Seven Wonders of the World (реферат)

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Seven Wonders of the World

The Seven Wonders of the World (or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient
World) is a widely-known list of seven remarkable constructions of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_antiquity» \o
«Classical antiquity» classical antiquity . It was based on guide-books
popular among HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece»
\o «Ancient Greece» Hellenic sight-seers and only includes works
located around the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediterranean» \o «Mediterranean»
Mediterranean rim. Later lists include those for the Medieval World and
the Modern World.

The historian HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herodotus» \o
«Herodotus» Herodotus and the scholar HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callimachus» \o «Callimachus» Callimachus
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrene» \o «Cyrene»
Cyrene (ca HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/305_BC» \o «305
BC» 305 –240 BC) at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of
«seven wonders» but their writings have not survived, except as
references.

A later list, under various titles like De septem orbis spactaculis and
traditionally misattributed to the engineer HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philo_of_Byzantium» \o «Philo of
Byzantium» Philo of Byzantium , may date as late as the fifth century
AD, though the author writes as if the Colossus of Rhodes were still
standing.

These are given in the table below:

· Great Pyramid of Giza

· Hanging Gardens of Babylon

· Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

· Statue of Zeus at Olympia

· Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus

· Colossus of Rhodes

· Lighthouse of Alexandria

The Greek category was not «Wonders» but «theamata», which translates
closer to «must-sees». The list that we know today was compiled in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages» \o «Middle Ages»
Middle Ages —by which time many of the sites were no longer in
existence. Since the list came mostly from ancient Greek writings, only
sites that would have been known and visited by the ancient Greeks were
included. Even as early as 1600 BC, tourist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graffiti» \o «Graffiti» graffiti was
scrawled on monuments in the Egyptian HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valley_of_the_Kings» \o «Valley of the
Kings» Valley of the Kings .

Antipater’s original list replaced the Lighthouse of Alexandria with the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishtar_Gate» \o «Ishtar Gate»
Ishtar Gate . It wasn’t until the 6th century AD that the list above was
used. Of these wonders, the only one that has survived to the present
day is the Great Pyramid of Giza. The existence of the Hanging Gardens
has not been definitively proven. Records show that the other five
wonders were destroyed by natural disasters. The Temple of Artemis and
the Statue of Zeus were destroyed by fire, while the Lighthouse of
Alexandria, Colossus, and Mausoleum of Maussollos were destroyed by
earthquakes. There are sculptures from the Mausoleum of Maussollos and
the Temple of Artemis in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Museum» \o «British Museum»
British Museum in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London» \o
«London» London .

Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid is the oldest and the largest of the three pyramids in
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giza_Necropolis» \o «Giza
Necropolis» Giza Necropolis bordering what is now HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo» \o «Cairo» Cairo , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt» \o «Egypt» Egypt in Africa (
HYPERLINK
«http://tools.wikimedia.de/~magnus/geo/geohack.php?params=29_58_45.25_N_
31_08_03.75_E_» \o
«http://tools.wikimedia.de/~magnus/geo/geohack.php?params=29_58_45.25_N_
31_08_03.75_E_» 29°58?45.25?N, 31°08?03.75?E ). The oldest and only
remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World, it is believed to
have been constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Before_Christ» \o «Before
Christ» BC . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-wonder» \o «» [1] The Great Pyramid was built as a tomb for
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_dynasty_of_Egypt» \o
«Fourth dynasty of Egypt» Fourth dynasty HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt» \o «Ancient Egypt»
Egyptian pharaoh HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khufu» \o
«Khufu» Khufu (hellenized as ????, Cheops), and is sometimes called
Khufu’s Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu.

The Great Pyramid is the main part of a complex setting of buildings
that included two mortuary temples in honour of Khufu (one close to the
pyramid and one near the Nile), three smaller pyramids for Khufu’s
wives, an even smaller «satellite» pyramid, a raised causeway connecting
the two temples, and small HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mastaba» \o «Mastaba» mastaba tombs
surrounding the pyramid for nobles. One of the small pyramids contains
the tomb of queen HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hetepheres»
\o «Hetepheres» Hetepheres (discovered in 1925), sister and wife of
Sneferu and the mother of Khufu. There was a town for the workers of
Giza, including a cemetery, bakeries, a beer factory and a copper
smelting complex. More buildings and complexes are being discovered by
The Giza Mapping Project.

