The Regions and Cities of Ukraine (реферат)

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The Regions and Cities of Ukraine

Kherson Region

The Kherson Region is situated in the south of Ukraine, the zone of
steppes, which reaches the Dnieper.

The territory of the region is situated in Prichernomorie Lowland. The
area is 28,500 square kilometres.

The population is more than 1 mln people.

Administrative division: the area consists of 18 rural districts and 3
municipal districts in the Kherson-city. The region has 9 cities, 3 of
them are regional subordinates, 30 towns and many villages.

There are more than 50 nationalities in the region. The share of the
Ukrainians is the biggest.

Agricultural-climatical conditions: the region is divided into 6 zones:
cereals and industrial crops are cultivated in the northern and eastern
areas, vegetable-growing, gardening, vinegrowing are cultivated in the
southern and central areas.

The public sector remains the main producer of the agricultural
production.

Khmelnytskyi Region

The Khmelnytskyi Region is located in the western part of Ukraine in the
Volyno-Podilska Highland. The region borders on Vinnytsia in the East,
Ternopil in the West, Rivne in the North-West and Chernivtsi in the
South. The area of the Khmelnitsky Region is 6 thousand square
kilometres.

As for its administrative division, the region has 13 cities, 20
districts and many villages. The largest cities are Khmelnytskyi, and
Kamianets-Podilsky. The other cities and towns are rather small as for
their population.

Population of the Khmelnytskyi Region is 1,509,000. The region is
located in favourable geographical area. It is a gateway to both the
East and the West.

The transport system of the region is quite developed. The most
important railway and other roads of Ukraine go through the territory of
the Khmelnytskyi Region. The highspeed railways «Kyiv-West» and the
«Western Europe-Kyiv» are being designed which will go through the
Khmelnytskyi Region.

The region energetics is based upon delivered coal and oil, natural gas
and local peat-bed.

The light industry branch is represented by textile factories. There are
shoe, knitted-goods, haberdashery factories in Khmelnytskyi.

In short, this is Khmelnytchyna. It generously opens for all those who
want to see the roads and paths of a small but beautiful land.

Ivano-Frankivsk Region

Ivano-Frankivsk is located in the west of Ukraine at the juncture of the
East-European Plain and the Ukrainian Carpathians. Its territory is 9
thousand sq. km. Population — 5 mln people. Ivano-Frankivsk Region is
the 18th region of Ukraine as for the population and the 22nd as for the
territory.

It comprises 14 administrative districts and 5 cities and towns of the
regional subordination.

The region is rich in natural resources. There are the deposits of oil
and gas, peat, phosphates and magnesium salts, large deposits of clay,
gypsum, limestone and gravel.

Forests of the region occupy a very large territory with a lot of
valuable industrial species. The agricultural lands are valuable too.

As for local water resources, Ivano-Frankivsk Region ranks the second
among the regions of Ukraine. The largest rivers of the region are the
Dniester, the Cheremosh, and the Prut.

The economy of the region is of industrial-agricultural character.

The industrial potential of the region is mainly concentrated in
Ivano-Frankivsk, Kolomyia.

Kirovohrad Region

Kirovohrad Region is located in the central part of Ukraine between the
Dnipro and the South Buh in the southern part of Prydniprovska Upland.

It was established on 10 January, 1939. Its territory is 24.6 thou0and
square kilometres.

Administrative centre of the region is Kirovohrad. The region is
inhabited by 1,230 thousand persons. Various kinds of population inhabit
this region: Ukrainians, Russians, Moldovans, Belorussians, Jews, etc.

The region consists of 21 administrative districts.

The region has got a favourable geographical position and developed
transport network. Its territory is crossed by numerous railways,
linking important industrial and agricultural areas of the south with
the centre and the south-west of Ukraine. Highways link Ukraine with
central and southern Europe.

Extended telephone network allows to communicate with most of the
countries.

Kirovohrad Region is a unique centre of the Ukrainian culture. This is
the birthplace of the Ukrainian professional national theatre founded by
such coryphaei of the stage as M. Kropvvnytski and I. Tobilevych.

