Стабілізація детонації свердловинних зарядів при відбиванні гірських порід різної міцності: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / Є.Т. Завіша, Ком. по на

I?i?noa?noai i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie

Eii?oao ii iaaeyaeo ca ioi?iiith i?aoe? Oe?a?ie

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ioi?iie i?aoe?

Caa?oa ?aee

OAeE 622.235

NOAA?E?CAOe?ss

AeAOIIAOe?? NAA?AeEIAEIIEO CA?ssAe?A AEAOOIAI? ?A*IAEIE I?E A?AeAEAAII?
A??NUeEEO II??Ae ??CII? I?OeIINO?

05.15.11 – O?ce/i? i?ioeane a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? a?ae?iiaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?aaaoeue A?eoi?
Aai?a?eiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “EI?”,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe Ai?iaeia A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/, E?aiai/ooeueeee
aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo, i?ioani?;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe I?othe Ethaeieea Ieaen??aia, Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ioi?iie i?aoe?, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – E?eai??cueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i.E?eaee ??a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_4___” ethoiai 2000 ?. i _14____ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.802.01 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? ioi?iie i?aoe? ca aae?anith: i.Ee?a-60,
aoe.Aaa?eiaeo, 13.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? IIAe?II, i.Ee?a-60,
aoe.Aaa?eiaeo,13.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_29____” a?oaeiy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Eiaooi ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia aaaaoueio aenieoaoiaaieo ea?’??ao ii
aeaeiaooeo aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a c aeeaeiith nooo?ai ci?iththoueny ia
o?eueee a??ie/iaaieia?/i?, aea e a??ie/ioaoiieia?/i? oiiae ?ic?iaee. Oea
iia’ycaii a ia?oo /a?ao c oei, ui c?inoa? iaaiaeiai?noue a??nueeeo
ii??ae, ieoiia aaaa yeeo noaiiaeoue ia aeayeeo ea?’??ao a?eueoa 70%.
E??i oiai, c aeeaeiith c?inoa? i?oei?noue a??nueeeo ii??ae, a?eueo /?oei
ae??ciy?oueny oa?oaao?noue oa ??cieoey a i?oeiino? eiioaeooth/eo oa??a
a??nueeeo ii??ae. Iniaeeai ne?ae a?aecia/eoe c?inoaiiy neeaaeiino?
a??ie/ioaoiieia?/ieo oiia ?ic?iaee, ui aeyaey?oueny a ciaioaii? ?ici???a
?iai/eo iaeaeai/ee?a, ia yeeo aeeiiothoueny iniiai? ?iaioe, iia’ycai? c
onooiiei a?aeaeaaiiyi. O oaeeo oiiaao aeieeathoue aeiaeaoeia? o?oaeiiu?
a caaacia/aii? no?eei? aeaoiiaoe?? ca?yae?a aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei (A?), ui ?
?iiae? aieiaiith i?e/eiith iiiaeeiieeo oa a?oiiaeo a?aeeac?a. Aiane?aeie
ii?ooaiiy ii?iaeueiiai ?aaeeio aeaoiiaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny iaye?nia
iiae??aiaiiy a??nueei? iane c on?ia iane?aeeaie, ui c oeueiai
aeieeaathoue.

O ca’yceo c oeei aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith aeyaeaiiy i?e/ei iaiiaii? aeaoiiaoe??
naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a, iecueei? yeino? iiae??aiaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae o
i?eeiioaeoieo ciiao ii?iaeieo aeie?a ??cii? i?oeiino?, a oaeiae
aecia/aiiy aeioe?eueiino? oa iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy i?e aeaooiaiio
a?aeaeaaii? noi?oae i?iieneiaeo A? ? niaoe?aeueieo aaciooai?thth/eo
iaaeaooiaeo aeii?oie, ui aeicaieythoue i?aeaeueoe ye?noue iiae??aiaiiy
a??nueeeo ii??ae, ciaioeoe aa?o?noue aeaooiaeo ?ia?o ca noaooath
“aeaooia? iaoa??aee” ? ae??oeoe aeooaeueia caaaeaiiy ooee?caoe??
eiiaa?n?eieo iaoa??ae?a iai?iiiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
aaoi?ii ca?aeii c i??i?eoaoiei iai?yieii “Aeei?enoaiiy aia?a?? aeaooo a
i?eeeaaeieo caaea/ao a??ie/i? ni?aae”, ieaiii IAe? ?inoeoooo
a?ae?iiaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie 1995-1998 ??. “?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo iniia
aoaeoeaiiai oa aacia/iiai aeei?enoaiiy aia?a?? aeaooo iiaeiaaeaieo
ca?yae?a A? o a??ie/iaeiaoaieo oa aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?yo Oe?a?ie”,
caoaa?aeaeaiei Ath?i a?aeae?eaiiy iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie 17.11.94 ?. ?9,
§2, a yeiio aaoi? i?eeiaa o/anoue ye aeeiiaaaoeue.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a i?aeaeuaii?
aoaeoeaiino? aeaooiaeo ?ia?o i?e onooiiiio a?aeaeaaii? a??nueeeo ii??ae
o niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao ii??ae ??cii? i?oei?no? ca ?aooiie caaacia/aiiy
noaa?eueii? aeaoiiaoe?? naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a ?c i?iieneiaeo A? c?
niaoe?aeueieie iaaeaoiioth/eie aeii?oeaie. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii?
iaoe noi?ioeueiaai? ianooii? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

iaa?oiooaaoe aca?iiae?th oaea?ieo ? aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue oa anoaiiaeoe
?o aieea ia ?aaeei aeaoiiaoe?? naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a;

aecia/eoe aieea nooiaiy ??ciii?oeiino? ianea?a a??nueeeo ii??ae ia
?iciiae?e aia?a?? oaeeue iai?oae i?e i?ae?eaaii? nenoaie naa?aeeiaeiieo
ca?yae?a;

anoaiiaeoe aieea niaoe?aeueieo iaaeaoiioth/eo ai?th/eo aeii?oie aei
i?iieneiaeo A? ia aeaoiiaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee noi?o?;

