President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant (реферат)

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President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant

«» \o
«President of the United States» President of the United States

In office

HYPERLINK «» \o «March 4» March 4
, HYPERLINK «» \o «1869» 1869  – 
HYPERLINK «» \o «March 4» March 4 ,
HYPERLINK «» \o «1877» 1877

Vice President(s) HYPERLINK
«» \o «Schuyler Colfax»
Schuyler Colfax (1869-1873),

HYPERLINK «» \o «Henry
Wilson» Henry Wilson (1873-1875),

Born HYPERLINK «» \o «April 27»
April 27 , HYPERLINK «» \o «1822»
1822 (1822-04-27)

«Point Pleasant, Ohio» Point Pleasant, Ohio

Died HYPERLINK «» \o «July 23»
July 23 , HYPERLINK «» \o «1885»
1885 (aged 63)

«Wilton, New York» Mount McGregor, New York

Nationality American

Political party HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Republican Party (United States)» Republican

Spouse HYPERLINK «» \o «Julia
Grant» Julia Dent Grant

Occupation HYPERLINK «» \o
«Soldier» Soldier ( HYPERLINK «»
\o «General» General )

Religion Methodist HYPERLINK «» \l
«_note-0» \o «» [1]

«» \o
«Ulysses S. Grant’s signature»

Ulysses S. Grant, HYPERLINK «» \l
«_note-1» \o «» [2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant ( HYPERLINK
«» \o «April 27» April 27 ,
HYPERLINK «» \o «1822» 1822 –
HYPERLINK «» \o «July 23» July 23 ,
HYPERLINK «» \o «1885» 1885 ), was
an HYPERLINK «» \o «United
States» American general and the eighteenth HYPERLINK
«» \o
«President of the United States» President of the United States
(1869–1877). He achieved international fame as the leading HYPERLINK
«» \o «Union
(American Civil War)» Union general in the HYPERLINK
«» \o «American Civil
War» American Civil War , capturing HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of
Vicksburg» Vicksburg in 1863 and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Richmond,
Virginia» Richmond in 1865. He accepted the surrender of his
HYPERLINK «» \o «Confederate»
Confederate opponent HYPERLINK
«» \o «Robert E. Lee» Robert
«» \o «Appomattox
Court House» Appomattox Court House .

After service in the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mexican-American
War» Mexican-American War , an undistinguished peacetime military
career, and a series of unsuccessful civilian jobs, Grant returned to
service in 1861 at the outset of the Civil War and proved highly
successful in training new recruits. His capture of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of Fort
Henry» Fort Henry and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of
Fort Donelson» Fort Donelson in February 1862 marked the first major
Union victories of the Civil War and opened up prime avenues of invasion
to the South. Surprised and nearly defeated at HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of Shiloh»
Shiloh (April 1862), he fought back and took control of most of western
HYPERLINK «» \o «Kentucky»
Kentucky and HYPERLINK «» \o
«Tennessee» Tennessee . His great achievement in 1862-63 was to seize
control of the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mississippi River»
Mississippi River by defeating a series of HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Confederate States of America» Confederate armies and by capturing
HYPERLINK «» \o «Battle
of Vicksburg» Vicksburg in July 1863. After a victory at HYPERLINK
«» \o «Third
Battle of Chattanooga» Chattanooga in late 1863, HYPERLINK
«» \o «Abraham Lincoln»
Abraham Lincoln made him general-in-chief of all HYPERLINK
«» \o «Union Army» Union armies

Grant was the first Union general in the war to initiate coordinated
offensives across multiple theaters. While his subordinates HYPERLINK
«» \o «William
Tecumseh Sherman» Sherman and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Philip Sheridan»
Sheridan marched through HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Sherman’s March to the Sea» Georgia and the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Shenandoah Valley»
Shenandoah Valley respectively, Grant personally supervised the 1864
HYPERLINK «» \o «Overland
Campaign» Overland Campaign against General HYPERLINK
«» \o «Robert E. Lee» Robert
E. Lee ‘s Army in Virginia. He employed HYPERLINK
«» \o «Attrition warfare»
attrition warfare against his opponent, conducting a series of
large-scale battles with very high casualties that alarmed public
opinion, while maneuvering ever closer to the Confederate capital,
«Richmond, Virginia» Richmond . Grant announced he would «fight it out
on this line if it takes all summer.» Lincoln supported his general and
replaced his losses, and Lee’s dwindling army was forced into defending
trenches around Richmond and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Siege of
Petersburg» Petersburg . In April 1865 Grant’s vastly larger army broke
through, captured Richmond, and forced Lee to surrender at HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Battle of Appomattox Courthouse» Appomattox Court House . He has been
described by HYPERLINK «» \o
«J.F.C. Fuller» J.F.C. Fuller as «the greatest general of his age and
one of the greatest strategists of any age.» His HYPERLINK
«» \o «Vicksburg
Campaign» Vicksburg Campaign in particular has been scrutinized by
military specialists around the world.