The region has got a lot of clubs and cinemas, many public libraries, 2
theatres, 8 museums, many music schools and schools of art.

The region has a considerable scientific potential. The work of
scientists has received a grant of Soros International Foundation.

The region is also rich in sporting traditions. Its sporting schools and
colleges have trained a number of the world rank sportsmen, among them
the world champions Olesia Dudnyk (gymnastics), Olena Sukho-ruk
(weight-lifting), and Alexander Koretski (sambo).

Lviv Region — area of the Developed Economic cooperation

Lviv Region is one of the most developed regions of the Dnieper Right
bank Ukraine as for its diverse economic and cultural potential. In the
domestic and international economic division and cooperation the region
specializes in the machine-building, medical equipment and household
appliances production, manufacture of chemical and light industry
products, wood and papermaking. It also developed international transit
transportation, economic recreation, scientific support and reforms in
the agro-industrial sector.

Lviv Region produces 4 per cent of the national income of Ukraine. 68
countries are involved in the stable and intensively developing foreign
trade relations with the region.

Foreign trade turnover of Lviv Region reached $545 mln last year. The
region exported buses, forklift trucks, autocranes, industrial machinery
and equipment, textile products and clothes, sugar, wheat, spirits,
meat, various foodstuffs, wood and wood products, sulphur.

Poland is one of the main trade partners of Lviv Region. Main export
items were the grain, organic and non-organic chemical products, steel
products.

One of the main tasks in the development of international ties of the
region is to intensify the transborder co-operation.

Rivne Region

The Rivne Region was founded on the 4th of December 1939. It is situated
in the north-western part of Ukraine and occupies the territory of 20.1
thousand square kilometres. It borders on Zhytomyr, Khmelnytskyi,
Ternopil, Lviv and Volyn regions of Ukraine and the Brest and Gomel
regions of Belarus.

As to its administrative-territorial division, the region includes 10
towns and 16 districts. The region numbers 1.2 mln inhabitants. The
region has a favourable geographical location and a developed transport
system. Highways run through the region.

The Rivne Region possesses a certain potential of the natural resources.
They are: stones, limestones and other mineral building materials. Large
deposits of amber are of a great importance. There have been discovered
deposits of phosphorites, sources of mineral water and mud.

The surface waters of the Rivne Region include 170 rivers, many lakes
and ponds.

Industry and agriculture take the leading place in the economy of the
region.

Zhytomyr Region

Zhytomyr land is a beautiful, picturesque piece of north-western
Ukraine. Its area is about 30 thousand square kilometres. Population
reaches almost 1.5 mln.

The administrative centre of the region the city of Zhytomyr is more
than 11 centuries old. Thousand years of history have also such towns as
Korosten, Ovruck, Malin.

Owing to its advantageous geographical position, the region has good
connections with Kyiv, Lviv, Uzhgorod, Odesa, Kharkiv, Minsk, Moscow,
Saint-Petersburg, as well as with the countries of Eastern and Central
Europe.

The region is rich in natural resources. There are decorative stones,
marbles, gems, raw materials for steel and constructing industries,
limestone, brown coal, peat among them. Zhytomyr Region supplies the
whole of Ukraine with the titanium concentrate and exports it too. The
region is the first in Ukraine for the wood. Almost one-third of its
territory is covered with forests and woods.

In agriculture along with the production of grain and beans, sugar
beets, milk and meat production, the region is in the first place in the
country in the production of hop, flax and chicory. The industrial basis
of the regional economy are its machinebuilding and machine tools
factories. The region has great capacities in the industrial ceramics
production.

Private sector is expanding more and more in the region’s-industry.
Foreign trade is an important part of the development of the region.

Sumy Region

The Sumy Region is located in the north-eastern part of Ukraine. It
borders on Kursk, Briansk and Belgorod Regions of Russia in the north
and east, and on Poltava and Kharkiv Regions of Ukraine in the north and
south-east, on Chernigiv Region of Ukraine in the west.