?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe o ae?iaieoeoai i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ca
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

aia?oa anoaiiaeaii nooi?iue aieeao oaea?ieo oaeeue ?ai?oa caeaoiiiaaieo
ca?yae?a ia ?aaeei aeaoiiaoe?? ianooiieo ca?yae?a;

aeiaaaeaia iayai?noue cii, a yeeo ?aaeei aeaoiiaoe?? aecia/a?oueny
?ioaineai?noth oaea?ii? oaee? ia iaae? ?iciiae?eo na?aaeiaeu
“ianea-ca?yae”;

aecia/aii aieea eiao?oe??ioa ??ciii?oeiino? na?aaeiaeu, ui ?oeiothoueny,
ia nooi?iue ?iciiae?eo oaeeue iai?oaeaiue o i?eeiioaeoieo ciiao;

aia?oa anoaiiaeaii aieea ai?noo niaoe?aeueieo aeii?oie o aeaooiaeo
noi?oao i?iieneiaeo a?oaiaeenia?nieo A? ia oaeaee?noue aeaoiiaoe?? oa ??
noae?noue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
oaoiieia?/iiai iaoiaeo aeaooiaiai ?oeioaaiiy ianeao a??nueeeo ii??ae
??cii? i?oei?no?, ui aaco?oueny ia ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao?ao i?ae?eaaiiy, ye?
caaacia/othoue iiaiioo aeaoiiaoe?? naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a i?iieneiaeo
A?, o oiio /ene? ?o noi?oae c? niaoe?aeueieie iaaeaoiioth/eie iaeueieie
aeii?oeaie iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo.

Aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ui
aeieeaathoue c ?iaioe, i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aiae?oe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie,
ei?aeoiei canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ? iaoaiaoe/ii?
ia?iaee aeaieo, aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie uiaei aoaeoeaiino?
?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo.

?ic?iaeaiee oaoiieia?/iee iaoiae aeaooiaiai ?oeioaaiiy ianeao ii??ae
??cii? i?oeiino? ia ea?’??ao ?aae?ciaaii a oiiaao eaiaiieiii? “Iaeiaiu”,
iaoiaee eieae?caoe?? aeaooiaeo aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ii?enoeie
ae?ao?aaiaie canoiniaaii Oeaio?aeueiith a??ie/i?yooaaeueiith noaioe??th
ia oaooao N?eacnueeiai aanaeio.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Iniaenoi aaoi?ii ia?aia oaia aeena?oaoe??, aecia/ai? ?? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? ?? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy.
Aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? oaea?ieo oa aeaoiiaoe?eieo
oaeeue [3], a oaeiae ?iciiae?e aia?a?? oaeeue iai?oaeaiue o noa?? ae??
nenoaie naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
a??ie/iaaieia?/ieo oiia, i?oeiino? oa u?eueiino? na?aaeiaeua, ui
ni?eeia? aeeiai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy aeaooo(4(. Aeine?aeaeaii aeaoiiaoe?ei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iieneiaeo a?oaiaeenia?nieo A? c aeii?oeaie
iaaeaoiioth/eo aaciooai?thth/eo i?iaeoeo?a (3(. Aaoi? iniaenoi ea?oaaa
?iaioaie ii aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?e ia?aa??oe? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue o
ae?iaie/eo oiiaao (1,2,7(. Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo nai?io
iaoeiaiio ea??aieeo i?io. E?aaoeth A.A. ? aeieoi?o-?iae. ?.AEee?inueeiio
ca iaoeia? eiinoeueoaoe?? oa oe?ii? ii?aaee, ui ni?eyee iie?auaiith
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia nai?ia?ao ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao N?eacnueeiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Iieueua, i.Ae?a?oea, 1999?.), Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo ioi?iie i?aoe? (Oe?a?ia, i.Ee?a, 1999?.),
a?aeae?eo i?eeeaaeii? aaiaeeiai?ee aeaooo ?inoeoooo a?ae?iiaoai?ee IAI
Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a), ia nai?ia?? Aieiaiiai a??ie/iai ?inoeoooo (Iieueua,
i.Eaoia?oea, 1999?.), ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ioe?iea
aeieia?/iiai noaio iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?e ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?” (Oe?a?ia, i.Neia’yiia??nuee, 1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 iaoeiaeo noaoae.

Ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
aeaa ? caeeth/aiiy, aeeeaaeaieo ia 157 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
aeeth/ath/e 18 oaaeeoeue, 21 iaethiie, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c
146 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aei aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiaii iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino?
ae??ooaaii? caaea/?, iaoe oa iniiaieo iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ca no?oeoo?iith noaiith (?en.1), ui
a?aeia?aaea? aanue eiiieaen ?ia?o a?ae iinoaiiaee caaaeaiiy aei
io?eiaiiy iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, aieiaiee ci?no yeeo
neeaaea?oueny a ianooiiiio.

O 1 ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ? i?iaiae?ciaaii iiaeyaee ia iaoai?ci ?oeioaaiiy
a??nueeeo ii??ae aeaooii, oyaeaiiy i?i i?ioean aeaoiiaoe??
a?oaiaeenia?nieo aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei, a oaeiae aeae?eaii ae??cithth/?
iniaeeaino? aeaooiaeo ?ia?o ia ea?’??ao ii aeaeiaoaaiith aoae?aaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie a oe?e iaeano? caeiaeeny ?.A.Aa?aiia, A.O.Aecia,
A.A.Aieei, I.I.Aiae, A.A.Ai?iaeia, A.Ae.Ai?iaeia, A.I.Aeaieaethe,
I.O.Ae?oeiaaiee, A.?.?o?aiia, A.I.Eii??, A.A.E?aaaoeue, I.A.E?eaoeia,
?.N.E?en?i, O.?.Eo/a?yaee, I.C.Eoaiaee, ?.A.Eo/ei, TH.N.Iaoe,
A.Ae.Iao?aiei, A.E.Iie?ianueeee, E.I.Oea/oe, I.E.Oaaei?aiei,
A.I.Oaioea?a, TH.A.Oa?eoii, C.Iiaea?ea, I.Eoe, A.Iaaianueee, A.Ia?aiaea,
?.Iiaa/aanuee?, A.Ooi oiui.

Caaaeyee ?acoeueoaoai aeine?aeaeaiue caaaeaieo a/aieo neeaeenue
i?aeoe/ii caaaeueiii?eeiyo? oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci ?oeioaaiiy a??nueeeo
ii??ae aeaooii, ui aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe ia ?o iniia? iiaeaeueo?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaai? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy aeaooiaiai ?oeioaaiiy
ianea?a o niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao ea?’???a aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny nooo?aei c?inoaiiyi ieoiii? aaae aaaeei?oei?aieo ii??ae
i?e ca?eueoaii? aeeaeie ?ic?iaee. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui i?ioean
aeaoiiaoe?? i?iieneiaeo A? aeine?aeaeaii aeinoaoiuei iiaii, oei ia iaio
i?e i?ae?eaaii? nenoai naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a ?aaeei ? noae?noue
aeaoiiaoe?? a noi?aeieo ca?yaeao, ye? aca?iiae?thoue o iaaiiio i?ii?aeeo
/ano, aea/aii iaaeinoaoiuei. Iio?aao? oaeiae iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieea ?aoeaioo? aeaooiaeo noi?oae ?c i?iieneiaeo a?oaiaeenia?nieo A? oa
niaoe?aeueieo aeii?oie ia oaeaee?noue aeaoiiaoe?? a naa?aeeiaeiieo
ca?yaeao. Aei oeueiai /ano a?aenooi? aoaeoeai? oaoiieia?/i? iaoiaee
aeaooiaiai onooiiiai a?aeaeaaiiy a niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao ii??ae ??cii?
i?oeiino?, iniiaai? ia noaa?e?caoe?? aeaoiiaoe?? naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a
?c i?iieneiaeo A? oa niaoe?aeueieo aeii?oie aei ieo.

Iaeyae no/aniiai noaio ?icaeoeo aeaooiaeo oaoiieia?e ia?aaaaeii a
Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae a Iieueu?, iieacaa, ui aiane?aeie nooo?aeo iie?oe/ieo
oa aeiiii?/ieo ci?i o oeeo e?a?iao aeaooiaa ni?aaa noiniaii a??ie/iai
ae?iaieoeoaa iaaoea iiaeo a?ae/ooieo ci?i, iia’ycaieo o cia/i?e i??? c
aea?eueiaiyi aaeeei? e?eueeino? ai?i?eian?a oa a?aeiia?aeii aeaooiaeo
?a/iaei ? ii?io?a, ui i?aeeyaathoue eiiaa?n??. Canoinoaaiiy oaeeo
?a/iaei o a??ie/?e i?aeoeoe? iio?aao? ia o?eueee oaoi?/iiai
ii?aoethaaiiy iaoiae?a ?o i?aeaioiaee oa aaeaioaoe?? aei eiie?aoieo
a??ie/ioaoi?/ieo oiia, aea e aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ii?aoethaaiiy iioeiaeueieo
oiia ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai, ui iie?aeeny a ia aeinoaoiuei
?icaeiooo iaoeiao aaco.

Iie?ath/enue ia aeeiiaiee iaeyae aeooaeueiiai noaio aeaooiai? ni?aae a
a??ieoeoa? oa ?? iaoeiai? noi?iie, ui aaco?oueny ia oe?eiio niaeo??
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoaiecio ?oeioaaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae oa cania?a
ea?oaaiiy oeei i?ioeanii /a?ac aeia?? aeaooiaeo iaoa??ae?a, niinia?a ?o
?i?oe?thaaiiy a i?iieneiaeo ca?yaeao oa oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a, ui
a?aoiaothoue aca?iiae?th oaeeue iai?oaeaiue ? aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue a
nenoai? ca?yae?a, aecia/aii aeuaia?ae?/ai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue.