Grant announced generous terms for his defeated foes, and pursued a
policy of peace. He broke with President HYPERLINK
«» \o «Andrew Johnson»
Andrew Johnson in 1867, and was elected president as a HYPERLINK
rty» \o «History of the United States Republican Party» Republican in
1868. He was the first president to serve for two full terms since
HYPERLINK «» \o «Andrew
Jackson» Andrew Jackson forty years before. He led HYPERLINK
«» \o «Radical
Reconstruction» Radical Reconstruction and built a powerful
patronage-based Republican party in the South, with the adroit use of
the army. He took a hard line that reduced violence by groups like the
HYPERLINK «» \o «Ku Klux Klan»
Ku Klux Klan . Although Grant was personally honest, he not only
tolerated financial and political corruption among top aides but also
protected them once exposed. He blocked HYPERLINK
«» \o «Civil service» civil
service reforms and defeated the HYPERLINK
29» \o «Liberal Republican Party (United States)» reform movement in
the Republican party in 1872, driving out many of its founders. The
HYPERLINK «» \o «Panic of
1873» Panic of 1873 pushed the nation into a HYPERLINK
«» \o «Economic
depression» depression that Grant was helpless to reverse. HYPERLINK
dents» \o «Historical rankings of United States Presidents»
Presidential experts typically rank Grant in the lowest quartile of
U.S. presidents, primarily for his tolerance of corruption. In recent
years, however, his reputation as president has improved somewhat among
scholars impressed by his support for HYPERLINK
«» \o «Civil Rights» civil
rights for HYPERLINK
«» \o «African
American history» African Americans . HYPERLINK
«» \l «_note-2» \o «» [3] Unsuccessful in
winning a third term in 1880, bankrupted by bad investments, and
terminally ill with throat cancer, Grant wrote his HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant» Memoirs , which was enormously
successful among veterans, the public, and the critics.

Birth and early years


Ulysses Grant Birthplace, HYPERLINK
«» \o «Point
Pleasant, Ohio» Point Pleasant, Ohio

«» \o

\o «Ulysses S. Grant Boyhood Home» Ulysses S. Grant Boyhood Home ,
«Georgetown, Ohio» Georgetown, Ohio

Grant was born in a small two-room cabin in HYPERLINK
«» \o «Point
Pleasant, Ohio» Point Pleasant , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Clermont
County, Ohio» Clermont County , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ohio» Ohio , 25 miles (40 km)
east of HYPERLINK «» \o
«Cincinnati, Ohio» Cincinnati on the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ohio River» Ohio River .
He was the eldest of the six children of Jesse Root Grant (1794–1873)
and Hannah Simpson Grant (1798–1883). His father, a tanner, and his
mother were born in Pennsylvania. In the fall of 1823, they moved to the
village of HYPERLINK «»
\o «Georgetown, Ohio» Georgetown in HYPERLINK
«» \o «Brown County,
Ohio» Brown County, Ohio . The smell of his father’s tannery was one of
his earliest memories.


On HYPERLINK «» \o «August 22»
August 22 , HYPERLINK «» \o «1848»
1848 , Grant married HYPERLINK
«» \o «Julia Boggs Dent»
Julia Boggs Dent (1826–1902), the daughter of a slave owner. They had
four children: HYPERLINK
«» \o «Frederick Dent
Grant» Frederick Dent Grant , HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Ulysses S. (Buck) Grant, Jr.» Ulysses S. (Buck) Grant, Jr. ,
«» \o
«Ellen (Nellie) Wrenshall Grant» Ellen (Nellie) Wrenshall Grant , and
HYPERLINK «» \o «Jesse Root
Grant» Jesse Root Grant .

Military career

Ulysses S. Grant

Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, portrait by HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mathew Brady» Mathew

Allegiance HYPERLINK «»
\o «United States Army» United States Army

Years of service 1839-1854, 1861-1868

Rank General of the Army (four star) HYPERLINK
\o «Us army general insignia 1866.png»

Battles/wars HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mexican-American
War» Mexican-American War , HYPERLINK
«» \o «American Civil
War» American Civil War

At the age of 17, Grant entered the HYPERLINK
«» \o «United
States Military Academy» United States Military Academy at HYPERLINK
«» \o «West Point,
New York» West Point, New York , after securing a nomination through
his HYPERLINK «» \o «U.S.
Congressman» U.S. Congressman , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Thomas L. Hamer»
Thomas L. Hamer . Hamer erroneously nominated him as «Ulysses S. Grant
of Ohio,» HYPERLINK «» \l «_note-3» \o «»
[4] knowing Grant’s mother’s maiden name was Simpson and forgetting
that Grant was referred to in his youth as «H. Ulysses Grant» or «Lyss.»
Grant wrote his name in the entrance register as «Ulysses Hiram Grant»
(concerned that he would otherwise become known by his initials,
H.U.G.), but the school HYPERLINK
«» \o «Academic
administration» administration refused to accept any name other than
the nominated form. HYPERLINK «» \l
«_note-4» \o «» [5] Upon graduation, Grant adopted the form of his new
name with middle initial only. HYPERLINK
«» \l «_note-5» \o «» [6] He graduated
from West Point in 1843, ranking 21st in a class of 39. At the academy,
he established a reputation as a fearless and expert horseman. Although
this made him seem a natural for HYPERLINK
«» \o «Cavalry» cavalry , he was
assigned to duty as a regimental quartermaster, managing supplies and


