen. eenoe?a aa?aa??th,
yeee caa??aa?oueny o Iineianueeiio oa Eoaainueeiio aea?aeaaieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?aa?neoaoao. I?e ia?iaoe? c?a?aiiai iaoa??aeo
ei?enooaaeenue caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeeeaie e aecia/ieeaie.
Iiioeyoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ca iaoiaeeeaie IAeIO aeey
iaeieo ? oeo aea aeae?a ia iaio ye ia 100 i?iaieo ae?eyieao. O aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy aaeaaioeaii? oei?e cae?cieoeue iaeano?
cae?enithaaeinue ca iaoa??aeaie iaeanii? ea?aioeiii? ?iniaeoe?? oa
iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo
aeaieo i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeaie A.N.Ai?y (1978) oa A.I.Aeini?oiaa
(1980).Iieacieee o?ce/iiai e o?i?/iiai noaio a?oio?a oa iaoai?ieia?/i?
oaeoi?e i?noeue c?inoaiiy aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei aecia/aee ca iaoiaeeeaie
I.Ae.Iaaeiai? (1979), O.I.THaeeia (1980), I.O.Aaaethi?ia, C.I.Ei?/aa?ii?
(1986).

?ICAe?E 3. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA OEI?E CAE?CIEOeUe ? I?EEAAEEO
OA?EOI??E OA ?O AAeAAIOEAIIAI NOAAEAIAIOA

3.1. Aeaeiaee neeaae. O neeaae? oei?e cae?cieoeue ? i?eeaaei? nioae
oa?eoi???, ui oyaiaoueny ocaeiaae iieioia cae?cieoeue, iaie aoei
aeyaeaii 497 aeae?a ?ineei , ui neeaaeaei 27,4% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? ?ineei o ?aa?iiaeuei?e oei??, oa 33,1% o oei?? iaeano?.
Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/ii iaioo e?euee?noue aeae?a ?ineei ia oa?eoi???,
i?eeaae?e aei cae?cieoeue, i?ae o oe?eiio ii oa?eoi??? iaeano? oa a
?aa?ii?, caaaeueiee aeaeiaee neeaae ?o aoa aeoaea noiaeei. Iaea?eueoith
oey iiae?ai?noue aoea a i?aaeaii?e oa oeaio?aeuei?e /anoeiao iaeano?.
Iaeneiaeueiei /eneii aeae?a i?aaenoaaeai? ?ae?ioi?io?oe — 394,
aio?iiioi?e — 103 aeaeaie, o oiio /ene? eoeueoo?i? ?ineeie — 31 aeaeii.
Aaeaaioeai? ?ineeie aoee i?aaenoaaeai? 98 aeaeaie, aai 19,7% a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ciaeaeaieo iaie aeae?a. Ieoiia aaaa ?o o aeaeiaiio
neeaae? aaeaaioeaii? oei?e Oe?a?ie aeinyaaea iaeaea 49,0%, a a
?aa?iiaeuei?e — 97,0%. C on??? e?eueeino? aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei 19 aeae?a
(19,4%) cono??/aeeny o?eueee ia iieioi? e noeeao cae?cie/ieo eie?e ? ia
aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo oei?e ia o?eueee i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e, a e iaeano?.
Oea oae? aeaee, ye Astrodaucus littoralis (I.A.) Drude., Amaranthus
hipochondriacus L., Salsola tragus L., Chenopodium Berlandieri Mog,
Chenopodium probstii Aellen., Chenopodium pratericola Rydb., Cenchrus
pauciflorus Benth. oa ?i.Ua 19 aeae?a aai 19,4% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? ?o ciaoiaeeee ie ia noeeao cae?cie/iiai iieioia oa i?noeyo,
ui i?eeyaathoue aei iueiai. Cono??/a?i?noue oeeo aeae?a eeaneo?eoaaeany
iaie ye iacia/ia. O a?eueo a?aeaeaeaieo a?ae cae?cieoe? i?noeyo oey
a?oia ?ineei iaie ciaeaeaia ia aoea. ?io? 60 aeae?a aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei
(61,2%) aoee ciaeaeai? iaie iaeaea ia an?e oa?eoi??? iaeano?. Aeaeiaee
neeaae aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei, cae?cieoeue ? i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e aoa
aeecueeei, aea ia oioiaeiei. Eiao?oe??ioe iiae?aiino? neeaaeaee
0,50-0,67. (oaae.1). Oea iiynith?oueny aca?iii?iieeiaiiyi aeae?a ?
iino?eiei caianaiiyi iiaeo aeae?a cae?cie/iei o?ainii?oii. Oioiaei?noue
o neeaae? aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei cae?cieoeue ? i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e c?inoa?
i?e ?ooia? c i?aii/? ia i?aaeaiue.

Oaaeeoey 1

Eiao?oe??ioe iiae?aiino? aaeaaioeaieo o?aeoe?e oei? cae?cieoeue ?
i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e o ??cieo ?aeiiao Eoaainueei? iaeano?

?aeiie iane?aeoaaiue Eiao?oe??ioe iiae?aiino?
Aio?aoeeo?anueeee0,63E?aniiaeiinueeee0,64E?ai?inueeee0,51I?eianueeee0,52
Iiaiaeaea?nueeee0,58Naao?anueeee0,55Naa?aeeianueeee0,67Noaie/ii-Eoaainue
eee0,53O?i?oeueeee0,50

3.2. Nenoaiaoe/ia no?oeoo?a. O oei?enoe/iiio eiiieaen? cae?cieoeue
Eoaainueei? iaeano? iaie aeyaeaii 497 aeae?a aeueo noaeeiieo ?ineei, ye?
a?aeiinyoueny aei 4 a?aeae?e?a, 5 eean?a, 41 ii?yaeeo, 51 ?iaeeie oa 231
?iaeo. Iie?eoiian?ii? ?ineeie aeeth/aee 490 aeae?a (98,6%). O?ueiia
aeaeaie i?aaenoaaeaiee a?aeae?e oaiuaiiae?ai?, aeaiia — iaii?ioaiiae?ai?
oa aieiian?ii?. Aeaiaeieuei? neeaaeaee 392 aeaee, aai 80,1%, c
ia?aaaaith Asteraceae (Compositae) — 17,8%, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) —
13,2% oa Fabaceae (Papilonaceae) — 12,2%. C iaeiiaeieueieo iaea?eueo
i?aaenoaaeaia ?iaeeia Poaceae (Gramineae) — 67 aeae?a, aai 13,5% a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aeae?a ? 68,4% a?ae anueiai eeano iaeiiaeieueieo,
oa Liliaceae — 9 aeae?a, aai 1,8% ? 14,3% a?aeiia?aeii. A?aeiioaiiy
/enaeueiino? aeae?a iaeiiaeieueieo aei aeaiaeieueieo ea?oeiaeo ?ineei.
Ia iaeio ?iaeeio i?eiaaeaei 9,8 aeae?a, o caaaeuei?e oei?? iaeano? —
17,2, a a ?aa?iiaeuei?e — 14,4 aeaeo. Iaea?eueo aaaaoeie a cae?cie/i?e
oei?? iaeano? ia aeaee aeyaeeeny ?iaeeie Asteraceae, Poaceae,
Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae oa ?i. Ia aeieth ia?oeo 10 ?iaeei
caaaeueiiai ?iaeeiiiai niaeo?a i?eiaaeaei 349 aeae?a, aai 70,2%, o oie
/an ye o ?aa?iiaeuei?e oei?? eeoa 58,8%. O o?ueio ?iaeeiao, a naia
Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, /enei aeae?a ia?aaeuoaaei 50 , ua
o?ueio — 20 oo. ? a?eueoa, o 5 ?iaeeiao — a?ae 10 aei 19 aeae?a, o 9 —
a?ae 5 aei 9, ua a 9 — 3-4 aeaee ? a 26-1-2 aeaee. Aeaeia? eiao?oe??ioe
??ciiiai?ooy ie?aieo ?iaeei aoee aeecueeeie aei ?aa?iiaeueieo. I?e
i?inoaaii? c i?aaeiy ia i?ai?/ ciaiooaaeiny aeaeiaa ??ciiiai?ooy oaeeo
?iaeei, ye Asteraceae oa Brassicaceae, ? c?inoaei a ?iaeei Fabaceae,
Poaceae i Chenopodiaceae. ?iaeiaee eiao?oe??io ??ciiiai?ooy aeae?a aoa
2.2 i?ioe 3.1 o ?aa?iiaeuei?e oei??.

