В’язко-пружна анізотропія полімерних високоорієнтованих волокон: Автореф. дис… канд. фіз.-мат. наук / О.С. Свечнікова, Київ. ун-т ім. Т.Шевченка. —

2

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Naa/i?eiaa Ienaia Na?a??aia

OAeE 541.64:539.199

A’ssCEI-I?OAEIA AI?CIO?II?ss

IIE?IA?IEO AENIEII???IOIAAIEO AIEIEII

01.04.14 – oaieio?ceea oa iieaeoey?ia o?ceea

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Caaaooa TH??e Oaaein?eiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iieaeoey?ii? o?ceee

o?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Oa?ai ?aaai TH??eiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e caaaeueii? iaoaiaoeee

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea;

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Caaieioiee Aieiaeeie? Oaaei?iae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?ceee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I. Eioethaeinueeiai

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?.Ia/i?eiaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 12 ” _aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14.30 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.08 i?e Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252 127, i. Ee?a,
i?iniaeo Aeooeiaa, 6, o?ce/iee oaeoeueoao, aoae. 500.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_10_”_aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

i?ioani?
E.A.Iiia?aiei

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??. Iaei??th c iaea?eueo iii?oieo
aeanoeainoae iie?ia??a ? caeaoi?noue ooai?thaaoe ie?aee oa aieieia, ye?
yaeythoue niaith no?oeoo?e ?c /?oei ae?aaeaiith ai?cio?ii??th.
Iaea?eueoi? nooiai? ai?cio?ii?? aaea?oueny aeinyaoe aeey
aenieii???ioiaaieo iie?ia?ieo aieieii (AIA). A oeueiio aeiaaeeo in?
iie?ia?ieo eaioetha?a ?icoaoiaothoueny i?aeoe/ii ia?aeaeueii. Oey
ianoaaeia ?iaeoue AIA aeoaea c?o/ieie iiaeaeueieie ia’?eoaie aeey
ia?aa??ee o?ce/ieo oai??e, ye? iienothoue i?e?ineii?/i? i?ioeane a
iie?ia?ao. Uia aeei?enoaoe AIA aeey oe??? iaoe, iaiao?aeii iaoe iiaio
ea?oeio a‘ycei-i?oaeii? ai?cio?ii??, oiaoi ciaoe an? eiiiiiaioe oaici?a
iiaeaoeeaino?. Iaeiae, a aeaiee /an aeinoia??ii aei??th?oueny o?eueee
iicaeiaaeiy eiiiiiaioa oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino? AIA. Iaeee ae?aiao? aieieia
( 10 iei) ia aeicaiey? cae?enieoe i?yi? aei??thaaiiy iiia?a/ieo
eiiiiiaio oeueiai oaici?a. E?oa?aoo?i? aeai? cia/aiue iiia?a/ieo
eiiiiiaio aeey AIA ? ia cian?i iaei?aeoieie, ai a?oioothoueny ia
iiaeeeaino? iioe?aiiy cnoaieo oaeeue o AIA. Oaeei /eiii, ai?cio?ii?y AIA
i?aeoe/ii ia aea/aeanue. Oiio e ia aoei iiaeeeaino? aea/aoe
i?e?ineii?/i? i?ioeane, ui eaaeaoue a iniia? a’ycei-i?oaeii? ai?cio?ii??
aeaieo ia’?eo?a. I?eaaaeai? a?aoiaioe aeicaieythoue aaaaeaoe aea/aiiy
a’ycei-i?oaeii? ai?cio?ii?? AIA aeooaeueiith iaoeiaith ? i?aeoe/ii
cia/ouith i?iaeaiith.

Ca‘ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue a ?aieao eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie “Eiiaeainiaaiee
noai – iniiae iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e”, aoiaey/e a ieaiia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaai?aoi??? “O?ceea iie?ia??a” eaoaae?e iieaeoey?ii?
o?ceee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ii oai?
“?aeaenaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? iie?ia?ieo nenoai i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao;
no?oeoo?i?, iioe/i? oa aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? iie?ia??a ?c ni?yaeaieie
iaiane/aieie ca’yceaie” (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0197U003111).

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaaea a oiio, uia iaea?aeaoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? cia/aiiy
eiiiiiaio oaici?a a‘ycei-i?oaeii? iiaeaoeeaino? AIA oa aeei?enoaoe oe?
aeai? aeey io?eiaiiy iiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i no?oeoo?o ? oaieiaee ?oo a
caaaeaieo ia‘?eoao, a naia: ciaoiaeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a i???ioaoe?eiiai
ii?yaeeo o AIA; aecia/aiiy iaoai?cio naaiaioaeueii? ?ooeeaino?;
aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a, ui aecia/athoue ai?cio?ii?th oaieiaeo
oeoeooaoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa:

· ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aecia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio ae?enii? oa oyaii?
/anoei oaici?a eiiieaenii? iiaeaoeeaino? AIA, ui a?oioo?oueny ia
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo ca aeiiiiiaith e?ooeeueiiai
iayoieea;

· ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo iaea?aeaii oaiia?aoo?i?
caeaaeiino? ae?enii? oa oyaii? /anoei aieiaieo eiiiiiaio S11, S12, S44,
S66 oaici?a i?oaeii? iiaeaoeeaino? aeey III-aieieii e?aoi?noth
aeoyaoaaiiy 10, 11 ? II-aieieii e?aoi?noth aeoyaoaaiiy 8 a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? 130 370 E ia /anoio? 1 Aoe;

· aecia/aii ia?aiao?e i???ioaoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo aenieii???ioiaaieo
III-aieieii ia iniia? eiioeioaeueii? iiaeae? AIA, ui a?aoiao? ?aaeuei?
cia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino? AIA;

· ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ?aeaenaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a AIA, ui
a?oioo?oueny ia oai??? ?aeaenaoi??a ? neeaaea?oueny c aeaio aoai?a: ia
ia?oiio – ca aeonoe/ieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie aecia/athoueny
eiioeaio?aoe?y ?aeaenaoi??a, ia’?i oa ?ioa?aae aia?a?e ?aeaenaoi?a; ia
ae?oaiio – ca oaiia?aoo?ieie caeaaeiinoyie oyaii? /anoeie aieiaieo
eiiiiiaio oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino? aecia/athoueny i???ioaoe?ei? ia?aiao?e
?aeaenaoi?a – oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?ini?aea aeaoi?iaoe??;

· iaea?aeaii cia/aiiy eiiiiiaio oaici?a oaieiaeo
na?aaeiuei-eaaae?aoe/ieo oeoeooaoe?e aeaoi?iaoe?? aeey
aenieii???ioiaaieo III-aieieii a iaeano? neeoaaiiy;

· ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue i?e?ineii?/iiai iaoai?cio naaiaioaeueiiai ?ooo a
iaeano? neeoaaiiy aeey AIA; aeiaaaeaii, ui a aeaiaioa?iiio aeo?
naaiaioaeueiiai ?ooo i?eeia? o/anoue aeaa naaiaioe.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a
i?e aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio
ae?enii? oa oyaii? /anoei oaici?a eiiieaenii? iiaeaoeeaino? AIA, ? o
aeei?enoaii? oeueiai iaoiaeo aeey aiae?co i?e?ineii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a
a’ycei-i?oaeii? ai?cio?ii?? AIA. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe
canoiniaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy AIA oa
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia ?o iniia?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii naiino?eii i?iaaaeai? eiiieaeni?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?aooiee a’ycei-i?oaeii?
ai?cio?ii?? aenieii???ioiaaieo III- oa II- aieieii oa ni?eueii c
ni?aaaoi?aie i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia oaeeo
eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao: ia I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiiceoi? “Advances in
Structured and Heterogeneous Conitinua” (na?iaiue 22-26, 1993, Iineaa);
? Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “No?oeoo?a ? o?ce/i? aeanoeaino?
iaaii?yaeeiaaieo nenoai” (aeiaoaiue 12-16, 1993, Euea?a); ??
Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueii?
? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/. o?ceee” (o?aaaiue 24-25, 1995, Ee?a); ???
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ooiaeaiaioaeueia oa i?ioan?eia
i?aeaioiaea oao?aoe?a c o?ceee”; naeoe. “O?ceei-o?i?y eiiaeainiaaieo
no?oeoo?ii-iaiaeii??aeieo nenoai” (o?aaaiue 27-28, 1998, Ee?a);
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiiiiceoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu a i?iiuoeaiiinoe”
(NEAAIIEEEII-98) (aa?acaiue 3-5, 1998, Neaanueea); ? I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “?aeaenaoe?ei? yaeua eiiaeainiaaiiai noaio ?a/iaeie“
(aa?anaiue 15-16, 1998, Iieoaaa).

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, 4 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?
aeiaeaoeo. Caaaeueiee ia’?i aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 108 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 73 ?enoiee, aeeth/ath/e 25
?enoie?a a aeiaeaoeo, oa 3 oaaeeoe?. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e iae?/o? 135
iaeiaioaaiue.

ei?ioeee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iiaea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.
Cie?aia, iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iieacaia
aeooaeuei?noue oaie, oi?ioeththoueny iaoa oa caaea/? ?iaioe. I?ney
noeneiai aiae?co iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ye? aa?eoee aei aeena?oaoe??,
a?aecia/aii ?o iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy; aeacaii ia
ioae?eaoe?? caeiaoaa/a, a yeeo oe? ?acoeueoaoe a?aeia?aaeaii, ?
a?aecia/aii iniaenoee aianie a ?iaioao ?c ni?aaaoi?aie. Oaeiae
iaaiaeyoueny aeai? i?i ca‘ycie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie
i?ia?aiaie, ui aeeiiothoueny a onoaiia? caeiaoaa/a, aeai? i?i
ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, i?enay/aieo
oai?aoe/iei oa aenia?eiaioaeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi a‘ycei-i?oaeii?
ai?cio?ii?? iie?ia??a. Ei?ioei ?icaeyioo? iniiae oaiiiaiieia?/ii? oai???
?o a‘ycei-i?oaeieo aeanoeainoae. Aeeeaaeaii iai?aoaiiiaiieia?/io oai??th
?aeaenaoi??a, ui a?oioo?oueny ia oyaeaiiyo i?i aeoeaaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?
?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o iie?ia?ao. I?iaiae?ciaai? i?e?ineii?/i?
iaoai?cie ?ooo ?aeaenaoi??a a iie?ia?ao ?c canoiniaoaaiiyi eiioeaioe??
aeaoaeo?a. ?icaeyiooi iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a‘ycei-i?oaeii? ai?cio?ii?? i???ioiaaieo iie?ia??a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienai? aoaeiaa ? i?eioeei ?iaioe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
onoaiiaie e?ooeeueiiai iaa?iaiiai iayoieea oa aeonoe/iiai
?ioa?oa?iiao?a. Iaaaaeaiee aeieeaaeiee aiae?c iioeaie aei??thaaiiy.
Noia?i? a?aeiini? iioeaee aei??thaaiiy aaee/ei: ia iiaea?eiiio
e?ooeeueiiio iayoieeo – aeey aeae?aiaioo caoooaiue–3%, aeey ae?enieo
eiiiiiaio iiaeaoeeaino? 5%, aeey oyaieo–8%; ia aeonoe/iiio
?ioa?oa?iiao?? – aeey oaeaeeino? caoeo 0,2%, eiao?oe??ioa iiaeeiaiiy 4%,
aeey ae?enii? /anoeie iicaeiaaeiuei? eiiiiiaioe oaici?a
iiaeaoeeaino?–4%, aeey oyaii?–5%. Iaaaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea ia‘?eo?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy – aenieii???ioiaaieo iie?ien?iaoeeaiiaeo (III) oa
iie?i?ii?eaiiaeo (II) aieieii oa niin?a i?eaiooaaiiy c?ace?a aeey
aei??thaaiue.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaia ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy aieiaieo
eiiiiiaio oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino? AIA, ui a?oioo?oueny ia
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo ca aeiiiiiaith e?ooeeueiiai
iayoieea, oa iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii? ai?iaaoe?? oeueiai
iaoiaeo aeey III- oa II-aieieii.

Aeey iie?ia??a ye a‘ycei-i?oaeieo na?aaeiaeu oaici? a‘ycei-i?oaeii?
iiaeaoeeaino? S*jklm aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi. Aeey i???ioiaaieo
iie?ia?ieo aieieii, ye? i?eeiyoi ?icaeyaeaoe ye ai?cio?iiia na?aaeiaeua,
ui ia? inueiao neiao??th, eiiiiiaioe oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino? o
aeaio?iaeaenieo iicia/aiiyo iathoue aeaeyae

(1)

Iaoae a?nue aieieia ni?aiaaea? c a?nnth 33. Oiae? eiiiiiaioa S33
iaceaa?oueny iicaeiaaeiueith, S11, S12, S44 – iiia?a/ieie eiiiiiaioaie
oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino?. Aeey aiae?co a’ycei-i?oaeii? ai?cio?ii?? o?aaa
ciaoe an? eiiiiiaioe oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino?. Ia nueiaiaei? ia ?nio?
i?yiiai niiniao aecia/aiiy S11, S12, S44 aeey aenieii???ioiaaieo
aieieii. Oiio aoa ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae ?o aecia/aiiy.