Ulysses S. Grant in 1843, in his West Point uniform

\o «Enlarge»

Grant at the capture of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mexico City» Mexico City
, painting by HYPERLINK «»
\o «Emanuel Leutze» Emanuel Leutze .

Mexican-American War

Lieutenant Grant served in the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mexican-American
War» Mexican-American War (1846–1848) under Generals HYPERLINK
«» \o «Zachary Taylor»
Zachary Taylor and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Winfield Scott»
Winfield Scott , where, despite his assignment as a quartermaster, he
got close enough to the front lines to see action, taking part in the
battles of Resaca de la Palma, Palo Alto, Monterrey (where he
volunteered to carry a dispatch on horseback through a sniper-lined
street), and Veracruz. Once Grant saw his friend, Fred Dent, lying in
the middle of the battlefield; he had been shot in the leg. Grant ran
furiously into the open to rescue Dent; as they were making their way to
safety, a Mexican was sneaking up behind Grant, but the Mexican was shot
by a fellow U.S soldier. Grant was twice brevetted for bravery: at
Molino del Rey and Chapultepec. He was a remarkably close observer of
the war, learning to judge the actions of colonels and generals. In the
1880s he wrote that the war was unjust, accepting the theory that it was
designed to gain land open to slavery.

Between wars

After the Mexican-American war ended in 1848, Grant remained in the army
and was moved to several different posts. He was sent to HYPERLINK
«» \o «Fort Vancouver» Fort
Vancouver in the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Washington
Territory» Washington Territory in 1853, where he served as
quartermaster of the HYPERLINK
«» \o «U.S. 4th
Infantry Regiment» 4th U.S. Infantry regiment . His wife, eight months
pregnant with their second child, could not accompany him because his
salary could not support a family on the frontier. In 1854, Grant was
promoted to captain (one of only 50 still on active duty) and assigned
to command Company F, 4th Infantry, at HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Fort Humboldt State Historic Park» Fort Humboldt , California.
However, he still could not afford to bring his family out West. He
tried some business ventures, but they failed. Grant resigned from the
Army with little advance notice on HYPERLINK
«» \o «July 31» July 31 ,
HYPERLINK «» \o «1854» 1854 , offering
no explanation for his abrupt decision. Rumors persisted in the Army for
years that his commanding officer, Bvt. Lt. Col. HYPERLINK
«» \o «Robert C.
Buchanan» Robert C. Buchanan , found him drunk on duty as a pay officer
and offered him the choice between resignation or court-martial.
HYPERLINK «» \l «_note-6» \o «» [7] Some
biographers discount the rumors and suggest Grant’s resignation, and his
drinking, were both prompted by profound depression. According to this
view, Buchanan hated Grant and concocted the drunkenness story years
later to protect Buchanan’s action in removing the man who became one of
the most famous generals in history. The War Department stated, «Nothing
stands against his good name.» HYPERLINK
«» \l «_note-7» \o «» [8] He wrote in his
memoirs about the war against Mexico: «I was bitterly opposed to the
measure, and to this day regard the war, which resulted, as one of the
most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation».
«» \o
«» [1]

A civilian at age 32, Grant struggled through seven lean years. From
1854 to 1858 he labored on a family farm near HYPERLINK
«» \o «St. Louis,
Missouri» St. Louis, Missouri , using slaves owned by his
father-in-law, but it did not prosper. Grant owned one slave (whom he
set free in 1859); his wife owned four slaves (two women servants and
their two small boys). HYPERLINK «» \l
«_note-8» \o «» [9] In 1858-59 he was a bill collector in St. Louis.
Failing at everything, in humiliation he asked his father for a job, and
in 1860 was made an assistant in the leather shop owned by his father
and run by his younger brother in HYPERLINK
«» \o «Galena, Illinois»
Galena, Illinois . Grant & Perkins sold harnesses, saddles, and other
leather goods and purchased hides from farmers in the prosperous Galena
area. HYPERLINK «» \l «_note-9» \o «»

