Відшкодування заподіяної злочином шкоди за ініціативою суду в кримінальному судочинстві України: Автореф. дис… канд. юрид. наук / М.В. Гузела, Львів

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EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? ?AAIA O?AIEA

OAeE 343. 1 (122)

Aocaea Ieoaeei Aaneeueiae/

A?AeOEIAeOAAIIss CAIIAe?ssII? CEI*EIII OEIAeE CA ?I?Oe?AOEAITH NOAeO

A E?EI?IAEUeIIIO NOAeI*EINOA? OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.09 — e?ei?iaeueiee i?ioean;

e?ei?iae?noeea; noaeiaa aenia?oeca

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Euea?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano ?
e?ei?iae?noeee Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee :aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e Aeaaeai?? iaoe aeui? oeiee Oe?a?ie,

Caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie

II? Aaneeue Oeiio?eiae/ Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe :
aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

aeaaeai?e Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,

Caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie,

noaeaey Eiioeoooe?eiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie

EINOEOeUeEEE Ieoaeei Aaneeueiae/

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?aainoaeaey Ee?anueeiai

oieaa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

OEA?EI Aaneeue Iao?iae/ I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y :
Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie

?iai?
ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie

eaoaae?a e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 8 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i
___ aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee E. 35.051.03. o
Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith
290000, i. Euea?a, aoe. N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a, 14 (cae can?aeaiue
th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo, A-409).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290005, i.
Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “6” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? A.I.Einnae

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa ia?aaeeaa?
nueiaiaei? ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaoaeiae aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?. A
oeae ia??iae a?aeaoaathoueny cia/i? ci?ie aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo oa
nioe?aeueieo i???ioe??a noni?euenoaa, cae?enith?oueny oi?ioaaiiy aeanieo
iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a, iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oiui.

C i?eeiyooyi iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ia anooieea o i?eioeeiiai iiaee
aoai ?icaoaeiae aeaiie?aoe/ii? nioe?aeueii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae
ioi?iiiiai oeio. Oiio, ia nueiaiaei? iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi noni?euenoaa ?
aea?aeaae ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eeiyoeo eiinoeoooe?eieo iieiaeaiue a
aeeooy. Eiinoeoooe?y caeeoaoeiaoueny aeaeea?aoeaiei aeoii, yeui ae?th/a
caeiiiaeaanoai yeiaeiiai?oa ? a iaeei?ioo? oa?i?ie ia aoaea i?eaaaeaii o
a?aeiia?aei?noue aei ?? ii?i, yeui ia aoaea noi?iiaaia nenoaia
ae??caeaoieo aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?, caeaoieo caaacia/eoe ?aae?caoe?th
aieiaiiai i?eioeeio Eiinoeoooe??, ui naia «… ethaeeia, ?? aeeooy ?
caei?ia’y, /anoue ? aeania a?aei?noue, iaaeioi?eai?noue ? aaciaea ?
iaeaeuith nioe?aeueiith oe?ii?noth aeey aea?aeaae». O?eueee a oaeiio
aeiaaeeo c aiaaiai?noth iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui Oe?a?ia ?icaeaa?oueny
ye aeaiie?aoe/ia, nioe?aeueia, i?aaiaa aea?aeaaa.

AEeoo?aa iaiao?aei?noue noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ye i?aaiai? aea?aeaae,
oi?ioaaiiy ae??caeaoieo ?? no?oeoo? ? i?aai?a aeiaaa? cia/iiai
i?aeaeuaiiy iioaioe?aeo i?aaiai? iaoee, cie?aia, iaoee i?i e?ei?iaeueia
noaei/einoai. Oaea iaiao?aei?noue ciiao ae oaee aeeeeeaia, ianaiia?aae,
oei, ui a i?aaia?e aea?aeaa? iaeaeuei iaaeaaiiyi ? iniaa-a?iiaaeyiei.
Oiio ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae iiaeiia aooe ni?yiiaaia ia ?aaeueia
caaacia/aiiy caoenoo i?aa ? naiaiae nai?o a?iiaaeyi ia iniia? iiaaae aei
iniae, ye iaeoe?oiai aeciaiiy caaaeueiiethaenueeeo aoiai?noe/ieo
oe?iiinoae. Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, oa?a?aaoe a naaa iniiai? canaaee
Caaaeueii? aeaeea?aoe?? i?aa ethaeeie, i?iaieioo? ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?
caaacia/aiiy i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie aieiaiei iaia’yceii, aecia/aeueiei
i?eioeeiii ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae. I?e oeueiio, iaeia c iniiaieo
i?noeue a caaacia/aii? oeeo i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi a aea?aeaa?
iaeaaeeoue noaeo, ye iaeiaae?ei?oiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?aioo i?aa ethaeeie
? a?iiaaeyieia. A no/anieo oiiaao ?aae?caoe?? noaeiai-i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie,
iniiaiith iaoith yei? ? noai?aiiy noaei/einoaa ioi?iiiiai oeio,
iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaathoue ieoaiiy ?icoe?aiiy oa ci?oeiaiiy
i?ioeanoaeueieo aa?aio?e i?aainoaeaey, ye iaeoe?oiai caaacia/aiiy i?aa
iniae a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?, yeee aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee c
aeiaaeeaie iaea?eueo iaaacia/iiai ii?ooaiiy i?aa iniae a noni?euenoa? —
cei/eio.

Iaeiei c iai?yie?a iineeaiiy i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e caoenoo i?aa oa caeiiieo
?ioa?an?a iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/eiiiai iinyaaiiy in?a ? iie?auaiiy
caeiiiaeaa/iai a?aaoethaaiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee, ?icoe?aiiy, c oe??th iaoith, aca?iiae?? ??cieo aaeocae i?aaa.
Caiiae?yiiy cei/eiii oeiaee ? i?aenoaaith aeey aeieeiaiiy
oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aaiii?ooieea ia?aae iioa?i?eei
(iaia’ycie i?aaiii?ooieea a?aeoeiaeoaaoe iioa?i?eiio caiiae?yio cei/eiii
oeiaeo). A?aeiia?aeii aei ii?i iaoa??aeueiiai i?aaa oeiaea, ni?e/eiaia
aiane?aeie ii?ooaiiy aaniethoiiai i?aaia?aeiioaiiy, oiaoi, aiane?aeie
ii?ooaiiy iaia’yceo oo?eioaaoenue a?ae iinyaaiiy ia i?aaia? aeaaa ?ioeo
in?a, i?aeeyaa? a?aeoeiaeoaaiith a iiaiiio ianyc?. Oiaoi, oeiaea, yea
caiiae?yia iioa?i?eiio noni?eueii-iaaacia/iei i?ioei?aaiei ae?yiiyi, ?
ia’?eoii a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?aaia? nenoaie aaaaoueio
e?a?i na?oo , a oiio /ene? ? i?aaiaa nenoaia Oe?a?ie, ia?aaeaa/athoue
oaeiae iiaeeea?noue a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeiiith o a/eiaii? cei/eiiiai
ae?yiiy iniaith ia ei?enoue iioa?i?eiai caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c
aeiiiiiaith iaoai?cio, anoaiiaeaiiai ii?iaie
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa.

*eiiee e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiee caeii Oe?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a? ?yae
i?ioeanoaeueieo niinia?a a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee, caiiae?yii? a
?acoeueoao? cei/eiiiai iinyaaiiy, cie?aia: ?icaeyae ? ae??oaiiy
cayaeaiiai oeea?eueiiai iiciao a e?ei?iaeuei?e ni?aa? i?i
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee, caiiae?yii? cei/eiii; a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaieo
cei/eiii iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? c aeanii?
?i?oe?aoeae noaeo; iiaa?iaiiy iioa?i?eei a?ae cei/eio iniaai i?aaeiao?a
cei/eiiiai iinyaaiiy — ?a/iaeo aeieac?a (e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia
?anoeoooe?y); iieeaaeaiiy ia iaiiaiie?oiueiai i?aaiii?ooieea
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai iaia’yceo caaeaaeeoe (onoiooe, a?aeoeiaeoaaoe)
caaaeai? iaoa??aeuei? caeoee ye i?eioniaiai caoiaeo aeoiaiiai oa?aeoa?o
(aeaiee niin?a canoiniaoaaany ? i?iaeiaaeo? canoiniaoaaoeny a
caeiiiaeaanoa? aaaaoueio iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa ye i??a
e?ei?iaeueiiai iiea?aiiy aai ye i?eioniaee cao?ae aeoiaiiai oa?aeoa?o
aei iaiiaiie?oiueiai i?aaiii?ooieea); iieeaaeaiiy ia canoaeaeaiiai
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai iaia’yceo a?aeoeiaeoaaoe caaaeai? cei/eiii
iaoa??aeuei? caeoee, ui canoiniao?oueny o aeaeyae? i?iaaoe?eii?
(aei?iaoaaeueii?) oiiae i?e iaaeaii? a?aeno?i/ee aeeiiaiiy ae?ieo, yeei
canoaeaeaiiio ia?aii iiea?aiiy o aeaeyae? iicaaaeaiiy aie? (a?aeiia?aeii
aei no.461 EE Oe?a?ie). I?e oeueiio, iaia’ycie onoiooe (caeaaeeoe,
a?aeoeiaeoaaoe) caaaeai? iaoa??aeuei? caeoee ye e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee
can?a aieeao ia aeiio o a/eiaii? cei/eio iniao ia?aaeaa/aiee ia
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiei, a e?ei?iaeueiei iaoa??aeueiei caeiiii.
Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui canoinoaaiiy oeueiai caniao (iieeaaeaiiy iaia’yceo)
? iiaeeeaei aeeeth/ii a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? ? onoaiiaeaiiio
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiei caeiiii ii?yaeeo, a oiio ? an? i?aenoaae
a?aeianoe oeae niin?a caoenoo aei e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo cania?a
caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa in?a, ui iioa?i?ee a?ae cei/eio.

Ioaea, a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee ia ? /eiinue iiaei
aeey e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai oa e?ei?iaeueiiai iaoa??aeueiiai
i?aaa. O aeiaaeeao caiiae?yiiy oeiaee cei/eiii (noni?eueii-iaaacia/iei
ae?yiiyi), ii?ie aeaieo aaeocae i?aaa iiaeooue aooe aaciina?aaeiuei
i?aaiaith iniiaith aeey cae?eniaiiy aeiiith iniaith ?aaeueiiai
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaieo cei/eiii caeoe?a.