?ICAe?E 4. AeINE?AeAEAIIss AAeAAIOEAIIAI NOAAEAIAIOA OEI?E CAE?CIEOeUe
NOIAeO OE?A?IE

4.1 Oi?ioaaiiy aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioo. O eiiieaen? aaeaaioeaii?
o?aeoe?? oei?e cae?cieoeue iaeano? iaie aeae?eai? oei/ania? oa iino?ei?
a?oie aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a ?ineei. Aei oei/aniaeo a?aeiinyoueny
eoeueoo?i? ?ineeie oa aeaee, ui ?niothoue ia a?eueo 1-2 aaaaoaoe?eieo
ia??iae?a ? ia iaoo?ae?coaaeeny. Nooo?aiai aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy
i?noeaai? oei?e ? oei?e cae?cieoeue aiie ia aeyaeythoue. Iino?ei? aeaee
yaeythoue niaith ?ineeie, ui iaoo?ae?coaaeeny ia cae?cieoeyo oa
i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??yo ? ni?e/eiythoue aei cia/ieo ci?i i?e?iaeii?
?ineeiiino? ?aa?iio. Onueiai oaeeo aeae?a 35 o oiio /ene? 20 oia?oa aeey
iaeano?. Iaea?eueo i?enoiniaaieie, iioe?aieie e iaaacia/ieie a iaeano? ?
Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen., Amaranthus retroflexus L.,
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Erigeron canadensis L., Xanthium strumarium
L., Sisymbrium wolgense Bieb.ex Fourn. oa ?i. ?yae aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei,
aeyaeaieo ?ai?oa, cieeee e iaie ciaeaeai? ia aoee. Oaeei /eiii, noaia
caianaiiy, iaoo?ae?caoe?? oa iioe?aiiy aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei
?iciiae?ey?oueny ia oae? aoaie:

1. Caianaiiy iiiaeeiieeo aai aeae?eueeio iniaei aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a
?ineei ia oa?eoi??th iaeano?. 2. Iiaeaeueoa ?icnaeaiiy ?ineei o i?noeyo
caianaiiy oa i?e?iaeia /e aio?iiioi?ia ?icianaiiy ?ineei ?c i?noeue
caianaiiy. 3. Iaoo?ae?caoe?y ?ineei o i?noeyo caianaiiy oa ?icnaeaiiy.
4. Ooai?aiiy eieii?e aai ca?inoae ?ineei o i?noeyo ia?aeiiiai caianaiiy
oa ?icnaeaiiy. 5. Ooai?aiiy i?e?iaiaieu aiane?aeie ceeooy eieii?e oa
ie?aieo eieae?oao?a. 6. Oi?ioaaiiy iae?iaiaieu. 7. Ou?eueiaiiy a?aaeo oa
?aae?aeueia aeoeaia iioe?aiiy aeaeo. ?c aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei, ui
iaoo?ae?coaaeeny ia cae?cieoeyo, 45% i?iieeee ia oa?eoi??th iaeano? c
i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai iai?yieo, 38% — c i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo, 10% — ?c
cao?aeiiai iai?yieo, 8% — c i?aii/? oa i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo.
?ioaineai?noue caianaiiy aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a o ??ci? ?iee aoea
iaiaeiaeiaith. ?c caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ?ineei, ui iaoo?ae?coaaeeny ia
cae?cieoeyo iaeano?, 3 aeaee aoee caianai? a ia??iae c 1907 ii 1926 ??.,
1 aeae — c 1927 ii 1945??., 6 — c 1946 ii 1959 ??., 2 — c 1960 ii 1992
??., 13 aeae?a — c 1993 ii 1997??. On? aaeaaioeai? aeaee ?ineei, ui
iaoo?ae?coaaeeny a iaaeao iniiaiiai a?aaeo, i?ecae/a?i? aei eai’yienoeo,
uaaienoeo aai i?uaieo i?noeue c?inoaiiy aai ? ao?’yiaie c aenieei
nooiaiai ian?ii?aiai /e aaaaoaoeaiiai ?iciiiaeaiiy. Noaia caianaiiy,
iaoo?ae?caoe?? ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oa aeyaeai? iai?yiee caianaiiy oeeo
?ineei iiaeooue aooe iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee nenoaie caiia?aaiiy e iiyae
a iaeano? iiaeo iaaaaeaieo ?ineei.

4.2. Nenoaiaoe/ia no?oeoo?a. Aeae?eai? iaie 98 aeae?a aaeaaioeaiiai
noaaeaiaioa oei?e cae?cieoeue ia’?aeiai? a 1 a?aeae?e, 2 eeane, 17
ii?yaee?a, 21 ?iaeeio oa 57 ?iae?a.

Oia?oa aeey oei?e iaeano? iaaaaeaii 20 iiaeo aeae?a ?ineei:

Astrodaucus littoralis Drude., Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Amaranthus
spinosus L., Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq). Sauer, Amaranthus powellii
S.Wats, Ambrosia psilostachya DC., Artemisia canadensis Michx.,
Artemisia mongolica (Bess.). Fisch ex Na Kai., Artemisia sieversiana
Willd., Artemisia umbrosa Bess.) Turch ex Pamp., Chenopodium berlandieri
Moq., Chenopodium probstii Aellen., Chenopodium pratericola Kydb.,
Salsola laricina Pall., Salsola tragus L., Salsola collina Pall.,
Convolvulus hirsutus Bieb., Heliotropium suaveolens Bieb., Oxybaphus
nyctagineum (Michx). Sweet., Xanthium brasilicum Velloso.

