Edgar Allan Poe (Едгар Алан По) (реферат)

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Edgar Allan Poe (Едгар Алан По)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Protection_policy»
\o «This page has been semi-protected from editing.»

Edgar Allan Poe

This HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daguerreotype» \o
«Daguerreotype» daguerreotype of Poe was taken in 1848 when he was 39,
a year before his death.


HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Life_and_career» 1 Life
and career

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Early_life» 1.1 Early

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Military_career» 1.2
Military career

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Publishing_career» 1.3
Publishing career

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Death» 2 Death

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Griswold.27s_.22Memoir.22» 2.1 Griswold’s «Memoir»

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Literary_theory» 3
Literary theory

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Legacy» 4 Legacy

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Literary_influence» 4.1
Literary influence

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Physics_and_cosmology»
4.2 Physics and cosmology

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Cryptography» 4.3

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Poe_Toaster» 4.4 Poe

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Poe_as_a_character» 4.5
Poe as a character

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Preserved_homes.2C_landmarks.2C_and_museums» 5 Preserved homes,
landmarks, and museums

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Selected_list_of_works»
6 Selected list of works

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «See_also» 7 See also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «References» 8

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Notes» 8.1 Notes

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «General_references» 8.2
General references

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «External_links» 9
External links

Edgar Allan Poe ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_19»
\o «January 19» January 19 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1809» \o «1809» 1809 – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_7» \o «October 7» October 7 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1849» \o «1849» 1849 ) was an
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o «United
States» American HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poetry» \o
«Poetry» poet , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_story»
\o «Short story» short-story HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Writer» \o «Writer» writer , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Editing» \o «Editing» editor , and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary_critic» \o «Literary
critic» literary critic , and is considered part of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism» \o «Romanticism» Romantic
Movement in the United States. Best known for his tales of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mystery_fiction» \o «Mystery fiction»
mystery and the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macabre» \o
«Macabre» macabre , Poe was one of the early American practitioners of
the short story and invented the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detective_fiction» \o «Detective fiction»
detective-fiction genre. He is also credited with contributing to the
emerging genre of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_fiction» \o «Science fiction»
science fiction . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-0» \o «» [1] He was the first American writer to try to earn a
living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life
and career. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-Meyers138» \o «» [2]

He was born Edgar Poe in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston» \o «Boston» Boston , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts» \o «Massachusetts»
Massachusetts . His parents died when he was young, after which he was
taken in by John and Frances Allan, of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richmond%2C_Virginia» \o «Richmond,
Virginia» Richmond , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia» \o «Virginia» Virginia , who
never formally adopted him. Poe grew up in relative wealth. After his
short period at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Virginia» \o «University of
Virginia» University of Virginia and brief attempt at a military
career, Poe and the Allans parted ways. Poe’s publishing career began
humbly, with an anonymous collection of poems, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamerlane_and_Other_Poems» \o «Tamerlane
and Other Poems» Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827), credited only to «a
Bostonian». He soon moved to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltimore» \o «Baltimore» Baltimore ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maryland» \o «Maryland»
Maryland , to live with blood relatives, and switched his focus from
poetry to prose. He spent the next several years working for various
literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of
literary criticism. His work forced him to move between several cities,
including HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia» \o
«Philadelphia» Philadelphia , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pennsylvania» \o «Pennsylvania»
Pennsylvania ; and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City» \o «New York City» New
York , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York» \o «New York»
New York . In Baltimore in 1835, he married HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Eliza_Clemm_Poe» \o «Virginia
Eliza Clemm Poe» Virginia Clemm , his 13-year-old cousin. In January
1845, Poe published his poem » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Raven» \o «The Raven» The Raven «, to
instant success. His wife died of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis» \o «Tuberculosis»
tuberculosis two years later. He began planning to produce his own
journal, The Penn (later renamed HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stylus» \o «The Stylus» The Stylus ),
though he died before it could be produced. On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_7» \o «October 7» October 7 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1849» \o «1849» 1849 , at age
40, Poe died in Baltimore; the cause of his death is undetermined and
has been attributed to alcohol, brain congestion, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera» \o «Cholera» cholera , drugs,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_disease» \o «Heart
disease» heart disease , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies» \o «Rabies» rabies , suicide,
tuberculosis, and other agents. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-1» \o «» [3]

Poe’s legacy includes a significant influence in literature in the
United States and around the world, as well as in specialized fields,
such as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmology» \o
«Cosmology» cosmology and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography» \o «Cryptography»
cryptography . Poe and his works appear throughout popular culture in
literature, music, films, television, and video games. Some of his homes
are dedicated museums today.

Life and career

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Busto_de_Edgar_Allan_Poe.jpg» \o

This bust of Edgar Allan Poe is found at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Virginia» \o «University of
Virginia» University of Virginia where, having lost his tuition due to
gambling, he dropped out in 1827.

Early life

Poe was born Edgar Poe to a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scots-Irish» \o «Scots-Irish» Scots-Irish
family in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston%2C_Massachusetts» \o «Boston,
Massachusetts» Boston, Massachusetts , on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_19» \o «January 19» January 19 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1809» \o «1809» 1809 . He was
the second child of actress HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eliza_Poe» \o «Eliza Poe» Elizabeth
Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David Poe, Jr. Edgar Poe had an elder
brother, William Henry Leonard Poe, and a younger sister, Rosalie Poe.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-hervey» \o «» [4]
His father abandoned their family in 1810, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-father» \o «» [5] and his
mother died a year later from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis» \o «Tuberculosis»
consumption . Poe was then taken into the home of John Allan, a
successful Scottish merchant in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richmond%2C_Virginia» \o «Richmond,
Virginia» Richmond, Virginia , who dealt in a variety of goods
including tobacco, cloth, wheat, tombstones, and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery» \o «Slavery» slaves . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-2» \o «» [6] The Allans
served as a foster family but never formally adopted Poe, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-3» \o «» [7] though they
gave him the name «Edgar Allan Poe». HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-Meyers9» \o «» [8]

The Allan family had young Edgar baptized in the HYPERLINK
merica» \o «Episcopal Church in the United States of America» Episcopal
Church in 1812. John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively
disciplined his foster son. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/»
\l «_note-Meyers9» \o «» [8] The family, including Edgar and Allan’s
wife, Frances Valentine Allan, sailed to England in 1815. Edgar attended
the Grammar School in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irvine%2C_North_Ayrshire» \o «Irvine,
North Ayrshire» Irvine , Scotland (where John Allan was born) for a
short period in 1815, before rejoining the family in London in 1816. He
studied at a boarding school in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelsea%2C_London» \o «Chelsea, London»
Chelsea until summer 1817. He was subsequently entered at Reverend John
Bransby’s Manor House School at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoke_Newington» \o «Stoke Newington»
Stoke Newington , then a suburb four miles (6 km) north of London.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-4» \o «» [9]