C? an?o ia?aaeaa/aieo e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiei caeiiiaeaanoaii
niinia?a (oi?i) a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy (onoiaiiy) caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee
iaeiaioa aeine?aeaeaiei ? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee a e?ei?iaeueiiio
noaei/einoa? c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo. Aaaaoi ieoaiue, ye? aeieeathoue c
oeueiai i?eaiaeo a i?ioeanoaeuei?e oai??? oa a noaeia?e i?aeoeoe?,
caeeoathoueny iaae??oaieie. Oeueiio cia/iith i??ith ni?ey? ? ia/?oea
caeiiiaeaa/a ?aaeaiaioaoe?y ii?i aeacaiiai ?inoeoooo, iiaia
a?aenooi?noue iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? oeeo ii?i, iaaeinoaoi? aeei?enoaiiy
eiai noaeaie.

Caiiae?yiiy iaeiiai? oeiaee oaeei noni?eueii-iaaacia/iei aeae?eoii, yeei
? cei/ei, caaaeaee aeeeeea? a?aeiia?aeio ?aaeoe?th ia oea noni?euenoaa ?
aea?aeaae. Aaeaea, ?i ia aaeaeoaea, — aoaeooue /e ia aoaeooue a aeaiiio
aeiaaeeo a?aeoeiaeiaai? caeoee, a?aeiiaey?oueny /e i? iioa?i?eee a?ae
i?enoaeaeaiiy eiio a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, aeoeaii /e ianeaii aaaea a?i naaa
uiaei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy eiio caeoe?a. Ae?yiiy, ui caiiae?yei iaoa??aeueio
oeiaeo, noaiiaeoue ioae?/iee ?ioa?an, yeee oaeiae nooo?ai aieeaa? ia
iiaeeeaino? onoiaiiy iane?aee?a oeueiai ae?yiiy (iacaeaaeii a?ae
niinia?a oaeiai onoiaiiy). Aea?aeaaa ? noni?euenoai a oe?eiio
caoe?eaaeai? a oiio, uia oeiaea aoea a?aeoeiaeiaaia ? uia iioa?i?ea
iniaa coi?ea ?aae?coaaoe nai? i?aai ia ?? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy. ? yeui
iioa?i?eee /a?ac ye?-iaaoaeue i?e/eie oeueiai ia c?iaeoue, oi aea?aeaaa,
aeoiaey/e c i?acoiioe??, ui eiaeia iniaa, ye?e caaaeaii iaoa??aeueieo
caeoe?a a?ae cei/eio, aaaea? ?o a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, aea, a neeo iiaaaeieo
i?e/ei, ia iiaea iaeaaeiei /eiii caoenoeoe ii?ooai? i?aaa, ciaia’yco?
noae c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noyaiooe c caiiae?thaa/a caeoee ?, oeei
naiei, a?aeiiaeoe ii?ooai? cei/eiii iaeiia? i?aaa iioa?i?eiai. Oaea
ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy aeiaeiith i??ith ia ii?ooo? noa’?eoeaia i?aai
iioa?i?eiai ia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a ?icii?yaeaeaoeny iei ia na?e
?icnoae (a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, aeacaaoe noaeo i?e/eie
a?aeiiae ? ia ii?oooth/e, i?e oeueiio, i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a ?ioeo in?a).
Oiio, ye aeaea?oueny, a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy, iniaeeai nueiaiaei?,
aeiaaa? oaeee niin?a caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii i?aa, ye a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yieo cei/eiii caeoe?a c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo.

*eiia e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a?
iiaeeea?noue ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a
noaeii c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae /a?ac cae??ieaiiy iaaiiai
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai iaia’yceo noaeo. Oea iieiaeaiiy
aaciina?aaeiuei cae??ieaii a no. 29 EIE Oe?a?ie. Cie?aia, /.2 ? 3 noaoo?
29 EIE Oe?a?ie aeaco?, ui, o aeiaaeeo iacayaeaiiy iioa?i?eei (eiai
i?aaenoaaieeii /e i?ieo?i?ii) oeea?eueiiai iiciao, noae ciaia’ycaiee i?e
ooaaeaii? ae?ieo c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?i
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a, caaaeaieo cei/eiii iioa?i?eiio,
uia eiai iaeiia? i?aaa ? ?ioa?ane ia caeeoeeenue iacaoeuaieie. Ci?no
aeacaii? ii?ie i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiio iieyaa? a ?nioaaii? i?aaa ?
iaia’yceo noaeo i?e ae??oaii? iei ieoaiiy i?i e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue iaeii/anii ?aae?coaaoe ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
iaeiiao (iaoa??aeueio). Aeacaia ii?ia anoaiiaeth?, ui noae ciaia’ycaiee
ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a o aeiaaeeao, yeui oeiaea
caiiae?yia aea?aeaaiiio iaeio, a oeea?eueiee iicia i?i ??
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ia aoa cayaeaiee, oi/ oeueiai aeiaaa? ioi?iia
aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a. Ui ae aei aeiaaee?a caiiae?yiiy iaeiiai? oeiaee
o?ce/i?e inia?, yea ia cayaeea oeea?eueiiai iiciao aei ii/aoeo noaeiaiai
ne?aenoaa, oi iaia’ycie noaeo c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?i
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee a?ae cei/eio ?nio? o?eueee ca iayaiino? iiaaaeii?
i?e/eie iacayaeaiiy oaeiai iiciao.

Uiaei naii? i?iaeaie ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a a?aeoeiaeoaaii? iioa?i?eiio
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee, oi ?niothoue ??ci? aeoiee na?aae
a/aieo-i?ioeanoae?no?a. Oae, A.Aeia?iaieuenueeee oa I.Aaoeaoia
oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaea i?enoaeaeaiiy ca ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo ye iaeio c
iniaeeainoae iiciaiiai i?iaaaeaeaiiy a e?ei?iaeuei?e ni?aa?, oiaoi,
i?aai ia cayaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai iiciao ?aae?co?oueny noaeii c aeanii?
?i?oe?aoeae. Ia aeoieo ae N.A.Aeueia?oa, I.I.Ao???aa, A.Aea?aa,
C.C?iaooee?ia, A.Iacaeiaa, A.O.Ii?a oa ?ioeo a/aieo, i?enoaeaeaiiy
noaeii aei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaieo cei/eiii caeoe?a ? naiino?eiei
?inoeoooii caoenoo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?.

Aeey iiciaiiai niiniao caoenoo oa?aeoa?iei ? i?aae’yaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai
iiciao, ui ii?iaeaeo? aeieeiaiiy iaaieo i?ioeanoaeueieo a?aeiinei,
o/anieeaie yeeo ?, ianaiia?aae, oeea?eueiee iiceaa/ (ye i?aaeei —
iioa?i?eee) ? a?aeiia?aea/ (ye i?aaeei — i?aenoaei?e). O aeiaaeeo ae
i?enoaeaeaiiy noaeii c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae aei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee iiciaia cayaa a?aenooiy, ui, nai?th
/a?aith, coiiaeth? a?aenooi?noue ie?aieo i?ioeanoaeueieo noi??i. Noae,
aeine?aeeaoe an? aeieace, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oaeo caiiae?yiiy
cei/eiii oeiaee iioa?i?eiio, c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae ae??oo? ieoaiiy i?i
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee inoaiiueiio. I?e oeueiio, ??oaiiy noaeo ca
oa?aeoa?ii — i?ioeanoaeueia, ? ia ii?iaeaeo? iiaiai
iaoa??aeueii-i?aaiaiai a?aeiioaiiy. Oiaoi, oea a?aeiioaiiy aaea ?nio?
aei ii/aoeo i?ioeano — c iiiaioo a/eiaiiy cei/eio ?, ioaea, c iiiaioo
caiiae?yiiy oeiaee, a ??oaiiy noaeo c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae i?i
i?enoaeaeaiiy aei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee eeoa
ia?aaeaa/a? i?ioeanoaeueiee ?acoeueoao ?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy i?i ?nioaaiiy
oaeiai a?aeiioaiiy ? aeaco? ia iane?aeee eiai a?aaoethaaiiy.

Ia iniia? aeuaiaaaaeaiiai, ? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiiei ae?yiiyi oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae
noaeo ca nai?th i?aaiaith i?e?iaeith ? naiino?eiei ?inoeoooii
e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa, yeee ii?yae c ?inoeoooii oeea?eueiiai
iiciao a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? iieeeeaiee caaacia/eoe caoeno i?aa
a?iiaaeyi oa aea?aeaae, yeei a ?acoeueoao? a/eiaiiai cei/eiiiai ae?yiiy
caaaeaii iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a.

Ieoaiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo a /eiiiio
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? ia ciaeoee aeaoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaa/iai
a?aaoethaaiiy. Ianaiia?aae, caeiiiaeaanoaii ia ia?aaeaa/aii
i?ioeanoaeueiiai iaoai?cio ae??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy ia i?aeoeoe?. sse
iane?aeie, a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? noae?a oeae ?inoeooo ia ciaoiaeeoue
oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy. A ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa, a
yeeo a neeo iaaieo i?e/ei oeea?eueiee iicia ia aoa cayaeaiee, ieoaiiy
i?i ?ici?? iaeiiai? oeiaee oa i?i ?? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy a e?ei?iaeueiiio
i?ioean? ia ae??ooaaeinue cian?i, oi/, a?aeiia?aeii aei /eiiiai
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, — oea iaia’ycie
noaeo. Oiio aeaea?oueny, ui /e iaeiaiao?aei?oei nueiaiaei? ? ae?iaeaiiy
? caeiiiaeaa/a cae??ieaiiy ae??aiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? noaeii
aeacaiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai iaia’yceo.