Ine?eueee S*jklm ? oaici?ii /aoaa?oiai ?aiao, a?aeiia?aeii i?e
ia?aoai?aii? eii?aeeiao eiiiiiaioe eiai ci?iththoueny ca?aeii
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy

(2)

aea i’,i — a?n? aeaio nenoai aeaea?oiaeo eii?aeeiao (“oo?eoiaaii?” –
eaai?aoi?ii? oa “iaoo?eoiaaii?” — o?ce/ii?), — eineion eooa i?ae a?nyie
wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A
???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyya???†?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aii eiiiiceoi?
c?acee, ye? neeaaeathoueny c iie?ia?ii? iao?eoe? oa AIA. Oaoiieia?y
iaea?aeaiiy oaeeo iie?ia?-iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoieo ie?aie iienaia a
?icae?e? 2. I/aaeaeii, ui iaei??th c inae o?ce/ii? nenoaie eii?aeeiao ?
a?nue, ia?aeaeueia iai?yieia? aieieii o eiiiiceo? (aoaeaii iicia/aoe
oeth a?nue ye 3). C?acee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ia e?ooeeueiiio iayoieeo
cae/aeii iathoue oi?io nioaeee. Aaaaeaii iicia/aiiy: 3’ – a?nue,
ia?aeaeueia aeiaaeei? c?acea l, 2’ – oe?ei? 2b, 1’ – oiauei? 2a. C?acee
ae??coaaeenue oaeei /eiii, ui ?o aeiaaeeia l (a?nue 3’) ooai?thaaea eooe
oei= 00, 300, 450, 600, 900 aei iai?yieo aieieii (a?nue 3). C
aenia?eiaioo io?eioaaeenue oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? e?ooeeueii?
aei?noeino? N*, yea, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e a‘ycei-i?oaeio i?e?iaeo
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia‘?eo?a, aoiaeeoue o ??aiyiiy ?ooo e?ooeeueiiai
iayoieea ? aeey aeiaaeeo ocaaaeueiaiiai e?oo?iiy ai?cio?iiiiai noa?aeiy
c ae?ioe/iei ia?a??cii ia? aeaeyae

Ia?aoiaey/e aei aoaeoeaii? iiaeaoeeaino? A*, iaea?aeeii

(3)

?aeay aecia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo aieiaieo eiiiiiaio oaici?a S*jklm
a?oioo?oueny ia canoinoaaii? oi?ioee (2). Aeei?enoiaoth/e cia/aiiy
eiiiiiaio iao?eoe? , i?e iicia/aii? Cos(3’,3) = , ca?aeii c oi?ioeith
(2) aeey aeiaaeeo inueiai? neiao??? caieno?ii

(4)

(5)

I?aenoaaeyth/e (4)-(5) o (3), c o?aooaaiiyi aenieii???ioiaiino?
iaea?aeo?ii aeey eiiieaenii? iiaeaoeeaino? A* iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoieo
ie?aie ia iniia? AIA

(6)

Nenoaia (6) ?ica’yco?oueny i?e oiia? iiceoeaii? aecia/aiino? iao?eoe?
Sjk

(7)

?ica’ycoth/e nenoaio (6) c o?aooaaiiyi (7) iaoiaeii eaac???oaiue,
iaea?aeo?ii ooeai? iiia?a/i? eiiiiiaioe oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino? iie?ia?ieo
eiiiiceoieo ie?aie ia iniia? AIA.

Aecia/aiiy cia/aiue ae?enii? /anoeie iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio oaici?a
iiaeaoeeaino? aieieii a?oiooaaeiny ia oiio, ui cia/aiiy eiiiiiaio
oaici?a S (a oai??? i?oaeiino? eiiiiceoieo iaoa??ae?a — oaici?
aoaeoeaii? iiaeaoeeaino?), iiaeii? caaeiaieueiyoe oae caai?e aeeoe?
Oeeea

(8)

aea S- oaici? iiaeaoeeainoe a’yaeo/iai, S- oaici? iiaeaoeeaino? aieieia,
V- ia’?iia eiioeaio?aoe?y a’yaeo/iai o eiiiiceo? (aeey aeine?aeaeoaaieo
ia’?eo?a V=0,1). C (8) io?eioaaany ?ioa?aae cia/aiue aeey eiaeii? c
eiiiiiaio oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino? aieieia. Ca cia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeii?
eiiiiiaioe i?eeiaeanue na?aaeeia oeueiai ?ioa?aaeo. Aeei?enoaiee iaoiae
?ic?aooieo aaee/ei S’ iniiaaiee ia oiio oaeo?, ui aeeea Oeeea
aeyaey?oueny aocueeith – ii?yaeeo iioeaee aenia?eiaioo. Ine?eueee oe?eia
aeeee i i?iii?oe?eia V, oi i?e aeaioiaeaii? c?ace?a iaiao?aeii i?yioaaoe
aei i?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy V, yea ? aoei ?aae?ciaaii a aeaiiio
aenia?eiaio?.

Cia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio oyaii? /anoeie oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino?
aieieii aoee io?eiai? ianooiiei /eiii: ine?eueee ?aeaenaoe?ei? iaeneioie
IN-iao?eoe? oa aieieii cnoioo? iaeia a?aeiinii iaeii? ii oaiia?aoo?i?e
oeae?, oea aeicaiey?, ae?aooaaaoe oii ?c caaaeueieo cia/aiue oyaii?
eiiiiiaioe oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino? eiiiiceoo, io?eiaoe oaiia?aoo?io
caeaaei?noue a?aeiia?aeii? aaee/eie aeey aieieia.

?en. 1. Oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? aieiaieo eiiiiiaio ae?enii? (?en.A) oa
oyaii? (?en. A) /anoeie oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino? aeey III-aieieii
(e?aoi?noue aeoyaoaaiiy 11)

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c i?e?ineii?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui
eaaeaoue a iniia? ai?cio?ii?? AIA, ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo.

A ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? /aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo ?icaeyiooee iaoiae aecia/aiiy
ia?aiao??a i???ioaoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo a AIA. Ia i?e?ineii?/iiio ??ai?
a‘ycei-i?oaeia ai?cio?ii?y i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? aeieeiaiiy
i???ioaoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo, yeee i?eeiyoi iienoaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith
eiioeioaeueii? iiaeae?, aea oii?yaeeiaai?noue iieno?oueny aeiaaeeiaei
iieai, aea wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??”?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u@th??????(9)

Iiia?aaei? aeine?aeieee (Iice?, Oi?ae oa ?i.), aaaaeath/e, ui

(10)

(aea wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy???ae?? ???&? ?MathType??`????u
y??????Iaeiae, i?yi? aei??e aaee/ei S1’1’ oa S4’4’ aeey AIA o aeai?e
?iaio? (?icae. 3) ia i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?aaii??i?noue i?eiouaiue (10).
Aeei?enoaaoe ?ioee i?aeo?ae a iiaeae? (cai?noue ni?anoaaeaiiy aeonoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee i???ioiaaiiai aieieia c a?aeiia?aeieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
iai???ioiaaiiai ni?anoaaeyoe oaeaeeino? caoeo a i???ioiaaiiio aieiei? c
a?aeiia?aeieie oaeaeeinoyie o aieiei?, aeecueeiio aei a?aie/ii
aeinyaeii? e?aoiino? aeoyaoaaiiy) oa a?aooaaaoe ?aaeuei? cia/aiiy
iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio oaici?a a‘ycei-i?oaeii? iiaeaoeeaino? S1’1’ oa
S4’4’, iaea?aeaieo ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai iaie iaoiaeo, aoee
io?eiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee i???ioaoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo aeey III-aieieii, ye?
i?aaenoaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1.