The majority of population are Ukrainians. The Sumy Region was founded
on the 10th of January 1939. There are 15 towns in this region.

The Sumy Region is rich in minerals such as oil, gas, brown coal, salt
and others. 132 rivers flow through the territory of the Sumy Region.
The largest of them are the Desna, the Psyol, the Sula and the Vorskla.

Thanks to favourable geographic conditions of the region, there is an
opportunity for harmonic development of the region.

Main gas and oil pipelines are laid through the territory of the region.

As to the transport, loads and passengers are carried by railway and
air. There are buses and trolley-buses in Sumy.

Cherkasy Region

The land of Cherkasy gave birth to Bohdan Khmelnytskyi who was destined
to become the leader of the nation which was surviving difficult times
and who was the first to lay the foundation of Ukrainians’ own state.

A great deal is being done on the territory of Cherkashchyna to restore
the historical past, to bring back to the people the names of our
countrymen. They are Ivan Padalka, a world-known artist, Todos Osmashka,
a writer, Vasyl Avramenko, a choreographer, and many others. The
monuments and memorial plagues have been put up to commemorate their
activities.

The place, to which Ukrainians from all over the world make a
pilgrimage, is Taras Shevchenko Memorial sites: Zvenigorodska area and
the sacred Kaniv Mountain, where the soul of the nation’s spiritual
father rests in its eternal peare.

Among the seven historical and cultural reserves, the world-famous
Sofievka Dendrological Park in Uman is a real pearl.

Those ones in Cherkasy Region who work in the agrarian sector are
changing their attitude to the economic reforms. In general, with regard
to foreign investments into economy Cherkasy Region occupies the fourth
place among the other regions of Ukraine. The most beneficial contracts
were signed with the firms from the USA, Germany, France, Poland and
other countries.

Chernihiv Region

Geopolitical situation of Chernihiv Region is of a rather peculiar
character. Russian Briansk Region and Belarus Gomel Region are
Chernihiv’s old-time neighbours. The Friendship monument situated on
State borders of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus is Chernihiv Region
visiting-card.

Chernihiv Region is a «potato land», it is the land of flax growing and
processing, the land of cattle breeding. It is also the land of «big
chemistry», gas and oil, it is Ukraine’s textile shop.

Though difficult economic situation of later years, life made them
change their economic directions in some cases, and step backward in
others. They managed to hold up economic recession in all spheres and to
improve social situation.

The regional centre is divided into 2 districts: Desnianski and
Novozavodski. There are 1200 rivers in the region. The main waterway is
the Desna river. It is the only region in Ukraine that produces fire
trucks, cord fabrics, pianos and several kinds of equipment for agrarian
and industrial complexes.

The priority industrial branches are the food industry, the light
industry, the fuel industry, the machine building industry and the
metalworking industry.

Agriculture is an important part of the region’s national economy.

Chernivtsi Region

Chernivtsi Region is one of the youngest in Ukraine. It was formed on
7th August, 1940, as a result of integration of the northern part of
Bukovyna and the Khotyn district of Bessarabia into Ukraine.

The region is divided into 11 administrative districts. The ethnic
structure of Chernivtsi Region is quite varied: Ukrainians, Romanians,
Moldavians, Russians, Jews, Poles, Belorussians.

The climate is moderate continental. The region has deposits of mineral
resources such as: gas, oil. Near the Dniester and in the basin of the
Prut, there are large deposits of gypsum and limestone. The lands of
Chernivtsi Region contain mineral waters.

Chernivtsi Region is unique in production of certain types of equipment
for thermal power plants, oil-refineries, knitwear factories, and
semiconductor instruments.

The main kinds of farming products of the region are grain cultures,
sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, flax, milk, eggs, pork, beef.

There is a significant scientific potential concentrated in Chernivtsi
Region. Chernivtsi State University, Chernivtsi Medical Institute and
Chernivtsi branch of Kyiv Trade and Economy Institute offer higher
education in a number of majors. There is also the institute of National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chernivtsi divisions of the institute of
world economy and international relations and a number of other
scientific-research institutions.