O 2 ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
??cieo oaeoi??a ia iiaiioo aeaoiiaoe?? ca?yae?a A? i?e aeeiiaii?
aeaooiaeo ?ia?o, aeeeaaeaii iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioeano aca?iiae??
oaea?ieo oa aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue i?ae niaith oa ae?? oeeo oaeeue ia
ii?oaao? na?aaeiaeua c iaoith ?ic?iaee iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a oi?aae?iiy
aeania aeaoiiaoe??th ca?yae?a oa nenoaiith aeeiai?/ieo ?iioeuen?a, ui
ii?iaeaeothoueny oeeie ca?yaeaie a a??nueeiio ianea?.

Aeey io?eiaiiy no?eei? aeaoiiaoe??, ui caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa
aeae?eaiiy aia?a?? A? o ianea, yeee ?oeio?oueny, aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue
ia?aiao?e ?i?oe?thth/iai ?iioeueno. Aeey eiaeiiai oeio A? oa iaaii? ?o
u?eueiino? ?nio? a?aeiia?aeiee ?i?oe?thth/ee ?iioeuen, iaiao?aeiee aeey
caaacia/aiiy ii?iaeueiiai ?icaeoeo aeaoiiaoe?? a i?iieneiaiio ca?yae?.
Canoinoaaiiy iaaeoi iiooaeieo ?i?oe?thth/eo ?iioeuen?a iiaea i?ecaanoe
aei iano?eei? aeaoiiaoe??, ui iiynith?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi ?iceeaeaiiy
?i?oe?eiaaii? aeaooiai? ?a/iaeie. C ?ioiai aieo, i?e neaaeiio
?i?oe?thth/iio ?iioeuen? aeaoiiaoe?y aai ia a?aeaoaa?oueny acaaae?, aai
aiia iaaeeaea?oueny aei ii?iaeueii? aaee/eie oaeaeeino?, i?eoaiaiii?
aeey aeaiiai oeio A?, aai, caaanath/e, ia?aoiaeeoue o ai??iiy. A oaeeo
oiiaao iaa?oue iaaaeeea ia?aoeiaea iiaea aooe i?e/eiith c?eao
aeaoiiaoe??, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?aeiiae aai aeai?yiiy ca?yaeo A? c
on?ia iaaaoeaieie iane?aeeaie aeey aeaooiaiai a?aeaeaaiiy.

I?e caoooaii? aeaoiiaoe??, aeeeeeaiiio eaiaeueiei aoaeoii,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia o?eueee noeniaiiy oa ou?eueiaiiy iacaeaoiiiaaii?
/anoeie ca?yae?a A?, ?icoaoiaaieo o oio?? aai naa?aeeiaei?, aea oaeiae
?o cnoa a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai iieiaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a ineaaeaiiy aai ao?aoa aeaoiiaoe?eii? caeaoiino? A? oa
?i?oe?thth/i? caeaoiino? aeaoiiaoi??a a?aeaoaa?oueny a iiiaio
i?ae?eaaiiy na??? ca?yae?a aiane?aeie ou?eueiaiiy oa aeaoi?iaoe??
ca?yae?a ? aeaoiiaoi??a oaeeyie noeniaiiy, ui iioe?ththoueny ianeaii
a?ae aeaooo non?aei?o ca?yae?a.

I?io?eaiiy i?ioeano aeaoiiaoe?? caeaaeeoue, e??i oiai, a?ae aca?iiiai
?icoaooaaiiy ca?yae?a, ?o iiooaeiino?, o?eaaeino? ?iioeueno aeaooo oiui.
Ioaea, i?e/eiith a?aeeac?a iiaea aooe oaeiae aeonoe/ia aca?iiae?y
aeaoiiiaaieo ca?yae?a. I?e aeaooo nenoaie ca?yae?a neeaaeathoueny oiiae,
eiee aiane?aeie aieeao oaea?ieo oaeeue ?ai?oa caeaoiiiaaieo ca?yae?a A?
ia ua ia caeaoiiiaai? a inoaii?o niinoa??aa?oueny ii?ooaiiy ii?iaeueiiai
?aaeeio aeaoiiaoe??. Ii-ia?oa, ci?ith?oueny u?euei?noue A?, a yeiio
i?io?ea? aeaoiiaoe?y, a ii-ae?oaa, a?aeaoaa?oueny c?oeiaiiy oaea?ieo oa
aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue, ui ca nai?th o?ce/iith nooi?noth a?aeiia?aea?
i?ioeano aca?iiae?? oaea?ieo oaeeue. ??cieoey neeaaea?oueny eeoa a oiio,
ui aeaoiiaoe?ei? oaee? iiiiaiththoueny aia?a??th ca ?aooiie ?nioaaiiy
ciie o?i?/ii? ?aaeoe?? – aeaea?aea oaieiai? aia?a??. Iaeiae oaea?ia
oaeey, ui ia?aoioea iaaeo “na?aaeiaeua-ca?yae”, iiaea ia?aoai?eoenue ia
oaeeth aeaoiiaoe?eio, i?aeneethth/e nai?th ae??th ?nioth/o aeaoiiaoe?eio
oaeeth, aai aei cono??/? c iath i?eaanoe ca?yae aei noaio, ui caaaaeeoue
iiaeaeueoiio ?iciianthaeaeaiith aeaoiiaoe?eii? oaee?.