Iaaeinoaoi? iaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a oai??? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano
Oe?a?ie, ?? aeooaeuei?noue a oiiaao iineeaiiy i?aaiaiai caoenoo iniae a
aea?aeaa? ? c?inoaiiy ?ie? noaeo ye iniiaiiai aa?aioa caeiiiino? oa i?aa
ethaeeie, iacia/ia canoinoaaiiy oeueiai ?inoeoooo a noaeia?e i?aeoeoe?,
iaiao?aei?noue ae?iaeaiiy ? oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio eiai ?aae?caoe?? a
/eiiiio e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie — ana oea ?
aecia/eei aea?? oaie oa aeaco? ia aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?aeaioiaeaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? i?ioeano
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?aaia O?aiea.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeuei? ?inoeoooe a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee, cie?aia, ?inoeooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee ca
?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?. I?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ii?ie ae?th/iai e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, ye? ?aaoeththoue ieoaiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?, cie?aia,
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo, a oaeiae oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy
aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee a
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?, ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae
aeei?enoaiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? a?eueo oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy
oeueiai e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caniao aieeao ia aeiio iniao a
iaeaooiueiio e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeii?
(E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio eiaeaen?) Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa, yeo iinoaaea ia?aae niaith aaoi?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieyaa? a oiio, uia: c’ynoaaoe iiiyooy oa ci?no
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ooieoe??; iaa?oiooaaoe ?nioaaiiy a
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ooieoe??
caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii i?aa ? caeiiieo ?ioa?an?a iioa?i?eeo in?a;
c’ynoaaoe nooue, iaa?oiooaaoe i?aaiao i?e?iaeo oa iniaeeaino? ?inoeoooo
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? oa noi?ioethaaoe oai?aoe/i?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeuei? iieiaeaiiy uiaei iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy
eiai a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? aeey a?eueo iiaii? ? ae??ai? ?aae?caoe??
iacaaii? ooieoe?? e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii ni?iao
ae??oeoe ianooii? iaoeia? caaaeaiiy:

— c’ynoaaoe oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy a/aiiy i?i
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeuei? ooieoe??;

— i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaaoeaieo iaeiiaeo iane?aee?a, ui
ni?e/eieeeny a ?acoeueoao? a/eiaiiy cei/eio, oa iaa?oiooaaoe
iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo cania?a ?o
onoiaiiy;

— aeyaeoe iiaeeea? oi?ie ? niiniae aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeoooo
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee a
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie;

— aeiaanoe iayai?noue a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? ooieoe?? caoenoo
ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo oa iniaenoeo iaiaeiiaeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo a?ae
cei/eio oa i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio ?? ?aae?caoe??;

— c’ynoaaoe nooue, i?aaiao i?e?iaeo oa i?ioeanoaeuei? i?aenoaae
canoinoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo oa i?iaanoe
a?aeiaaeoaaiiy oeueiai ?inoeoooo a?ae ?ioeo ?inoeooo?a a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
oeiaee, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?;

— aena?oeeoe iiaeeeaino? ? iaae? canoinoaaiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo ia iniiai?e oa
eiio?ieueieo noaae?yo e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa;

— aena?oeeoe oai?aoe/i? iiaeyaee uiaei iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy
?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee a iiaiio
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie;

— i?iaanoe aiae?c e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ??cieo
e?a?i uiaei aeei?enoaiiy a iueiio ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee;

— noi?ioethaaoe i?iiiceoe?? aei i?iaeoo E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai
eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie c i?eaiaeo oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeena?oaoe??. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeena?oaoe?? ? no/ani? iaoiaee i?ciaiiy, ui a?oioothoueny ia o?einio??
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae. ?c niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?iaio? canoiniaai? nenoaiiee, no?oeoo?iee,
ooieoe?iiaeueiee, ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, th?eaee/iiai
aiae?co, eia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee, iaoiae iiaeaethaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy oa
?io?.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ?iaioe a aaeoc?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai oa e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa a?o/eciyieo oa
ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, caaaeueii? oai??? i?aaa ? aea?aeaae, ?noi??? i?aaa ?
aea?aeaae Oe?a?ie oa ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, iaoeia? i?aoe? c ie?aieo ieoaiue
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa oiui. Cie?aia, aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo i?ia?aeieo
a/aieo-i?ioeanoae?no?a ye N.A.Aeueia?o, A.A.Ae?enaiae?ia, TH.I.A?ioaaie,
I.I.Ao???a, A.Aea?a, A.A.Aeia?iaieuenueeee, C.C?iaooee?i, E.Ae.Eiei??a,
A.A.Iacaeia, I.I.I?oa?iei, A.A.Ia?oei/ee, A.O.Ii?, A.ss.Iiia??i,
A.I.Naaeoeueeee, I.N.No?iaiae/, O.I.Oaoeoee?i, A.I.Oea?ei,
I.A.*aeueoeia. ?noioiee aianie a aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue i?i
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? aianee iieuenuee?
a/ai?-i?ioeanoae?noe A.Aeaoeaae/, A.Eaoa?nueeee, A.Ioaeeiianueeee,
I.*aneye, /e? ?aea? noaiiaeyoue cia/iee ?ioa?an aeey i?ioeanoaeueii?
aeieo?eie ? caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.

Aii??e/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue aeai?, iaea?aeai? aiane?aeie
aea/aiiy e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa, ?icaeyiooeo noaeaie ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?,
Euea?anueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei?, Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanoae (anueiai
aea/aii 163 e?ei?iaeuei? ni?aae) oa iieooaaiiy noaeae?a ? i?aoe?aiee?a
i?ieo?aoo?e (anueiai iieoaii 86 i?aoe?aiee?a) c iaoith aea/aiiy ?o
i?ioan?eii? iiceoe?? noiniaii i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy a e?ei?iaeueiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee, acaaae?, oa c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo, cie?aia. I?iaaaeaii
oaeiae iieooaaiiy iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/eiieo ae?yiue c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy
?o noaaeaiiy aei ?icoe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?, cie?aia,
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo.

Ii?iaoeaio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, /eiia
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia, e?ei?iaeueia, oeea?eueia oa
oeea?eueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia?
aeoe ie?aieo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, Oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei?
Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?anioae?ee oa eieeoiueiai Nithco ?N?, i?iaeoe
E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.

A ?iaio? oe?iei aeei?enoaii i?aaiao aioeeeeiiaaee/ii-aeia?aeeiao
e?oa?aoo?o.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, o oiio, ui a ?iaio?
aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeuei?e iaooe? eiiieaenii
?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?. I?e
oeueiio, c?iaeaia ni?iaa ?ica’ycaiiy iecee neeaaeieo aeeneon?eieo
ieoaiue i?i eiai i?aaiao i?e?iaeo, ooieoe??, ye? a?i aeeiio? a
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?, iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai ?inoeoooo oa
eiai i?noea a nenoai? e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo cania?a caoenoo
ii?ooaieo cei/eiii, ianaiia?aae, iaeiiaeo i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a iioa?i?eeo.

Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy a iiaiio
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo, oa noi?ioeueiaai?
i?iiiceoe?? i?i iiaeeea? iai?yiee eiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae iieiaeaiue,
ocaaaeueiaiue, aeniiae?a oa i?iiiceoe?e, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Ia iniia? oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co aeine?aeaeaiue i?i ooieoe?? a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? noi?ioeueiaaii aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ooieoe?? oa i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? aeaee
ooieoe?e a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?.

2. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui caoeno ii?ooaieo cei/eiii i?aa oa
caeiiieo ?ioa?an?a ? ie?aiith e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiith ooieoe??th.

3. Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeniiaie, ui a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo ? naiino?eiei ?inoeoooii e?ei?iaeueiiai
noaei/einoaa, yeee, ii?yae c ?inoeoooii oeea?eueiiai iiciao a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?, iieeeeaiee caaacia/eoe caoeno i?aa a?iiaaeyi oa
aea?aeaae, yeei aiane?aeie a/eiaiiy cei/eiiiai ae?yiiy caaaeaii
iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a.

4. C?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy, ia i?aenoaa? yeiai ? i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia iacia/ia aeei?enoaiiy a noaeia?e
i?aeoeoe? ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c
?i?oe?aoeae noaeo, eiai canoinoaaiiy a noaeia?e i?aeoeoe? ana ae ia?
i?noea, ? c eiai aeiiiiiaith cae?enith?oueny ?aaeueiee caoeno ii?ooaieo
cei/eiii iaeiiaeo i?aa a?iiaaeyi oa aea?aeaae.

5. Oi?ioeth?oueny aeniiaie, ui iioa?i?eee a?ae cei/eio, ? iniaa, aeiia
o a/eiaii? cei/eio (iaaeioaa/aiee, i?aenoaei?e), iathoue aooe ?aaeueii
??aiii?aaieie o/anieeaie i?ioeano. E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiee caeii
ia? i?noeoe aa?aio?? a?aeiiaeaiiy ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo i?aa oa
?ioa?an?a iioa?i?eeo in?a.

6. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaeaooiueiio
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie ii?ie, yea
cae??iethaaea a iaia’ycie noaeo ?aae?coaaoe a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee iioa?i?eiio.

7. A?aoiaioo?oueny iaiao?aei?noue cae??ieaiiy a
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie ie?aii? ii?ie, yea
?aaeaiaiooaaea a i?ioeanoaeueiee iaoai?ci a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee iioa?i?eiio c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo. Cai?iiiiiaaii oaeno
oaei? ii?ie.

8. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i iiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caaaeaieo cei/eiii iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a ca ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo ia
eiio?ieueieo noaae?yo e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa ? ui aiii ia oyaia
iia??oaiiy noaiiaeua canoaeaeaiiai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e i?iaaaeaii? iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? i?iaeaie, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iiaiai E?ei?iaeueiiai oa
E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaen?a Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? iinoaiia Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, a yeeo eaeaoueny
i?i ?ic’yniaiiy oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
anaoe?a?inueeeo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo,
cie?aia, ia ?, ??, ???, IV, V ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
«I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?», ye?
i?ioiaeeee o i. Eueaia? a?aeiia?aeii o ethoiio 1995 ?ieo, o ethoiio 1996
?ieo, o ethoiio 1997 ?ieo, o ethoiio 1998 ?ieo, o ethoiio 1999 ?ieo, ia
??? Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? o i. Ee?a? (1995 ??e), aeeeaaeaeenue a
eo?n? E?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano aeey nooaeaio?a oa ani??aio?a
Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
nai?ia?ao noaeae?a ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?, Euea?anueei? oa Oa?iii?euenueei?
iaeanoae.

Iaoa??aee ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a aeaa”yoe ioae?eaoe?yo o
a?o/eciyieo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. No?oeoo?a ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y (ianyaii 190 n.) neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/a?oueny i?aaeiao oa
ia’?eo, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiai
iaoiaeieia?y, oai?aoe/ia aaca, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, no?oeoo?a, a
oaeiae oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

?icae?e ? «Caoeno ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo i?aa oa caeiiieo ?ioa?an?a
iioa?i?eeo ye e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia ooieoe?y» neeaaea?oueny c
o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. O oeueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiaeeoueny
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo ooieoe?e, a naia: aaoi?
aiae?co? ??ciiiai?oi? i?aeoiaee uiaei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ooieoe??, iaa?oioiao? ?nioaaiiy a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? iaaieo aeae?a e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo
ooieoe?e, i?iaiaeeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy noni?eueii-iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a
cei/eio, cie?aia, caiiae?yii? cei/eiii iaeiiai? oa ?ioi? oeiaee, oa
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo cania?a onoiaiiy oeeo iane?aee?a,
i?iaiaeeoue aeaoaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii
iaeiiaeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo in?a ye aeaeo e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii?
ooieoe??.

Ieoaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo ooieoe?e ? aeineoue neeaaeiith ?
aeeneon?eiith i?iaeaiith e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa. Aiae?c
oaoiai? e?oa?aoo?e ye ?aaeyinueeiai, oae ? iino?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo,
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo-i?ioeanoae?no?a aeicaieea aeae?eeoe
iniiai? iaoeia? iiceoe?? c oeueiai ieoaiiy, a naia: aecia/aiiy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ooieoe?? ye «ie?aii? /anoeie
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ae?yeueiino?» (?.Ae.?aooiia); ye
«ae?aaeaieo a iaaieo iai?yieao e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
?ie? oa i?ecia/aiiy noa’?eo?a i?ioeano» (I.N.Aeuee?iae); ye
«noni?eueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ? ?ie? o/aniee?a i?ioeano, ye? aecia/athoueny
ii?iaie i?aaa…» (A.A.Aea?a); ye ie?aiiai, ?aaeaiaioiaaiiai caeiiii,
iai?yieo e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a
e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa (TH.I.A?ioaaie, A.I.Naaeoeueeee,
E.Ae.Eiei?aa, A.O.Ii?).

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ia?ae?/aieo iiceoe?e ? aeiaeaoeiai? a?aoiaioaoe??
aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia ooieoe?y
noaiiaeoue niaith ?aaeaiaioiaaiee e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiei caeiiii
iaaiee iai?yiie ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano. Aeania,
oaeee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii?
ooieoe?? iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? ci?noo no.2 EIE Oe?a?ie, yea,
oi?ioethth/e iniiai? caaaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa Oe?a?ie,
aecia/a? i?ecia/aiiy ? oa?aeoa? ie?aieo iai?yi?a ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano.

Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui ?icoi?iiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ooieoe?? ?
iaiiaeeeaei aac aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? ci?noo a aniaeo? ae??oaiiy iniiaieo
caaaeaiue e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa, ? ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
ii?yae c iniiaieie ooieoe?yie e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano (iaaeioaa/aiiy,
caoeno, ae??oaiiy ni?aae) ia an?o noaae?yo ?aae?co?oueny ooieoe?y
caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo (oa ?ioeo) i?aa iioa?i?eeo, iniiaiei
caaaeaiiyi yei? ? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy (onoiaiiy) caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee, ye iaeiiai c iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a noni?eueii-iaaacia/iiai
ae?yiiy.

A oiae? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co oeiaee ye iaeiiai c iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a
cei/eio aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo i?i iiae?e oaeeo iane?aee?a ia
iaoa??aeuei? ? iaiaoa??aeuei?, aea?aaoe a yeino? eeaneo?eaoe?eii? iciaee
a?aeiia?aeii iayai?noue /e a?aenooi?noue aiane?aeie a/eiaiiy
noni?eueii-iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a.

Iaoa??aeuei? iane?aeee a/eiaiiai cei/eio ae?aaeathoueny, ia?aaeon?i, a
caaaeai?e oeei cei/eiii oeiae? ia’?eoai cei/eiiiai iinyaaiiy
(noni?eueiei a?aeiineiai c i?eaiaeo caaacia/aiiy i?aaa aeaniino? ia
aea?aeaaia, eieaeoeaia /e iniaenoa a?iiaaeyi iaeii). Oiaoi, aea?aeaaia,
eieaeoeaia /e iniaenoa a?iiaaeyi iaeii aiane?aeie a/eiaiiy
noni?eueii-iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy cieuo?oueny, iioeiaeaeo?oueny,
aee?aaea?oueny, a aeanieeai (caeiiiei aieiae?eueoeyi) oeueiai iaeia
caaaea?oueny iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a, ye? /?oei iaae?eai? e?euee?nieie
iciaeaie (oa?aeoa?enoeeaie). Ioaea, iaoa??aeueiee iane?aeie cei/eio
iiaeia /?oei ae?aceoe a a?ioiaiio aea?aaeaio?, ui, nai?th /a?aith,
iaaea? iiaeeea?noue noaeo i?eeiyoe ??oaiiy i?i eiai onoiaiiy oeyoii
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yieo oeei cei/eiii iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a.

Noiniaii ae iaiaoa??aeueieo iane?aee?a noni?eueii-iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy
(ii?aeueia oeiaea, o?ce/i? no?aaeaeaiiy ? o.ae.), oi e?euee?nia ?o
aecia/aiiy iiaea aooe aeeeth/ii a?aeiiniei. Oiaoi, iioa?i?ea a?ae
cei/eio iniaa ia aeaniee ?icnoae anoaiiaeth? e?euee?nio iciaeo (a?ioiaee
aea?aaeaio) caiiae?yii? ?e oeiaee, a noae a i?ioean? ?icaeyaeo
e?ei?iaeueii? ni?aae oa aeine?aeaeaiiy iayaieo aeieac?a nai aeioiaeeoue
iaeiiai c aeniiae?a: iiai?noth caaeiaieueieoe aeiiae iioa?i?eiai;
caaeiaieueieoe oeth aeiiao a /anoei?; a?aeiiaeoe a caaeiaieaii? aeiiae.

Aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie
ia?aaeaa/a? iaai? i?ioeanoaeueii-i?aaia? caniae caoenoo ii?ooaieo
cei/eiii iaeiiaeo oa ?ioeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo, ye? iiaeooue
canoiniaoaaoenue a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?. Caniaaie (niiniaaie)
caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo oa ?ioeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo, cie?aia ?:
?icaeyae ? ae??oaiiy oeea?eueiiai iiciao a e?ei?iaeuei?e ni?aa?;
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaieo cei/eiii iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a c aeanii?
?i?oe?aoeae noaeo; iiaa?iaiiy iioa?i?eei a?ae cei/eio iniaai i?aaeiao?a
cei/eiiiai iinyaaiiy — ?a/iaeiieo aeieac?a ( e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia
?anoeoooe?y); iieeaaeaiiy ia canoaeaeaiiai e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai
iaia’yceo caaeaaeeoe (onoiooe, a?aeoeiaeoaaoe) caaaeai? iaoa??aeuei?
caeoee (aeaiee niin?a cae??ieaiee, /e aoa cae??ieaiee a e?ei?iaeueiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? aeayeeo aea?aeaa — eieeoi?o ?anioae?e N?N?, o aeaeyae?
i??e e?ei?iaeueiiai iiea?aiiy /e i?eioniai? i??e aeoiaiiai oa?aeoa?o aei
iaiiaiie?oiueiai i?aaiii?ooieea, yea ia ? e?ei?iaeueiei iiea?aiiyi);
iieeaaeaiiy ia canoaeaeaiiai e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai iaia’yceo
a?aeoeiaeoaaoe caaaeai? cei/eiii iaoa??aeuei? caeoee, ui canoiniao?oueny
o aeaeyae? i?iaaoe?eii? (aei?iaoaaeueii?) oiiae i?e a?aeno?i/oe?
aeeiiaiiy ae?ieo, yeei canoaeaeaiiio ia?aii iiea?aiiy o aeaeyae?
iicaaaeaiiy aie? (a?aeiia?aeii aei no. 461 EE Oe?a?ie). Ne?ae
iaaieineoe, ui iieeaaeaiiy iaia’yceo onoiooe (caeaaeeoe, a?aeoeiaeoaaoe)
caiiae?yio oeiaeo ye e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee cao?ae aieeao ia aeiio o
a/eiaii? cei/eio iniao ia?aaeaa/aiee /eiiei e?ei?iaeueiei iaoa??aeueiei
caeiiii (no. 461 oa no.11 E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie). ?acii c oei,
canoinoaaiiy oeueiai caniao (iieeaaeaiiy iaia’yceo) ? iiaeeeaei eeoa a
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? ? o?eueee o anoaiiaeaiiio
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiei caeiiii ii?yaeeo, a oiio ? an? i?aenoaae
a?aeianoe oeae niin?a caoenoo aei e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo cania?a
caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/eio in?a.

A oiae? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aeyaeaii, ui eiaeai c oeeo cania?a
iiai?noth caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy iaeiiaiai oa ?ioiai
(ii?aeueiiai, o?ce/iiai) noaio iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/eio in?a, cia/iith
i??ith eiiiaino? ?? ii?aeuei? oa o?ce/i? no?aaeaeaiiy. Eiaeiee c ieo
ia?aaeaa/a? nenoaio iaaieo i?ioeanoaeueieo ae?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia
c’ynoaaiiy (anoaiiaeaiiy) oa?aeoa?o ? ?ici??o caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee, caaacia/aiiy ?? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, i?enoaeaeaiiy noaeii aei ??
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy (aei a?aeiiaeaiiy iiia?aaeiueiai noaio), aaciina?aaei?
aeeiiaiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, ia?aa??eo i?aaeeueiino? ae??oaiiy noaeii
ia?oi? ?inoaioe?? ieoaiiy i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee noaeaie eanaoe?eii? oa iaaeyaeii? ?inoaioe??.

Aeey ae??oaiiy caaaeaiiy caoenoo, ianaiia?aae, ii?ooaieo cei/eiii
iaeiiaeo i?aa, e??i e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo, canoiniaothoueny ?
??ciiai ?iaeo i?aai?caoe?ei? caniae, ye? iieyaathoue o: aeyaeaii?
i?ioei?aaii aeeo/aiiai iaaeioaa/aiei (i?aenoaei?i) o iioa?i?eiai iaeia;
anoaiiaeaii? iayaiino? iaeia, ia yea iiaea aooe iaeeaaeaii a?aoo c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaieo cei/eiii caeoe?a;
niiioeaii? ni?e/eithaa/?a oeiaee (iaaeioaa/aiiai, i?aenoaeiiai) aai
in?a, ui ianooue iaeiiao a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?o ae??, aei
aeia?ia?eueiiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a oiui.

C iaeyaeo ia ioae?/ia ia/aei e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa, a oaeiae ia
oa, ui caeiiiaeaaaoeue aaiaeeoue a e?ei?iaeueiee i?ioean ? niaoe?aeueieo
noa’?eo?a (oeea?eueiiai iiceaa/a ? oeea?eueiiai a?aeiia?aea/a),
i?ioeanoaeueiee ?ioa?an yeeo iineoue aeeeth/ii iaeiiaee oa?aeoa?, aaoi?
?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui aea?aeaaa a inia? i?aai?a, ye? i?iaaaeyoue
e?ei?iaeueiee i?ioean, aeyaey? iaaaeyeo ioae?/io caoe?eaaeai?noue uiaei
caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/eio, ? oiio aaaaea?, ui
caoeno ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio
i?ioean? Oe?a?ie, — oea ie?aiee iai?yi ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a, ui
i?iaaaeyoue noaei/einoai, oa o/aniee?a i?ioeano, yeee iaae?eaiee an?ia
aeanoeainoyie (iciaeaie) e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ooieoe??, a naia:
ia? nai? niaoeeo?/ia caaaeaiiy a i?ioean?; ia? i?ioeanoaeuei? oi?ie
(niiniae) ae??oaiiy; ?niothoue noa’?eoe oa i?ioeanoaeuei? caoiaee, ca
aeiiiiiaith yeeo ?ica’yco?oueny aeaia caaaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai
noaei/einoaa.