Although Grant was essentially apolitical, his father-in-law was a
prominent Democrat in St. Louis (a fact that lost Grant the good job of
county engineer in 1859). In 1856 he voted for Democrat HYPERLINK
«» \o «James Buchanan» James
Buchanan for president to avert secession and because «I knew
HYPERLINK «» \o «John
C. Fremont» Fremont » (the Republican candidate). In 1860, he favored
Democrat HYPERLINK «»
\o «Stephen A. Douglas» Stephen A. Douglas but did not vote. In 1864,
he allowed his political sponsor, Congressman HYPERLINK
«» \o «Elihu B.
Washburne» Elihu B. Washburne , to use his private letters as campaign
literature for Abraham Lincoln HYPERLINK
«» \l «_note-10» \o «» [11] and the Union
Party, which combined both Republicans and HYPERLINK
«» \o «War Democrats» War
Democrats . He refused to announce his political affiliation until 1868,
when he finally declared himself a Republican. HYPERLINK
«» \l «_note-11» \o «» [12]

Civil War

Western Theater: 1861–63

\o «Enlarge»

«Ulysses S. Grant Home» home of President Grant while he lived in
HYPERLINK «» \o «Galena,
Illinois» Galena, Illinois .

Shortly after Confederate forces fired upon HYPERLINK
«» \o «Fort Sumter» Fort Sumter
, President HYPERLINK «»
\o «Abraham Lincoln» Abraham Lincoln put out a call for 75,000
volunteers. Grant helped recruit a company of volunteers and accompanied
it to HYPERLINK «»
\o «Springfield, Illinois» Springfield , the capital of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Illinois» Illinois . Grant
accepted a position offered by Illinois Governor HYPERLINK
«» \o «Richard
Yates (governor)» Richard Yates to recruit and train volunteers, which
he accomplished with efficiency. Grant pressed for a field command;
Yates appointed him colonel of the undisciplined and rebellious
\o «21st Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment» 21st Illinois Infantry
in June 1861.

Grant was deployed to Missouri to protect the HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad» Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad .
Under pro-Confederate Governor HYPERLINK
«» \o «Claiborne Jackson»
Claiborne Jackson , Missouri had declared it was an armed neutral in the
conflict and would attack troops from either side entering the state. By
the first of August the Union army had forcibly removed Jackson and
Missouri was controlled by Union forces, who had to deal with numerous
southern sympathizers.

In August, Grant was appointed brigadier general of volunteers by
Lincoln, who had been lobbied by Congressman Elihu Washburne. At the end
of August, Grant was selected by Western Theater commander Major General
HYPERLINK «» \o «John
C. Fremont» John C. Fremont to command the critical District of
Southeast Missouri.

Battles of Belmont, Henry, and Donelson

Grant’s first important strategic act of the war was to take the
initiative to seize the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ohio River» Ohio River
town of HYPERLINK «»
\o «Paducah, Kentucky» Paducah, Kentucky , immediately after the
«Confederate States Army» Confederates violated the state’s neutrality
by occupying HYPERLINK
«» \o «Columbus,
Kentucky» Columbus, Kentucky . He fought his first battle, an
indecisive action against Confederate Brig. Gen. HYPERLINK
«» \o «Gideon J. Pillow»
Gideon J. Pillow , at HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of Belmont»
Belmont, Missouri , in November 1861. Three months later, aided by
HYPERLINK «» \o «Andrew H.
Foote» Andrew H. Foote ‘s Navy gunboats, he captured two major
Confederate fortresses, HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of Fort
Henry» Fort Henry on the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Tennessee River»
Tennessee River and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of
Fort Donelson» Fort Donelson on the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Cumberland River»
Cumberland River . At Donelson, his army was hit by a surprise
Confederate attack (once again by Pillow) while he was temporarily
absent. Displaying the cool determination that would characterize his
leadership in future battles, he organized counterattacks that carried
the day. Both General Floyd and Pillow, the two senior Confederate
commanders fled. The Confederate commander, Brig. Gen. HYPERLINK
«» \o «Simon
Bolivar Buckner, Sr.» Simon B. Buckner , an old friend of Grant’s and
senior commander with Floyd and Pillow fleeing, yielded to Grant’s hard
conditions of «no terms except unconditional and immediate surrender.»
Buckner’s surrender of over 12,000 men made Grant a national figure
almost overnight, and he was nicknamed «Unconditional Surrender» Grant.
The captures of the two forts with over 12,000 prisoners were the first
major Union victories of the war, gaining him national recognition.
Desperate for generals who could fight and win, Lincoln promoted him to
major general of volunteers.

Although Grant’s new-found fame did not seem to affect his temperament,
it did have an impact on his personal life. At one point during the
Civil War, a picture of Grant with a cigar in his mouth was published.
He was then inundated with cigars from well wishers. Before that he had
smoked only sporadically, but he could not give them all away, so he
took up smoking them, a habit which may have contributed to the
development of throat cancer later in his life; one story after the war
claimed that he smoked over 10,000 in five years.

