Kyiv Region (реферат)

The Kiev region is situated in the northern part of Ukraine: in the
basin of the Dnipro river and its tributaries – the Ros’, the Desna, the
Irpen’, The Trubizh, the Pryp’iat’ rivers, etc. The region is divided
into 25 administrative districts. There are 10 cities of regional
subordination, 14 towns of district subordination, 29 settlements of
urban type, 1134 rural settlements in its territory.

The territory of the region covers 28.1 thousand sq. km. (4.7% of the
area of Ukraine). It borders on the Zhytomyr, the Vinnytsia, the
Cherkasy, the Poltava, the Chernihiv region, as well as on the Gomel
region of Bilorus’ Republic.

The state administration together with executive committees of city
councils defends the rights and legitimate interests of the citizens,
ensures the complex social and economic development of the territory and
implements the state policy in administrative spheres specified by law.

The regional and district state administrations leaded by local heads of
administration are the bodies of the state executive power in the region
and its districts. The executive committees act in the cities of
regional subordination, they are headed by city presidents electing by
nation-wide poll.

Population – 1808.3 thousand persons.

The density of population amounts to 64 people per 1 sq.km. 58% of the
total population lives in towns and cities, and 42% is rural population.

Natural and climatic features. As regards its relief the Kiev region is,
for the greater part, a plain. The southern part of its territory is cut
by ravines and gullies. Soils are for the most part chernozyom (black
earth) – meadows, sod-podzols and forest type loams (the proportion of
cultivated area amounts to over 60%). The climate is moderately
continental. The average temperature in January is -6°C, in July +19°C.
The mean annual rainfall amounts to 570-610 mm.

Minerals: peat, brown coal, sand for glass production, limestone, brick
and tile earth, granite. There is an amber deposit in the region.

INDUSTRY

The Kiev region ranks among the leading regions of Ukraine as regards
the level of industrial development. With peculiarities of productive
forces taken into account, there are three economic subdistricts in the
territory of the region, namely, the Polissia, the Kiev suburban and the
Southern forest-steppe subdistrict.

The following branches of industry are developed in Polissia: produce
processing industry.

The central suburban subdistrict is specialized in machine building
industry, electric power industry, woodworking industry, wood-pulp and
paper industry, there is a well-developed light industry and food
industry in this subdistrict.

The specialization of the Southern forest-steppe subdistrict consists in
machine-building industry, petrochemical industry, food industry, in
particular sugar industry, and light branches of industrial production.

The basis of the industrial potential of the region consists in 345 big
and middle enterprises. The leading enterprises have all-state
significance, among them: the Trypillia steam power plant, the Brovary
plant of powder metallurgy, the Kiev integrated carton-and-paper mill
(in the town of Obukhiv), which is the biggest one in Europe, the
well-known far from Ukraine tire manufacturer – the «Rosava» Public
Joint-Stock Company (in the town of Bila Tserkov), manufacturer of
excavators – the «Boreks» Public Joint-Stock Company (in the town of
Borodyanka), of chemical equipment – the «Chervony Zhovten» Public
Joint-Stock Company (in the town of Fastov), etc.

AGRARININDUSTRIALES COMPLEX

The Kiev region has the well-developed agriculture.

Cereals and fodder crops are the staple plant-growing products.

As to the output of main agricultural products the Kiev region ranks
among the leading regions of Ukraine.

“Poultry-farm “Ukraine” Open Joint-Stock Company of the Vasilkov
district is one of the leading enterprises on egg-production. 

The enterprises of the region producing food products also rank among
the leading enterprises of Ukraine. The “Yahotin a creamery plant”
Public Joint-Stock Company of the Kiev region is the leader in butter
output and its quality, and the “Kiev meat processing and packing
plant”  Public Joint-Stock Company in the town of Vishneve is the leader
as to meat and sausage products.

The managing practice of last years testifies the amalgamation of farm
holdings in form of more efficient managerial structures be expedient.
The examples are the Private Factory “Svitanok” of the Vasylkov
district, agricultural  product cooperation “Khliborob” of the Vasilkov
district, agricultural cooperation “Peremoga” of the Kaharlik district,
Public Joint-Stock Company “Sinyavske” of the Rokitne district, the
“Pusch-Vodytsia” agrarian complex.