Oene o i?noe? ii?iaeueiiai c?oeiaiiy aeaio oaeeue iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o
aeaeyae?:

aea ?1 – ii/aoeiaee oene, Ia;

(? — i?e??no oeneo a oaee? aiane?aeie ?? c?oeiaiiy c ?ioith oaeeath aai
aiane?aeie a?aeaeooy aeaii? oaee? a?ae aei?noei? ieiueie, Ia.

Aaee/eia (? o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a cia/ii ia?aaeuo? ?1. Oene o i?noe?
c?oeiaiiy aeaio oaea?ieo oaeeue i?ae eooii aecia/a?oueny c ae?aco

aea a — eoo i?ae ii?iaeyie ? o?iioaie oaeeue, ui noeeathoueny, a?aae.

I?e c?oeiaii? e?eueeio oaea?ieo oaeeue oene o i?noe? c?oeiaiiy
iaaecae/aeii oaeaeei c?inoa? a i??o ca?eueoaiiy /enea oaeeue, ui
noeeathoueny.

O i?noe? c?oeiaiiy oaeeue o ca?yae? A? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aou?eueiaiiy,
ui aeeeeea? neeueia ?iceeaeaiiy ?a/iaeie i?e ii??aiyii iacia/iiio
ca?eueoaii? oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe?? oa i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaanaiiy i?ioeano
aeaoiiaoe?? ia iaai?e ae?eyioe? ca?yaeo, ua ia caeaoiiiaai?e i?ae ae??th
aeanii? aeaoiiaoe?eii? oaee?. ?nio? oaeiae a??ia?aei?noue ?icaeoeo a
ca?yae? i?iieneiai? A? oaeeue ?ic??aeaeaiiy, ye? i?ecaaaeooue aei
ciaioaiiy u?eueiino? aeaooiai? ?a/iaeie aei nooiaiy, yeee aeeee/a aai
??cea cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe?? i?e aeaye?e a?aei?iiino? u?eueiino?
A? a?ae e?eoe/ii? aeey aeaii? ?a/iaeie, aai ia?a?eaaiiy aeaoiiaoe?? i?e
u?eueiino? A?, cia/ii iaio?e i?ae e?eoe/ia.

O ca’yceo c i?iaeaiith iiaeeeaeo a?aeeac?a ? aeai?yiiy A?, iniaeeai a
iiaeiaaeaieo iaeiinoi?iiuei ?i?oe?eiaaieo ca?yaeao, aeeiiaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei c’yniaoaaiiy caeiiii??iinoae i?ioeano aeaoiiaoe??
ca?yae?a A? o nenoai? ia?aeaeueieo e?i?eieo ca?yae?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue ca aeinoaoiuei
aei?iaoaaiith noaiith o?enaoe?? ne?aeo a?ae aeaooo ca?yaeo ia iaoaeaa?e
ieanoeioe?. Aeine?aeaeoaaeanue aca?iiae?y aeaio ia?aeaeueieo ca?yae?a,
ye? ?i?oe?thaaeenue a?ae a?ae??ce?a aeaoiioth/iai oio?a ??cii? aeiaaeeie
c oei, uia caaacia/eoe ??cieoeth a /an? aeaooo ia?oiai “aeoeaiiai”
ca?yaeo ? ae?oaiai “ianeaiiai”. Ooo “aeoeaiei” iacaaii ca?yae, yeee ?
aeaea?aeii oaea?ii? oaee? a na?aaeiaeu?, ui ai?uo? iaeaeaa ca?yaee.
?ici??e ?ia?oiiai i?ii?aeea-ia?aiiie i?ae ca?yaeaie neeaaeaee a?ae 65
aei 120 ii. ?ia?oiee i?ii?aeie aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee iaoa??aeaie c ??ciith
aeonoe/iith aei?noe?noth – aaoiiii, aaiiyeii oa ?o eiia?iaoe?yie. A
yeino? A? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue noi?o? aiii?oo c a?aioeueiaaiith ai?a/iith
nae?o?ith a ni?aa?aeiioaii? 80/20 oa 85/15. ?icaeoie i?ioeano
aeaoiiaoe?? ii?yae c o?aaeeoe?eiith o?enaoe??th ne?aeo ia iaoaeaa?e
ieanoeioe? aea/aany ca aeiiiiiaith ?ii?caoe?eieo aeao/ee?a, c’?aeiaieo c
aeaeo?iiiith aia?aoo?ith /a?ac aaaaoieaiaeueiee i?aeneethaa/.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee
anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaiioa aeaoiiaoe?? “ianeaiiai” ca?yaeo caeaaeeoue a?ae
oiaueie ?ia?oii? ia?aiiie, ?? aeonoe/ii? aei?noeino? oa /ano
niia?eueiaiiy. Aeiaaeeia ne?aeo ?icaeyaeaeanue ye ooieoe?y aeoiaeo, ui
caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?ae?/aieo ia?aiao??a oa oaeaeeino? aeaoiiaoe?? A?. I?e
oeueiio anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy aeonoe/ii? aei?noeino? ca?eueoo?
oiaueio ia?aiiie, /a?ac yeo oaea?ia oaeey “aeoeaiiai” ca?yaeo, ae?th/e
ia “ianeaiee” ca?yae, i?eieiy? aeaoiiaoe?th a iueiio. Oea iiynith?oueny
oei, ui e?euee?noue aia?a??, ui i?eoiaeeoueny ia eiioaeo ca?yaeo c
ia?aiiiith, caeaaeeoue a?ae aeonoe/ii? aei?noeino? i?iaeoeo?a
aeaoiiaoe?? oa ?ia?oiiai na?aaeiaeua. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeonoe/ii?
aei?noeino? ia?aiiie oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny, ioaea
ca?eueoo?oueny oene oaea?ii? oaee?, ui ae?? ia “ianeaiee” ca?yae.