Poe moved back with the Allans to Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In 1825,
John Allan’s friend and business benefactor William Galt, said to be the
wealthiest man in Richmond, died and left Allan several acres of real
estate. The inheritance was estimated at $750,000. By summer 1825, Allan
celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick home
named Moldavia. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-5»
\o «» [10] Poe may have become engaged to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Elmira_Royster» \o «Sarah Elmira
Royster» Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the one-year old
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Virginia» \o
«University of Virginia» University of Virginia in February 1826 to
study languages. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-6»
\o «» [11] The University, in its infancy, was established on the
ideals of its founder, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson» \o «Thomas Jefferson»
Thomas Jefferson . It had strict rules against gambling, horses, guns,
tobacco and alcohol, but these rules were generally ignored. Jefferson
had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to
choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, and
report all wrongdoing to the faculty. The unique system was still in
chaos, and there was a high drop-out rate. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-7» \o «» [12] During his
time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and also became estranged from
his foster father over gambling debts. Poe claimed that Allan had not
given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, and
procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and
clothes, but Poe’s debts increased. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-8» \o «» [13] Poe gave up on
the University after a year, and, not feeling welcome in Richmond,
especially when he learned that his sweetheart Royster had married
Alexander Shelton, he traveled to Boston in April 1827, sustaining
himself with odd jobs as a clerk and newspaper writer. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-9» \o «» [14] At some point
he started using the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudonym» \o «Pseudonym» pseudonym
Henri Le Rennet. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-10» \o «» [15]

Military career

Unable to support himself, on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_27» \o «May 27» May 27 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1827» \o «1827» 1827 , Poe enlisted in
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Army» \o
«United States Army» United States Army as a private. Using the name
«Edgar A. Perry», he claimed he was 22 years old even though he was 18.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-11» \o «» [16] He
first served at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Independence_%28Massachusetts%29» \o
«Fort Independence (Massachusetts)» Fort Independence in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_Harbor» \o «Boston Harbor» Boston
Harbor for five dollars a month. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-12» \o «» [17] That same
year, he released his first book, a 40-page collection of poetry,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamerlane_and_Other_Poems» \o
«Tamerlane and Other Poems» Tamerlane and Other Poems , attributed with
the byline «by a Bostonian». Only 50 copies were printed, and the book
received virtually no attention. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-13» \o «» [18] Poe’s
regiment was posted to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Moultrie_National_Monument» \o «Fort
Moultrie National Monument» Fort Moultrie in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charleston%2C_South_Carolina» \o
«Charleston, South Carolina» Charleston, South Carolina and traveled
by ship on the brig Waltham on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_8» \o «November 8» November 8 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1827» \o «1827» 1827 . Poe was
promoted to «artificer», an enlisted tradesman who prepared shells for
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artillery» \o «Artillery»
artillery , and had his monthly pay doubled. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-14» \o «» [19] After serving
for two years and attaining the rank of Sergeant Major for Artillery
(the highest rank a noncommissioned officer can achieve), Poe sought to
end his five-year enlistment early. He revealed his real name and his
circumstances to his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commanding_officer» \o «Commanding
officer» commanding officer , Lieutenant Howard, who would only allow
Poe to be HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_discharge»
\o «Military discharge» discharged if he reconciled with John Allan.
Howard wrote a letter to Allan, who was unsympathetic. Several months
passed and pleas to Allan were ignored; Allan may not have written to
Poe even to make him aware of his foster mother’s illness. Frances Allan
died on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_28» \o
«February 28» February 28 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1829» \o «1829» 1829 , and Poe visited
the day after her burial. Perhaps softened by his wife’s death, John
Allan agreed to support Poe’s attempt to be discharged in order to
receive an appointment to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Military_Academy» \o «United
States Military Academy» United States Military Academy at West Point.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-15» \o «» [20]

Poe finally was discharged on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_15» \o «April 15» April 15 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1829» \o «1829» 1829 after
securing a replacement to finish his enlisted term for him. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-16» \o «» [21] Before
entering West Point, Poe moved back to Baltimore for a time, to stay
with his widowed aunt Maria Clemm, her daughter, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Eliza_Clemm_Poe» \o «Virginia
Eliza Clemm Poe» Virginia Eliza Clemm (Poe’s first cousin), his
brother Henry, and his invalid grandmother Elizabeth Cairnes Poe.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-17» \o «» [22]
Meanwhile, Poe published his second book, Al Aaraaf Tamerlane and Minor
Poems, in Baltimore in 1829.

Poe traveled to West Point and matriculated as a cadet on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_1» \o «July 1» July 1 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1830» \o «1830» 1830 . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-18» \o «» [23] In October
1830, John Allan married his second wife, Louisa Patterson. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-19» \o «» [24] The marriage,
and bitter quarrels with Poe over the children born to Allan out of
affairs, led to the foster father finally disowning Poe. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-20» \o «» [25] Poe decided
to leave West Point by purposely getting HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court-martial» \o «Court-martial»
court-martialed . On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_8» \o «February 8» February 8 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1831» \o «1831» 1831 , he was
tried for gross neglect of duty and disobedience of orders for refusing
to attend formations, classes, or church. Poe tactically pled not guilty
to induce dismissal, knowing he would be found guilty. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-21» \o «» [26]

He left for New York in February 1831, and released a third volume of
poems, simply titled Poems. The book was financed with help from his
fellow cadets at West Point, many of whom donated 75 cents to the cause,
raising a total of $170. They may have been expecting verses similar to
the satirical ones Poe had been writing about commanding officers.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-22» \o «» [27]
Printed by Elam Bliss of New York, it was labeled as «Second Edition»
and included a page saying, «To the U.S. Corps of Cadets this volume is
respectfully dedicated.» The book once again reprinted the long poems
«Tamerlane» and «Al Aaraaf» but also six previously unpublished poems
including early versions of » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/To_Helen» \o «To Helen» To Helen «, »
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poems_by_Edgar_Allan_Poe» \l
«Israfel_.281831.29» \o «Poems by Edgar Allan Poe» Israfel «, and »
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_City_in_the_Sea» \o «The
City in the Sea» The City in the Sea «. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-23» \o «» [28] He returned
to Baltimore, to his aunt, brother and cousin, in March 1831. Henry, who
had been in ill health in part due to problems with alcoholism, died on
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_1» \o «August 1» August
1 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1831» \o «1831» 1831 .
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-24» \o «» [29]