Cia/aiiy p, ?ic?aoiaai? iaoiaeii iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeiee?a, aeyaeeeeenue
iaaaaaoi iaio? ca cia/aiiy, iaea?aeai? ca iaoiaeii, yeee i?iiiio?oueny a
aeai?e ?iaio?. Oaeei /eiii, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue
iieacaii, ui aeey e?aoiino? aeoyaoaaiiy iie?ia?ieo aieieii, ii/eiath/e c
7, eaioethae ?icoaoiaothoueny i?aeoe/ii ia?aeaeueii iaeei iaeiiio, oiaoi
aeinyaathoue a?aie/ii? ai?cio?ii??.

Oaaeeoey 1

E?aoi?noue aeoyaoaaiiy

Iicaeiaaeiy iiaeaoeea?noue,

Ia-1Ia?aiao? i???ioaoe?eiiai ii?yaeeowmetafile8? ??iiia?aaei?o

aeine?aeiee?aaeaii? ?iaioe1wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??P????uath??????A ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? /aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo
?icaeyiooi iaoai?ci naaiaioaeueii? ?ooeeaino?. Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo
ieoaiue iieaeoey?ii? o?ceee iie?ia??a ? ieoaiiy i?i iaoai?ci oaieiaiai
?ooo a iaeano? neeoaaiiy (-?aeaenaoe?y), a ye?e aeieea? niaoeeo?/ia aeey
iie?ia??a ?ooeea?noue eaioetha?a, caaaeyee ye?e aiie ci?iththoue nai?
eiioi?iaoe??, ia?aoiaey/e a?ae cai?iooeo (eeoaeiiiae?aieo) aei
aei?yieaieo — naaiaioaeueia ?ooeea?noue. Naia oeae iaoai?ci, ye
iaea?eueo a??ia?aeiee, iaoiiaeth? aeieeiaiiy i???ioaoe??, a, cia/eoue, ?
ai?cio?ii?th ??ciiiai?oieo aeanoeainoae iie?ia??a, a oiio /ene? ?
a‘ycei-i?oaeieo. Iae?ineii?/iei i?iyaii oaieiai? iieaeoey?ii? ?ooeeaino?
? ??ci? ?aeaenaoe?ei? i?ioeane, ia?aaaaeia e?euee?noue yeeo a iie?ia?ao
ia? aeoeaaoe?eio i?e?iaeo. Canoiniaoth/e aei aiae?co oeeo yaeu oai??th
?aeaenaoi??a (ca?aeii yei? iie?ia? – noeoii?noue iacaeaaeieo
iaaca?iiae?th/eo e?iaoe/ieo i?aenenoai (?aeaenaoi??a), eiaeia c yeeo
iiaea ciaoiaeeoenue a aeaio aia?aaoe/ieo noaiao ? ia?aoiaeeoe c iaeiiai
iieiaeaiiy a ?ioa ca ?aooiie aeoeaaoe?eiiai no?eaea c iiaeieaiiyi
aia?aaoe/iiai aa?‘??o), iaea?aeo?ii iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe a?aeiia?aeue
ia ieoaiiy: ne?eueee naaiaio?a i?eeia? o/anoue a aeaiaioa?iiio aeo?
ia?ai?uaiiy i?e -?aeaenaoe?? oa yeee eiie?aoii iaoai?ci ?ooo oeeo oeeo
naaiaio?a.

O aeiaaeeo e?i?eiiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio (yeee ?aae?co?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith aeonoe/iiai aenia?eiaioo i?e noi?ni?e ae?? aeonoe/iiai oa
noaoe/iiai iie?a) a oai??? ?aeaenaoi??a aeey cai?ci?ei? (?aeaenaoe?eii?)
iiaeaoeeaino? iaea?aeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy

(11)

aea W — ?ioa?aae aia?a?e ?aeaenaoi?a i?e, aea W0 – ??cieoey ??ai?a
aia?a?? o a?aenooiino? noaoe/iiai iiey, qi — i?e iaaaioaaeaii?; V –
ia‘?i ?aeaenaoi?a, n – eiioeaio?aoe?y ?aeaenaoi??a, , h- oaici?
??cieoeue aeaoi?iaoe?e ?aeaenaoi?a, aai h-oaici?. I?e oeueiio i?ae
?aeaenaoi?ii ?icoi??oueny iaeanoue, a ye?e anoaiiaeth?oueny eieaeueia
??aiiaaaa ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?ioeano, yeee aecaaiee ia?aoiaeii
e?iaoe/ii? iaeeieoe? /a?ac aa?’??.

Iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ?aeaenaoe?eieo i???ioaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a AIA
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio aoai?a. Ia ia?oiio aoai? aecia/athoueny
?aeaenaoe?ei? ia?aiao?e W, n, V ca aeiiiiiaith aeonoe/iiai aenia?eiaioo
– iaea?aeaiiy caeaaeiino? S a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ca aeiiiiiaith aei??thaaiiy
oaeaeeino? oeueo?acaoeo N oa eiao?oe??ioa iiaeeiaiiy i?e ??cieo
noaoe/ieo iai?oaao ia aac? aeonoe/iiai ?ioa?oa?iiao?a. Ae?oaee aoai
iia’ycaiee aaciina?aaeiuei ?c aecia/aiiyi eiiiiiaio wmetafile8?
?????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? aA???&??yyyy?????Ayyy*yyy???·?? ???&?
?MathType??0????u@th??????(12)

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aecia/aiiy ?aeaenaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a aeey
aenieii???ioiaaieo III oa II aieieii, iaea?aeai? ca aeiiiiiaith
aeonoe/iiai ?ioa?oa?iiao?a ia aac? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aei??thaaiiy
S33(T) oa e?ooeeueiiai iayoieea ca iaoiaeii, ?ic?iaeaiei iaie ? iienaiei
aeua, iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 2.

Oaaeeoey 2

Ia?aiao?e ?aeaenaoe?eiiai -i?ioeano aeey aenieii???ioiaaieo III oa
II-aieieii

Ia’?eoEiioeaio?aoe?y

?aeaenaoi??a,

n , i-3Ia’?i ?aeaena-oi?a, V, i3?ioa?aae aia?a?e ?aeaenaoi?a,

W, AeaeI???ioaoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?aeaenaoi?ah11h33eII1,13 10272,6 10-285,3
10-210.78-0.17130III0,8 10272,5 10-286,2 10-21-0.220.08130

C oaaeeoe? aeaeii, ui, ii-ia?oa, ia‘?i ?aeaenaoi?a, ye aeey III, oae ?
aeey II, oaeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee ? aei??aith? i?eaeecii ia‘?io aeaio
oei???anueeeo naaiaio?a, ye? ooai?ai? ae?eyieaie ni??ae?, a?aieoeyie
yeeo ? o?ain-?ciia?e neaeaoieo a‘ycae. Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie: a aeaiaioa?iiio aeo? naaiaioaeueii? ?ooeeaino? i?eeia?
o/anoue aeaa naaiaioe, a ia 50-100, ye oea aaaaeaeinue ?ai?oa.