Aeae?a ?iaeei Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae,
Amaranthaceae — 61,8 % a?ae onueiai aeaeiaiai neeaaeo aaeaaioeaiiai
noaaeaiaioa oei?e. Caaaeueiee ?iaeeiiee eiao?oe??io ii??aiyii iaaenieee
? neeaaea? 4,5. O oie aea /an 9 ?iaeei aeeth/athoue eeoa iaeei aeae, 3
?iaeeie ii aeaa aeaee, ua 3 ?iaeeie — ii 3-4 aeaee, a?eueoa 5 aeae?a
iathoue 6 ?iaeei. Iaea?eueoeie ca e?euee?noth ?iae?a aoee ?iaeeie
Asteraceae ? Poaceae — ii 9 ?iae?a, Brassicaceae ( 7 ), Fabaceae ( 6 )
oa Apiaceae ( 5 ). I’youe ?iaeei iaee a?ae 2 aei 4 ?iae?a, a ?io? — ii
iaeiiio ?iaeo. O na?aaeiueiio ia iaeio ?iaeeio iae?/oaaeiny anueiai 26
?iae?a. Ua iaioei aoa ?iaeiaee eiao?oe??io — 1,66. ?iaee, ui aeeth/aee
ii iaeiiio aeaeo, neeaaeaee 65 %, ii aeaa aeaee — 21 % , o?e — /ioe?e —
21 % , a ?iaee Chenopodium, Artemisia, Xanthium, Amaranthus — ii i’youe
? a?eueoa aeae?a. Iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue aeae?a — 8 aoea i?eoaiaiia
?iaeo Amaranthus. Cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? aeae?a, ui i?eiaaea? ia iaeei
??ae, na?ae/eoue i?i iiiiaiaiiy neeaaeo cae?cie/ii? oei?e ca ?aooiie
?i?a?aoe??.

4.3 AEeoo?a? oi?ie. Noeoii?noue aeaeiaiai neeaaeo aeae?eaiiai iaie
aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioa ?iciiae?eaia i?ae 9 aeeoo?aeie oi?iaie.
Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie aoee o?aa’yieno? ?ineeie — 92 % a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino?. Aeii?ioth/a iieiaeaiiy caeiaee iiiiea?i?/i? oi?ie c iaaiiaie
ianoeoeaioiiai oeio, ui ia iio?aaoaaee iii?e — 64 aeaee (68,8%), c ieo
60 aeae?a (64 %) aoee iaeii??/ieie, 4 aeaee (5 %) — aeai??/ieie. Aei
a?oie o?aa’yienoeo iie?ea?iee?a a?aeianaii 26 aeae?a, aai 26,5% ?ineei.
?c ieo no?eaeiaei?aiaa? — 9, ei?ioeiei?aiaaeui? — 11 aeae?a, oeeaoeeii?
— 2 aeaee, aeiaaiei?aiaaeui? — 4 aeaee. A?oia aaaaoaoeaii ?ooiieo ?ineei
iae?/oaaea 15 aeae?a. A?oia aea?aaeiii-eouiaeo ?ineei o aeaeyae?
i?ae?inoo neeaaeaeanue ?c 7 aeae?a. ?aeeiee aiaeiee aaeaaioeaiee aeae,
yeee ie aeyaeee, — oea Elodea canadensis Michx. O a?ieia?/iiio niaeo??
aeeoo?aeo oi?i ca ?aoie???ii (1916) a?eueoo /anoeio ?ineei neeaaeaee
oa?io?oe — 63,2%, oiae? ye o oei?? iaeano? ieoiia aaaa ?o 15%. *anoea
aai?e?eioio?o?a neeaaeaea a?aeiia?aeii 10,4% i?ioe 20%. Ua a?eueoith
aoea ??cieoey a a?oi? ?ineei, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei e?eioio?o?a oa
oaia?io?o?a. Oaiaoio?oe na?aae aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a ia aeyaeai?.

4.4. Aeieiaioeaiioe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea. I?uai? e eai’yieno? ianeie oa
noo? noeee cae?cieoeue ni?e/eiythoue aei oi?ioaaiiy aieiaiei /eiii
ena?io?oieo ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiue. Ii a?aeiioaiith aei aiaeiiai ?aaeeio
c on?o aeyaeaieo iaie aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a cae?cie/ieo i?noeue c?inoaiiy
69,8% iaee ena?iii?oi? iciaee. Oeiiaeo ena?io?o?a aoei 3%,
ena?iiacio?o?a — 36%, iaciena?io?o?a — 25% oa aoena?io?o?a — 7,3%. C
?iaeeie Asteraceae 17 aeae?a ?c 19 ciaeaeaieo aoee ena?iiacio?oaie,
Brassicaceae — 12 aeae?a ?c 12, Apiaceae oa Fabaceae — ii 4 aeaee c 36.
?ineei aieiaeo i?noeue c?inoaiiy aoei — 25 aeae?a (25%) ?c 9 ?iaeei.
Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue ?o, 7 ?c 13, a?aecia/aeany a ?iaeei? Poaceae. C
a?oie a?ae?io?eueieo ?ineei aeyaeaii anueiai iaeei aeae Elodea
canadensis Michx. Ca o?oioe?iioe/ieie iieacieeaie iieiaeia aeae?a
a?aeiineeanue aei ?oaea?aeueieo ao?’yi?a. Oeiiaeie e iino?eieie
?oaea?aioaie aoee an? aeaee ?iaeei Amarantaceae, Brassicaceae,
Chenopodiaceae, a oaeiae aeaee aia?ic??, /i?iiue?o, iao?aae, eo?ath ?
o.ae. Cia/io ieoiio aaao a caaaeueiiio eiiieaen? aaeaaioeaiiai
noaaeaiaioa iaee eoeueoo?i? ?ineeie — niiyoiee, i?ini, ioaieoey,
ethoea?ia, e??i, iao?ooea oa ?i. (28%). Neeueaaioe, aai?neeueaaioe,
i?ioaioe ? aeaaioe caeiaee a?ey 8% aeae?a, aeania noaiaioe — 5%,
?ineeie, ui c?inoaee ia eai’yienoeo a?aeneiiaiiyo, — 8%.