Vinnytsia Region

At present, Vinnytsia Region is one of the largest agricultural and
industrial, cultural and historical regions of the independent state of
Ukraine. The new region was founded on the 27th of February in 1932 and
its territory makes up 4.5 per cent of the territory of state. It is
situated in the central part of the Right-Bank Ukraine and borders upon
seven regions of Ukraine. To the south-west of Vinnytchina, along the
river Dniester, the area of 202 kilometres presents the frontier with
the Republic Moldova.

Recording to the administrative division, the territory of the region
consists of 27 village districts, and the regional centre consists of 3
town districts.

The population of Vinnytchina is about 2 mln people.

Nowadays, Vinnytchina is a region of industry and high mechanized
agriculture, with scientific base.

In two recent years Vinnytchina became one of the 5 best regions of
independent Ukraine on gross output. According to the gross output of
agricultural production, the region takes the second place in the state.

Volyn Region

Volyn is an integral part of the independent Ukraine. Its area is 200
square kilometres. The population of the region is 75,200 people. The
region is situated in the north-west of Ukraine. It borders on the
Republic of Poland in the west and on the Republic of Belorus in the
north. It also neighbours upon the Lviv and Rivne regions of Ukraine in
the south and east.

The Volyn Region takes a favourable geographical position and is
situated on the crossroads of the European trade routes.

The Volyn Region has a rich mineral and raw materials potential such as
the coal, peat and clay fields, beds of various building materials are
being exploited for a long time. The deposits of natural gas, copper,
precious metals, phosphates and cement have been prospected.

The region possesses substantial recreational resources. There are 220
lakes and 130 rivers. Shatsk National Natural Park has been created in
the region.

In the general structure of the economy, the industrial production
prevails. The food, machine-building, light, fuel, building materials
branches take the leading position.

Agriculture takes about 33 % in the gross national product of the
region. Meat and sugar beets, corn and flax are the main directions of
the region’s agricultural activities.

Transcarpathia is a Special Region

Transcarpathia, the youngest of the Ukrainian regions, is situated in
the far west of the country. Since January 22,1946, it has been included
into Ukraine as administrative and territorial unit.

The region is multinational. The major part of its population are
Ukrainians. It is known that more than 75 nationalities live there.

Regional economy is closely connected with its natural resources, first
of all, with forests and timber processing.

Transcarpathia is rich in minerals: constructing materials, brown coals,
non-ferrous metals, kaolin of high quality, rock salt and gas.

Regional industry is specialized in timber processing industry, food
industry, industry of constructive materials, light industry.

Regional agricultural complex is represented by 192 enterprises of
public sector and more than a thousand farms.

Kyiv — the Capital of Ukraine

According to the chronicles Kyiv’s first citadel was built in the sixth
to eighth centuries. Kyiv bears the name of prince Kyi, who lived on the
old Kyiv Hill in the sixth century.

Under the rule of Yaroslav the Wise Kyivan Rus with Kyiv as its capital
reached the height of its power.

Nowadays Kyiv is a large political, industrial, scientific and cultural
centre. Its population is about 3 million. The city lies on both banks
of the Dnieper. Kyiv is a garden city; only a seventh part of its
territory is occupied by buildings. Kyiv has a well-developed industry.
Its factories and plants produce sea and river transport vessels, air
liners, computers, motorcycles, consumer goods.

Kyiv is also one of the largest scientific centres. The Ukrainian
Academy of Sciences and many research institutes are famous for their
discoveries. More than 10,000 students study at Kyiv Shevchenko National
University. There are over 20 higher educational establishments in Kyiv.

Kyiv is also the centre of political life in Ukraine. All major
political events take place here.

Kyiv is the largest ancient centre of national Ukrainian culture. There
are 20 museums, 1300 libraries, 41 theatres, 121 parks.

Kyiv is growing and is being built, it also becomes younger and more
beautiful.