Ii-ae?oaa, iaea?aeai? aieiai? eiiiiiaioe h-oaici?a ?aeaenaoi?a iathoue
??ci? ciaee, oiaoi iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui a?aeiia?aei? h-oaici?o
ae?ini?aee aeaoi?iaoe?? (a 1 oa 2 aia?aaoe/iiio noaiao) aoaeooue
?icoaoiaai? ianooiiei /eiii: ine?eueee, h-oaici? ? ??cieoeath oaici??a
aeaoi?iaoe?? ?aeaenaoi?a a iaio iieiaeaiiyo, oi aeacaia iniaeea?noue
h-oaici?a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ae?ini?aee a?aeiia?aeieo oaici??a
aeaoi?iaoe?? i???ioiaai? oae, ye oea iieacaii ia ?enoieo 2, aea e?oa?ith
a iicia/aiee ?enoiie, aea cia?aaeaii iai?yiie inae eaioetha?a, ia
?enoieao a oa a iieacaii ae?ini?aee aeaoi?iaoe?? a ia?oiio oa ae?oaiio
iieiaeaiiyo ?aeaenaoi?a. Ia ?enoieao a oa ae cia?aaeaii i?e?ineii?/iee
iaoai?ci, ui a?aeiia?aea? cia?aaeaiiio ?icoaooaaiith ae?ini?ae?a
aeaoi?iaoe??.

Naaiaioe AA ? AN (?o iiaeiii aooe aeaa, ye oea anoaiiaeaii iaoei
aenia?eiaioii) ?icoaoiaothoueny o ia?oiio (aeo?aeiiio) iieiaeaii? i?ae
iaaiei eooii, ine?eueee iine?aeiai?noue aio-?ciia??a, ui a?aeiia?aea?
ni??aeuei?e no?oeoo?? naaiaioa, a oi/oe? A ii?ooo?oueny o?ain-?ciia?ii.

A ae?oaiio iieiaeaii? ?aeaenaoi?a oe? ae naaiaioe caeiathoue iieiaeaiiy
A’B’ oa B’C’, ?icoaoiaoth/enue o e?i?th. I?e oeueiio ?ici?? ae?eyiee
eaioethaa, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, ca?eueoo?oueny a iai?yieo in? 3 ?
ciaioo?oueny a iiia?a/iiio iai?yieo. Oea ? a?aeiia?aea? ci?i? oi?ie
ae?ini?aea i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae ?en. a aei ?en. a.

?en 2. ?icoaooaaiiy ae?ini?ae?a ?aeaenaoi?a oa aeaiaioa?iee aeo
naaiaioaeueii? ?ooeeaino?

Oaeei /eiii, iaoai?ci naaiaioaeueii? ?ooeeaino? a iaeano? neeoaaiiy ca
iaoeie aeaieie iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeaa naaiaioe (c yeeo neeaaea?oueny
?aeaenaoi?) aiane?aeie aeoeaaoe?eiiai no?eaea ia?aoiaeyoue ?c iaoeeaiiai
iieiaeaiiy a ?icai?iooa, ia?aeaeueia in? i???ioaoe??.

A o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? /aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo ?icaeyaea?oueny ia/eneaiiy
ia?aiao??a, ui aecia/athoue ai?cio?ii?th oaieiaeo oeoeooaoe?e a
iie?ia?ieo aieieiao. Ia i?aenoaa? oeoeooaoe?eii-aeeneiaoeaii? oai?aie,
canoiniaaii? aei ?aeaenaoe?eii? iaeano?, ia?ii iiaeeea?noue ?ic?aooaaoe
eiiiiiaioe oaici?a na?aaeiuei? eaaae?aoe/ii? oeoeooaoe?? aeaoi?iaoe??
?aeaenaoi?a m

(13)

aea V – ia‘?i, caeiyoee ?aeaenaoi?ii, Sijk — iaea?aeai? ca ?ic?iaeaiei
iaoiaeii ia?aiao?e. ?acoeueoaoe iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 3.

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, aeey oaieiaeo oeoeooaoe?e aeaoi?iaoe?e a iaeano?
neeoaaiiy oa?aeoa?ia /?oei ae?aaeaia ai?cio?ii?y: oaieia? oeoeooaoe??,
iia’ycai? c ?ooii a iai?yieo, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio eaioethaai (eiiiiiaioe
m1111 oa m1122), nooo?ai (ia ii?yaeie) ia?aaeuothoue oeoeooaoe??,
iia’ycai? c ?ooii ocaeiaae eaioetha?a (eiiiiiaioe m1133 m3333).

Oaaeeoey 3

Oa?aeoa?enoeee oaieiaeo oeoeooaoe?e aeaoi?iaoe?? a III (iaeanoue
neeoaaiiy)

Eiiiiiaioe oaici?a mhikhlm,
10-2Sjklm,10-11mjklm,10-411114,507,208,711224,507,208,723230,420,670,811
330,430,690,833330,410,650,8

I?e/eia ai?cio?ii?? c?icoi?ea: aaeaea aei?noe?noue ocaeiaae eaioethaa
iaaaaaoi a?eueoa ca aei?noe?noue a iai?yieo, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio
eaioethaai. Oi ae iaea?aeai? /eneia? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiey oaieiaeo
aeaoi?iaoe?e ocaiaeaeothoueny ?c ai??i?ieie oyaeaiiyie i?i oa?aeoa?
oaieiaiai ?ooo a eaioethaiaeo no?oeoo?ao.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe

1. Ca aeiiiiiaith e?ooeeueiiai iayoieea iaea?aeai? oaiia?aoo?i?
caeaaeiino? ae?enii? oa oyaii? /anoei e?ooeeueii? aei?noeino? oa
aoaeoeaii? iiaeaoeeaino? aeey IEI ia iniia? aenieii???ioiaaieo III
(nooi?iue aeoyaoaaiiy 10, 11) oa II (nooi?iue aeoyaoaaiiy 8) aieieii a
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 130 … 370 E ia /anoio? 1 Aoe.

2. Ca aeiiiiiaith aeonoe/iiai ?ioa?oa?iiao?a io?eiaii oaiia?aoo?i?
caeaaeiino? iicaeiaaeiuei? eiiiiiaioe oaici?a a‘ycei-i?oaeii?
iiaeaoeeaino? II-aieieii a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 200…370 E ia /anoio?
12,93 eAoe oa ?ioa?aae? iaaaioaaeaiue 90…250 IIa.

3. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aecia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio ae?enii? oa oyaii?
/anoei oaici?a eiiieaenii? iiaeaoeeaino? AIA, iniaeea?noth yeiai ? oa,
ui iiia?a/i? eiiiiiaioe oaici?a a‘ycei-i?oaeii? iiaeaoeeaino?
iaea?aeothoueny ii aei??yiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceo?a ia
aac? AIA ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?aooieiai? iaoiaeeee ia iniia? oi?ioe
ia?aoai?aiiy oaici??a oa oai??? i?oaeiino? eiiiiceo?a.

4. Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo iaea?aeaii oaiia?aoo?i?
caeaaeiino? ae?enii? oa oyaii? /anoei aieiaieo eiiiiiaio oaici?a
i?oaeii? iiaeaoeeaino? aeey III ? II-aieieii a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
(130…370) E.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aea/aiiy i???ioaoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo o AIA ia
iniia? eiioeioaeueii? oai???. Iieacaii, ui ?ai?o canoiniaaia iaoiaeeea ?
iaei?aeoiith, ine?eueee a?oioo?oueny ia aeia?eueieo i?eiouaiiyo i?i
cia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino?. Cai?iiiiiaaii
eiioeioaeueio iiaeaeue AIA, ui a?aoiao? ?aaeuei? cia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo
eiiiiiaio. Ia iniia? oe??? iiaeae? ?ic?aoiaaii cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a
i???ioaoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo i???ioiaaieo III-aieieii (aea — eoo iaoeeo
eaioetha?a aei in? aieieia). Anoaiiaeaii, ui cia/aiiy oeeo ia?aiao??a
nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aiaeia?/ieo cia/aiue, iaea?aeaieo ca
aeiiiiiaith ?ai?oa canoiniaiiai iaoiaeo.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ?aeaenaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a AIA, ui
a?oioo?oueny ia oai??? ?aeaenaoi??a, yea neeaaea?oueny c aeaio aoai?a:
ia ia?oiio — ii oaiia?aoo?iei caeaaeiinoyi iicaeiaaeiuei? eiiiiiaioe
oaici?a a‘ycei-i?oaeii? iiaeaoeeaino?, iaea?aeaiei ca aeiiiiiaith
aeonoe/iiai ?ioa?oa?iiao?a, aecia/a?oueny eiioeaio?aoe?y ?aeaenaoi??a n,
ia’?i V oa ?ioa?aae aia?a?e ?aeaenaoi?a W; ia ae?oaiio — ii
oaiia?aoo?iei caeaaeiinoyi oyaii? /anoeie aieiaieo eiiiiiaio oaici?a
iiaeaoeeaino? aecia/athoueny i???ioaoe?ei? ia?aiao?e ?aeaenaoi?a –
oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?ini?aea aeaoi?iaoe?? (h-oaici?a).

7. Ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo,
iaea?aeaieo ca aeiiiiiaith e?ooeeueiiai iayoieea ? aeaieo ii aeonoe/iei
aei??thaaiiyi aeey II- oa III-aieieii, io?eiaii ia?aiao?e ?aeaenaoi??a,
a?aeiia?aeieo ca aieiaio iaeanoue ?aeaenaoe?? – iaeanoue neeoaaiiy: n,
V, W ?aeaenaoi?a oa eiiiiiaioe h-oaici?a ?aeaenaoi?a.

8. Iaea?aeaii /eneia? cia/aiiy eiiiiiaio?a oaici?a oaieiaeo
na?aaeiuei-eaaae?aoe/ieo oeoeooaoe?e aeaoi?iaoe?? aeey
aenieii???ioiaaieo III-aieieii a iaeano? neeoaaiiy ia aac? io?eiaieo
ia?aiao??a ?aeaenaoi?a ca aeiiiiiaith oeoeooaoe?eii-aeeneiaoeaii?
oai?aie.

Aeniiaee

Ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo a aeaiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? oa ?ioa?i?aoiaaieo ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo
aecia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio oaici?a a‘ycei-i?oaeii? iiaeaoeeaino?
AIA oa ia iniia? oeoeooaoe?eii-aeeneiaoeaii? oai?aie ? oai???
?aeaenaoi??a, a oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaeee ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a
i???ioaoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo oa oa?aeoa?enoee ?aeaenaoi?a, iiaeia c?iaeoe
oae? aeniiaee uiaei no?oeoo?e oa oa?aeoa?o oaieiaiai ?ooo o
aenieii???ioiaaieo iie?ia?ieo aieieiao:

1. O AIA ?nio? aeineiiaeee i???ioaoe?eiee ii?yaeie, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeenia?n??th eooa iaoeeo aei in? eaioethaa 10-2 (aeey
III 0,06), nooi?iue yeiai nooo?ai aeua ca cia/aiiy, ui aaaaeaeinue
?ai?oa caaaeueiii?eeiyoei (ia ii?yaeie).

2. Aeey AIA oa?aeoa?ia yne?aai ae?aaeaia ai?cio?ii?y oaieiaeo
oeoeooaoe?e, ine?eueee, iiia?a/i? eiiiiiaioe oaici?a oaieiaeo
na?aaeiuei-eaaae?aoe/ieo oeoeooaoe?e ia ii?yaeie ia?aaeuo? iicaeiaaeith.

3. A‘ycei-i?oaeia ai?cio?ii?y AIA iaoiiaeaia ai?cio?ii??th ?aeaenaoi??a,
ye? iiaeooue ciaoiaeeoeny a aeaio aia?aaoe/ieo noaiao, eiaeai c yeeo
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny nai?i ae?ini?aeii aeaoi?iaoe??.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey -?aeaenaoe?? aieiai? eiiiiiaioe
h-oaici?a aeaoi?iaoe?e ?aeaenaoi?a a aeaio aia?aaoe/ieo iieiaeaiiyo
iathoue ??ciee ciae, c /iai aeieeaa?, ui a iaeiiio iieiaeaii? aieiaia
a?nue ae?ini?aea aeaoi?iaoe?? ?icoaoiaaia ia?aeaeueii, a a ae?oaiio
-–ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii in? eaioethaa.

Oae ye aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aii, ui ia‘?i ?aeaenaoi?a aei??aith?
ia‘?io aeaio noaoenoe/ieo naaiaio?a Oei??, oi oea aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a aeaiaioa?iiio aeo? naaiaioaeueii? ?ooeeaino? i?e
neeoaaii? ( — ?aeaenaoe??) i?eeia? o/anoue aeaa naaiaioe.

Iaoai?ci naaiaioaeueii? ?ooeeaino? AIA a iaeano? neeoaaiiy, ca iaoeie
aeaieie, iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeaa naaiaioe (c yeeo neeaaea?oueny
?aeaenaoi?) aiane?aeie aeoeaaoe?eieo no?eae?a ia?aoiaeyoue ?c iaoeeaiiai
iieiaeaiiy a ?icai?iooa, ia?aeaeueia in? i???ioaoe?? aieieia.

IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

1. I naienoaao iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy naa?oaunieiiiaeoeueiiai IY-aieieia
/E.E.Eocoa, A.E.Ao?aiiaa, A.I.?aniiiiaa, I.N.Naa/ieeiaa e ae?.
//Aunieiiieae.niaae., 1993. O. 35. ? 6. – N.308-311. A aiaeiiiaiiio
aa??aio?:Properties of Skin Layer of Ultrahigh Modulus Polyethylene
Fiber /L.I.Kuzub, A.I.Efremova, E.N.Raspopova, O.S.Svechnikova
a.e.//Polymer Science, 1993. V. 35. N 6. P.845-848.

2. Aoeaa?i E.A., Caaaooa TH.O., Naa/i?eiaa I.N. Canoinoaaiiy oai???
?aeaenaoi??a aei ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aenia?eiaioo ii aeine?aeaeaiith
?aeaenaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iie?ia??a //Oe?.o?c.aeo?iae, 1999. -? 6. –
N.791-794.

3. Caaaooa TH.O., Naa/i?eiaa I.N. Eiao?oe??io Ioanniia ? neeoaaiiy
aii?oii-e?enoae?/ieo iie?ia??a //A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na?.:
O?c.-iao. iaoee. Aei.1. 1996. – N.293-299.

4. Caaaooa TH.O., Naa/i?eiaa I.N. Canoinoaaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue
?aeaenaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iie?ia??a aeey aecia/aiiy i???ioaoe?eieo
ia?aiao??a ?aeaenaoi??a aieieii//O?ceea eiiaeainiaaieo
aenieiiieaeoey?ieo nenoai. Iaoeia? caienee ??aiainueeiai
aea?aeiaae?inoeoooo. ??aia, 1998. ? 6. N. 45-47.

5. Zabashta Yu.F., Svechnikova O.S. Investigashion of Anisotropy of
Polymer Composites by the Torsion Pendulum Method /Proc. Intern.
Symposium «Advances in Structured and Heterogeneous Continua».- Moscow,
1993.- P.237.

6. Caaaooa TH.O., Naa/i?eiaa I.N. Ai?cio?ii?y aioo??oiueiai oa?oy
iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceo?a /Oace aeii.. ? Oe?. eiio. «No?oeoo?a ? o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? iaaii?yaeeiaaieo nenoai». — Euea?a, 1993. — n. 143.

7. Caaaooa TH.O.. Naa/i?eiaa I.N. A‘ycei-i?oaeia ai?cio?ii?y
aenii???ioiaaieo iie?ia??a //O?. ?? Anaoe?. eiio. «I?iaeaie
oaeineiiaeaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueii? ? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/.o?ceee» —
Ee?a: OAeIO-?NAeI, 1996. — N.170-175.

8. Caaaooa TH.O., Naa/i?eiaa I.N. Aecia/aiiy i???ioaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a
?aeaenaoi??a iie?ia?ieo aieieii aeonoe/iei iaoiaeii //O?ceei-o?i?y
eiiaeainiaaieo no?oeoo?ii-iaiaeii??aeieo nenoai. — O?. ??? Anaoe?. iaoe.
eiio. «Ooiaeaiaioaeueia oa i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea oao?aoe?a c o?ceee» —
Ee?a: IIO, 1998. — N.78-81.

9. Caaaooa TH.O., Naa/ieeiaa I.N. Aiecio?iiey aycei-oi?oaeo naienoa
eiiiiceoia //Oac. aeii.. Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. «Eiiiiceoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe» (NEAAIIEEEII-98). — E, 1998. N.123.

AIIOAOe??

Naa/i?eiaa I.N. A‘ycei-i?oaeia ai?cio?ii?y iie?ia?ieo aenieii???ioiaaieo
aieieii. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.14 – oaieio?ceea oa
iieaeoey?ia o?ceea. Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,
1999.

A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?e?iaea a‘ycei-i?oaeii? ai?cio?ii??
aenieii???ioiaaieo iie?ia?ieo aieieii (AIA). ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae
aecia/aiiy iiia?a/ieo eiiiiiaio ae?enii? oa oyaii? /anoei oaici?a
eiiieaenii? iiaeaoeeaino? AIA.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui, ii-ia?oa, o AIA ?nio? aeineiiaeee i???ioaoe?eiee
ii?yaeie, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeenia?n??th eooa iaoeeo 10-2;
ii-ae?oaa, aeey AIA oa?aeoa?ia yne?aai ae?aaeaia ai?cio?ii?y oaieiaeo
na?aaeiuei-eaaae?aoe/ieo oeoeooaoe?e, ui ae?aaea?oueny a oiio, ui
iiia?a/ia eiiiiiaioa oaici?a oaieiaeo na?aaeiuei-eaaae?aoe/ieo
oeoeooaoe?e ia ii?yaeie ia?aaeuo? iicaeiaaeith; ii-o?ao?, a‘ycei-i?oaeia
ai?cio?ii?y AIA iaoiiaeaia ai?cio?ii??th ?aeaenaoi??a.

Cai?iiiiiaaia eiia??ia iiaeaeue naaiaioaeueii? ?ooeeaino? AIA a iaeano?
neeoaaiiy, iniiaia iniaeea?noue yei? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeaa naaiaioe (c
yeeo neeaaea?oueny ?aeaenaoi?) aiane?aeie aeoeaaoe?eiiai no?eaea
ia?aoiaeyoue ?c iaoeeaiiai iieiaeaiiy a ?icai?iooa, ia?aeaeueia in?
i???ioaoe?? aieieia.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a‘ycei-i?oaeia ai?cio?ii?y, aenieii???ioiaai? iie?ia?i?
aieieia, eiiiiiaioe oaici?a iiaeaoeeaino?, i???ioaoe?ei? ia?aiao?e,
?aeaenaoi?, oaieia? oeoeooaoe?? aeaoi?iaoe??.

Svechnikova O.S. The visco-elastic anisotropy of polymer high-oriented
fibers. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the Degree of Candidate in Physics and Mathematics sciences
by the speciality 01.04.14 – physics of heat and molecular physics, Kyiv
Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, 1999.

The nature of visco-elastic anisotropy of polymer high-oriented fibers
has been studied. The measurement method for determining crosswise
components of real and imaginary values of susceptibility tenzor of
high-oriented polymers by torsion pendulum has been devised.

At first, it has been found that, the perfect order exists in the
polymer high-oriented fibers. This order is characterized by dispersion
of angle of incline 10-2. Secondly, the striking anisotropy of the heat
fluctuations is the characteristic feature of polymer high-oriented
fibers which is expressed by that the crosswise components of
susceptibility tenzor of heat fluctuations of deformation exceed on
order the longitudinal components. Thirdly, the visco-elastic anisotropy
of the polymer high-oriented fibers is caused by the anisotropy of
relaxators.