Despite his significant victories (or perhaps because of them), Grant
fell out of favor with his superior, Major General HYPERLINK
«» \o «Henry W. Halleck»
Henry W. Halleck . Halleck had a particular distaste for drunks and,
believing Grant was an alcoholic, was biased towards him from the
beginning. After Grant visited HYPERLINK
«» \o «Nashville,
Tennessee» Nashville, Tennessee , where he met with Halleck’s rival,
HYPERLINK «» \o «Don Carlos
Buell» Don Carlos Buell , Halleck used the visit as an excuse to
relieve Grant of field command on HYPERLINK
«» \o «March 2» March 2 . Personal
intervention from President Lincoln caused Halleck to restore Grant, who
rejoined his army on HYPERLINK «»
\o «March 17» March 17 .



General Grant at HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of Cold
Harbor» Cold Harbor , photographed by HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mathew Brady» Mathew
Brady in 1864

In early April 1862, Grant was surprised by Generals HYPERLINK
«» \o «Albert Sidney
Johnston» Albert Sidney Johnston and HYPERLINK
«» \o «P.G.T. Beauregard»
P.G.T. Beauregard at the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of Shiloh»
Battle of Shiloh . The sheer violence of the Confederate attack sent the
Union forces reeling. Nevertheless, Grant refused to retreat. With grim
determination, he stabilized his line. Then, on the second day, with the
help of timely reinforcements, Grant counterattacked and turned a
serious reverse into a victory.

The victory at Shiloh came at a high price; with over 23,000 casualties,
it was the bloodiest battle in the history of the United States up to
that time. Halleck responded to the surprise and the disorganized nature
of the fighting by taking command of the army in the field himself on
HYPERLINK «» \o «April 30» April
30 , relegating Grant to the powerless position of second-in-command for
the campaign in HYPERLINK
«» \o «First Battle
of Corinth» Corinth, Mississippi . Despondent over this reversal, Grant
decided to resign. The intervention of his subordinate and good friend,
HYPERLINK «» \o «William
T. Sherman» William T. Sherman , caused him to remain. When Halleck was
promoted to general-in-chief of the Union Army, Grant resumed his
position as commander of the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Army of West
Tennessee» Army of West Tennessee (later more famously named the
HYPERLINK «» \o «Army
of the Tennessee» Army of the Tennessee ) on HYPERLINK
«» \o «June 10» June 10 . He
commanded the army for the battles of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Second
Battle of Corinth» Corinth and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of Iuka» Iuka
that fall.


In an attempt to capture the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mississippi River»
Mississippi River fortress of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Vicksburg
Campaign» Vicksburg, Mississippi , Grant spent the winter of 1862–1863
conducting a series of operations to gain access to the city through the
region’s bayous. These attempts failed.

However, his strategy to take Vicksburg in 1863 is considered one of the
most masterful in military history. Grant marched his troops down the
west bank of the Mississippi and crossed the river by using HYPERLINK
«» \o «U.S. Navy» U.S. Navy
ships that had run the guns at Vicksburg. There, he moved inland and—in
a daring move that defied conventional military principles—cut loose
from most of his supply lines. HYPERLINK
«» \l «_note-12» \o «» [13] Operating in
enemy territory, Grant moved swiftly, never giving the Confederates,
under the command of HYPERLINK
«» \o «John C. Pemberton»
John C. Pemberton , an opportunity to concentrate their forces against
him. Grant’s army went eastward, captured the city of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Jackson,
Mississippi» Jackson, Mississippi , and severed the rail line to


Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant

Knowing that the Confederates could no longer send reinforcements to the
Vicksburg garrison, Grant turned west and won the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of
Champion Hill» Battle of Champion Hill . The Confederates retreated
inside their fortifications at Vicksburg, and Grant promptly surrounded
the city. Finding that assaults against the impregnable breastworks were
futile, he settled in for a six-week HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of
Vicksburg» siege . Cut off and with no possibility of relief, Pemberton
surrendered to Grant on HYPERLINK
«» \o «July 4» July 4 , HYPERLINK
«» \o «1863» 1863 . It was a
devastating defeat for the Southern cause, effectively splitting the
Confederacy in two, and, in conjunction with the Union victory at
HYPERLINK «» \o «Battle
of Gettysburg» Gettysburg the previous day, is widely considered the
\o «Turning point of the American Civil War» turning point of the war.
For this victory, President Lincoln promoted Grant to the rank of major
general in the regular army, effective HYPERLINK
«» \o «July 4» July 4 .

A distinguished British historian has written that «we must go back to
the campaigns of Napoleon to find equally brilliant results accomplished
in the same space of time with such a small loss.» Lincoln said after
the capture of Vicksburg and after the lost opportunity after
Gettysburg, «Grant is my man and I am his the rest of the War.»