Oea aeaei i?aenoaae aaoi?o c?iaeoe inoaoi/iee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? Oe?a?ie ii?yae c ?ioeie
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueieie ooieoe?yie ?nio? ua e naiino?eia ooieoe?y
caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo oa ?ioeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo in?a, yea
i? a yeiio ?ac? ia ioiieth?oueny ooieoe??th iaaeioaa/aiiy.

?icae?e 2 “Nooue, i?aaiaa i?e?iaea ? iniaeeaino? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio
noaei/einoa? Oe?a?ie”, yeee neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a,
i?enay/aiee c’ynoaaiith iiiyooy oa iniaeeainoae a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caaaeaii? cei/eiii iaeiiai? oa ?ioi? oeiaee c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo
a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae aeaoaeueiiio aiae?co
i?ioeanoaeueieo i?aenoaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca
?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo.

O aeiaaeeo ii?ooaiiy noa’?eoeaiiai i?aaa aiane?aeie a/eiaiiy noni?eueii
iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy (cei/eio) e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia
caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a? c iaoith caoenoo oeueiai i?aaa a
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? e??i iiciaiiai niiniao caoenoo ? ?io?
(iaiiciai?) niiniae caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo
in?a. Iaeiei c oaeeo iaiiciaieo niinia?a ? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaieo
cei/eiii iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? c aeanii?
?i?oe?aoeae noaeo. Nooue aeaiiai e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai niiniao
caoenoo iieyaa? a oiio, ui noae i?e aeianaii? ae?ieo c aeanii?
?i?oe?aoeae ae??oo? ieoaiiy i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaieo aiane?aeie
a/eiaiiy cei/eio iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a, yeui oeea?eueiee iicia ia aoa
cayaeaiee iioa?i?eei, ?, aiane?aeie oeueiai, eiai iaeiia? oa ?io? i?aaa
caeeoeeeny iacaoeuaieie. Aeacaiee niin?a a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yieo
cei/eiii caeoe?a, cae/aeii, aeoiaeeoue ca ?aiee anoaiiaeaii? a
caeiiiaeaa/?e oa i?aaicanoinia/?e i?aeoeoe? eiino?oeoe?? c’?aeiaiiai
i?ioeano. E??i oeueiai, oeae niin?a a aeaye?e i??? ? neeaaeiei aeey
oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ine?eueee a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae caaaeueieo
iieiaeaiue, ae?iaeaieo e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiith iaoeith uiaei
oeea?eueiiai iiciao a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?. A oeueiio ? aaa/a?oueny
i?e/eia oiai, ui o a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e oa i?aaia?e e?oa?aoo??, ca
iaaaeeeeie aeiyoeaie, aeaiee e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiee ?inoeooo ia
aoa i?aaeiaoii naiino?eiiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii ? a
i?aaicanoinia/?e i?aeoeoe? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee
c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo ia ciaoiaeeoue iaeaaeiiai i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy.

Oae, o i?iaiae?ciaaieo 163-io e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i cei/eie,
aiane?aeie a/eiaiiy yeeo iioa?i?eei aoei caiiae?yii iaeiiao /e o?ce/io
oeiaeo, ia iiiaio ?icaeyaeo ni?aae a noae? caeoee caeeoaeeny
iaa?aeoeiaeiaaieie a 114-oe aeiaaeeao, oae ye ia aoa cayaeaiee
oeea?eueiee iicia. Iiciaiee niin?a a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a aoa
canoiniaaiee a –59-oe aeiaaeeao. ? eeoa o 16-oe ni?aaao iaoa??aeuei?
caeoee aoee a?aeoeiaeiaai? ca aeaniith ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo (i?e oeueiio,
a 11-oe aeiaaeeao noae noyaioa ?c canoaeaeaieo a ei?enoue aea?aeaae
aa?o?noue e?eoaaiiy iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/eio). Iaa?oue yeui i?eionoeoe,
ui iaaia /anoeia iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/eio ae??oeea i?aae’yaeoe iicia a
ii?yaeeo oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa (iai?. iaanoaiiaeai? caeoee ia
iiiaio ?icaeyaeo ni?aae, iai?ecia/aia iain?y ii ?iaae?aeiino?) aai ae
iioa?i?eee acaaae? a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? eiio
oeiaee, ana ae i?eaa?oa? oaaao iacia/ia aeei?enoaiiy noaeii iiaeeeaino?
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae, oi/
a?aeiia?aeii aei /.2 no.29 oa no. 931 EIE Oe?a?ie o aeiaaeeo
iai?aae’yaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai iiciao a e?ei?iaeuei?e ni?aa? noae
(noaeaey) ciaia’ycaiee (ai?aa?) ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caeoe?a c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a/aieie-i?ioeanoae?noaie
i?iaeaie a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo aea? aeineoue
??ciiiai?oi? ?acoeueoaoe. Oae, C.C.C?iaooee?i o i?iaaaeaiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy noaeaie caeoe?a c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae a
ni?aaao i?i ?ice?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai iaeia aeyaea, ui cacia/aiee niin?a
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iaa i?noea anueiai a 6-oe a?aenioeao a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? aeiaaee?a. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy A.ss.Iiia??ia
(aea/aiith i?aeaeaaaeinue 161-a e?ei?iaeueia ni?aaa) a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a ca ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo neeaea 15,5 a?aenioea.

Iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue cana?ae/othoue iaiaaeaia
aeei?enoaiiy a noaeia?e i?aeoeoe? aeacaii? oi?ie a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a oea iaoiiaeth?oueny aeaiia
/eiieeaie: 1) iaaeinoaoiuei /?oeith caeiiiaeaa/ith ?aaeaiaioaoe??th
aiae?ciaaii? oi?ie a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy; 2) iaaeinoaoi?i iaoeiaei
ii?aoethaaiiyi iaoai?cio canoinoaaiiy ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee c
?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?. A oeueiio ? i?iyaeythoueny
i?e/eie oiai, ui noaee ia canoiniaothoue aeacaiee niin?a a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caeoe?a, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui caeiiiaeaaaoeue ciaia’yco? o aeiaaeeao,
aecia/aieo caeiiii, ?aae?coaaoe caoeno iaeiiaeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo a?ae
cei/eio c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo, yeui oe? i?aaa ia iiiaio aeianaiiy
ae?ieo caeeoeeeny iacaoeuaieie.

E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie ? ?ai?oa ia?aaeaa/aei
iiaeeea?noue a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee iioa?i?eiio a?ae cei/eio c aeanii?
?i?oe?aoeae noaeo. Oae, no.305 E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?inueei? ?N? a ?aaeaeoe?? 1927 ?ieo ia?aaeaa/aea, ui “noae,
aaa/eaoe, ui iioa?i?eiio caaaeaii oeiaee, ia? i?aai, aeiiny/e ae?ie,
iinoaiiaeoe noyaoe c i?aenoaeiiai a?aeiia?aeio noio ia ei?enoue
iioa?i?eiai, oi/ ae oeae inoaii?e ia i?aae’yaea oeea?eueiiai iiciao”.
sse aa/eii, caeiiiaeaaaoeue iaaeaaaa noaeo i?aai nei?enoaoeny oaeei
niiniaii caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo i?aa ?, i?e oeueiio,
ia?ane?aeoaaa i?eiaeii? aea? oe?e?: ii-ia?oa, yeiaeoaeaeoa a?aeiiaeaiiy
ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a; ii-ae?oaa, aeinyaiaiiy
oaeiai a?aeiiaeaiiy iaea?eueo aeiiiiiei niiniaii – oeyoii c’?aeiaiiai
i?ioeano. Aeania, aeey a?eueo aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? a?aeiiaeaiiy
iaeiiaiai noaio iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/eio caeiiiaeaaaoeue iaaeaa noaeo
i?aai c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noyaoaaoe c iaaeioaa/aiiai (i?aenoaeiiai)
caaaeai? eiai cei/eiiei a/eieii iaoa??aeuei? caeoee iaeii/anii c
ae??oaiiyi ieoaiiy i?i i?eoyaiaiiy eiai aei e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Ca?aeii i.365 Noaoooo e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa Aano??? 1873 ?ieo,
yeee ae?ya ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie oa Iieueu? aae aei 1928 ?ieo,
iaeiiaa oeiaea, caaaeaia iioa?i?eiio a ?acoeueoao? a/eiaiiy cei/eiiiai
ae?yiiy, anoaiiaethaaeany ? a?aeoeiaeiaoaaeany noaeii ex officio, oiaoi
iacaeaaeii a?ae aie? iioa?i?eiai. Iioa?i?eee o?eueee iia?aeiieyany i?i
ii?ooaiiy i?iaaaeaeaiiy a e?ei?iaeuei?e ni?aa? ? eiio iaaeaaaeiny i?aai
i?eeiyoe o/anoue a i?ioean?.

Ia?aa?ao 1 no.365 EIE Iieuenueei? ?anioae?ee 1969 ?ieo anoaiiaethaaa, ui
o aeiaaeeo aeianaiiy noaeii ae?ieo ca ?ice?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?
eieaeoeaiiai iaeia, noae ciaia’ycaiee aoa c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae
i?enoaeeoe a ei?enoue iioa?i?ei? i?aai?caoe?? a?ioiaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caeoe?a. sseui ae oeiaea caiiae?yia aiane?aeie a/eiaiiy ?ioiai aeaeo
cei/eio, oi noae iaae?eyany i?aaii i?enoaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai
a?ioiaiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaieo caeoe?a. Aea iiaee EIE ?anioae?ee
Iieueua 1998 ?ieo ia ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeeaino? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia a aeena?oaoe?? c’ynoaaiith i?aaiai? i?e?iaee
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo. Oie
oaeo, ui oey oi?ia caoenoo ii?ooaiiai cei/eiii i?aaa cae??ieaia a
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeii? Oe?a?ie (/.3 no.29, /.2 no.93 1 EIE
Oe?a?ie) na?ae/eoue i?i ?? i?ioeanoaeueiee oa?aeoa?. I?aaa ? iaia’ycee,
ui aeieeaathoue ?c ci?noo aeaieo ii?i, aae?aniaai? ia aaciina?aaei?i
o/anieeai iaoa??aeueii-i?aaiaiai a?aeiioaiiy (iaaeioaa/aiiio,
i?aenoaeiiio ? iioa?i?eiio), a, aeiyoeiai, noaeo, yeee ?icaeyaea? ?
ae??oo? eiie?aoio e?ei?iaeueio ni?aao. Noae i?e ae??oaii? ieoaiiy i?i
e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?aenoaeiiai iaeii/anii ?aae?co?
oeea?eueii-i?aaiao a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oeueiai ae i?aenoaeiiai ia?aae
iioa?i?eei, iineeath/enue ia a?aeiia?aeio ii?io
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiio.