4.5 Ea?iieia?/iee aiae?c. Oie /e ?io?e niin?a iioe?aiiy aecia/a?
caeaoi?noue ?ineei aei caianaiiy oa ?icnaeaiiy. ?c 98 ciaeaeaieo iaie ia
cae?cieoeyo Eoaainueei? iaeano? aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a eeoa iaeei (Elodea
canadensis Michx.) ?iciiiaeoaaany aeeeth/ii aaaaoaoeaii e iioe?thaaany
aiaeith ? ca aeiiiiiaith ethaeeie oa ioao?a. Ua aeaa aeaee (Zea majs L.
oa Panicum miliaceaum L.) ?iciianthaeaeoaaeeny aeeeth/ii ethaeeiith ? ?
oeiiaeie aio?iiioi?aie. Aeey an?o ?ioeo aeae?a i?e?iaei? caniae
iioe?aiiy iathoue ia iaioa cia/aiiy, i?ae aio?iiioi?iee. Oae 34 aeaee
aeyaeeeny oeiiaeie iiiioi?aie. C ieo aei ?ineei-aiaiioi??a iaeaaeaee 8
aeae?a, aae?no?a — 7, ai?ciioi??a — 4 aeaee. ?io? aaeaaioeai? aeaee
aeyaeee aeineoue neeaaei? e ??ciiiai?oi? ii?aeiaiiy niinia?a iioe?aiiy c
1-2 i?aaaethth/eie. Iaea?eueo neeaaeieie ii?aeiaiiyie niinia?a iioe?aiiy
ae?anii? aoee a ??cieo aeae?a ?iaeo Amaranthus, aea ii?aeioaaeeny
aa?ioi??y e aaanoioi??y, aiaiioi??y e niae?ioi??y, aaanoioi??y,
aa?ioi??y, aiaeiciioi??y. O ?iae? Xanthium ai?ciioi??y ii?aeioaaeeny c
aaanoioi???th. O ?iae? Chenopodium — aa?ioi??y noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue
aaanoioi???th, o ?iae? Salsola, — aiaiioi??y noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue
aa?ioi???th ? o.ae. Ca i?eioeeiii ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ian?iiy aaeaaioeai?
?ineeie ca?oiiaai? oaeei /eiii: aio?iiioi?e — aae?noe — 11%, aio?iiioi?e
— aa?ioi?e — 9%, ciioi?e — aaanoioi?e — 9%, aiaiioi?e — aae?noe — 6%,
aio?iiioi?e — aaoioi?e — 7,5%.

4.6. Ainiiaea?nueea ioe?iea. Aaeaaioeai? ?ineeie iathoue aeoaea
??ciiiai?oio ainiiaea?nueeo oe?ii?noue. A?eueo?noue ?ineei aaeaaioeaiiai
noaaeaiaioa oei?e cae?cie/ieo oeyo?a Eoaainueei? iaeano? — 64 aeaee, aai
66% a?ae caaaeueii? ?o e?eueeino?, ? ?oaea?aeueieie (60 aeae?a) oa
naaaoaeueieie (4 aeaee) ao?’yiaie, o oiio /ene? 2 aeaee (Ambrosia
artemisiifolia oa Ambrosia psilostachia) ea?aioeiieie. Iaea?eueo
iioe?aieie oa oe?aeeeaeie ao?’yiaie ii?ooaieo i?noeue c?inoaiiy ?
i?aaenoaaieee ?iaeo Chenopodium oa Amaranthus, cie?aia Amarantus albus
L., Amarantus lividus L., Amarantus retroflexus L., Amarantus blitoides
S. Wats. oa ?i., u?euei?noue yeeo eieeaaeany a iaaeao a?ae aeae?eueeio
iniaei aei aeae?eueeio nio aai oeny/ iniaei ia 1i2. sse ?oaea?aeuei?
ao?’yie iioe?ai? Chenopodium ambrosoides L., Chenopodium aristatum L.,
Chenopodium schraderanum Schult. oa ?i. Ona a?eueoiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
iaaoaathoue Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Watt.) Fresen. — ce?niee ao?’yi oa
neeueiee aea?aaio; on? aeaee ?iae?a Ambrosia e Artemisia, ui
ni?e/eiythoue aei iiyae ?eiieii’theoeaaeueieo neiae?ii?a, a?iio?aeueii?
anoie, aoie?oe/iiai aea?iaoeoo oa ?ioeo caoai?thaaiue; o iin?aao
ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? — Conyza canadensis L., S?symbrium wolgense M.B. ex
Ldb., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Camelina pilosa (DC.) N. Zing. oa ?i.;
iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo ce?nieo cani?/oaa/?a e?n?a, naae?a, ia?e?a oa
e?ninioa ? Acer negundo L. A ie?aieo e?ninioaao, ui oyaiooueny acaeiaae
cae?cie/ieo oeyo?a, u?euei?noue iiioeyoe?e oeueiai aea?aaa aeinyaa? 3-9
iniaei ia 1i2, a e?euee?noue noiae?a — aei 20-30 oo/i2 ? a?eueoa. Aeoaea
oe?aeeeaeie aeey oaa?ei ? an? aeaee ?iaeo Xanthium, Cenchrus, ieiaee
yeeo iioeiaeaeothoue neecenoo iaieiieo oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae oa iaaoeue, ni?e/eiythoue aei o?aaeaiiy oa ii?aiaiiy
oe??e, inothoue ? iia??oothoue ye?noue aiaie. E??i oiai, ua 15 aeae?a,
aeyaeaieo iaie cae?cie/ieo aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei, ? io?oeieie aeey oaa?ei.
Iaiaei c ieo ? aaaeeeaeie eiiiiiaioaie oei?e oaoiiaaiieo aeioii?a
(ea?’???a, a?aeaae?a, i?iieneiaeo ae?eyiie oiui) ? i?iia?aie canaeaiiy
ieiu, iicaaaeaieo ?ineeiiino? oa ?iaeth/iai oa?o a?oioo aiane?aeie
i?iaaaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo ?ic?iaie. Ia eai’yieo oa i?uaieo ea?’??ao
n.Aieiooeia oa Aai?a??aea, eai’yiiaoa?eueieo oa?eeii?a
i.Iieiaeiaaa?ae?enueea oa E?aniiai Eo/a aeyaeaii 11 aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a
?ineei, ui aeia?a c?inoathoue ooo. Ca aeieia?/iei niaeo?ii oea
ia?aaaaeii ena?iiacio?oe. Ca oeaiioe/iith a?oiith — iaeaea an? aiie (10
aeae?a) ?oaea?aeuei? ao?’yie. Na?aae aeyaeaieo iaie aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei
29 aeae?a iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ?aeo, 25% ? e?ea?nueeeie ?ineeiaie.
E??i iacaaieo iai?yie?a aeei?enoaiiy, 8 aeae?a ? aeia?eie iaaeiiinaie,
22 aeaee — ei?iiaeie, 13 — ao??iie?eieie, 20 — oaoi?/ieie eoeueoo?aie,
14 — iae?i?aioaie oiui.

?ICAe?E 5. NOAI IIIOEssOe?E AAeAAIOEAIIAI NOAAEAIAIOO ? I?IAEAIE EIAI
IAOO?AE?CAOe??