?ioa?aae oiaueie ia?aiiie, a yeiio niinoa??aa?oueny yaeua c?eaaiiy
aeaoiiaoe?? “ianeaiiai” ca?yaeo (iaaea ciie oaea?iiai aan?iiy
aeaoiiaoe?? ro.a.) ae??th oaea?ii? oaee? “aeoeaiiai” ca?yaeo, iiaeia
aecia/eoe ca oi?ioeith

— ?aae?on ca?yaeo;

E – eiao?oe??io caoooaiiy;

?0 – iaeneiaeueiee oene i?iaeoeo?a aeaoiiaoe?? A?;

?e – e?eoe/iee oene;

,

— u?euei?noue A?;

Ae — oaeaee?noue aeaoiiaoe??;

(ii? — u?euei?noue ii?iaee;

nii? — oaeaee?noue iicaeiaaeii? oaee? a ii?iae?.

I?e iaeiaeia?e oiauei? ia?aiiie aeiaaeeia aeaoiioth/i? /anoeie ca?yaeo
caeaaeeoue a?ae /ano niia?eueiaiiy i?ae ii/aoeii ?i?oe?thaaiiy
“aeoeaiiai” oa “ianeaiiai” ca?yae?a, a oaeiae a?ae aeonoe/ii?
aei?noeino? ia?aiiie. Ca?eueoaiiy /ano niia?eueiaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy aeiaaeeie caeaoiiiaaii? /anoeie “ianeaiiai” ca?yaeo ?
ia?aaaaeii aecia/a?oueny aeonoe/iith aei?noe?noth ia?aiiie.

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui ?nio? oaiaeaioe?y aei canoinoaaiiy ia a?aee?eoeo
?iaioao ca?yae?a a?eueoiai ae?aiao?o, ?icaeyiaii aca?iiae?th i?e oeueiio
oaea?ieo oa aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue. ?ioa?aae niia?eueiaiiy i?ae ie?aieie
a?oiaie ca?yae?a i?eeiyoi ??aiei 25-35 in. Oaeey iai?oaeaiue i?ioiaeeoue
a?aenoaiue i?ae ca?yaeaie ca 2-3 in. O?eaae?noue ?iioeueno oaee?
iai?oaeaiue aeey oeeo ca?yae?a neeaaea? aeanyoee i?e?naeoiae. I?e
i?aeoiae? oaee? iai?oaeaiue aei ca?yaeo ?? aia?a?y ia?aoiaeeoue o ca?yae
oa aeeeeea? ou?eueiaiiy A? c ianooiiei eiai ia?ai?uaiiyi u. Aiane?aeie
oeueiai a ie?aieo /anoeiao ca?yaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy u?eueiino?
oa iaa?oue ooai?aiiy ?ooiii? u?eeie (?ic?eao), ui aeeeeea? i?eieiaiiy
aeaoiiaoe??. A?aeiinio ci?io u?eueiino? (( ca aoaeue-yeee i?ii?aeie
/ano O iiaeia aecia/eoe ca oi?ioeith:

— ii/aoeiaa u?euei?noue A?, ea/i3;

d — oiaueia ia?aiiie, ii;

u – ia?ai?uaiiy, ii.

Aiane?aeie ae?? aeaooo ca?yae?a iiia?aaeiuei? a?oie naa?aeeiaeiiee
ca?yae aai eiai ie?ai? /anoeie iiaeooue iaoe i?aeaeuaio aai ciaioaio
u?euei?noue, yea a i?ioean? aeaoiiaoe?? iiaea aeyaeoeny aeua aai ieae/a
e?eoe/ii?. Oaeee ca?yae aai ie?ai? eiai /anoeie iiaeooue ia
caeaoiioaaoe,oiae? aeaoiiaoe?y aai ia?aoiaeeoue o ai??iiy, aai
i?eieiy?oueny, oiaoi iaea?aeo?oueny a?aeeac, ui niinoa??aa?oueny i?e
aeaooao o i?iieneiaeo oiiaao.

Aeoiaey/e c aeeeaaeaiiai, iiaeia aecia/eoe oiiae, ca yeeo aiane?aeie
aca?iiae?? oaea?ieo oa aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue aai iine?aeiaii? ?o ae?? ia
ie?ai? /anoeie ca?yaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny aan?iiy aeaoiiaoe?? a “ianeaiiio”
ca?yae?.