THE BUILDING COMPLEX

The building complex of the Kiev region integrates over 300 building
organizations and enterprises of building industry. Their potential
allows to manufacture 780 million pieces of conventional brick, 950
thousand cub.m. of combine reinforud concrete, 500 thousand sq.m. of
joinery, 340 thousand sq.m. of large-panel apartment houses annually.

FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

The spesial ecjnjmic zone “Slavutich” (SEZ “Slavutich”)

The following act determines the order of formation, abatement and
peculiarities of the functional mechanism of the Special Economic Zone
«Slavutich».

The Special Economic Zone «Slavutich» (SEZ «Slavutich») is formed till
the 1st of January of 2020 within the limits of «Slavutich» Region.

Subjects of the SEZ «Slavutych» may be businesses, affiliates, branches
and other structural departments located in the SEZ «Slavutych» area
that are registered by the SEZ Administration and implement investment
projects approved by the Slavutych. Elected Council with the total value
of at least USD 200,000 un the basis of the agreement (contract)
specifying the terms and conditions of project implementation.

The tax concessions of profit and value-added taxes, social insurance
compulsory payment for the case of unemployment and State Innovative
Fund tax are granted to SEZ «Slavutich» registered agents by this law.

1.The SEZ «Slavutich» registered agents which import the raw material,
materials, equipment, accessories (except the excisable ones) to the SEZ
«Slavutich» for the requirements of their domestic production of the
projects registered by the Slavutich Town State administration are free
of import tax for the period of the duration of these projects.(5 years)

2. The SEZ «Slavutich» registered agents which import the equipment and
accessories for their   domestic   production requirements (except the
excisable ones) are free of value-added tax if their investment projects
are registered by the Slavutich Town State Administration.(5 years)

3. The transactions are free of licenses and quotations for the SEZ
«Slavutich» agents if:

the import transaction to the SEZ «Slavutich» contains the equipment
and/or goods for the agents’ domestic production requirements;

the export transaction contains goods which were manufactured,
completely reprocessed or finished on the territory of SEZ «Slavutich»;

except otherwise indicated by the agreements between Ukraine and other
countries.

The goods manufactured, completely reprocessed or finished on the
territory of SEZ «Slavutich» are goods which satisfy the requirements of
the Single Customs Duty act of Ukraine.

4. The SEZ «Slavutich» registered agents’ profits are free of profit tax
during the first three years of the investment project implementation if
this project is registered by the Slavutich Town State Administration.

50 per cent of the current rate of taxation applies to the profits
received by the SEZ «Slavutich» agents during the following three years
from implementation of the above-mentioned investment projects.

This regulation applies to the SEZ «Slavutich» agents since the date of
receiving their first profit from the investment project from the
investment project activity.

The payment procedure of profits received from the realization of the
registered investment projects is fixed by the State Fiscal
Administration of Ukraine.

5. The SEZ «Slavutich» subjects are free of the social insurance
compulsory payment if they realize the investment projects registered by
the Slavutich Town State Administration.

6. The SEZ «Slavutich» subjects are free of the State Innovative Fund
tax if they realize the investment projects registered by the Slavutich
Town State Administration.

7. The SEZ «Slavutich» registered subjects – landowners and landusers –
are free of land tax payment during the first three years of their
investment projects implementation if these projects are registered by
the Slavutich  Town   State Administration. They pay 50 per cent of the
current land tax rate during the following years of the above-mentioned
project implementation.

TRANSPORT

The Kiev region is covered with dense network of automobile roads and
railways, their total length amounts to 8200 and 800 km, respectively.
The trunk roads of international significance: Lviv — Kharkiv, Lviv —
Moscow, St. Petersburg — Odessa and others, cross the territory of the
region.

The region has railway communication with all parts of Ukraine and with
other countries of CIS. The international expresses cross its territory
on their way to all states of Eastern Europe.

«Boryspil», the international-class airport, is the biggest air gate of
Ukraine. It provides regular air flights to over 30 states of the world.
There are two more airfields in the region, which are available for
cargo transport aircrafts.

The «Sybir — Western Europe» gas main which passes through the territory
of the region has promoted the construction of a dense network of gas
mains. Besides, there are a number of fuel pipe-lines (benzine, Diesel
oil) passing through the territory of the Kiev region.