5.1. Iiioeyoe?eiee aiae?c. Ia cae?cie/ieo oeyoao a iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao
?nioaaiiy iniaeie aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei o iiioeyoe?yo ??cieo aeae?a, a
oaeiae iaeiiai ? oiai ae aeaeo a ??cieo oiiaao ?nioaaiiy, nooo?ai
a?ae??ciyeenue ca a?eiaei niaeo?ii. Iai?eeeaae, o Cyclachaena
xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. aoei aeyaeaii 5 oei?a iiioeyoe?e. Ia
cae?cieoeyo cono??/aeeny aeiyoeiai oiea?aioi?, ?iaac?eii-oiea?aioi? e
aeaui iaioa — oiea?aioii-?aa?aneai? iiioeyoe??. O iiioeyoe?yo ia?oiai
oeio aoee ?ineeie aoaeue yeiai a?eo, c iaea?eueoith e?euee?noth
a??a?i?eueieo oa aaia?aoeaieo na?aaeiueia?eiaeo iniaei. A?oia iieiaeeo
iniaei ia?aaaaeaea iaae noa?eie oa a?aeie?ath/eie -30% i?ioe 10%,
aaia?aoeaieo ?ineei aoei a?ey o?aoeie a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?. A
?ioeo aeaio oeiao iiioeyoe?e iieiae? aaia?aoeai? aai a??a?i?euei?
?ineeie aeinyaaee 55-65%, /anoea ?iiaoo?ieo ?ineei — a?ae 20 aei 30%,
iieiaeeo /e a??a?i?eueieo iniaei ia a?eueoa 10%. ?ineei ?ioiai a?eo a
oeeo iiioeyoe?yo ia ciaoiaeeee. O i?e?iaeieo oeaiicao, ia iia’ycaieo ?c
cae?cieoeath, aoee aeyaeai? eeoa ?iaac?ei? aai ?aa?aneai? iiioeyoe??.
Iniiao ?iaac?eieo iiioeyoe?e neeaaeaee iieiae? thaai?euei?, ?iiaoo?i?
?ineeie oa noiaee, a a ?aa?aneaieo — noa?? aaia?aoeai? oa neieeuei? e
noanaieeuei? ?ineeie. A?eiaa no?oeoo?a Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.)
Fresen. iia’ycaia c /anoioith caianaiiy ? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ian?iiy.
Oiea?aioi? iiioeyoe?? aoee iiaeeeaeie eeoa ca oiia iino?eiiai e cia/iiai
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ian?iiy i?ioyaii anueiai ?nioaaiiy ??. I?e
iaaeinoaoiueiio aai iaia??iaee/iiio iaaeoiaeaeaii? ian?iiy iiioeyoe??
noaaaee ?iaac?eii-oiea?aioieie aai oiea?aioii-?aa?aneaieie, a aeae?, i?e
caianaii? iiiaeeiieeo ian?iei, — ?iaac?eieie aai ?aa?aneaieie.
Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae nooiaiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ian?iiy oa
no?ee?noth iiioeyoe?e /i?iiue?o iao?aaieenoiai aeinyaaa 0,9. I?e
iaaeinoaiueiio e iaiino?eiiio caianaii? ian?iiy ?ineeie a iiioeyoe?yo
?ici?uoaaeenue ie?aieie iaeii-o?ueioa?eiaeie a?oiaie, a i?e
aeinoaoiueiio e iino?eiiio — ??ciia?eiaeie ?ineeiaie c aeeoociei
?ici?uaiiyi. I?e iieacieeao eiao?oe??ioa aeenia?n?? 0,01-0,1 iiioeyoe??
/i?iiue?o iao?aaieenoiai oiea?aioi?, 0,11 — 0,16 — ?iaac?eii-oiea?aioi?,
0,17 — 0,6 — oiea?aioii-?aa?aneai?, 0,7 — 0,9 — ?aa?aneaii-oiea?aioi?,
1,0 ? a?eueoa — iiioeyoe?? ?aa?aneai?. Aenioa a??a?i?eueieo ?ineei o
iiioeyoe?yo, ciaeaeaieo ia ieieeoeyo no. E?ai?iia aoea 8 ni, no. Naaoiaa
— 40 ni, no. Eaio?ao?aea — 80 ni, ieiua eenoe?a a?aeiia?aeii 8, 120 oa
75 ni2, iana iaaecaiii? /anoeie 73, 2400 oa 2000a. E?euee?noue nooea?oue
oa ea?oie ia ?ineeiao ci?ithaaeanue o iacia/i?e i???. ?acii ?c oei
aeeoo?a?noue iniaei o iaiiaii/eaiieo iiioeyoe?yo ?c ia?aaoey?iei
caianaiiyi ian?iiy aoea aeuith, i?ae o iiioeyoe?yo ii oeio e
ioe?ithaaeany iaie 3 — 4 aaeaie ca 4 aaeueiith nenoaiith.

5.2. Iaoo?ae?caoe?y aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioa. O caeaaeiino? a?ae
aaeaioeaieo iiaeeeainoae caianaiiai aeaeo, aeieia?/ieo oiia oa
no?eioth/eo oaeoi??a, /anoioe, ?aaoey?iino? e aaee/eie caianaiiy
ae?anii? eiaeai aaeaaioeaiee aeae aeinyaaa iaaiiai nooiaith
iaoo?ae?caoe??, oiaoi oaeiai noaio, yeee i?eoaiaiiee aeeei?inoo/ei
aeaeai o i?e?iaeieo a?iaaioeaiicao. Iayai?noue iniaei i?e oeueiio
niinoa??aa?oueny i?ioyaii aeae?eueeio ?ie?a. sseui iiioeyoe??
aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei o ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiiyo ia iiaee i?aeo?eioaaoe naaa
i?e a?aenooiino? ?aaoey?iiai e aeinoaoiueiai caianaiiy ian?iiy a i?noey
caianaiiy e ?icnaeaiiy, oi aiie aoee ?iaac?eieie aai ?aa?aneaieie, a o?
aeaee, ui aoee caeaoi? aei naiii?aeo?eiee i?e a?aenooiino? caianaiiy
ae?anii?, iaee oiea?aioi? iiioeyoe??. I?e oeueiio ia iaei cia/aiiy, yeei
/eiii aeinyaaeany oiea?aioi?noue — ca ?aooiie ian?ii?aeo /e aaaaoaoeaieo
iniaei. ?aa?aneai? iiioeyoe?? ?aii /e i?cii aeiaaeaee c ?ineeiieo
oa?oiiaaiue ? cae??ieaiiy aaeaaioeaiiai aeaeo a ?ineeii? oa?oiiaaiiy a
i?noeyo caianaiiy ia a?aeaoaaeinue. I?eeeaaeii aeae?a, ui i?iieeee a
cae?cie/i? o?oioeaiice, ne?ae aaaaeaoe Astrodaucus littoralis Drude.,
Oxybaphus nictagineus (Michx.) Sweet. oa ?i., a aeiaaeath/eie c
o?oioeaiic?a — Salsola laricina Pall., Artemisia mongolica (Bess.) Fisch
ex Na Kai., Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth., Amaranthus spinosus L. oa ?i.
On? ciaeaeai? iaie aaeaaioeai? aeaee aoee ?iciiae?eai? ca a?oiaie oae
(?en. 1). ?c 98 aeae?a aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioa oei?e cae?cieoeue
iaoo?ae?coaaeeny a cae?cie/ieo o?oioeaiicao 32 aeaee ?ineei. C ieo ?c
no?eeeie iiioeyoe?yie o?eueee a cae?cie/ieo oeaiicao 6 aeae?a ?ineei:
Astrodaucus littoralis Drude.,Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Amaranthus
tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer., Artemisia umbrosa (Bess.) Turcz. ex Pamp.,
Artemisia siversiana Willd., Chenopodiumprobstii Aellen. I?iieeiaiiy
oeeo aeae?a o i?e?iaei? o?oioeaiice iiee ui ia niinoa??aaeiny.
Ia?aaaaeath/eie a?oiaie na?aae aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei, ui iaoo?ae?coaaeenue
? iia’ycai? nai?i iioe?aiiyi c ?iaioith cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, aoee
?oaea?aeuei? (17 aeae?a) oa naaaoaeuei? (6 ) ao?’yie, ?ineeie
?iaeeaaiio?oe (9) oa a?aaceio?oe (5 aeae?a). ?c caianaieo ?ineei
cono??/aeeny iianthaeii 22 aeaee, 11 aeae?a ciaoiaeeee ie o?eueee a
i?noeyo ia?aeiiiai caianaiiy, i?e/iio 3 aeaee o?eueee a i?noeyo no?iai
ia?aeiiiai caianaiiy, a 3 aeaee a i?noeyo 15-oe e?eiiao?iai? ciie a?ae
i?noey ia?aeiiiai caianaiiy, 5 aeae?a aoee oeiiaeie
iie?noaiioeaio?io?oaie. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei
cono??/aeany a ii?ooaieo oa eoeueoo?ieo oeaiicao iaeiiai oeio (14
aeae?a), ??ciiai oeio (12 aeae?a), o iaii?ooaieo i?e?iaeieo o?oioeaiicao
iaeiiai oeio (6 aeae?a), o i?e?iaeieo iaii?ooaieo oeaiicao ??cieo oei?a
cono??/aeiny 37 aeae?a.