A th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooiy ?aeeia aeoiea c i?eaiaeo ?nioaaiiy
oaei? naiino?eii? oi?ie caoenoo ye a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo. Aaaaoi aaoi??a
(A.A.Aeia?iaieuenueeee, I.Aaoeaoia) noaa?aeaeothoue, ui a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? ? iaei??th c
iniaeeainoae iiciaiiai i?iaaaeaeaiiy. I?ioa, aaoi? i?aeo?eio? iiceoe?th
a/aieo-i?ioeanoae?no?a, ye? noaa?aeaeothoue, ui i?enoaeaeaiiy aei
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy i?aenoaeiei caaaeaieo cei/eiii iioa?i?eiio iaoa??aeueieo
caeoe?a c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo ? naiino?eiith
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiith oi?iith caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii
iaeiiaeo i?aa (N.A.Aeueia?o, C.C.C?iaooee?i, A.A.Aea?a, A.O.Ii?).

Aaoi? iiae?ey? aeoieo, ui iaiao?aeiith iciaeith iiciaiiai i?iaaaeaeaiiy
a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? ? iayai?noue aeiiae iioa?i?eiai (oeea?eueiiai
iiciao) i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy eiio caaaeaieo cei/eiii caeoe?a. Oaea aeiiaa
coiiaeth? aeieeiaiiy iaaieo i?ioeanoaeueieo a?aeiinei ?, a?aeiia?aeii,
noa’?eo?a i?ioeano (oeea?eueiiai iiceaa/a ? a?aeiia?aea/a /e
oeea?eueiiai a?aeiia?aea/a). Aeey a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yieo cei/eiii
caeoe?a c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo iaeaieiai?oith oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth ? a?aenooi?noue iiciaii? cayae. Oiio, ia a?aei?io a?ae
iiciaiiai i?iaaaeaeaiiy o e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?, oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth oaeiai ?iaeo a?aeiinei ? a?aenooi?noue i?ioeanoaeueieo
noi??i. Iioa?i?eee ? eeoa iniaith, a ei?enoue yei? cae?eniththoueny
a?aeiia?aei? i?ioeanoaeuei? ae?? ? ia aa?a aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? a
i?aaia?aeiineiao. Iaaeioaa/aiee, yeee a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iniaenoi
a?aeiia?aea? ca iaeiia? iane?aeee a/eiaiiai cei/eio, oaeiae ia aeeiio?
?ieue noi?iie o i?ioean?, oae ye eiio ia i?ioenoi?oue i?ioeeaaeia
noi?iia. Oea aeaco? ia a?aei?ii?noue i?ae iiciaiei niiniaii
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee ? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiyi ?? c
aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?.

Aaoi? i?iaiaeeoue ?iciaaeoaaiiy oeeo aeaio ?inoeooo?a, aeacoth/e, ui
aeey iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy iiciaiiai niiniao a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? iaiao?aeiith ? iayai?noue oaeeo iniiaieo oiia:
oaeoo caiiae?yiiy cei/eiii iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a; i?aae’yaeaiiy iiciao
i?i ?o a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy; caeo/aiiy a i?ioean niaoe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a –
noi??i oeea?eueiiai iiciao (oeea?eueiiai iiceaa/a ? a?aeiia?aea/a /e
oeea?eueiiai a?aeiia?aea/a). Aeey ?aae?caoe?? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo iaiao?aeia eeoa
iaeia oiiaa: oaeo caiiae?yiiy cei/eiii oeiaee aea?aeaa? aai o?ce/i?e
inia?, yea ca noaiii caei?ia’y oa c ?ioeo iiaaaeieo i?e/ei ia iiaea
caoenoeoe nai? i?aaa.

Ua iaei??th a?aeiaaeoaaeueiith iciaeith iiciaiiai niiniao caoenoo a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? ? ?aaeaiaioiaaia caeiiii iiaeeea?noue
i?aae’yaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai iiciao i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii?
cei/eiii oeiaee eeoa aei ii/aoeo noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa o ni?aa?.
?aae?caoe?y ae oaeiai e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai niiniao caoenoo ye
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yieo cei/eiii caeoe?a iioa?i?eiio c ?i?oe?aoeae
noaeo ? iiaeeeaith aae aei iinoaiiaeaiiy noaeii ae?ieo o ni?aa?.

Iaaaaeaia aea? i?aenoaao c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caaaeaieo cei/eiii iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo ?
naiino?eiei e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiei niiniaii (oi?iith) caoenoo
ii?ooaieo cei/eiii iaeiiaeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo in?a, a ia “ni?iuaiei
aa??aioii iiciaii? oi?ie caoenoo i?aaa”.

A?aecia/aii oaeiae aeiei??iio a?aei?ii?noue ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a?ae iieeaaeaiiy ia
canoaeaeaiiai e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai iaia’yceo onoiooe caaaeaio
aiane?aeie a/eiaiiy cei/eio oeiaeo. Oae, i?e ?aae?caoe??
oeea?eueii-i?aaiaiai iaia’yceo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?, iicaaaeaiiy
aeiii? iniae iaaieo i?aaiaeo aeaa iieyaa? aeeeth/ii o ciaioaii? noa?e ??
iaeiiaiai (iaoa??aeueiiai) aieiae?iiy. I?yeeo ea?aeueieo ooieoe?e
?aae?caoe?y oeea?eueii-i?aaiaiai iaia’yceo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee c
?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? ia cae?enith?.
Canoinoaaiiy ae a?aeno?i/ee aeeiiaiiy ae?ieo noaeii ? iieeaaeaiiy
iaia’yceo ia canoaeaeaiiai a iaaiee no?ie onoiooe caiiae?yio oeiaeo (/.3
no.461 EE Oe?a?ie) iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, a cae?eniaii?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? (iaiaeueii?) ooieoe?? (oiaoi ia? ca iaoo,
ianaiia?aae, canoinoaaiiy iiea?aiiy aei canoaeaeaiiai). sseui i?ioyaii
anoaiiaeaiiai noaeii no?ieo canoaeaeaiee aeeiia? iieeaaeaiee ia iueiai
noaeii iaia’ycie a?aeoeiaeoaaoe oeiaeo ? ia a/eieoue iiaiai
i?aaiii?ooaiiy, oi noae ca?eueiy? canoaeaeaiiai a?ae iiea?aiiy. C ?ioiai
aieo, i?e iaaeeiiaii? iaia’yceo a?aeoeiaeoaaoe oeiaeo, noae iiaea
aeianoe ooaaeo i?i neanoaaiiy a?aeno?i/ee aeeiiaiiy ae?ieo aei
iicaaaeaiiy aie? oa i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?aaeueiiai aeeiiaiiy ae?ieo.

Aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui canoinoaaiiy ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio
noaei/einoa? ni?yiiaaia, ianaiia?aae, ia ?aae?caoe?th
oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oeyoii a?aeiiaeaiiy ii?ooaiiai
cei/eiii iaeiiaiai noaio iioa?i?eiai (oiaoi iineoue /enoi
eiiiainaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?). Oeei naiei aeacaiee ?inoeooo i?eioeeiiai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai iaia’yceo onoiaiiy
canoaeaeaiei caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii aiae?c i?ioeanoaeueieo i?aenoaa
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo
a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?. Iiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? a
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaieo caeoe?a ca
?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo ia aeoieo aaoi?a iiaeiia aooe coiiaeaia iaaieie
ia?aaeaa/aieie caeiiii oiiaaie, ca iayaiino? yeeo iiaeia aanoe iiao i?i
naiino?eia ae??oaiiy noaeii ieoaiiy i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee. Aei
oaeeo oiia ne?ae a?aeianoe iayai? iaoa??aeueii-i?aaia? i?aenoaae ?
i?ioeanoaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae.

Iaoa??aeueii-i?aaiaeie (oaeoe/ieie) i?aenoaaaie a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? ? th?eaee/i?
oaeoe, c iayai?noth yeeo caeii iia’yco? aeieeiaiiy iaaiiai
i?aaia?aeiioaiiy i?ae caiiae?thaa/ai oeiaee (oea, ye i?aaeei,
iaaeioaa/aiee) ? iaoa??aeueii iioa?i?eith iniaith, ? ye? aeeth/athoue a
naaa noni?eueii-iaaacia/ia ae?yiiy (a iaoiio aeiaaeeo, neeaae cei/eio),
iaoa??aeuei? caeoee ye oe?aeeeaee iane?aeie a?ae aeaiiai ae?yiiy,
i?e/eiiaee ca’ycie i?ae aeacaieie noni?eueii-iaaacia/iei ae?yiiyi oa
caaaeaieie iaoa??aeueieie caeoeaie. Aeai? oaeoe iathoue th?eaee/ia
cia/aiiy ? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo oeea?eueiiai i?aaiii?ooaiiy ye ?aeeii?
i?aenoaae iaoa??aeueii? (oeea?eueii-i?aaiai?) a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? (no.4,
440-466 OeE Oe?a?ie). Iaeii/anii aiie ? iaoa??aeueieie i?aenoaaaie a
noaeiaiio i?iaaaeaeaii? ii a?aeoeiaeoaaiith caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
iaeiiai? oa ?ioi? oeiaee a ii?yaeeo e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa.