The model of segmental mobility of the polymer high-oriented fibers in
the region of glassing has been proposed. The basic peculiarity of this
model is that two segments (within relaxator) change their position from
inclined to unfolding parallel of axis of fiber orientation becouse of
activated jump.

Keywords: The visco-elastic anisotropy, the polymers high-oriented
fibers, components of susceptibility tenzor, the parameters of
orientation, relaxator, the heat fluctuations of deformation.

Naa/ieeiaa I.N. Aycei-oi?oaay aiecio?iiey iieeia?iuo
aunieii?eaioe?iaaiiuo aieieii. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.14 – oaieioeceea e
iieaeoey?iay oeceea. Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa,
1999.

A ?aaioa enneaaeoaony i?e?iaea aycei-oi?oaie aiecio?iiee
aunieii?eaioe?iaaiiuo iieeia?iuo aieieii (AIA). ?ac?aaioai iaoiae
ii?aaeaeaiey iiia?a/iuo eiiiiiaio aeaenoaeoaeueiie e iieiie /anoe
oaici?a eiiieaeniie iiaeaoeeainoe AIA, iniaaiiinoue eioi?iai ninoieo a
oii, /oi iiia?a/iua eiiiiiaiou oaici?a iiaeaoeeainoe aieieii iieo/atho
ii yenia?eiaioaeueii ecia?aiiui aycei-oi?oaei oa?aeoa?enoeeai iieeia?iuo
eiiiiceoia ia iniiaa AIA n iiiiuueth ?an/aoiie iaoiaeeee ia iniiaa
oi?ioe i?aia?aciaaiey oaici?ia e oai?ee oi?oainoe eiiiiceoia.

I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea eco/aiey i?eaioaoeeiiiiai ii?yaeea a AIA ia
iniiaa eiioeioaeueiie iiaeaee, eioi?ay o/eouaaao ?aaeueiua cia/aiey
iiia?a/iuo eiiiiiaio oaici?a iiaeaoeeainoe AIA, iieo/aiiua n iiiiuueth
?ac?aaioaiiiai iaoiaea. Ia iniiaaiee yoie iiaeaee ii?aaeaeaiu cia/aiey
ia?aiao?ia i?eaioaoeeiiiiai ii?yaeea i?eaioe?iaaiuo iieeieneiaoeeaiiauo
(III) aieieii e onoaiiaeaii, /oi iie nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io
aiaeiae/iuo cia/aiee, ecaanoiuo ?aiaa ec eeoa?aoo?u.

I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey ?aeaenaoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia AIA,
iniiauaathuayny ia oai?ee ?aeaenaoi?ia, eioi?ay ninoieo ec aeaoo yoaiia:
ia ia?aii – ii oaiia?aoo?iui caaeneiinoyi iiia?a/iuo eiiiiiaio oaici?a
oi?oaie iiaeaoeeainoe, iieo/aiiui yenia?eiaioaeueii n iiiiuueth
aeonoe/aneiai eioa?oa?iiao?a, ii?aaeaeyaony eiioeaio?aoeey ?aeaenaoi?ia
n, iau?i V e eioa?aae yia?aee ?aeaenaoi?a W; ia aoi?ii – ii
oaiia?aoo?iui caaeneiinoyi iieiie /anoe aeaaiuo eiiiiiaio oaici?a
iiaeaoeeainoe ii?aaeaeythony i?eaioaoeeiiiua ia?aiao?u ?aeaenaoi?a –
oa?aeoa?enoeee yeeinieaea aeaoi?iaoeee (h-oaici?a). Ia iniiaaiee
i?aaeeiaeaiiie iaoiaeeee e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo, ecia?aiiuo n
iiiioueth e?ooeeueiiai iayoieea e aeonoe/aneiai eioa?oa?iiao?a aeey III-
e II-aieieii, iieo/aiu ia?aiao?u ?aeaenaoi?a, ioaaonoaaiiiai ca aeaaioth
iaeanoue ?aeaenaoeee – iaeanoue noaeeiaaiey: n, V, W ?aeaenaoi?a e
eiiiiiaiou h-oaici?a ?aeaenaoi?a.

Iieo/aiu /eneaiiua cia/aiey eiiiiiaio oaici?a oaieiauo
n?aaeia-eaaae?aoe/iuo oeoeooaoeee aeaoi?iaoeee aeey
aunieii?eaioe?iaaiiuo III-aieieii a iaeanoe noaeeiaaiey n iiiiuueth
oeoeooaoeeiiii-aeenneiaoeaiie oai?aiu.

Ia iniiaaiee yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo a aeaiiii
enneaaeiaaiee e eioa?i?aoe?iaaiiuo n iiiiuueth ?ac?aaioaiiiai iaoiaea
ii?aaeaeaiey iiia?a/iuo eiiiiiaio oaici?a aycei-oi?oaie iiaeaoeeainoe
AIA e ia iniiaaiee oeoeooaoeeiiii-aeenneiaoeaiie oai?aiu e oai?ee
?aeaenaoi?ia, a oaeaea i?aaeeiaeaiiuo iaoiaeee iieo/aiey ia?aiao?ia
i?eaioaoeeiiiiai ii?yaeea e oa?aeoa?enoee ?aeaenaoi?a, onoaiiaeaii, /oi,
ai-ia?auo, a AIA nouanoaoao niaa?oaiiue i?eaioaoeeiiiue ii?yaeie,
eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeenia?neae oaea iaeeiia 10-2; ai-aoi?uo, aeey
AIA oa?aeoa?ia y?ei au?aaeaiiay aiecio?iiey oaieiauo oeoeooaoeee,
au?aaeathuayny a oii, /oi iiia?a/iay eiiiiiaioa oaici?a oaieiauo
n?aaeia-eaaae?aoe/iuo oeoeooaoeee ia ii?yaeie i?aauoaao i?iaeieueioth;
a-o?aoueeo, aycei-oi?oaay aiecio?iiey AIA iaoceiaeaia aiecio?iieae
?aeaenaoi?ia.

I?aaeeiaeaia aa?iyoiay iiaeaeue naaiaioaeueiie iiaeaeaeiinoe AIA a
iaeanoe noaeeiaaiey, iniiaiay iniaaiiinoue eioi?ie ninoieo a oii, /oi
aeaa naaiaioa (aoiaeyuea a ninoaa ?aeaenaoi?a) aneaaenoaea
aeoeaaoeeiiiiai i?uaeea ia?aoiaeyo ec iaeeiiaiiiai iieiaeaiey a
?acaa?iooia, ia?aeeaeueiia ine i?eaioaoeee aieieia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aycei-oi?oaay aiecio?iiey, aunieii?eaioe?iaaiiua
iieeia?iua aieieia, eiiiiiaiou oaici?a iiaeaoeeainoe, i?eaioaoeeiiiua
ia?aiao?u, ?aeaenaoi?, oaieiaua oeoeooaoeee aeaoi?iaoeee.

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