Oei?a cae?cieoeue

Aaeaaioeai? ?ineeie Aeaee i?noeaai? oei?e

iia’ycai? c cae?cieoeyie

Cono??/athoueny ye ia cae?cieoeyo Cono??/athoueny o?eueee ia

oae ? a ?ioeo oeaiicao cae?cieoeyo

Aeaee c ?iaac?eieie, ?aa?aneaieie Aeaee c oiea?aioieie iiioeyoe?yie
iiioeyoe?yie ye o i?e?iaeieo

oeaiicao, oae ? ia cae?cieoeyo Iaoo?ae?coaaeeny a i?noe? caiino
(no?eei oa?eoee aei neeaaeoAaeaaioeai? ?ineeie ye? ia oeaiico)
iaoo?ae?coaaeeny ( A1*) A1

Aeaee c oiea?aioieie iiioeyoe?yie Aeaee c ?iaac?eieie aai

ye o i?e?iaeieo oeaiicao, oae ? ia ?aa?aneaieie iiioeyoe?yie
cae?cieoeyo

( A2*) A2

Aeiaaeathoue ?c neeaaeo oeaiico aai ua ia i?iieeee a oeaiic
(ia iaoo?ae?coaaeeny a i?noe? caiino)

I?ei?oea: Aa?ioeaiice aei oaaae ia a?aeeny.

?en.1. Eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a aaeaaioeaii? oei?e cae?cieoeue Eoaainueei?
iaeano?.

AENIIAEE

1. Neeaaei? i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae Noiaeo Oe?a?ie oa aaeeea
aio?iiiaaiia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua ni?e/eiythoue aei
cia/iiai ??ciiiai?ooy oa iino?eii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oei?e ?aa?iio c
iino?eiei ca?eueoaiiyi a i?e aaeaaioeaieo aeae?a.

2. Iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaea?aeii oa ina?aaeeii caiinieo aeae?a a Eoaainuee?e
iaeano? ? cae?cieoey, aeiaaeeia yei? ia?aaeuo? ooo 3,5 oen. ei.

3. O cae?cie/ieo aeioiiao aeyaeaii 497 aeueo noaeeiie?ineei, ye?
a?aeiinyoueny aei 4 a?aeae?e?a, 5 eean?a, 41 ii?yaeeo, 51 ?iaeeie, 231
?iaeo, ui neeaaea? 27,4% aeae?a, 39,2% ?iae?a oa 40,5% ?iaeei
?aa?iiaeueii? oei?e ? 33,2%, 59,2% oa 46,4% oei?e iaeano?.

4. Aaeaaioeaiee noaaeaiaio oei?e cae?cieoeue aeeth/a? 98 aeae?a
ia’?aeiaieo o 1 a?aeae?e, 2 eeane, 17 ii?yaee?a, 21 ?iaeeio oa 57
?iae?a. Ieoiia aaaa caianaieo ?ineei o cae?cie/i?e oei?? iaeano?
neeaaea? 19,7, o aaeaaioeai?e oei?? Oe?a?ie — 49,0%, ?aa?iio — 89,1%.
Oia?oa aeey oei?e iaeano? aeae?eaii 20 iiaeo aeae?a ?ineei, 38 aeae?a
cono??/a?oueny eeoa ia cae?cie/ieo eie?yo ? oa?eoi??yo, ui i?eeyaathoue
aei ieo. Iniiaieie iai?yieaie i?iieeiaiiy aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei ia
oa?eoi??th iaeano? ? i?aaeaiii — no?aeiee (45%) oa i?aaeaiii — cao?aeiee
(38%) c iaeaeuith ?ioaineai?noth caianaiiy a ia??iae c 1927 ii 1945 ??.
— 6 aeae?a oa c 1993 ii 1998 ??. — 13 aeae?a.

5. Ca a?iii?oaie aaeaaioeaiee noaaeaiaio cae?cie/ii? oei?e nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae caaaeueii? cae?cie/ii? oa ?aa?iiaeueii? oei?.
Neeaae eiai i?aaenoaaeaiee aieiaiei /eiii iiiiea?i?/ieie o?aa’yienoeie
oi?iaie c iaaiiaie ianoeoeaioiiai oeio, ui ia iio?aaothoue iii?e
(68,8%), oa no?eaeaiaaiei?aiaaeie o?aa’yienoeie iie?ea?i?eaie (31,0%).
Oa?io?oe neeaaeathoue 63,2%, aai?e??ioio?oe- 10,4%.

6. Uiaei aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei
ia? ena?iii?oi? iciaee c ia?aaaaeaiiyi ena?iiacio?oieo (36%) oa
iaciena?io?oieo (25%) a?oi; ca o?oioeaiioe/ieie iieacieeaie — iieiaeia
?oaea?aeuei? ao?’yie, o?aoeia — ?ineeie, ui aaaaeai? a eoeueoo?o, ? a?ey
13% — an? ?io? o?oioeaiioe/i? a?oie; ca niiniaaie iioe?aiiy ?
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ian?iiy — ia?aaaaeii iie?oi?e. O ainiiaea?nueeiio
a?aeiioaii? aeyaeaii, ui 22 aeaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye ei?iia?,
34 — oaoi?/i? e ao??iie?ei?, 14 — iae?i?aioe, 8 — iaaeiiine ? o. ae.