SCIENCE, EDUCATION

The Kiev region is the motherland for fundamental scientific researches.
The selection studies carried out at the Myronivka Scientific and
Research Institute for wheat selection and seed-growing named after
V.M.Remeslo has the world-wide significance. Such wheat varieties as
«Myronivska 264», «Myronivska 808», «Myronivska yuvileina», «Mriia-1»
are well-known far from Ukraine.

The Institute of Horticulture of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian
Sciences develops scientific basis for intensification of horticulture,
berry-culture, seedling-culture, conservation and proceeding of fruit
and berry products, selection of new fruit and berry cultures using the
traditional methods and modern results of applied genetics and genetic
engineering. The special attention must be paid to winter-hardy, scab
protected pear-trees («Etiud», «Stryiska», «Khrystyianka»), apple-trees
of intensive type («Askold», «Teremok»), column-shaped apple-trees
(«Vertykal'», «Tantsivnytsia»), new sorts of black current with complex
oligogene resistibility to diseases and pests.

There is the Institute of Agriculture Mechanization and Electrification
in the Kiev region, it designs end implements the agricultural
technologic innovations.

The Potato Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences is
the principal institution of the Scientific and Methodological Center
for Potato Problems in Ukraine.

The main top-priority directions of its scientific studies are:

creation of new competitive varieties of potatoes, which possess good
culinary and gustatory quality. Among 74 varieties of potatoes filed in
the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine, 39 varieties (or 53%) are
selected in this Institute;

perfection and development of technologies of seed material accelerated
sanitation and invigoration to create elite varieties of potato. The
implementation of biotechnological methods allows to diminish the period
to create elite variety to 3-4 years;

improvement and development of energy saving technologies to produce
seed and food potatoes ensures the yield of 250-350 metric centners per
hectare;

improvement and development of storage technologies and potato
processing to obtain different food products.

There are 3 higher educational institutions in the region, 7 educational
institutions of I-II accreditation level (training schools, professional
schools, colleges), 22 technical schools, the higher pedagogical school
of kobzar (Ukrainian folk singer) art, 794 state secondary schools and 4
private schools.

PUBLIC HEALTH, SPORTS

The Kiev region is the important medical center of Ukraine with 1036
medical institutions, including 160 hospitals, 334 policlinics, 157
sanatoria and resort establishments. Policlinics and hospitals are of a
high level of specialization, which meets the requirements of
population. Any kind of medical assistance is available.

The mass physical culture and sport are of great importance in the
social development of the Kiev region. There are 46 stadiums, over 100
sport areas, shooting galleries, skiing centers, 30 swimming pools, 750
sport halls open for the population.

78 sport schools for children and youth, a physical culture college in
the town of Brovary, and lycee in the town of Bila Tserkva, the regional
school of excellence is in the region. Over 300 pupils of capital region
are the members of the principle and reserve national teams of Ukraine
in different sports.

There are such world-known sportsmen as Oleksandr Bagach,
track-and-field athletics European champion, Serhii Matvieiev, cycling
world champion, Tetiana Vodop’ianova, biathlon world championship prize
winner, Iryna Taranenko-Terelia, Nagano Olympic Games biathlon prize
winner among them.

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE

In the center of Ukraine, on both banks of mighty Dnipro the Kiev land
is spread over. Archeological memorials of the Trypil’ska, the
Cherniakhivska, the Lebedivska and the Sofiivska culture named as
appropriate settlements of the region, witnesses of ancient history of
this land.

In the first millennium A.C. at the territory of the modern Kiev region
the main body of the Polianie tribe that resided along the middle Dnipro
between the Ros’ and the Irpen rivers was shaped. Other Slav tribes
concentrated around it. The completion of this process resulted in
creation of the Rus State with its centre in Kiev, which was named by a
chronicler as the «Mother of Russian towns».

The genial work of literature – «The Story of Ihor’s Squad» – written by
a participant in battles against Polovets tribes near Pereiaslav in 1187
is closely associated with the Kiev land. The Kiev land was the
ethnographic centre where the process of Ukrainian nation formation was
going on, it was the origin of Ukrainian Cossacks.

Anti-feudal peasant and Cossack uprising if 1594-1596 leaded by
courageous Severyn Nalyvaiko was a vivid page in the history of struggle
of Ukrainian and Bilorrusian peoples against merciless exploitation and
enslaving of peasants, against expansion of Polish feudals and Catholic
church.