I?ioeanoaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae, ?nioaaiiy yeeo ? iaiao?aeiei aeey
?aae?caoe?? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iioa?i?eiio caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee a
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?, — oea th?eaee/ii cia/ei? ianoaaeie, c
eio?eie i?ioeanoaeueiee caeii iia’yco? aeieeiaiiy i?iaaaeaeaiiy ii
a?aeoeiaeoaaiith caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee iioa?i?eiio a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?. Aaoi? iiae?ey? oaa?aeaeaiiy i?io. Ii?a A.O.,
ui, oi/ i?ioeanoaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee a
e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? ? iio?aeieie a?ae iaoa??aeueii-i?aaiaeo
(oaeoe/ieo) i?aenoaa, i?ioa, aiie ? a?aeiinii naiino?eieie, aaeaea
iayai?noue /e a?aenooi?noue i?ioeanoaeueieo ia?aaeoiia i?yii aecia/a?
iiaeeea?noue /e iaiiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii
iaeiiaeo i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a iioa?i?eeo in?a.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui e??i i?ioeanoaeueieo ia?aaeoiia, ye? ? ni?eueieie c
iiciaiei niiniaii caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii i?aa iioa?i?eeo, ?inoeooo
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?, ia? niaoe?aeuei?, i?eoaiaii? o?eueee oeueiio
?inoeoooo ia?aaeoiiae. Ni?eueieie aeey iaeaeaio ?inoeooo?a ? ianooii?
i?ioeanoaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae: 1) i?aea?aeii/?noue noaeo i?aaia?aeiioaiiy,
ui aeieeei aiane?aeie oaeoo caiiae?yiiy iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a; 2)
a?aenooi?noue noaeiaiai ??oaiiy, yea iiaeiii aoei a a?aaoethaaoe aeacaia
i?aaia?aeiioaiiy oeyoii noyaiaiiy caeoe?a c ai?aeieea, a?aeiiae a ?o
a?aeoeiaeoaaii?, oeeaaeaii? ie?iai? oaiaee, a?aeiiae iiceaa/a a?ae
iiciao; 3) a?aenooi?noue /?oei ae?aaeaii? a?aeiiae iioa?i?ei? iniae a?ae
oeea?eueiiai iiciao ? acaaae? a?ae a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a; 4) aeciaiiy
iaaeioaa/aiiai aeianaiei ae?ieii noaeo aeiiei a a/eiaii?
noni?eueii-iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy, iaeiei c i?aaiaeo iane?aee?a yeiai
noaei caiiae?yiiy iaoa??aeueii? oa ?ioi? oeiaee. O aeiaaeeo a?aenooiino?
aoaeue-yei? c oeeo oiia caaeiaieaiiy oeea?eueiiai iiciao a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? ia aeiionea?oueny. Iaiiaeeeaei ?, a oaeiio
aeiaaeeo, ? aeei?enoaiiy a i?ioean? ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee c
?i?oe?aoeae noaeo.

Niaoeeo?/ieie aeey ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee
c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? ? ianooii?
i?ioeanoaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae: a) a?aenooi?noue cayaeaiiai oeea?eueiiai
iiciao a e?ei?iaeuei?e ni?aa?; a) caiiae?yiiy aiane?aeie a/eiaiiy
cei/eio iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a aea?aeaaiiio iaoa??aeueiiio ?ioa?ano aai
ae caiiae?yiiy iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a o?ce/i?e inia?, yea a neeo
cacia/aieo a e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeii? oa ?ioeo iiaaaeieo
i?e/ei (/.1,2 no.29 EIE Oe?a?ie) ia iiaea caoeuaoe nai? ii?ooai? i?aaa
oa ?ioa?ane; a) i?aaiaa iiaeeea?noue iieeanoe iaeiiao
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca caaaeai? caeoee o?eueee ia iaaeioaa/aiiai
(i?aenoaeiiai).

Aeena?oaio a?aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue aeiiiaiaiiy /eiiiai
E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie ie?aiith ii?iith, yea a
i?aeoaa?aeeea naiino?ei?noue ?nioaaiiy ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo ? ia?aaeaa/eea a
?aaeueio iiaeeea?noue (iaia’ycie aeey noaeo) oaeiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy,
cie?aia:

“Noaooy 281. A?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? c
?i?oe?aoeae noaeo.

Oeiaea, ui aoea caaaeaia iioa?i?eiio a ?acoeueoao? a/eiaiiy cei/eio,
aea iioa?i?eee (aai i?ieo?i? a ?ioa?anao iioa?i?eiai) c iaaieo i?e/ei ia
i?aae’yaea oeea?eueiiai iiciao, i?aeeyaa? a?aeoeiaeoaaiith a
e?ei?iaeuei?e ni?aa? c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo, yeui oeueiai aeiaaa? ioi?iia
?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae oa a?iiaaeyi.

Noae, aeyaeaoe i?ney ii/aoeo noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa, ui oeea?eueiee iicia c
iaaieo iiaaaeieo i?e/ei ia aoa cayaeaiee, ciaia’ycaiee c aeanii?
?i?oe?aoeae ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee iioa?i?eiio.

Iioa?i?eee a?ae cei/eio ia? i?aai a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caaaeaii? eiio oeiaee, aea aei iiiaioo iaieioaiiy noaeii i?i aeo?ae eiai
aei ia?aae/i? e?iiaoe aeey iinoaiiaeaiiy ae?ieo. Oaea a?aeiiaa iiaeiia
aooe iioeaiaaia ? ia iiaeiia ii?oooaaoe i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a ?ioeo in?a.

Iiaaaeieie i?e/eiaie, ui noaee ia?aoeiaeith aeey i?aae’yaeaiiy
oeea?eueiiai iiciao iioa?i?eei, aaaaeathoueny:

oyaeeee noai caei?ia’y iioa?i?eiai;

oyaeea iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua iioa?i?eiai;

?io? iiaaaei? i?e/eie, ui i?aeeyaathoue iaia”yceiaiio c’ynoaaiith noaeii
a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo.”

Aaoi? i?iiiio? oaeiae c iaoith caaacia/aiiy iiaeeeainoae a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio
noaei/einoa? aaanoe iaaaaeaio ii?io aei iiaiai EIE Oe?a?ie.

Aeaea?oueny, ui cae??ieaiiy ?inoeoooo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee a ie?ai?e
noaoo? EIE Oe?a?ie i?aeoaa?aeeei a cia/ei?noue oeueiai niiniao
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy, a oea, nai?th /a?aith, ni?eyei a a?eueo aeoeai?e eiai
?aae?caoe?? a i?aaicanoinia/?e i?aeoeoe?.

O ?icae?e? 3 “A?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca
?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo a aeeiai?oe? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano Oe?a?ie”, yeee
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a, aiae?cothoueny iaoai?ci noaeiaiai
i?iaaaeaeaiiy ii a?aeoeiaeoaaiith caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca
?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo ia?oi? ?inoaioe?? oa a eiio?ieueieo noaae?yo
e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa.

Aeoiaey/e ?c ci?noo noaoae 29,931 EIE Oe?a?ie, eiinoaoo?oueny, ui
?aae?caoe?y a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith
noaeo ? iiaeeeaith aeeeth/ii ia noaae?? noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo i?ney
iaieioaiiy i?i ii/aoie noaeiaiai ne?aenoaa. I?ioa, EIE Oe?a?ie ia
i?noeoue niaoe?aeueieo ii?i, ye? a ?aaoethaaee ieoaiiy a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
ia noaae?? noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui a ?nioaaii? oaeeo ii?i
iaia? iio?aae, ine?eueee a?eueo?noue cae?enithaaieo noaeii ia?oi?
?inoaioe?? ae?e ni?yiiaaia iaeii/anii ? ia anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o oa
?ici??o caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee, ye iaiao?aeiiai aeaiaioa i?aaeiaoo
aeieacoaaiiy, ? ia aaeeooy caoiae?a aei ?? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ua ia noaae??
a?aeaeaiiy iaaeioaa/aiiai aei noaeo (i.i. 3,9 no. 242 EIE Oe?a?ie).

A?aecia/a?oueny oa?i?iieia?/ia iaa?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae i.9 no.242 EIE
Oe?a?ie ? no.272 EIE Oe?a?ie, oae ye ia?oa ii?ia ciaia’yco? noae
anoaiiaeoe /e aaeeoi caoiae?a aei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee iacaeaaeii a?ae
niiniao a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy. Noaooy ae 247 EIE Oe?a?ie iieeaaea? ia noae
iaia’ycie aaeeoe caoiae?a ii caaacia/aiith a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee eeoa c
aeei?enoaiiyi iiciaiiai niiniao. Oiio cai?iiiiiaaii c iaoith onoiaiiy
oaei? ?ica?aeiino? a iaca? oa oaeno? no.247 EIE Oe?a?ie neiainiieo/aiiy
“oeea?eueiiai iiciao” cai?ieoe neiaaie “a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo
caeoe?a, caaaeaieo cei/eiii”.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co /.3 no.29, /.8 no.334 aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie
i?i iaiao?aei?noue iaia’yceiai? iioeaaoe?? noaeii o ae?ieo canoinoaaiiy
/e a?aeiiae a canoinoaaii? a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae
caaaeaieo cei/eiii caeoe?a. C ?ioiai aieo, i?e a?aeoeiaeoaaii? noaeii c
aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae aeo?ao ia e?eoaaiiy iioa?i?eiai a ii?yaeeo no.931
EIE Oe?a?ie noae ia ca’ycaiee iaia’yceii iaaiaeeoe o ae?ieo iioeae
canoinoaaiiy /e iacanoinoaaiiy naiai i?aaa.