Publishing career

After his brother’s death, Poe began more earnest attempts to start his
career as a writer. He chose a difficult time in American publishing to
do so. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-25» \o «»
[30] He was the first American to try to live by writing alone
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-Meyers138» \o «»
[2] HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-Quinn305» \o
«» [31] and was hampered by the lack of an international HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright» \o «Copyright» copyright law.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-26» \o «» [32]
Publishers often pirated copies of British works rather than paying for
new work by Americans. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-Quinn305» \o «» [31] The industry was also particularly hurt by
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panic_of_1837» \o «Panic
of 1837» Panic of 1837 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-27» \o «» [33] Despite a booming growth in American periodicals
around this time period, fueled in part by new technology, many did not
last beyond a few issues HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-28» \o «» [34] and publishers often refused to pay their
writers or paid them much later than they promised. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-29» \o «» [35] As Poe began
his literary career, he would soon be forced to constantly make
humiliating pleas for money and other assistance for the rest of his
life. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-30» \o «»

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:VirginiaPoe.jpg» \o

Poe married his 13-year old cousin HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Eliza_Clemm_Poe» \o «Virginia
Eliza Clemm Poe» Virginia Clemm . Her early death may have inspired
some of his writing.

After his early attempts at poetry, Poe had turned his attention to
prose . He placed a few stories with a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia» \o «Philadelphia»
Philadelphia publication and began work on his only drama, Politian.
The Saturday Visitor, a Baltimore paper, awarded Poe a prize in October
1833 for his short story » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS._Found_in_a_Bottle» \o «MS. Found in a
Bottle» MS. Found in a Bottle «. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-31» \o «» [37] The story
brought him to the attention of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_P._Kennedy» \o «John P. Kennedy»
John P. Kennedy , a Baltimorian of considerable means. He helped Poe
place some of his stories, and also introduced him to Thomas W. White,
editor of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Literary_Messenger» \o «Southern
Literary Messenger» Southern Literary Messenger in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richmond%2C_Virginia» \o «Richmond,
Virginia» Richmond . Poe became assistant editor of the periodical in
August 1835. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-32» \o
«» [38] Within a few weeks, he was discharged after being found drunk
repeatedly. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-33» \o
«» [39] Returning to Baltimore, Poe secretly married Virginia, his
cousin, on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_22» \o
«September 22» September 22 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1835» \o «1835» 1835 . She was 13 at the
time, though she is listed on the marriage certificate as being 21.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-34» \o «» [40]
Reinstated by White after promising good behavior, Poe went back to
Richmond with Virginia and her mother. He remained at the Messenger
until January 1837. During this period, its circulation increased from
700 to 3500. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-hervey» \o «» [4] He published several poems, book reviews,
criticism, and stories in the paper. On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_16» \o «May 16» May 16 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1836» \o «1836» 1836 , he had a second
marriage in Richmond with Virginia Clemm, this time in public.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-35» \o «» [41]

ucket» \o «The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket» The
Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym was published and widely reviewed in
1838. In the summer of 1839, Poe became assistant editor of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burton%27s_Gentleman%27s_Magazine» \o
«Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine» Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine . He
published a large number of articles, stories, and reviews, enhancing
the reputation as a trenchant critic that he had established at the
Southern Literary Messenger. Also in 1839, the collection HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tales_of_the_Grotesque_and_Arabesque» \o
«Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque» Tales of the Grotesque and
Arabesque was published in two volumes, though he made little money off
of it and it received mixed reviews. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-36» \o «» [42] Poe left
Burton’s after about a year and found a position as assistant at
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham%27s_Magazine» \o
«Graham’s Magazine» Graham’s Magazine . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-37» \o «» [43]

In June 1840, Poe published a prospectus announcing his intentions to
start his own journal, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stylus» \o «The Stylus» The Stylus .
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-38» \o «» [44]
Originally, Poe intended to call the journal The Penn, as it would have
been based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_6» \o «June 6» June 6 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1840» \o «1840» 1840 issue of
Philadelphia’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturday_Evening_Post» \o «Saturday
Evening Post» Saturday Evening Post , Poe purchased advertising space
for his prospectus: «Prospectus of the Penn Magazine, a Monthly Literary
journal to be edited and published in the city of Philadelphia by Edgar
A. Poe.» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-39» \o «»
[45] The journal would never be produced before Poe’s death.

One evening in January 1842, Virginia showed the first signs of
consumption, now known as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis» \o «Tuberculosis»
tuberculosis , while singing and playing the piano. Poe described it as
breaking a blood vessel in her throat. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-40» \o «» [46] She only
partially recovered. Poe began to drink more heavily under the stress of
Virginia’s illness. He left Graham’s and attempted to find a new
position, for a time angling for a government post. He returned to New
York, where he worked briefly at the Evening Mirror before becoming
editor of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadway_Journal» \o «Broadway Journal»
Broadway Journal and, later, sole owner. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-Sova34» \o «» [47] There he
alienated himself from other writers by publicly accusing HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Wadsworth_Longfellow» \o «Henry
Wadsworth Longfellow» Henry Wadsworth Longfellow of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism» \o «Plagiarism» plagiarism ,
though Longfellow never responded. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-41» \o «» [48] On
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_29» \o «January 29»
January 29 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1845» \o «1845»
1845 , his poem » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Raven» \o
«The Raven» The Raven » appeared in the Evening Mirror and became a
popular sensation. Though it made Poe a household name almost instantly,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-42» \o «» [49] he
only was paid $9 for its publication. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-43» \o «» [50]

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Poe%27s_house_hi_res.jpg» \o

Poe spent the last few years of his life in a small cottage in the
Bronx, New York.

The Broadway Journal failed in 1846. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-Sova34» \o «» [47] Poe moved
to a cottage in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fordham%2C_Bronx» \o «Fordham, Bronx»
Fordham section of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bronx%2C_New_York» \o «The Bronx, New
York» The Bronx, New York . That home, known today as the «Poe
Cottage», is on the southeast corner of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Concourse» \o «Grand Concourse»
Grand Concourse and Kingsbridge Road. Virginia died there on
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_30» \o «January 30»
January 30 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1847» \o «1847»
1847 . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-Poe_Cottage»
\o «» [51] Biographers and critics often suggest Poe’s frequent theme
of the «death of a beautiful woman» stems from the repeated loss of
women throughout his life, including his wife. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-44» \o «» [52]

Increasingly unstable after his wife’s death, Poe attempted to court the
poet HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Helen_Whitman» \o
«Sarah Helen Whitman» Sarah Helen Whitman , who lived in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Providence%2C_Rhode_Island» \o
«Providence, Rhode Island» Providence, Rhode Island . Their engagement
failed, purportedly because of Poe’s drinking and erratic behavior.
However, there is also strong evidence that Whitman’s mother intervened
and did much to derail their relationship. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-45» \o «» [53] Poe then
returned to Richmond and resumed a relationship with a childhood
sweetheart, Sarah Elmira Royster. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-46» \o «» [54]


«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Poe%27s_grave_Baltimore_MD.jpg» \o

Edgar Allan Poe is buried in Baltimore, Maryland. The circumstances of
his death are very mysterious and the true cause is uncertain.