7. Aaeaaioeai? ?ineeie ia cae?cie/ieo oeyoao a?ae??ciythoueny a
iiioeyoe?yo ca a?eiaith no?oeoo?ith, aeeoo?a?noth oa i?inoi?iaei
?ici?uaiiyi. O oiea?aioieo iiioeyoe?yo iieiae? ?ineeie ia?aaaaeathoue
iaae noa?eie ?c cia/iith /anoioith aaia?aoeaieo iniaei aai oaeeo, ui
aeia?a a?aeiiaeythoueny aaaaoaoeaii, a i?inoi?iaa ?ici?uaiiy ?ineei
??aiii??ia ?c aeeth/aiiyi ??ciia?eiaeo iniaei.

8. Iaoo?ae?caoe?y aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei aecia/a?oueny ia /anoioith
cono??/a?iino? ? o?eaae?noth ?nioaaiiy aeaeo a ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiiyo, a
noaiii eiai iiioeyoe?e, cie?aia a?eiaei, oa caeaoi?noth aei
naiii?aeo?eiee. Aeaeaie, ui iaoo?ae?coaaeenue, aaaaeathoueny o?eueee o?,
ui iathoue oiea?aioi? iiioeyoe??. Onueiai a Eoaainuee?e iaeano?
iae?/o?oueny 37 aeae?a cae?cie/ieo aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei, ui
iaoo?ae?coaaeenue, ua 9 aeae?a iathoue oaiaeaioe?th aei iaoo?ae?caoe??.

9. C iaoith i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeoeaiiai ea?aioeio oa caiia?aaiiy
iiaeaeueoiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy e iaoo?ae?caoe?? iaaaaeaieo oa
ea?aioeiieo ?ineei, a oaeiae oe?ieiai caeo/aiiy aei ainiiaea?nueeiai
aeei?enoaiiy oa c iaoith caa?aaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oiino? e aeniaaeaiiy
aaiioiiaeo aai?eaaiii? oei?e iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe nenoaiaoe/ia
oei?enoe/ia ianoaaeaiiy cae?cieoeue oa aioai?/iee iii?oi?eia cae?cie/ieo
aeioii?a.

NIENIE I?AOeUe, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Eiiiiey I.?., Ae?aeue A.O. Aaeaaioeaia oei?a cae?cieoeue Eoaainueei?
iaeano?. — Eoaainuee: Oeyo, 1998. — 159n.

2. Aioaieea. Aiaoiiey e ii?oieiaey ?anoaiee / I.E.Eiiiiey, N.A.Iao?aiei,
A.O.Ae?aeue, E.E.Eaniye; Iiae ?aae. I.E.Eiiiiey. — Eoaaine: Oeyo, 1998.
— 175n.

3. Eaniye E.E., Ae?aeue A.O., Eiiiiey I.E., Iao?aiei N.A. Iaoiaee/aneia
iiniaea ii eco/aieth iiioeyoeee o?aayienouo ?anoaiee ia iieaaie i?aeoeea
ii aioaieea. — Eoaaine: IEO Ciaiea, 1996. — 71n.

4. Eiiiiey I.E., Iao?aiei N.A., Ae?aeue A.O., Eaniye E.E. ?aai/ay
oao?aaeue ii eo?no “Iniiau naeueneiai oicyenoaa”. — Eoaaine: IEO Ciaiea,
1997. — 103n.

5. Eiiiiey I.E., Ae?aeue A.O. Oicyenoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea aaeaaioeaiiai
noaaeaiaioa oei?u aeaeaciuo aei?ia Eoaaineie iaeanoe // A?niee
Eoaainueeiai aea?ae. iaae. ?inoeoooo. — ? 3. -Eoaainuee: EAI?, 1997. —
N.49-51.

6. Ae?aeue A.O., Eiiiiey I.E. I?iaeaia ?acaeoey aaeaaioeaiie oei?u
aeaeaciuo aei?ia Eoaaineie iaeanoe // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. — A?ieia?/i?
iaoee.- Eoaainuee: ENA?, 1998. — N.35-38.

7. Ae?aeue A.O. Oei?a aeaeaciuo aei?ia Eoaaineie iaeanoe // A?niee
Eoaainueeiai aea?ae. iaae. ?inoeoooo. — ? 1. — Eoaainuee: EAI?, 1997. —
N.78-81.

8. Ae?aeue A.O., Eiiiiey I.E., Eaniye E.E. I iaoo?aeecaoeee aaeaaioeaiuo
?anoaiee aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iano iaeoaiey// Eio. eenoie, ?32-95. —
OeIOYE. — Eoaaine, 1995. — 4n.

9. Ae?aeue A.O., Eiiiiey I.E., Eaniye E.E. Iiaua aaeaaioeaiua aeaeu
?anoaiee a Eoaaineie iaeanoe // Eio. eenoie, ?26-96. — OeIOYE. —
Eoaaine, 1996. -6n.

10. Ae?aeue A.O., Eaniye E.E., Eiiiiey I.E. Iiaua aaeaaioeaiua aeaeu
ia?ae (Chenopodium) e iieuiae (Artemisia) a Eoaaineie iaeanoe// Eio.
eenoie, ?27-96. — OeIOYE. — Eoaaine, 1996. — 6n.

Ae?aeue A.O. Aaeaaioeaia oei?a cae?cieoeue Eoaainueei? iaeano?
(caaaeueiee aiae?c oa i?iaeaie iaoo?ae?caoe??). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.05 — aioai?ea — Oeaio?aeueiee aioai?/iee naae
?i. I.I. A?eoea IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi o?ainoi?iaoe?? oei?e Eoaainueei?
iaeano?, caeiiii??iinoyi ?? oi?ioaaiiy i?ae aieeaii aaeaaioeaiiai
noaaeaiaioo cae?cieoeue, oaiaeaioe?yi ?icaeoeo oa aeyaeaiiy i?noey
aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioa a caaaeuei?e oei?? ?aa?iio oa Eoaainueei?
iaeano?. Oia?oa neeaaeaiee oei?enoe/iee nienie ?ineei cae?cieoeue oa
i?eeaaeeo aei ieo oa?eoi??e yeee iae?/o? 497 aeae?a, ye? a?aeiinyoueny
aei 4 a?aeae?e?a, 5 eean?a, 41 ii?yaeeo, 51 ?iaeeie, 231 ?iaeo.
Aeae?eai? iaie 98 aeae?a aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioo oei?e cae?cieoeue
ia’?aeiai? o 1 a?aeae?e, 2 eeane, 17 ii?yaee?a, 21 ?iaeeio oa 57 ?iae?a.
Aia?oa aeey iaeano? iaaaaeaii 20 iiaeo aeae?a ?ineei. Aeeiiai?
nenoaiaoe/iee, aaia?ao?/iee, a?iii?oieia?/iee, aeieiaioeaiioe/iee,
ea?iieia?/iee aiae?c oei?e oa c?iaeaia ainiiaea?nueea ioe?iea
aaeaaioeaiiai noaaeaiaioo oei?e. Aecia/aia nooi?iue iaoo?ae?caoe??
aaeaaioeaieo ?ineei oa ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ii nooiaith
iaoo?ae?caoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oei?a, aeioiie cae?cieoeue, aaeaaioeaiee noaaeaiaio,
iaoo?ae?caoe?y, Eoaainueea iaeanoue.