A few hundred metres south-west of the Great Pyramid lies the slightly
smaller HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Khafre» \o
«Pyramid of Khafre» Pyramid of Khafre , one of Khufu’s successors who
is also commonly considered the builder of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Sphinx_of_Giza» \o «Great Sphinx of
Giza» Great Sphinx , and a few hundred metres further south-west is the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Menkaure» \o
«Pyramid of Menkaure» Pyramid of Menkaure , Khafre’s successor, which
is about half as tall.

The generally accepted estimated date of its completion is c. 2500 BC.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-wonder» \o «» [1]
Although this date contradicts radiocarbon dating evidence HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza» \l
«Dating_evidence» \o
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza#Dating_evidence»
[4] it is loosely supported by a lack of archaeological findings for
the existence prior to the fourth dynasty of a civilization with
sufficient population or technical ability in the area.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Hanging Gardens of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylon» \o «Babylon» Babylon (also
known as Hanging Gardens of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiramis» \o «Semiramis» Semiramis ) and
the walls of Babylon (near present-day Baghdad in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraq» \o «Iraq» Iraq ) were considered
one of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Wonders_of_the_World» \o «Seven
Wonders of the World» Seven Wonders of the World . They were both
supposedly built by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebuchadnezzar_II» \o «Nebuchadnezzar II»
Nebuchadnezzar II around HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/600_BC» \o «600 BC» 600 BC . He is
reported to have ordered the construction of the gardens to please his
wife, Amyitis of Media, who longed for the trees and beautiful plants of
her homeland. The lush Hanging Gardens are extensively documented by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greece» \o «Greece» Greek
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History» \o «History»
historians such as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabo» \o
«Strabo» Strabo and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diodorus_Siculus» \o «Diodorus Siculus»
Diodorus Siculus , but otherwise there is little evidence for their
existence. In fact, there are no Babylonian records of any such gardens
having existed. Some circumstantial evidence gathered at the excavation
of the palace at Babylon has accrued, but does not completely
substantiate what look like fanciful descriptions. Through the ages, the
location may have been confused with gardens that existed at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineveh» \o «Nineveh» Nineveh , since
tablets from there clearly show gardens. Writings on these tablets
describe the possible use of something similar to an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archimedes%27_screw» \o «Archimedes’
screw» Archimedes’ screw as a process of raising the water to the
required height.

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

The Temple of Artemis (in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language» \o «Greek language» Greek
— Artemision, and in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin»
\o «Latin» Latin — Artemisium), also known less precisely as Temple of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diana_%28mythology%29» \o
«Diana (mythology)» Diana , was a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_temple» \o «Greek temple» temple
dedicated to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemis» \o
«Artemis» Artemis completed, in its most famous phase, around
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/550_BC» \o «550 BC» 550 BC at
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ephesus» \o «Ephesus» Ephesus
(in present-day HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey» \o
«Turkey» Turkey ) under the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_dynasty» \o «Achaemenid
dynasty» Achaemenid dynasty of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_Empire» \o «Persian Empire»
Persian Empire . Nothing remains of the temple— not the first on its
site— which was one of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Wonders_of_the_Ancient_World» \o
«Seven Wonders of the Ancient World» Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
.

Statue of Zeus at Olympia

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia is one of the classical Seven Wonders of
the Ancient World. It was carved by the famed Classical sculptor Phidias
(5th century BC) circa 435 BC in Olympia, Greece.

The seated statue occupied the whole width of the aisle of the temple
that was built to house it, and was 40 feet (12 meters) tall. «It seems
that if Zeus were to stand up,» the geographer Strabo noted early in the
1st century BC, «he would unroof the temple.» Zeus was a
chryselephantine sculpture, made of ivory and accented with gold
plating. In the sculpture, he was seated on a magnificent throne of
cedarwood, inlaid with ivory, gold, ebony, and precious stones. In Zeus’
right hand there was a small statue of Nike, the goddess of victory, and
in his left hand, a shining sceptre on which an eagle perched. Plutarch,
in his Life of the Roman general Aemilius Paulus, records that the
victor over Macedon “was moved to his soul, as if he had beheld the god
in person,” while the Greek orator Dio Chrysostom wrote that a single
glimpse of the statue would make a man forget his earthly troubles.

Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus

The Mausoleum of Maussollos, or Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, was a tomb
built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey)
for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and Artemisia II of Caria,
his wife and sister. The structure was designed by the Greek architects
Satyrus and Pythius. It stood approximately 45 meters (135 feet) in
height, and each of the four sides was adorned with sculptural reliefs
created by one of four Greek sculptors — Bryaxis, Leochares, Scopas and
Timotheus.[3] The finished structure was considered to be such an
aesthetic triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The word mausoleum has since come to
be used generically for any grand tomb, though «Mausol – eion»
originally meant «dedicated to Mausol».

Colossus of Rhodes

The Colossus of Rhodes was a giant statue of the Greek god Helios,
erected on the Greek island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos, a student of
Lysippos, between 292 and 280 BC. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World. Before its destruction, the Colossus of Rhodes stood 70
cubits tall, over 30 metres (100 feet), making it the tallest statue of
the ancient world.

Alexander the Great died at an early age in 323 BC without having time
to put into place any plans for his succession. Fighting broke out among
his generals, the Diadochi, with three of them eventually dividing up
much of his empire in the Mediterranean area. During the fighting Rhodes
had sided with Ptolemy, and when Ptolemy eventually took control of
Egypt, Rhodes and Ptolemaic Egypt formed an alliance which controlled
much of the trade in the eastern Mediterranean.

Another of Alexander’s generals, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, was upset by
this turn of events. In 305 BC he had his son Demetrius Poliorcetes,
also a general, invade Rhodes with an army of 40,000; however, the city
was well defended, and Demetrius—whose name «Poliorcetes» signifies the
«besieger of cities»—had to start construction of a number of massive
siege towers in order to gain access to the walls. The first was mounted
on six ships, but these were capsized in a storm before they could be
used. He tried again with a larger, land-based tower named Helepolis,
but the Rhodian defenders stopped this by flooding the land in front of
the walls so that the rolling tower could not move.

In 304 BC a relief force of ships sent by Ptolemy arrived, and
Demetrius’s army abandoned the siege, leaving most of their siege
equipment. To celebrate their victory, the Rhodians sold the equipment
left behind for 300 talents[1] and decided use the money to build a
colossal statue of their patron god, Helios. Construction was left to
the direction of Chares, a native of Lindos in Rhodes, who had been
involved with large-scale statues before. His teacher, the sculptor
Lysippos, had constructed an 18-metre high[2] bronze statue of Zeus at
Tarentum.

Lighthouse of Alexandria

The Pharos of Alexandria ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_language» \o «Ancient Greek
language» ancient Greek : ????? ??????????o?, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language» \o «Greek language»
modern Greek : o ????? ??? ????????????) was a tall tower built in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3rd_century_BC» \o «3rd century
BC» 3rd century BC (between 285 and 247 BC) on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Island» \o «Island» island of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharos» \o «Pharos» Pharos in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria» \o «Alexandria»
Alexandria , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt» \o «Egypt»
Egypt to serve as that port’s landmark, and later, its lighthouse.

With a height variously estimated at between 115 and 135 metres (383 —
440 ft) it was among the tallest man-made structures on Earth for many
centuries, and was identified as one of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Wonders_of_the_World» \o «Seven
Wonders of the World» Seven Wonders of the World by classical writers.
It was the third tallest building after the two Great Pyramids (of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khufu» \o «Khufu» Khufu and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khafra» \o «Khafra» Khafra )
for its entire life. Some scientists estimate a much taller height
exceeding 152 metres that would make the tower the tallest building up
to the 14th century.

Literatures

Cox, Reg, and Neil Morris, «The Seven Wonders of the Modern World».
Chelsea House Publications: Library. October 2000.

Cox, Reg, Neil Morris, and James Field, «The Seven Wonders of the
Medieval World». Chelsea House Publications: Library. October 2000.

D’Epiro, Peter, and Mary Desmond Pinkowish, «What Are the Seven Wonders
of the World? and 100 Other Great Cultural Lists». Anchor. December 1,
1998.

Morris, Neil, «The Seven Wonders of the Natural World». Chrysalis Books.
December 30, 2002.

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