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Edgar_Allan_Poe» \o «Death of
Edgar Allan Poe» Death of Edgar Allan Poe

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_3» \o «October 3»
October 3 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1849» \o «1849»
1849 , Poe was found on the streets of Baltimore delirious, «in great
distress, and… in need of immediate assistance», according to the man
who found him, Joseph W. Walker. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-47» \o «» [55] He was taken
to the Washington College Hospital, where he died on Sunday, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_7» \o «October 7» October 7 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1849» \o «1849» 1849 , at 5:00
in the morning. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-Meyers255» \o «» [56] Poe was never coherent long enough to
explain how he came to be in his dire condition, and, oddly, was wearing
clothes that were not his own. Poe is said to have repeatedly called out
the name «Reynolds» on the night before his death, though it is unclear
to whom he was referring. Some sources say Poe’s final words were «Lord
help my poor soul.» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-Meyers255» \o «» [56] Poe suffered from bouts of depression and
madness, and he may have attempted suicide in 1848. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-48» \o «» [57] The precise
cause of Poe’s death remains a mystery. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-49» \o «» [58]

Griswold’s «Memoir»

The day Edgar Allan Poe was buried, a long obituary appeared in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Tribune» \o «New York
Tribune» New York Tribune signed «Ludwig». It was soon published
throughout the country. The piece began, «Edgar Allan Poe is dead. He
died in Baltimore the day before yesterday. This announcement will
startle many, but few will be grieved by it.» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-50» \o «» [59] «Ludwig» was
soon identified as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rufus_Wilmot_Griswold» \o «Rufus Wilmot
Griswold» Rufus Wilmot Griswold , a minor editor and anthologist who
had borne a grudge against Poe since 1842. Griswold somehow became
executor of Poe’s literary estate and attempted to destroy his enemy’s
reputation after his death. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/»
\l «_note-Hoffman14» \o «» [60]

Rufus Griswold wrote a biographical «Memoir» of Poe, which he included
in an 1850 volume of the collected works. Griswold depicted Poe as a
depraved, drunk, drug-addled madman and included forged letters as
evidence. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-Hoffman14» \o «» [60] Griswold’s book was denounced by those
who knew Poe well, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-51» \o «» [61] but it became a popularly accepted one. This was
due in part because it was the only full biography available and was
widely reprinted, and in part because readers thrilled at the thought of
reading works by an «evil» man. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-52» \o «» [62] Letters that
Griswold presented as proof of this depiction of Poe were later revealed
as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forgery» \o «Forgery»
forgeries . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-53» \o
«» [63]

Literary theory

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Edgar_Allan_Poe_portrait_B.jpg» \o

1860s portrait by Oscar Halling after an 1849 daguerreotype

In his essay » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Poetic_Principle» \o «The Poetic
Principle» The Poetic Principle «, Poe argued that there is no such
thing as a long poem, since the ultimate purpose of art is HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetic» \o «Aesthetic» aesthetic ;
that is, its purpose is the effect it has on its audience, and this
effect can only be maintained for a brief period of time (the time it
takes to read a lyric poem, watch a drama performed, or view a
painting). He argued that an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epic_poetry» \o «Epic poetry» epic , if
it has any value at all, must be a series of smaller pieces, each geared
towards a single effect or sentiment, which «elevates the soul». He also
disagreed with HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didacticism» \o
«Didacticism» didacticism in poetry, a sentiment often extended to his
fiction. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-54» \o «»
[64] In his criticism, Poe said that meaning in literature should be an
undercurrent just beneath the surface, and that works whose meanings are
too obvious cease to be art. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/»
\l «_note-55» \o «» [65] HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-father» \o «» [5]

Poe’s essay » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Philosophy_of_Composition» \o «The
Philosophy of Composition» The Philosophy of Composition «, an overview
of his method in writing «The Raven», is one of his most complete
discussions of his literary theory. In it, Poe claimed he worked with
extreme precision and care, believing that in writing every sentiment
and idea must be carefully conceived and calculated. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-56» \o «» [66] Such work
should focus around a specific single effect. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-57» \o «» [67] It has been
questioned, however, if Poe really followed the system he described.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._S._Eliot» \o «T. S. Eliot»
T. S. Eliot said: «It is difficult for us to read that essay without
reflecting that if Poe plotted out his poem with such calculation, he
might have taken a little more pains over it: the result hardly does
credit to the method.» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-58» \o «» [68] Biographer Joseph Wood Krutch described the
essay as «a rather highly ingenious exercise in the art of
rationalization than literary criticism». HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-59» \o «» [69]

In his own fiction, Poe often included elements of popular HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudoscience» \o «Pseudoscience»
pseudosciences such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrenology» \o «Phrenology» phrenology
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-60» \o «» [70] and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiognomy» \o «Physiognomy»
physiognomy . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-61»
\o «» [71] Much of his work deals with questions of death, including
its physical signs, the effects of decomposition, concerns of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premature_burial» \o «Premature
burial» premature burial , the reanimation of the dead, and mourning.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-62» \o «» [72]
Though known as a masterful practitioner of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_fiction» \o «Gothic fiction»
Gothic fiction , Poe did not invent the genre; he was following a
long-standing popular tradition. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-63» \o «» [73]

Much of Poe’s work has been read as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allegory» \o «Allegory» allegorical ,
though he himself disliked allegory: «In defence of allegory, (however,
or for whatever object, employed,) there is scarcely one respectable
word to be said. Its best appeals are made to the fancy — that is to
say, to our sense of adaptation, not of matters proper, but of matters
improper for the purpose, of the real with the unreal; having never more
of intelligible connection than has something with nothing, never half
so much of effective affinity as has the substance for the shadow.»
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-64» \o «» [74]


Literary influence

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe%27s_literary_influence» \o
«Edgar Allan Poe’s literary influence» Edgar Allan Poe’s literary

Poe was one of the first American authors of the nineteenth century to
become more popular in Europe. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-65» \o «» [75] Poe is
particularly respected in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France» France , in part due
to early translations by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Baudelaire» \o «Charles
Baudelaire» Charles Baudelaire . Baudelaire’s translations quickly
became definitive renditions of Poe’s work throughout Europe. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-66» \o «» [76]