The Kiev land residents took an active part in the uprising leaded by
T.Fedorovych (Triasylo) in 1630. T.H.Shevchenko glorified the decisive
victory of the insurgents in his «Tarasova Nich» poem.

The Kiev land played the leading part in the war of liberation in
1648-1654 under Bohdan Khmelnytskyi leadership.

In the eighties – nineties of the XVII century and at the beginning of
the XVIII century the Kiev land became the center of new liberation
movement against supremacy of Polish gentry, S.Palii, Z.Iskra, S.Samus’
headed it.

The names of M.Shvachko, A.Zhurba, I.Bondarenko – the leaders of
haydamak movement of 1768 — have gone down in the history of Ukraine for
ever.

Natural resources of the Kiev land gain an important place in the
diversity of Ukrainian nature. Illustrious «Oleksandiia» dendropark
(town of Bila Tserkva) that is 200-year old is rightfully considered a
pearl of the Kiev land.

Charming soul of our people, his dreams and songs inspired our
outstanding artists: H.Skovoroda, T.Shevchenko, Marko Vobchok, M.Hohol,
I.Nechui-Levytskyi, Sholom Aleikhem, Dniprova Chaika, M.Lysenko,
K.Stetsenko, O.Dovzhenko.

Picturesque scenery of this land, tragic and at the same time heroic
history, heritage of ancient culture, example of unforgettable talented
predecessors, undoubtedly have influenced outlook and spiritual life of
our contemporary that was reflected in the rich and diverse creative
work.

Now in the Kiev region functions highly developed network of cultural
institutions that comprises 908 houses of culture and clubs, 965
libraries, 56 schools of aesthetic education and regional college of
culture, Ukrainian music and drama theater named after P.K.
Saksahanskyi, House of Organ and Chamber Music, «Kievschina» concert
artistic organization, «Academia» symphony orchestra, 237 museums
including worldwide known «Pereiaslav» National historic and
ethnographic reservation. This complex consists of 25 thematic museums
of different type, historic museum and museum of rushnik (Ukrainian
towel), folk architecture and life are among them. Memorial museums and
expositions are devoted to the outstanding persons of persons of the
Pereiaslav land – H.Skovoroda, T.Shevchenko, V.Zabolotnyi, Sholom
Aleikhem, M.Benardos. About 500 thousand unique exhibits are collected
in 15 state museums of the region. Real estate, which is the historical
and cultural heritage of the Kiev land includes 2874 archeological and
2573 historical memorials, 157 memorials of city building and
architecture, 257 art memorials.

Safekeeping of historical and cultural heritage, development of people’s
art, arrangement of interesting people’s leisure has become the
principal activity of cultural institutions.

Long since the Kiev land has been famed for the works of decorative and
applied art. The names of K.Bilokur, M.Pryimachenko, H.Beres,
I.Prykhod’ko are known throughout the world. Owing to fruitful contacts
with scientist’s folk customs, holidays and rites, handicraft, different
people’s arts, specifically singing in chorus, decorative and applied
art, fine arts reappear in the Kiev region. It is actively help by
different circles, studios and children’s schools for aesthetic
education where more than 14 thousand children study.

«Onuky polians’ki» folk and ethnographic review in commemoration of
outstanding countryman Pavlo Chubynskyi, creative reviews of choruses
named after Kyrylo Stetsenko, numerous exhibitions attract hundreds of
participants and spectators. At the same time the vanguard art has been
also developing. Masters of art of the Kiev land were originators of the
«Slovianskyi bazar» international festival.

Accounting peculiarities of the ethnic situation in the Kiev land much
attention is given to development of cultures, languages, traditions of
national minorities. 14 national and cultural societies that propagate
culture of national minorities and keep their traditional spiritual
values are registered and work in the region. With a view to coordinate
their activity the «Yednist’ and Zlahoda» national and cultural regional
centre has been created. «Wiedergeburt» German national societies (towns
of Bila Tserkva and Slavutych) participate actively in cultural life.

The regress to the national sources is the leading theme for regional
libraries, the people’s knowledge lessons, literature and musical
parties, the Days of book for children and youth are carried out.

The Kiev land is the land, which cordiality is sung in its songs. Be
blessed, Kiev land! Be glorious for ever!.

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