«» \o «Battle of
Chickamauga» Battle of Chickamauga Union general HYPERLINK
«» \o «William S.
Rosecrans» William S. Rosecrans retreated to HYPERLINK
«» \o «Chattanooga,
Tennessee» Chattanooga, Tennessee . Confederate HYPERLINK
«» \o «Braxton Bragg» Braxton
Bragg followed to HYPERLINK
«» \o «Lookout Mountain»
Lookout Mountain , surrounding the Federals on three sides. On
HYPERLINK «» \o «October 17»
October 17 , Grant was placed in command of the city. He immediately
relieved Rosecrans and replaced him with HYPERLINK
«» \o «George Henry
Thomas» George H. Thomas . Devising a plan known as the «Cracker Line»,
Thomas’s chief engineer, HYPERLINK
«» \o «William Farrar
Smith» William F. «Baldy» Smith opened a new supply route to
Chattanooga, helping to better supply the Army of the Cumberland.

Upon reprovisioning and reinforcing, the morale of Union troops lifted.
In late November, they went on the offensive. The HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of
Chattanooga III» Battle of Chattanooga started out with Sherman’s
failed attack on the Confederate right. He not only attacked the wrong
mountain but committed his troops piecemeal, allowing them to be
defeated by one Confederate division. In response, Grant ordered Thomas
to launch a demonstration on the center, which could draw defenders away
from Sherman. Thomas waited until he was certain that Hooker, with
reinforcements from the Army of the Potomac, was engaged on the
Confederate left before he launched the Army of the Cumberland at the
center of the Confederate line. Hooker’s men broke the Confederate left,
while Thomas’s men made an unexpected but spectacular charge straight up
«Missionary Ridge» Missionary Ridge and broke the fortified center of
the Confederate line. Grant was initially angry at Thomas that his
orders for a demonstration were exceeded, but the assaulting wave sent
the Confederates into a head-long retreat, opening the way for the Union
to invade HYPERLINK «»
\o «Atlanta, Georgia» Atlanta, Georgia , and the heart of the
Confederacy. Grant reportedly said afterward, «Damn, I had nothing to do
with this battle,» according to Hooker.

Grant’s willingness to fight and ability to win impressed President
Lincoln, who appointed him HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Lieutenant General (United States)» lieutenant general in the regular
army—a rank not awarded since HYPERLINK
«» \o «George Washington»
George Washington (or HYPERLINK
«» \o «Winfield Scott»
Winfield Scott ‘s HYPERLINK
«» \o «Brevet
(military)» brevet appointment), recently re-authorized by the
\o «Congress of the United States» U.S. Congress with Grant in mind—on
HYPERLINK «» \o «March 2» March 2
, HYPERLINK «» \o «1864» 1864 . On
HYPERLINK «» \o «March 12» March
12 , Grant became general-in-chief of all the armies of the HYPERLINK
«» \o «United States» United
States .

General-in-Chief and strategy for victory

In March 1864, Grant put Major General HYPERLINK
«» \o «William
Tecumseh Sherman» William T. Sherman in immediate command of all
forces in the West and moved his headquarters to HYPERLINK
«» \o «Virginia» Virginia where
he turned his attention to the long-frustrated Union effort to destroy
\o «Army of Northern Virginia» Army of Northern Virginia ; his
secondary objective was to capture the Confederate capital of
«Richmond, Virginia» Richmond, Virginia , but Grant knew that the
latter would happen automatically once the former was accomplished. He
devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the heart of the
Confederacy from multiple directions: Grant, HYPERLINK
«» \o «George G. Meade»
George G. Meade , and HYPERLINK
\o «Benjamin Franklin Butler (politician)» Benjamin Franklin Butler
against Lee near Richmond; HYPERLINK
«» \o «Franz Sigel» Franz Sigel
in the HYPERLINK «» \o
«Shenandoah Valley» Shenandoah Valley ; Sherman to invade HYPERLINK
«» \o «Georgia
(U.S. state)» Georgia , defeat HYPERLINK
«» \o «Joseph E.
Johnston» Joseph E. Johnston , and capture HYPERLINK
«» \o «Atlanta» Atlanta ;
HYPERLINK «» \o «George Crook»
George Crook and HYPERLINK
«» \o «William W.
Averell» William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines
in HYPERLINK «» \o «West
Virginia» West Virginia ; and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Nathaniel
Prentiss Banks» Nathaniel Banks to capture HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mobile, Alabama»
Mobile, Alabama . Grant was the first general to attempt such a
coordinated strategy in the war and the first to understand the concepts
of HYPERLINK «» \o «Total war»
total war , in which the destruction of an enemy’s economic
infrastructure that supplied its armies was as important as tactical
victories on the battlefield.

Overland Campaign, Petersburg, and Appomattox

«Overland Campaign» Overland Campaign was the military thrust needed
by the Union to defeat the Confederacy. It pitted Grant against the
great commander HYPERLINK «»
\o «Robert E. Lee» Robert E. Lee in an epic contest. It began on
HYPERLINK «» \o «May 4» May 4 ,
HYPERLINK «» \o «1864» 1864 , when the
HYPERLINK «» \o «Army
of the Potomac» Army of the Potomac crossed the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Rapidan River» Rapidan
River , marching into an area of scrubby undergrowth and second growth
trees known as the Wilderness. It was such difficult terrain that the
«Army of Northern Virginia» Army of Northern Virginia was able to use
it to prevent Grant from fully exploiting his numerical advantage.