Poe’s early HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detective_fiction»
\o «Detective fiction» detective fiction tales starring the fictitious
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C._Auguste_Dupin» \o «C.
Auguste Dupin» C. Auguste Dupin laid the groundwork for future
detectives in literature. Sir HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Conan_Doyle» \o «Arthur Conan
Doyle» Arthur Conan Doyle said, «Each [of Poe’s detective stories] is
a root from which a whole literature has developed…. Where was the
detective story until Poe breathed the breath of life into it?»
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-67» \o «» [77] The
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mystery_Writers_of_America» \o
«Mystery Writers of America» Mystery Writers of America have named
their awards for excellence in the genre the » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Award» \o «Edgar Award» Edgars «.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-68» \o «» [78]
Poe’s work also influenced HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_fiction» \o «Science fiction»
science fiction , notably HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Verne» \o «Jules Verne» Jules Verne
, who wrote a sequel to Poe’s novel HYPERLINK
ucket» \o «The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket» The
Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket called The Narrative of
Arthur Gordon Pym, Le sphinx des glaces. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-69» \o «» [79] Science
fiction author HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._G._Wells» \o
«H. G. Wells» H. G. Wells noted, «Pym tells what a very intelligent
mind could imagine about the south polar region a century ago.»
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-70» \o «» [80]

Like many famous artists, Poe’s works have spawned innumerable
imitators. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-71» \o
«» [81] One interesting trend among imitators of Poe, however, has
been claims by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clairvoyance»
\o «Clairvoyance» clairvoyants or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychics» \o «Psychics» psychics to be
«channeling» poems from Poe’s spirit beyond the grave. One of the most
notable of these was Lizzie Doten, who in 1863 published Poems from the
Inner Life, in which she claimed to have «received» new compositions by
Poe’s spirit. The compositions were re-workings of famous Poe poems such
as » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bells» \o «The Bells»
The Bells «, but which reflected a new, positive outlook. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-72» \o «» [82]

Even so, Poe has not received only praise. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Butler_Yeats» \o «William Butler
Yeats» William Butler Yeats was generally critical of Poe, calling him
«vulgar». HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-73» \o «»
[83] HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism» \o
«Transcendentalism» Transcendentalist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Waldo_Emerson» \o «Ralph Waldo
Emerson» Ralph Waldo Emerson reacted to «The Raven» by saying, «I see
nothing in it.» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-74»
\o «» [84] HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldous_Huxley» \o
«Aldous Huxley» Aldous Huxley wrote that Poe’s writing «falls into
vulgarity» by being «too poetical» — the equivalent of wearing a diamond
ring on every finger. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-75» \o «» [85]

Physics and cosmology

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eureka_%28Edgar_Allan_Poe%29»
\o «Eureka (Edgar Allan Poe)» Eureka , an essay written in 1848,
included a cosmological theory that anticipated the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_bang» \o «Big bang» big bang theory
by 80 years, as well as the first plausible solution to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olbers%27_paradox» \o «Olbers’ paradox»
Olbers’ paradox . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-76» \o «» [86] Poe eschewed the scientific method in Eureka and
instead wrote from pure HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intuition_%28knowledge%29» \o «Intuition
(knowledge)» intuition . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-Meyers214» \o «» [87] For this reason, he considered it a work
of art, not science, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-Meyers214» \o «» [87] but insisted that it was still true
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-77» \o «» [88] and
considered it to be his career masterpiece. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-78» \o «» [89] Even so,
Eureka is full of scientific errors. In particular, Poe’s suggestions
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton%27s_laws_of_motion» \o «Newton’s
laws of motion» Newtonian principles regarding the density and
rotation of planets. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-79» \o «» [90]


Poe had a keen interest in the field of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography» \o «Cryptography»
cryptography . He had placed a notice of his abilities in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia%2C_Pennsylvania» \o
«Philadelphia, Pennsylvania» Philadelphia paper Alexander’s Weekly
(Express) Messenger, inviting submissions of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cipher» \o «Cipher» ciphers , which he
proceeded to solve. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-Silverman152» \o «» [91] In July 1841, Poe had published an
essay called «A Few Words on Secret Writing» in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham%27s_Magazine» \o «Graham’s
Magazine» Graham’s Magazine . Realizing the public interest in the
topic, he wrote » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gold-Bug»
\o «The Gold-Bug» The Gold-Bug » incorporating ciphers as part of the
story. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-80» \o «»
[92] Poe’s success in cryptography relied not so much on his knowledge
of that field (his method was limited to the simple substitution
cryptogram), as on his knowledge of the magazine and newspaper culture.
His keen analytical abilities, which were so evident in his detective
stories, allowed him to see that the general public was largely ignorant
of the methods by which a simple substitution cryptogram can be solved,
and he used this to his advantage. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-Silverman152» \o «» [91] The
sensation Poe created with his cryptography stunt played a major role in
popularizing cryptograms in newspapers and magazines. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-81» \o «» [93]

Poe had an influence on cryptography beyond increasing public interest
in his lifetime. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Friedman» \o «William Friedman»
William Friedman , America’s foremost cryptologist, was heavily
influenced by Poe. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-82» \o «» [94] Friedman’s initial interest in cryptography came
from reading «The Gold-Bug» as a child — interest he later put to use in
deciphering HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan» \o «Japan»
Japan ‘s HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PURPLE» \o «PURPLE»
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o «World War II» World War
II . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-83» \o «»

Poe Toaster

Main article: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poe_Toaster» \o
«Poe Toaster» Poe Toaster

Adding to the mystery surrounding Poe’s death, an unknown visitor
affectionately referred to as the «Poe Toaster» has paid homage to Poe’s
grave every year since 1949. As the tradition has been carried on for
over 50 years, it is likely that the «Poe Toaster» is actually several
individuals; however, the tribute is always the same. Every January 19,
in the early hours of the morning, the man makes a toast of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognac_%28drink%29» \o «Cognac (drink)»
cognac to Poe’s original grave marker and leaves three roses. Members
of the Edgar Allan Poe Society in Baltimore have helped in protecting
this tradition for decades. On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_15» \o «August 15» August 15 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007» \o «2007» 2007 , Sam
Porpora, a former historian at the Westminster Church in Baltimore where
Poe is buried, claimed that he had started the tradition in the 1960s.
The claim that the tradition began in 1949, he said, was a hoax in order
to raise money and enhance the profile of the church. His story has not
been confirmed, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-84»
\o «» [96] and some details he has given to the press have been
pointed out as factually inaccurate. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-85» \o «» [97]

Poe as a character

Main articles: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe_in_popular_culture» \o
«Edgar Allan Poe in popular culture» Edgar Allan Poe in popular culture
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe_in_television_and_film» \o
«Edgar Allan Poe in television and film» Edgar Allan Poe in television
and film

The historical Edgar Allan Poe has appeared as a fictionalized
character, often representing the «mad genius» or «tormented artist» and
exploiting his personal struggles. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-86» \o «» [98] Many such
depictions also blend in with characters from his stories, suggesting
Poe and his characters share identities. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-87» \o «» [99] Often,
fictional depictions of Poe utilize his mystery-solving skills in such
novels as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Poe_Shadow» \o
«The Poe Shadow» The Poe Shadow by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Pearl» \o «Matthew Pearl» Matthew
Pearl . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-88» \o «»

Preserved homes, landmarks, and museums

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:PoeNHS.JPG» \o «Enlarge»

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe_National_Historic_Site» \o
«Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site» Edgar Allan Poe National
Historic Site in Philadelphia is one of several preserved former
residences of Poe.