Dnipropetrovsk

Dnipropetrovsk is situated on the river Dnieper. It is a large railway
junction. The city is one of the main industrial, cultural and
scientific centres of Ukraine. Such branches of industry as
metallurgical, chemical, light and food industries are well-developed in
Dnipropetrovsk. The city is a centre of space rocket production in
Ukraine. Nine higher educational establishments, including a University,
work in the city. As Dnipropetrovsk is a large cultural centre of
Ukraine, it has 5 theatres, 3 museums, including the museum of Fine Arts
and the Historical Museum, Philarmonic Society and observatory.

The city was founded in 1776. From the 18th century the Palace of
Potiemkin, now the Students’ Palace, has preserved. Another famous
building is the Preobrazhensky cathedral, built in the 19th century. The
city is situated on both banks of the Dnieper. Different parts of the
city are connected with each other by three bridges. The underground
line, which has been recently opened, also run under the river.

Ternopil region

Ternopil is a place of music and drama theatres, a ctfncert hall, a
natural history museum, an art museum and a gallery.

Regional review-contests after Oles Kurbas, Solomia Krushelnytska,
Volodymyr Hnatyuk, Olena Kulchytska as well as festivals dedicated to
famous town-fellows have become traditional.

The region is proud of 237 artistic groups, which have won the title
«national».

Recently created museums after Bohdan Lepkiy in Berezhany, Ulas Samchuk
in Tyliavtsy have become outstanding centres of renewal of historical
truth of the past.

Numerous visitors to the region are attracted by the architecture of the
Pochayiw Lavra and Monastery, as well as by the longest in the world
caves located in the outskirts of Borshchov.

The regional artistic museum, opened in 1991, has turned to real school
of study of fine arts.

Sevastopol

Sevastopol is a large port on the Black Sea. It is a centre of
shipbuilding industry. A lot of docks are situated there.

The city also has well-developed light and food industries.

In ancient time the town of Khersones was situated on the territory of
Sevastopol. Then in 1783 a military sea fortress and port appeared. It
is well-known for its heroic defence in the Crimean War in 1854—1855 and
during the Second World War.

Nowadays such industries as fishing and timber are the leading ones.

The aquarium of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas is
situated in the city. Sevastopol has a lot of old buildings and
monuments in honour of great sea battles.

This beautiful city attracts tourists from many countries of the world.

Odesa

Odesa is the Black Sea’s gateway to Ukraine. It is the country’s largest
commercial Black Sea port and a large industrial city. Odesa is a
crossroads of cultures, languages and trade.

Pushkin lived here in exile during the 1820s, also it was home to writer
and film director Olexander Dovzhenko.

The site of Odesa was controlled from 1526 to 1789 by the Ottoman Turks.
In the 18th century Russia took this region and constructed a new port
at Odesa. It was named after the ancient Greek colony Odessos. By the
1880s it was the second-biggest Russian port and an important industrial
city. Odessa was a hotbed of the 1905 revolution.

The beauty of Odesa is in Prymorsky boulevard with its beautiful
buildings and the Potemkin Steps. Film director Eisenstein used
Po-temkin Steps in his film «Battleship Potemkin». The 193 steps, built
between 1827 and 1841 descend from a statue of Due de Richelieu. At the
eastern end of Prymorsky boulevard, Pushkin statue and a British cannon
from the Crimean War stand before the Odesa City Hall.

Several of the city’s fine museums are the Museum of Maritime History,
the Literature Museum, Pushkin Museum, the Museum of Western and
Oriental Art and others. The Archaeology Museum is the first museum of
this kind in the former Russian Empire. Its Gold Room has jewellery and
coins from early Black Sea civilizations, including the first Slavic
coins of St. Volodymyr with the tryzub symbol on them.

Odesa is famous for its beaches. The southern beaches are less crowded
and more picturesque than the northern ones. The Arkadia area is the
most popular and has lots of restaurants and activities.

Lviv

Lviv, the capital of Western Ukraine, is a large industrial and
commercial centre of Ukraine. Its narrow old streets and historic centre
make it one of the best places in the country.

Lviv was founded as a fort in the mid-13th century by Danylo Halytski.
It was named after his son Lev, which means lion. The lion is the
historic symbol of the city. For centuries it has been the Western
Ukraine’s main city.