\o «Battle of the Wilderness» Battle of the Wilderness was a stubborn,
bloody two-day fight, resulting in advantage to neither side, but with
heavy casualties on both. After similar battles in Virginia against Lee,
all of Grant’s predecessors had retreated from the field. Grant ignored
the setback and ordered an advance around Lee’s flank to the southeast,
which lifted the morale of his army. Grant’s strategy was not just to
win individual battles, it was to fight constant battles in order to
wear down and destroy Lee’s army.

jpg» \o «Enlarge»

Poster of «Grant from West Point to Appomattox.»

Sigel’s Shenandoah campaign and Butler’s James River campaign both
failed. Lee was able to reinforce with troops used to defend against
these assaults.

The campaign continued, but Lee, anticipating Grant’s move, beat him to
«Spotsylvania, Virginia» Spotsylvania, Virginia , where, on HYPERLINK
«» \o «May 8» May 8 , the fighting
resumed. The HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Battle of Spotsylvania Court House» Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
lasted 14 days. On HYPERLINK «» \o
«May 11» May 11 , Grant wrote a famous dispatch containing the line «I
propose to fight it out along this line if it takes all summer». These
words summed up his attitude about the fighting, and the next day,
HYPERLINK «» \o «May 12» May 12 , he
ordered a massive assault by Hancock’s 2nd Corps that broke a portion of
Lee’s line, captured 30 artillery pieces, took 4,000 prisoners, and
broke forever the famous Stonewall Division. In spite of mounting Union
casualties, the contest’s dynamics changed in Grant’s favor. Most of
Lee’s great victories in earlier years had been won on the offensive,
employing surprise movements and fierce assaults. Now, he was forced to
continually fight on the defensive without a chance to regroup or
replenish against an opponent that was well supplied and had superior
numbers. The next major battle, however, demonstrated the power of a
well-prepared defense. HYPERLINK
«» \o «Battle of Cold
Harbor» Cold Harbor was one of Grant’s most controversial battles, in
which he launched on HYPERLINK «»
\o «June 3» June 3 a massive three-corps assault without adequate
reconnaissance on a well-fortified defensive line, resulting in horrific
casualties (3,000–7,000 killed, wounded, and missing in the first 40
minutes, although modern estimates have determined that the total was
likely less than half of the famous figure of 7,000 that has been used
in books for decades; as many as 12,000 for the day, far outnumbering
the Confederate losses). Grant said of the battle in his memoirs «I have
always regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made. I
might say the same thing of the assault of the 22nd of May, 1863, at
Vicksburg. At Cold Harbor no advantage whatever was gained to compensate
for the heavy loss we sustained.» But Grant moved on and kept up the
pressure. He stole a march on Lee, slipping his troops across the
«James River (Virginia)» James River .

Arriving at HYPERLINK
«» \o «Petersburg,
Virginia» Petersburg, Virginia , first, Grant should have captured the
rail junction city, but he failed because of the overly cautious actions
of his subordinate William Smith. Over the next three days, a number of
Union assaults to take the city were launched. But all failed, and
finally on HYPERLINK «» \o «June
18» June 18 , Lee’s veterans arrived. Faced with fully manned trenches
in his front, Grant was left with no alternative but to settle down to a
HYPERLINK «» \o «Siege
of Petersburg» siege .

As the summer drew on and with Grant’s and HYPERLINK
«» \o «William
Tecumseh Sherman» Sherman’s armies stalled, respectively in Virginia
and Georgia, politics took center stage. There was a presidential
election in the fall, and the citizens of the North had difficulty
seeing any progress in the war effort. To make matters worse for
HYPERLINK «» \o «Abraham
Lincoln» Abraham Lincoln , Lee detached a small army under the command
of Lieutenant General HYPERLINK
«» \o «Jubal A. Early» Jubal
A. Early , hoping it would force Grant to disengage forces to pursue
him. Early invaded north through the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Shenandoah Valley»
Shenandoah Valley and reached the outskirts of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Washington, D.C.»
Washington, D.C. . Although unable to take the city, Early embarrassed
«» \o
«Administration (government)» Administration simply by threatening its
inhabitants, making Abraham Lincoln’s re-election prospects even

In early September, the efforts of Grant’s coordinated strategy finally
bore fruit. First, Sherman took Atlanta. Then, Grant dispatched
HYPERLINK «» \o «Philip
Sheridan» Philip Sheridan to the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Valley
Campaigns of 1864» Shenandoah Valley to deal with Early. It became
clear to the people of the North that the war was being won, and Lincoln
was re-elected by a wide margin. Later in November, Sherman began his
«Sherman’s March to the Sea» March to the Sea . Sheridan and Sherman
both followed Grant’s strategy of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Total war» total war by
destroying the economic infrastructures of the Valley and a large swath
of Georgia and the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Carolinas
Campaign» Carolinas .