No childhood home of Poe is still standing, including the Allan family’s
Moldavia estate. However, the oldest standing home in Richmond, the Old
Stone House, is in use as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe_Museum_%28Richmond%29» \o
«Edgar Allan Poe Museum (Richmond)» Edgar Allan Poe Museum , though Poe
never lived there. The collection includes many items Poe used during
his time with the Allan family and also features several rare first
printings of Poe works. The dorm room Poe is believed to have used while
studying at the University of Virginia in 1826 is preserved and
available for visits. Its upkeep is now overseen by a group of students
and staff known as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raven_Society» \o «Raven Society» Raven
Society . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-89» \o «»

The earliest surviving home in which Poe lived is in Baltimore,
preserved as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe_House_and_Museum» \o
«Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum» Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum .
Poe is believed to have lived in the home at the age of 23 when he first
lived with Maria Clemm and Virginia (as well as his grandmother and
possibly his brother William Henry Leonard Poe). It is open to the
public and is also the home of the Edgar Allan Poe Society. Of the
several homes that Poe, his wife Virginia, and his mother-in-law Maria
rented in Philadelphia, only the last house has survived. The Spring
Garden home, where the author lived in 1843–44, is today preserved by
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Park_Service» \o
«National Park Service» National Park Service as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe_National_Historic_Site» \o
«Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site» Edgar Allan Poe National
Historic Site . Poe’s final home is preserved as the Poe Cottage in the
Bronx, New York. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-Poe_Cottage» \o «» [51] HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-90» \o «» [102]

Other Poe landmarks include a building in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_West_Side» \o «Upper West Side»
Upper West Side where Poe temporarily lived when he first moved to New
York. A plaque suggests that Poe wrote «The Raven» here. In Boston, a
plaque hangs near the building where Poe was born once stood. Believed
to have been located at 62 Carver Street (now Charles Street), the
plaque is possibly in an incorrect location. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-91» \o «» [103] HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-92» \o «» [104] The bar in
which legend says Poe was last seen drinking before his death still
stands in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fells_Point» \o
«Fells Point» Fells Point in Baltimore, Maryland. Though the name has
changed and it is now known as The Horse You Came In On, local lore
insists that a ghost they call «Edgar» haunts the rooms above.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-93» \o «» [105]

Selected list of works

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliography_of_Edgar_Allan_Poe» \o
«Bibliography of Edgar Allan Poe» Bibliography of Edgar Allan Poe


» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berenice_%28short_story%29»
\o «Berenice (short story)» Berenice »

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Black_Cat_%28short_story%29» \o «The
Black Cat (short story)» The Black Cat »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cask_of_Amontillado» \o
«The Cask of Amontillado» The Cask of Amontillado »

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fall_of_the_House_of_Usher» \o «The
Fall of the House of Usher» The Fall of the House of Usher »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gold-Bug» \o «The
Gold-Bug» The Gold-Bug »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hop-Frog» \o «Hop-Frog»
Hop-Frog »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligeia» \o «Ligeia» Ligeia »

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Man_of_the_Crowd_%28short_story%29» \o
«The Man of the Crowd (short story)» The Man of the Crowd »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Masque_of_the_Red_Death»
\o «The Masque of the Red Death» The Masque of the Red Death »

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Murders_in_the_Rue_Morgue» \o «The
Murders in the Rue Morgue» The Murders in the Rue Morgue »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pit_and_the_Pendulum» \o
«The Pit and the Pendulum» The Pit and the Pendulum »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Purloined_Letter» \o «The
Purloined Letter» The Purloined Letter »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tell-Tale_Heart» \o «The
Tell-Tale Heart» The Tell-Tale Heart » Poetry

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Dream_Within_A_Dream» \o «A
Dream Within A Dream» A Dream Within A Dream »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annabel_Lee» \o «Annabel Lee»
Annabel Lee »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bells» \o «The Bells»
The Bells »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_City_in_the_Sea» \o «The
City in the Sea» The City in the Sea »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Conqueror_Worm» \o «The
Conqueror Worm» The Conqueror Worm »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eldorado_%28poem%29» \o
«Eldorado (poem)» Eldorado »

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Haunted_Palace_%28poem%29» \o «The
Haunted Palace (poem)» The Haunted Palace »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenore» \o «Lenore» Lenore »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Raven» \o «The Raven»
The Raven »

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulalume» \o «Ulalume»
Ulalume »

Other Works

ucket» \o «The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket» The
Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket – Poe’s only complete novel

«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Philosophy_of_Composition» \o «The
Philosophy of Composition» The Philosophy of Composition » – Essay

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eureka_%28Edgar_Allan_Poe%29»
\o «Eureka (Edgar Allan Poe)» Eureka – Essay

» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Balloon-Hoax» \o «The
Balloon-Hoax» The Balloon-Hoax » – A journalistic HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoax» \o «Hoax» hoax printed as a true

See also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:PoeCorbeau.png» \o
«PoeCorbeau.png» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Edgar_Allan_Poe» \o «Portal:Edgar
Allan Poe» Edgar Allan Poe Portal

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe_and_music» \o
«Edgar Allan Poe and music» Edgar Allan Poe and music

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_E.A._Poe_%28IX-103%29» \o
«USS E.A. Poe (IX-103)» USS E.A. Poe (IX-103)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_coupled_cousins» \o
«List of coupled cousins» List of coupled cousins



HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-0» \o «» ^
Stableford, Brian. «Science fiction before the genre.» The Cambridge
Companion to Science Fiction, Eds. Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn.
Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press, 2003. pp. 18–19.

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Meyers138_0» \o
«» a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Meyers138_1»
\o «» b Meyers, 138

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-1» \o «» ^
Meyers, 256

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-hervey_0» \o «»
a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-hervey_1» \o «»
b Allen, Hervey. «Introduction». The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, New
York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1927.