Aiae?coth/e ieoaiiy, iia”ycai? c a?aeoeiaeoaaiiyi oeiaee a eiio?ieueieo
noaae?yo i?ioeano (eanaoe?eiiio i?iaaaeaeaii?), aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue
aeniiaeo: yeui a ia?aaeaa/aieo caeiiii aeiaaeeao (/.8 no.334, /.3 no.29
EIE Oe?a?ie) noae ia?oi? ?inoaioe?? ia aeeiiaa iieeaaeaiiai ia iueiai
iaia’yceo ii a?aeoeiaeoaaiith caaaeaieo cei/eiii caeoe?a, oiaoi, ia
canoiniaoaaa i?aaeea i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae
aai ia aeacaa iioea?a a?aeiiae a caaeiaieaii? oeea?eueiiai iiciao ? ia
aeciaa ca iioa?i?eei i?aaa ia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee a ii?yaeeo oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa, oi oae? ae?? noaeo ?
ii?ooaiiyi e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiio, yea i?aeeyaa? onoiaiith
eanaoe?eiith ?inoaioe??th. I?ioa, neanoaaiiy ae?ieo noaeo c i?e/eie
iaa?aeoeiaeiaaieo caeoe?a iioa?i?eiio (oa ua e i?e iayaiino? oiiae, ui
a?i ia? i?aai a?aeoeiaeoaaoe caeoee a ii?yaeeo oeea?eueiiai
noaei/einoaa) iaaaoeaii iicia/eeany a ia ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio
i?ioeanoaeueii? aeiiii?? /ano ? cania?a o ae??oaii? iniiaieo caaaeaiue
e?ei?iaeueiiai noaei/einoaa. Oiio, c iaeyaeo ia noaeiao i?aeoeeo,
ae?yeuei?noue noae?a eiio?ieueieo ?inoaioe?e, eio??, o aeiaaeeo
iai?aaeeueiiai ae??oaiiy oeea?eueiiai iiciao noaeii ia?oi? ?inoaioe??,
neaniaothoue ae?ie a /anoei? oeea?eueiiai iiciao ?c nea?oaaiiyi eiai
aeey ?icaeyaeo a ii?yaeeo oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa, c iiceoe?? aaoi?a
iiaeiia noinoaaoenue ? ieoaiue iai?aaeeueiiai a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a c
aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo ia?oi? ?inoaioe??. sseui ae noae ia?oi?
?inoaioe?? ia i?eeiaa ??oaiiy i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a c aeanii?
?i?oe?aoeae, oi iaiiaeeeaith ? ? a?aei?ia (ci?ia) a /anoei? ?ici??o
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui ca?eueoaiiy ?ici??o
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee ia eiio?ieueieo noaae?yo e?ei?iaeueiiai
noaei/einoaa iacaeaaeii a?ae niiniao a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ia ii?ooo? i?eioeei
caai?iie “iiai?ioo ia a??oa”, oae ye oaea a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy noaiiaeoeia
aeey canoaeaeaiiai ia aeiaeaoeiaa iiea?aiiy, a eeoa iaoa??aeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?aaeueii caaaeai? caeoee, ye? ia iio?aaothoue
aeiaeaoeiaiai aeieacoaaiiy a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?, ui iiai?noth
a?aeiia?aea? i.4 no.311 OeIE Oe?a?ie. A ca’yceo c oeei i?iiiio?oueny
cae??ieoe iieiaeaiiy i.4 no.311 OeIE Oe?a?ie a no.28, 29 EIE Oe?a?ie.
A?eueoa oiai, a no.53 i?iaeoo EIE Oe?a?ie, i?aeaioiaeaiiai ?iai/ith
a?oiith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, oaea iieiaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aia.

O Aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aee?aneaii i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?ic?iaeaii? oaie,
aecia/ai? oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? noi?ioeueiaaii eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1. Aocaea I. Uiaei ae??oaiiy noaeii c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae ieoaiiy i?i
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? Oe?a?ie // Noai
eiaeeo?eaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i?: nenoaii?noue, i??i?eoaoe,
oi?o?eaoe?y. Iaoa??aee ??? Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe??. – E., 1995.
– N.121-122.

2. Aocaea I. I?iaeaia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca
?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? Oe?a?ie // Iaoa??aee ?
?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. – Euea?a, 1995. – N.115-117.

3. Aocaea I. Aeaye? i?iaeaie i?aaia?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue c i?eaiaeo
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa?
Oe?a?ie // “A?eueia ni?eea” oa no/aniee oe?a?inueeee eiinoeoooe?iiae?ci.
Ae?aaiiai?anueeee ca??iee. – Euea?a: Na?o, 1996. — N.244-248.

4. Aocaea I.A. I?aaiaa i?e?iaea a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? // I?iaeaie
ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?aaiai? aea?aeaae oa caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?.
A?niee Euea?anuee. oi-oo ?i.?.O?aiea (na??y th?eaee/ia). — Aei.33. –
Euea?a, 1996. — N.64-68.

5. Aocaea I.A. Uiaei i?iaeaie a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii
oeiaee c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? //
A?niee I?eea?iaonueeiai oi-oo ?i.A.Noaoaieea (na??y i?aaiciaanoai). —
Aei.1. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997. — N.171-176.

6. Aocaea I.A. Aei i?iaeaie caoenoo i?aa iioa?i?eeo c ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo
a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ?
caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee ??? ?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe??. — Euea?a, 1997. — N.270-275.

7. Aocaea I.A. Caoeno iaeiiaeo oa ?ioeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo ye
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia ooieoe?y // Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai. Ui??/iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo. – Aeione ae?oaee. – Ee?a, 1998-1999. —
N.321-330.

8. Aocaea I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae
noaeo caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? Oe?a?ie //
A?niee Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (na??y th?eaee/ia). — Aei 34. —
Euea?a, 1999. -N.209-212.

9. Aocaea I.A. ?aae?caoe?y caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii i?aa iioa?i?eeo
ye aeaiaio e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueii? ooieoe?? // I?aaa ethaeeie ?
Oe?a?ia. — I?aoe? Euea?anueei? eaai?aoi??? i?aa ethaeeie Aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie (na??y 1). — Aei. 2. – Euea?a, 1999. — N.49-53.

Aiioaoe?y

Aocaea I.A. A?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caiiae?yii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith
noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio noaei/einoa? Oe?a?ie. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.09 – e?ei?iaeueiee i?ioean; e?ei?iae?noeea;
noaeiaa aenia?oeca. Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea. Euea?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy caoenoo ii?ooaieo cei/eiii
iaeiiaeo oa ?ioeo i?aa iioa?i?eeo, cie?aia, a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaii?
cei/eiii oeiaee iioa?i?eiio c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio
i?ioean? Oe?a?ie. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia aiae?co i?aaiai? i?e?iaee oa
i?ioeanoaeueieo i?aenoaa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca
?i?oe?aoeaith noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?. Noi?ioeueiaaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa ? noaeiai?
i?aeoeee ii a?aeoeiaeoaaiith caaaeaii? cei/eiii oeiaee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith
noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean? Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeiaea, a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee; iioa?i?eee; ?i?oe?aoeaa
noaeo a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?ioean?.

Aiiioaoeey

Aocaea I.A. Aiciauaiea i?e/eiaiiiai i?anooieaieai a?aaea ii eieoeeaoeaa
noaea a oaieiaiii noaeii?iecaiaenoaa Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.09 — oaieiaiue i?ioeann; e?eieiaeenoeea;
noaeaaiay yenia?oeca. Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie
Eaaia O?aiei. Eueaia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony aii?inu caueou ia?ooaiiuo i?anooieaieai
eiouanoaaiiuo e ae?oaeo i?aa iioa?iaaoeo, a /anoiinoe, aiciauaiey
i?e/eiaiiiai i?anooieaieai a?aaea iioa?iaaoaio ii nianoaaiiie
eieoeeaoeaa noaea a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna Oe?aeiu.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eeoa?aoo?u e noaeaaiie i?aeoeee
aeaeaaony auaiae i oii, /oi caueoa ia?ooaiiuo i?anooieaieai
eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa iioa?iaaoeo a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna Oe?aeiu — yoi
ioaeaeueiia iai?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe oiieiiii/aiiuo i?aaiia oaieiaiiai
i?ioeanna, eioi?ia iaaeaeaii anaie i?eciaeaie oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiie
ooieoeee e iniiaiie caaea/ae eioi?iai yaeyaony aiciauaiea(ono?aiaiea)
i?e/eiaiiiai i?anooieaieai a?aaea, eae iaeiiai ec iaaaoeaiuo
iineaaenoaee i?anooieaiey .

Aiciauaiea i?e/eiaiiiai i?anooieaieai eiouanoaaiiiai a?aaea ii
nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa noaea ?anniao?eaaaony eae naiinoiyoaeueiue
einoeooo oaieiaiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, a /aniinoe, eae iaeia ec oi?i
caueou ia?ooaiiuo i?anooieaieai eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa iioa?iaaoeo eeoe. A
nayce n yoei, i?iaaaeai ianoiyoaeueiue aiaeec i?aaiaie i?e?iaeu e
i?ioeannoaeueiuo iniiaaiee aiciauaiey i?e/eiaiiiai i?anooieaieai a?aaea
ii eieoeeaoeaa noaea a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony auaiae,
/oi i?eiaiaiea einoeoooa aiciauaiey i?e/eiaiiiai i?anooieaieai
eiouanoaaiiiai a?aaea ii eieoeeaoeaa noaea a oaieiaiii
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa iai?aaeaii, i?aaeaea anaai, ia ?aaeecaoeeth
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe iooai ainnoaiiaeaiey ia?ooaiiiai
i?anooieaieai eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey iioa?iaaoaai (o.a., eiaao /enoi
eiiiainaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?).

Ioia/aaony, /oi ?aaeecaoeey a oaieiaiii noaeii?iecaiaenoaa aiciauaiey
i?e/eiaiiiai i?anooieaieai eiouanoaaiiiai oua?aa ii eieoeeaoeaa noaea
aiciiaeia eneeth/eoaeueii i?e iaee/ee i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii oneiaee
(oaeoe/aneeo iniiaaiee e i?ioeannoaeueiuo i?aaeiinueie), eioi?ua
iiaeaa?aathony aeaoaeueiiio aiaeeco.

Nnueaynue ia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Oe?aeiu e ia iaoa?eaeu noaeaaiie
i?aeoeee, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu aii?inu noaeaaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ii
aiciauaieth i?e/eiaiiiai i?anooieaieai a?aaea ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa
noaea a ia?aie einoaioeee e a eiio?ieueiuo einoaioeeyo oaieiaiiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa Oe?aeiu.

Noi?ioee?iaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia oniaa?oainoaiaaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e noaeaaiie i?aeoeee ii aiciauaieth i?e/eiaiiiai
i?anooieaieai a?aaea ii eieoeeaoeaa noaea a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: a?aae, aiciauaiea a?aaea; iioa?iaaoee; eieoeeaoeaa
noaea a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna.

Annotation

M. Huzela. Compensation of damages caused by the crime on the initiative
of the court in the criminal justice of Ukraine. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for acquiring a scientific degree of the candidate of legal
sciences on specialization 12.00.09 – criminal procedure, criminalistics
and forensic examination at Ivan Franko Lviv University, 1999.

In the dissertation the issues of protection of the violated property
and other rights of the victim on the initiative of the court in the
criminal justice of Ukraine is discussed.

A considerable attention is paid to the analysis of the legal nature and
procedural grounds of the compensation of the damages caused by the
crime on the initiative of the court in the criminal justice of Ukraine.

The author is giving recommendations to the improvements of the
legislation and courts’ practice in terms of the compensation of the
caused damage on the initiative of the court in the criminal procedure
of Ukraine.

Key words: damage, compensation of damage, victim, initiative of the
court in criminal procedure.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 31.08.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1,2. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei.

Iaae?oeiaaii iaeei aeaeaaie/ei oeaio?ii

th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.O?aiea

290602, i.Euea?a, aoe. N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a, 14

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