Lviv’s main street is the Freedom Avenue. It runs from Mitskevych Square
to the Ivan Franko Opera and Ballet Theatre. Also in Freedom Avenue you
can see the National Museum which once was the Lenin Museum. In the
middle of the Avenue there is a statue of Ukraine’s national poet, Taras
Shevchenko, never without flowers at his feet.

The Museum of Ethnography, Arts and Crafts, with a statue of Liberty in
front, demonstrates furniture and porcelain. Each room presents a
different era.

Opposite Lviv University there is a monument to the Ukrainian poet Ivan
Franko, from which Ivan Franko Park stretches towards the Hotel
«Dniester».

Lviv’s open-air Museum of Popular Architecture and Life is worth to
visit. About 100 old wooden buildings are divided into many ethnographic
groups of Western Ukraine.

Shevchenko Avenue attracts people with its beautiful buildings and
various shops. There you can find a statue of Mykhailo Hrushevskyi,
Ukraine’s most famous historian and the country’s first president in
1918.

The Museum of Old Ukrainian Culture has a nice display of small, carved
wooden Carpathian crosses.

Lviv Picture Gallery has one of the largest collections of European
paintings in the country, with over 1,000 paintings on display, and
5,000 in storage.

Lviv is also famous for its churches and monasteries, among which are
the Roman Catholic Cathedreal, Uspensky Church, St George’s Cathedral,
Church of St John the Baptist, Jesuit Church and many others. Lviv is
also famous for its Museum of Historic Religions.

Inside the Town Arsenal there is the Museum of Old Arms, with a display
of various arms taken from over 30 countries.

Donetsk

Donetsk is a large industrial, scientific and cultural city of Ukraine.
It is the centre of coal-mining industry. It is also the main fuel base
of Ukraine.

It was founded in 1869. Until 1924 it was named Uzovka. From 1924 to
1961 it was named Stalino, and only in 1961 it became Donetsk.

The city is situated at the river Kalmius. It is very famous for its
waste banks. Now the city produces metallurgic and mining equipment,
refrigerators, bicycles. Food and light industries are also
well-developed in Donetsk.

Donetsk houses five higher educational institutions. Among them there is
well-known Donetsk Medical Institute and Donetsk Polytechnical
Institute, that train highly-qualified specialists. There are 3 theatres
and two museums in the city: Donetsk Opera and Ballet House, Donetsk
Museum of Fine Arts are among them.

Kharkiv

Kharkiv is quite an old city. It was founded about 350 years ago. The
city is situated on the plateau surrounded by the Kharkiv and the Lopan
rivers. According to the popular legend the city is named after the
Cossack Kharko.

Kharkiv is the historical capital of Slobidska Ukraine. With the
foundation of Kharkiv University in 1805, the city became an important
educational and cultural centre of Ukraine and the Russian Empire as a
whole. Such cultural figures as Kvitka-Osnovianenko, Hulack-Artemovsky,
Kostomarov, Repin lived and worked in Kharkiv.

Kharkiv was the capital of Ukraine since 1919 till 1934.

Today Kharkiv is the second largest city in the country. About two
million people live there. Kharkiv is one of the largest industrial
centres in Ukraine. Its numerous enterprises produce planes, tractors,
electronic, mining and medical equipment, TV-sets, refrigerators, paints
and cosmetics, clothing and textiles. Furniture and printing industries
are well developed in Kharkiv.

Kharkiv is one of the major cultural and scientific centres of Ukraine.
There are many schools, higher educational establishments, research
institutes in Kharkiv. There is the Scientific Library, the Historical
and Natural Science Museums and the Museum of Fine Arts in Kharkiv. The
city supports a circus and six professional theatres. Kharkiv is very
beautiful, especially in spring. There are over 2500 streets and 26
squares in the city. The largest parks are Gorky Park, Shevchenko Garden
with the Zoo, Artem Park, the Forest Park and some others. The city is
ornamented with a large number of monuments. The most prominent of them
is the one to T. Shevchenko built in 1935.

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