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-father_0» \o «»
a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-father_1» \o «»
b Canada, Mark, ed. » HYPERLINK
«http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/17841865/lit/poe.htm» \o
«http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/17841865/lit/poe.htm» Edgar
Allan Poe Chronology «. Canada’s America. 1997. Retrieved on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_3» \o «June 3» 3 June HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007» \o «2007» 2007 .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-2» \o «» ^
Meyers, 8

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-3» \o «» ^ Quinn,

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Meyers9_0» \o «»
a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Meyers9_1» \o «»
b Meyers, 9

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-4» \o «» ^
Silverman, 16–18

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-5» \o «» ^
Silverman, 27–28

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-6» \o «» ^
Silverman, 29–30

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-7» \o «» ^
Meyers, 21–22

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-8» \o «» ^
Silverman, 32–34

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-9» \o «» ^
Meyers, 32

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-10» \o «» ^
Silverman, 41

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-11» \o «» ^
Cornelius, Kay. «Biography of Edgar Allan Poe», Bloom’s BioCritiques:
Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Harold Bloom, Philadelphia: Chelsea House
Publishers, 2002. p. 13 HYPERLINK
061736» ISBN 0791061736

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-12» \o «» ^
Meyers, 32

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-13» \o «» ^
Meyers, 33–34

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-14» \o «» ^
Meyers, 35

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-15» \o «» ^
Silverman, 43–47

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-16» \o «» ^
Meyers, 38

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-17» \o «» ^
Cornelius, Kay. «Biography of Edgar Allan Poe», Bloom’s BioCritiques:
Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Harold Bloom, Philadelphia: Chelsea House
Publishers, 2002. pp. 13–14 HYPERLINK
061736» ISBN 0791061736

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-18» \o «» ^
Krutch, 32

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-19» \o «» ^
Cornelius, Kay. «Biography of Edgar Allan Poe», Bloom’s BioCritiques:
Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Harold Bloom, Philadelphia: Chelsea House
Publishers, 2002. p. 14 HYPERLINK
061736» ISBN 0791061736

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-20» \o «» ^
Meyers, 54–55

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-21» \o «» ^
Hecker, William J. Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West Point Poems.
Louisiana State University Press, 2005. pp. 49–51

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-22» \o «» ^
Meyers, 50–51

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-23» \o «» ^
Hecker, William J. Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West Point Poems.
Louisiana State University Press, 2005. pp. 53–54

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-24» \o «» ^
Quinn, 187–188

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-25» \o «» ^
Whalen, 64

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Quinn305_0» \o «»
a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Quinn305_1» \o
«» b Quinn, 305

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-26» \o «» ^
Silverman, 247

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-27» \o «» ^
Whalen, 74

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-28» \o «» ^
Silverman, 99

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-29» \o «» ^
Whalen, 82

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-30» \o «» ^
Meyers, 139

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-31» \o «» ^ Sova,

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-32» \o «» ^ Sova,

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-33» \o «» ^
Meyers, 73

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-34» \o «» ^
Meyers, 85

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-35» \o «» ^
Silverman, 124

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-36» \o «» ^
Meyers, 113

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-37» \o «» ^ Sova,
39, 99

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-38» \o «» ^
Meyers, 119

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-39» \o «» ^
Silverman, 159

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-40» \o «» ^
Silverman, 179

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Sova34_0» \o «»
a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Sova34_1» \o «»
b Sova, 34

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-41» \o «» ^
Quinn, 455

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-42» \o «» ^
Hoffman, 80

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-43» \o «» ^
Ostrom, John Ward. «Edgar A. Poe: His Income as Literary Entrepreneur»,
Poe Studies 5.1 (1982): 5

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Poe_Cottage_0» \o
«» a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_ref-Poe_Cottage_1» \o «» b HYPERLINK
«http://www.bronxhistoricalsociety.org/about/poecottage.html» \o
«http://www.bronxhistoricalsociety.org/about/poecottage.html» Edgar
Allan Poe Cottage . Bronx Historical Society. Retrieved on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007» \o «2007» 2007 — HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_13» \o «October 13» 10-13 .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-44» \o «» ^
Weekes, Karen. «Poe’s feminine ideal,» The Cambridge Companion to Edgar
Allan Poe, Ed. Kevin J. Hayes. Cambridge University Press, 2002. p. 149.
797276» ISBN 0521797276

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-45» \o «» ^
Benton, Richard P. «Friends and Enemies: Women in the Life of Edgar
Allan Poe», Myths and Reality: The Mysterious Mr. Poe. Baltimore: Edgar
Allan Poe Society, 1987. p. 19 HYPERLINK
644915» ISBN 0961644915

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-46» \o «» ^
Quinn, 628

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-47» \o «» ^
Quinn, 638

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Meyers255_0» \o
«» a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Meyers255_1»
\o «» b Meyers, 255

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-48» \o «» ^
Silverman, 374

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-49» \o «» ^
Silverman, 435

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-50» \o «» ^
Meyers, 259. To read Griswold’s full obituary, see HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Death_of_Edgar_Allan_Poe» \o
«wikisource:Death_of_Edgar_Allan_Poe» Edgar Allan Poe obituary at

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Hoffman14_0» \o
«» a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Hoffman14_1»
\o «» b Hoffman, 14

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-51» \o «» ^ Sova,

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-52» \o «» ^
Meyers, 263

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-53» \o «» ^
Quinn, 669

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-54» \o «» ^
Kagle, Steven E. «The Corpse Within Us», Poe and His Times: The Artist
and His Milieu, Ed. Benjamin Franklin Fisher IV. Baltimore: The Edgar
Allan Poe Society, Inc., 1990. p. 104 HYPERLINK
644923» ISBN 0961644923

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-55» \o «» ^
Wilbur, Richard. «The House of Poe,» Poe: A Collection of Critical
Essays, Ed. Robert Regan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1967. p. 99

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-56» \o «» ^
Jannaccone, Pasquale (translated by Peter Mitilineos). » HYPERLINK
«http://www.eapoe.org/pstudies/ps1970/p1974101.htm» \o
«http://www.eapoe.org/pstudies/ps1970/p1974101.htm» The Aesthetics of
Edgar Poe ,» Poe Studies 7.1 (1974): 3.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-57» \o «» ^
Krutch, 225

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-58» \o «» ^
Hoffman, 76

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-59» \o «» ^
Krutch, 98

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-60» \o «» ^
Edward Hungerford. «Poe and Phrenology,» American Literature 1 (1930):

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-61» \o «» ^ Erik
Grayson. «Weird Science, Weirder Unity: Phrenology and Physiognomy in
Edgar Allan Poe» Mode 1 (2005): 56–77.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-62» \o «» ^
Kennedy, J. Gerald. Poe, Death, and the Life of Writing. Yale University
Press, 1987. p3. HYPERLINK
037732» ISBN 0300037732