Ae?aeue A.O. Aaeaaioeaiay oei?a aeaeaciuo aei?ia Eoaaineie iaeanoe (
aiaeec e i?iaeaiu iaoo?aeecaoeee ). — ?oeiienue .

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.05 — aioaieea- Oeaio?aeueiue aioaie/aneee naae
ei. I.I. A?eoei IAI Oe?aeiu, a.Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai o?ainoi?iaoeee oei?u Eoaaineie iaeanoe,
caeiiiia?iinoyi aa oi?ie?iaaiey iiae aeeyieai aaeaaioeaiiai noayeaiaioa
aeaeaciuo aei?ia, oaiaeaioeeyi ?acaeoey e auyaeaieth ianoa aaeaaioeaiiai
noayeaiaioa ai oei?a ?aaeiia e iaeanoe.

Ninoaaeai oei?enoe/aneee nienie ?anoaiee aeaeaciuo aei?ia e i?eeaaathueo
oa??eoi?ee, ian/eouaathuee 497 aeaeia, ioiinyueony e 4 ioaeaeai, 5
eeannai, 41 ii?yaeeo, 51 naiaenoao, 231 ?iaeo. Auaeaeaiiua iaie 98
aeaeia aaeaaioeaiiai noayeaiaioa oei?u aeaeaciuo aei?ia iauaaeeiaiu a 1
ioaeae, 2 eeanna, 17 ii?yaeeia, 21 naiaenoai, 57 ?iaeia. Aia?aua aeey
oei?u iaeanoe i?eaiaeeony 20 iiauo aeaeia ?anoaiee. Oaeaeueiay ianna
caianaiiuo ?anoaiee a aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie oei?a iaeanoe aeinoeaaao 19,7%,
aaeaaioeaiie oei?a Oe?aeiu — 49%, ?aaeiia — 89,1%. Iniiaiuie
iai?aaeaieyie i?iieeiiaaiey aaeaaioeaiuo ?anoaiee ia oa??eoi?eth iaeanoe
yaeythony thai-ainoi/iia e thai-caiaaeiia n iaeneiaeueiie
eioaineaiinoueth caiina a ia?eiae n 1927 ii 1945aa. (6 aeaeia) e n 1993
ii 1998 aa. (13 aeaeia).

Ii aeiii?oai ninoaa aaeaaioeaiiai noayeaiaioa i?aaenoaaeai, aeaaiui
ia?acii, iiiiea?ie/aneeie o?aayienouie oi?iaie n iiaaaaie
ianoeeoeaioiiai oeia, eioi?ua ia o?aaotho iii?u (68,8%), e
noa?aeiaei?iaauie o?aayienouie iieeea?ieeaie (31,0%). Oa?ioeou
ninoaaeyee 63,2%, aaiee?eioioeou — 10,4%, ae?oaea oi?iu -26,4%.

Ii ioiioaieth e yeieiae/aneei oaeoi?ai i?aiaeaaeaee ena?iiacioeou (36%)
e iaciena?ioeou (25%); ii oeoioeaiioe/aneei i?eciaeai — ?oaea?aeueiua
ni?iyee (50%) e eoeueoo?iua ?anoaiey (13%); ii niiniao ?ani?ino?aiaiey —
iieeoi?u. A oicyenoaaiiii ioiioaiee 22 aeaea — ei?iiaua ?anoaiey, 34 —
oaoie/aneea e yoe?iianee/iua, 14- iaeei?aiou, 8- iaaeiiiniua .

A oiea?aioiuo iiioeyoeeyo iieiaeua aaeaaioeaiua ?anoaiey ni
cia/eoaeueiui eiee/anoaii aaia?aoeaiuo iniaae eee iniaae, oi?ioi
ainnoaiaaeeaathueony aaaaoaoeaii, i?aiaeaaeatho iaae noa?uie,
i?ino?ainoaaiiia ?aciauaiea ?anoaiee ?aaiiia?iia (aeeooociia) n
aeeth/aieai ?aciiaic?anoiuo iniaae.

Iaoo?aeecaoeey aaeaaioeaiuo ?anoaiee ii?aaeaeyeanue ia /anoioie
ano?a/aaiinoe e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth nouanoaiaaiey aeaea a
?anoeoaeueiuo niiauanoaao, a ninoiyieai aai iiioeyoeee, a /anoiinoe
aic?anoiui, a oaeaea niiniaiinoueth e naiiiiaeaea?aeaieth. Aeaeaie,
eioi?ua iaoo?aeeciaaeenue, n/eoaeenue oieueei oa, eioi?ua eiaee
oiea?aioiua iiioeyoeee. Anaai a Eoaaineie iaeanoe auei iaia?oaeaii 37
aeaeia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo aaeaaioeaiuo ?anoaiee, eioi?ua
iaoo?aeeciaaeenue, e 9 aeaeia ?anoaiee eiathueo oaiaeaioeeth e
iaoo?aeecaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oei?a, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua yeioiiu, aaeaaioeaiue
noayeaiaio, iaoo?aeecaoeey, Eoaaineay iaeanoue.

Drel V.F. Adventive flora of Lugansk region railways (analysis and
problems of naturalization). — The thesis is a manuscript.

The thesis for conferring the scientific degree of the candidate of
biological sciences in speciality 03.00.05 — botanic — Central Botanical
Garden named after N.N. Grishko the National Academy of Science of
Ukraine, 1999.

The thesis deal with the problems of Lugansk region flora
transformation, regularities of its formation under the influence of the
adventive subelement of the railways. The research has also been made
into the tendencies of development and the role of the adventive
subelement in the flora of the region. The floristic list of plants of
railways and adjacent territories amounting to 497 species belonging to
4 departments, 5 classes, 41 orders, 51 families, 232 genera has been
made up. 98 species adventive subelement of railway flora which we have
identified are united into 1 department, 2 classes, 17 orders, 21
families and 57 genera. 20 new species of plants have been specified for
the regional flora for the first time. The systematic, geographic,
biomorphological, ecologicocenotic, carpological analyses of flora have
been carried out, and the significance for the economy of the adventive
element of flora has been substantiated. The degree of naturalization of
adventive plants has been defined and the classification according to
the degree of naturalization has been worked out.

Key words: flora, railways echotops, adventive subelement,
naturalization, Lugansk region.

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