At the beginning of April 1865, Grant’s relentless pressure finally
forced Lee to evacuate Richmond, and after a nine-day retreat, Lee
surrendered his army at HYPERLINK
«» \o «Appomattox
Court House» Appomattox Court House on HYPERLINK
«» \o «April 9» April 9 ,
HYPERLINK «» \o «1865» 1865 . There,
Grant offered generous terms that did much to ease the tensions between
the armies and preserve some semblance of Southern pride, which would be
needed to reconcile the warring sides. Within a few weeks, the American
Civil War was effectively over; minor actions would continue until
HYPERLINK «» \o «Kirby Smith»
Kirby Smith surrendered his forces in the HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Trans-Mississippi Department» Trans-Mississippi Department on
HYPERLINK «» \o «June 2» June 2 ,
HYPERLINK «» \o «1865» 1865 .

Immediately after Lee’s surrender, Grant had the sad honor of serving as
a pallbearer at the funeral of his greatest champion, Abraham Lincoln.
Lincoln had been quoted after the massive losses at Shiloh as saying, «I
can’t spare this man. He fights.» It was a two-sentence description that
completely caught the essence of Ulysses S. Grant.

Grant’s fighting style was what one fellow general called «that of a
bulldog». The term accurately captures his tenacity, but it
oversimplifies his considerable strategic and tactical capabilities.
Although a master of combat by out-maneuvering his opponent (such as at
Vicksburg and in the Overland Campaign against Lee), Grant was not
afraid to order direct assaults, often when the Confederates were
themselves launching offensives against him. Such tactics often resulted
in heavy casualties for Grant’s men, but they wore down the Confederate
forces proportionately more and inflicted irreplaceable losses. Many in
the North denounced Grant as a «butcher» in 1864, an accusation made
both by Northern civilians appalled at the staggering number of
casualties suffered by Union armies for what appeared to be negligible
gains, and by HYPERLINK «» \o
«Copperheads» Copperheads , Northern HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Democratic Party (United States)» Democrats who either favored the
Confederacy or simply wanted an end to the war, even at the cost of
recognizing Southern independence. Grant persevered, refusing to
withdraw as had his predecessors, and Lincoln, despite public outrage
and pressure within the government, stuck by Grant, refusing to replace
him. Although Grant lost battles in 1864, he won all his campaigns.

Historian Michael Korda explained his strategic genius: HYPERLINK
«» \l «_note-13» \o «» [14]

“ Grant understood topography, the importance of supply lines, the
instant judgment of the balance between his own strengths and the
enemy’s weaknesses, and above all the need to keep his armies moving
forward, despite casualties, even when things had gone wrong—that and
the simple importance of inflicting greater losses on the enemy than he
can sustain, day after day, until he breaks. Grant the boy never
retraced his steps. Grant the man did not retreat—he advanced. Generals
who do that win wars. ”

After the war, on HYPERLINK «» \o
«July 25» July 25 , HYPERLINK «» \o
«1866» 1866 , Congress authorized the newly created rank of HYPERLINK
\o «General of the Army of the United States» General of the Army of
the United States , the equivalent of a full (four-star) general in the
modern HYPERLINK «» \o «U.S.
Army» U.S. Army . HYPERLINK «» \l
«_note-14» \o «» [15] Grant was appointed as such by President
HYPERLINK «» \o «Andrew
Johnson» Andrew Johnson on the same day.

Reconstruction: Grant and Johnson

As commanding general of the army, Grant had a difficult relationship
with President Johnson. Although he accompanied Johnson on a national
stumping tour during the 1866 elections, he did not appear to be a
supporter of Johnson’s moderate policies toward the South. Johnson tried
to use Grant to defeat the Radical Republicans by making Grant the
Secretary of War in place of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Edwin M. Stanton»
Edwin M. Stanton , whom he could not remove without the approval of
Congress under the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Tenure of Office
Act» Tenure of Office Act . Grant refused but kept his military
command. That made him a hero to the Radicals, who gave him the
Republican nomination for president in 1868. He was chosen as the
rty» \o «History of the United States Republican Party» Republican
presidential candidate at the HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Republican National Convention» Republican National Convention in
HYPERLINK «» \o «Chicago» Chicago
in May 1868, with no real opposition. In his letter of acceptance to the
party, Grant concluded with «Let us have peace,» which became the
Republican campaign slogan. In HYPERLINK
«» \o
«U.S. presidential election, 1868» the general election that year , he
won against former New York governor HYPERLINK
«» \o «Horatio Seymour»
Horatio Seymour with a lead of 300,000 out of a total of 5,716,082
votes cast but by a commanding 214 Electoral College votes to 80. He ran
about 100,000 votes ahead of the Republican ticket, suggesting an
unusually powerful appeal to veterans. When he entered the White House,
he was politically inexperienced and, at age 46, the youngest man yet
elected president.

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