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-63» \o «» ^
Fisher, Benjamin F.. «»Poe and the Gothic Tradition»». The Cambridge
Companion to Edgar Allan Poe: 72. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.  His only contribution to the genre was in shifting from a focus
on terror as entertainment to a more sophisticated attempt at eliciting
a psychological response in the reader.Fisher, Benjamin F.. «»Poe and
the Gothic Tradition»». The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe: 78.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-64» \o «» ^ Poe,
Edgar Allan. » HYPERLINK
«http://www.eapoe.org/works/CRITICSM/GLB47HN1.HTM» \o
«http://www.eapoe.org/works/CRITICSM/GLB47HN1.HTM» Tale-Writing —
Nathaniel Hawthorne «. Godey’s Lady’s Book. (November 1847): 252–56.
Retrieved on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_3» \o
«March 3» 3 March HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007» \o
«2007» 2007 .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-65» \o «» ^
Meyers, 258

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-66» \o «» ^
Harner, Gary Wayne. «Edgar Allan Poe in France: Baudelaire’s Labor of
Love», Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu, Ed. Benjamin
Franklin Fisher IV. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe Society, 1990. p.
644923» ISBN 0961644923

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-67» \o «» ^ Poe
Encyclopedia, 103

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-68» \o «» ^
Neimeyer, Mark. «Poe and Popular Culture,» Ed. The Cambridge Companion
to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge University Press, 2002. HYPERLINK
797276» ISBN 0521797276 p. 206

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-69» \o «» ^ Poe
Encyclopedia, 364

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-70» \o «» ^ Poe
Encyclopedia, 372

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-71» \o «» ^
Meyers, 281

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-72» \o «» ^
Carlson, Eric Walter (1996). HYPERLINK
dIup0» \o
lizzie+doten%22+poe A Companion to Poe Studies . Westport, Connecticut:
Greenwood Press, 476. HYPERLINK
265062» ISBN 0-313-26506-2 . 

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-73» \o «» ^
Meyers, 274

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-74» \o «» ^
Silverman, 265

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-75» \o «» ^
Huxley, Aldous. «Vulgarity in Literature,» Poe: A Collection of Critical
Essays, Ed. Robert Regan, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.,
1967. p. 32

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-76» \o «» ^
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Smoot» \o «George Smoot»
Smoot, George and Keay Davidson. Wrinkles in Time. Harper Perennial,
Reprint edition (October 1, 1994) HYPERLINK
720442» ISBN 0-380-72044-2

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Meyers214_0» \o
«» a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Meyers214_1»
\o «» b Meyers, 214

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-77» \o «» ^
Silverman, 399

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-78» \o «» ^
Meyers, 219

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-79» \o «» ^ Sova,

^ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-Silverman152_0»
\o «» a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_ref-Silverman152_1» \o «» b Silverman, 152

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-80» \o «» ^
Rosenheim, 2, 6

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-81» \o «» ^
Friedman, William F. «Edgar Allan Poe, Cryptographer», On Poe: The Best
from «American Literature». Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1993. p.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-82» \o «» ^
Rosenheim, 15

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-83» \o «» ^
Rosenheim, 146

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-84» \o «» ^ Hall,
le=1&cat=breaking» \o
le=1&cat=breaking» Poe Fan Takes Credit for Grave Legend ,» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Associated_Press» \o «Associated Press»
Associated Press , August 15, 2007.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-85» \o «» ^
Associated Press (August 15, 2007). HYPERLINK
«http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,293413,00.html» \o
«http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,293413,00.html» Man Reveals Legend
of Mystery Visitor to Edgar Allan Poe’s Grave . FoxNews.com. Retrieved
on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007» \o «2007» 2007 —
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_15» \o «December 15»
12-15 .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-86» \o «» ^
Neimeyer, Mark. «Poe and Popular Culture,» The Cambridge Companion to
Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge University Press, 2002. HYPERLINK
797276» ISBN 0521797276 p. 209

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-87» \o «» ^
Gargano, James W. «The Question of Poe’s Narrators,» Poe: A Collection
of Critical Essays, Ed. Robert Regan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967. p. 165

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-88» \o «» ^
Maslin, Janet. » HYPERLINK
«http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/06/06/features/bookwed.php» \o
«http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/06/06/features/bookwed.php» The Poe
Shadow «, International Herald Tribune, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006» \o «2006» 2006 — HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_6» \o «June 6» 06-06 . Retrieved on
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007» \o «2007» 2007 —
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_13» \o «October 13»
10-13 . 

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-89» \o «» ^
HYPERLINK «http://www.uvaravensociety.com/» \o
«http://www.uvaravensociety.com/» Raven Society Homepage . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Virginia» \o «University of
Virginia» University of Virginia . Retrieved on HYPERLINK
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HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007» \o «2007» 2007 .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-90» \o «» ^
Burns, Niccole. » HYPERLINK
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«http://com.miami.edu/parks/philapoeauthor.htm» Poe wrote most
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2006 — HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_15» \o
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«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007» \o «2007» 2007 — HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_13» \o «October 13» 10-13 . 

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-91» \o «» ^ Van
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739060» ISBN 1-4027-3906-0

General references

Foye, Raymond (editor) (1980). The Unknown Poe, Paperback ed., San
Francisco, CA: City Lights. HYPERLINK
861104» ISBN 0872861104 . 

Frank, Fredierck S.; Anthony Magistrale (1997). The Poe Encyclopedia.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. HYPERLINK
277680» ISBN 0313277680 . 

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Hoffman» \o «Daniel
Hoffman» Hoffman, Daniel (1998). Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe,
Paperback ed., Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press.
123218» ISBN 0807123218 . 

Krutch, Joseph Wood (1926). Edgar Allan Poe: A Study in Genius. New
York: Alfred A. Knopf. 

Meyers, Jeffrey (1992). Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy, Paperback
ed., New York: Cooper Square Press. HYPERLINK
410387» ISBN 0815410387 . 

Quinn, Arthur Hobson (1941). Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography. New
York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.. HYPERLINK
857309» ISBN 0801857309 . 

Rosenheim, Shawn James (1997). The Cryptographic Imagination: Secret
Writing from Edgar Poe to the Internet. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press. HYPERLINK
801853326» ISBN 9780801853326 . 

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_Silverman» \o «Kenneth
Silverman» Silverman, Kenneth (1991). Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and
Never-ending Remembrance, Paperback ed., New York: Harper Perennial.
923318» ISBN 0060923318 . 

Sova, Dawn B. (2001). Edgar Allan Poe: A to Z, Paperback ed., New York:
Checkmark Books. HYPERLINK
04161X» ISBN 081604161X . 

Whalen, Terence. «Poe and the American Publishing Industry», as
collected in A Historical Guide to Edgar Allan Poe. Oxford University
Press, 2001. HYPERLINK
121503» ISBN 0195121503

External links

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