O 3 ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao neeaaeo A? oa
aeanoeainoae a??nueeeo ii??ae ia iiaeeiaiiy aia?a?? oaeeue iai?oaeaiue,
a oaeiae iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeaooiaiai ?oeioaaiiy oa?oaaoeo a??nueeeo
ii??ae ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeaooiaeo noi?oae i?iieneiaeo A? c
iaaeaoiioth/eie niaoe?aeueieie aeii?oeaie. Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii
aecia/aiith i?aoeacaeaoiino? oaeeo noi?oae.

I?iaaaeai? a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe
aca?iica’ycie i?ae eiao?oe??ioii iiaeeiaiiy aia?a?? oaeeue iai?oaeaiue,
ia?aiao?aie A? oa aeanoeainoyie na?aaeiaeua, ui ?oeio?oueny. Aia?aoo?a
aeicaieyea iaeii/anii ?a?no?oaaoe oaeaeeino? ci?uaiiy oa oaeaeeino?
aeaoiiaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ui ?c
ciaioaiiyi oaeaeeino? aeaoiiaoe?? ieae/a iioeiaeueii? eiao?oe??io
caoooaiiy oaeeue iai?oaeaiue ??cei c?inoa?, a ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino?
aeaoiiaoe?? aeiieiaeo?oueny a i?yio e?i?th.

?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie ?ic?iaee c?inoa? ieoiia aaaa ii??ae ??cii?
i?oei?no? o eiioaeooth/eo oa?ao, ui nooo?ai ci?ith? ea?oeio aca?iiae??
oa eiio?ao?aoe?th iiey oaeeue iai?oaeaiue o i?eeiioaeoieo ciiao. I?e
oeueiio aaaeeeaith ianoaaeiith ? iai?yiie ?iciianthaeaeaiiy aeaooo a
nenoai? ca?yae?a. Ia ?en.2 iieacaii caeaaei?noue aaee/eie ia?ai?uaiiy
ianeao a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeonoe/ieo aei?noeinoae ieano?a A1/A2 i?e
??ciiio iai?yieo i?ae?eaaiiy nenoaie ca?yae?a: c aieo ii??ae c iaioith
aeonoe/iith aei?noe?noth ? a?aeiia?aeii iaiueoith i?oei?noth (e?eaa 1)
oa, iaaiaee, c aieo ii??ae c a?eueo aenieeie iacaaieie iieacieeaie
(e?eaa 2). sse aeieeaa? c oeeo aeaieo, i?e ia?oiio i?ae?eaaii? ca?yae?a,
?icoaoiaaieo o iaio i?oeieo ii?iaeao, aaee/eia ia?ai?uaiiy a
eiioaeooth/eo ii?iaeao c a?eueoith i?oei?noth iaaaaaoi aeua, i?ae i?e
i?ae?eaaii? ca?yae?a o a?eueo i?oeieo ii?iaeao. Oea aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aaaeeeaee aeey i?aeoeee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui c iaoith io?eiaiiy
??aiii??iiai iiae??aiaiiy i?e ?oeioaaii? a??nueeeo ii??ae o
i?eeiioaeoieo ciiao iaiao?aeii a ia?oo /a?ao i?ae?eaaoe ca?yaee,
?icoaoiaai? a iaio i?oeieo, a?eueo noeneeaeo ii?iaeao, ui iathoue iaioo
aeonoe/io aei?noe?noue. Aeniea ye?noue aeaooiai? i?aeaioiaee a oeeo
oiiaao iiaea aooe aeinyaiooa i?e aeei?enoaii? ei?ioeiniia?eueiaiiai
i?ae?eaaiiy c iioeiaeueieie ?ioa?aaeaie niia?eueiaiiy, ye? noai?ththoue
oiiae c?oeiaiiy iaaeath/eo oaeeue a?ae aeaooo naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a,
?icoaoiaaieo ii iaeaeaa aiee iiaa?oi? eiioaeoo. Cia/aiiy ?ioa?aaeo
niia?eueiaiiy eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 15-20 in o caeaaeiino? a?ae
eiao?oe??ioa ??ciii?oeiino?.

?acii c oei ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aeniea iaae?ei?noue aeaoiiaoe??
aeinyaa?oueny i?e ieoo?aiio i?ae?eaaii? ca?yae?a ii iaeaeaa aiee
i?eeiioaeoii? ciie.C iaoith cieaeaiiy aa?oino? aeaooiaeo ?ia?o ca
noaooath “aeaooia? iaoa??aee” aeine?aeaeaii aeaoiiaoe?ei? i?ioeane a
ca?yaeao i?iieneiaeo A? ca o/anoth eiiaa?n?eieo i?iaeoeo?a, o o./.
niaoe?aeueieo aaciooai?thth/eo aeii?oie, i?iaeoeo?a iai?iiii?
i?iieneiaino?, ui i?aeeyaathoue cieuaiith.

Aeaoiiaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaooiaeo noi?oae c ??ciei neeaaeii oaeeo
aeii?oie aea/aii a iie?aiiieo oiiaao. Ia ?en.3 iieacaii oa?aeoa? ci?ie
oaeaeeino? aeaoiiaoe?? noi?oaai? aeaooiai? ?a/iaeie caeaaeii a?ae oeio
canoiniaaieo aieiaee?a. ?c ?en.3 ne?aeo?, ui ia eiioaeo? ?i?oe?aoi?a oa
?i?oe?eiaaiiai ca?yaeo oaeaee?noue aeaoiiaoe?? aecia/a?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?ii?aeiiai aeaoiiaoi?a, iiooaei?noue yeiai aeey
oaeaeeiai aeinyaiaiiy oa?aeoa?ii?, iaeneiaeueii? aeey aeaii? A?
oaeaeeino? aeaoiiaoe?? ia? aooe aeinoaoiuei aenieith, a oaeaee?noue
aeaoiiaoe?? A? o aieiaeeo – aeecueeith aei oaeaeeino? aeaoiiaoe??
?i?oe?eiaaii? A?.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? iie?aiiieo aeine?aeaeaiue cae?enithaaeanue ii??aiyeueia
ioe?iea ia o?eueee iiaiioe aeaoiiaoe?? aeaooiaeo noi?oae c ??ciei
a?aenioeiaei neeaaeii iaaeaoiioth/i? aeii?oee, aea e i?aoeacaeaoiino?
ca?yaeo ca ?ici??ii ooai?aii? i?ney aeaooo ai?iiee aeeeaeaiiy. Ia ?en.4
iieacaii ci?io ia’?io ai?iiee a?ae ai?noo iaaeaoiioth/i? niaoe?aeueii?
aeii?oee (INAe) a noi?oaaeo A?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?nioaaiiy iioeioio
ai?noo INAe o iaaeao 20-30% o noi?oaaiio A?.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa aiae?co a?aeiieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aeiiii?/ii aei?aaaeaiei oa
oaoi?/ii ?aaeueiei ? aeei?enoaiiy eiiaa?n?eieo iaoa??ae?a
(iaaeaoiioth/eo aeii?oie) ye aeiaeaoeo aei aioiaeo i?iieneiaeo A?, ui
aeicaiey? ?noioii cieceoe aa?o?noue aeaooiaeo ?ia?o ia a??ie/eo
i?aei?e?inoaao.

O ?icae?e? 4 aeeiiaia i?iieneiaa ia?aa??ea ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue a
oaeeo iai?yieao:

i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
caoiae?a caiia?aaiiy ia?a?eaaiith aeaoiiaoe?? iiaeiaaeaieo
naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? oaea?ieo oa aeaoiiaoe?eieo
oaeeue o ianeaao a??nueeeo ii??ae, neeaaeaieo oa?aie oa aeieaie ??cii?
i?oeiino?, ui eiioaeoothoue i?ae niaith;

i?iieneiaa ia?aa??ea aoaeoeaiino? noi?oaaeo a?oaiaeenia?nieo A? ca oiiae
cai?ie ?aeiiaiaeiaaii? /anoeie naa?aeeiaeiiiai ca?yaeo ia iaaeaoiioth/?
niaoe?aeuei? (eiiaa?n?ei?) aeii?oee oa a?aei?aoethaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
aeaiaio?a ?o canoinoaaiiy;

i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio aca?iiae?? oaea?ieo oaeeue c ii?oaaoeie
aeaooiaeie oa ?ia?oieie na?aaeiaeuaie, ui iia’ycaia ?c canoinoaaiiyi o
a??ie/?e i?aeoeoe? aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei, ye? ai?uothoue iia?o?yi? ioce?/eee
(i?iiiiae?ai? oa aioeuen?ei? A?), a oaeiae ii?oaaoeo ?ia?oieo iaoa??ae?a
aeey eieae?caoe?? ?oeioth/i? ae?? aeaoo?a iaoaiiiia?o?yii? noi?o? a
oaooieo oiiaao.

Aeey aeine?aeieo aeaoo?a aeiae?aeenue aiaeia?/i? ca aaieia?/ieie oa
a??ie/ioaoiieia?/ieie oiiaaie aeiee, ?icae?eai? ia eiio?ieuei? oa
aeine?aei? ae?eyiee, aea a?aeiia?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ooaoi? A? oa
aeaooia? noi?o? ?c i?iieneiaeo A? ? niaoe?aeueieo iaaeaoiioth/eo
aeii?oie a ??cieo ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo. A yeino? e?eoa???a i?eeiyoi iiaiioo
aeaoiiaoe??, ia?aiao?e ?icaaeo a??nueei? iane, ye?noue iiae??aiaiiy oa
nooi?iue i?i?iaeaiiy i?aeioae onooio. Aeiaeaoeiai ye?noue iiae??aiaiiy
eiio?iethaaeanue ca aeoiaeii iaaa?aaeoo, a iiaiioa aeaoiiaoe??
naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a – ca iayai?noth ne?aeo a inoaiiueiio ?yae?
naa?aeeiaei ia iiaa?oi? onooio.

Oaoiieia?/i? caniae ea?oaaiiy i?ioeannii iiae??aiaiiy iieyaaee a
i?ecia/ai? iioeiaeueiiai nooiaiy niia?eueiaiiy a i?eeiioaeoieo ciiao oa
iine?aeiaiino? i?ae?eaaiiy a?oi ca?yae?a c ia?aoiaeii i?ioeano aeieaaiiy
?c ianeao a?eueo ne?aeeo ii??ae a ianea a?eueo i?oeieo ii??ae. Iniiaiee
aeiiii?/iee aoaeo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie aeinyaa?oueny canoinoaaiiyi
noi?oaaeo A? c aeiaeaaaiiyi eiiaa?n?eieo aeii?oie oa i?aeaeuaiith
ye?noth aeeiiaiiy ianiaeo aeaoo?a.

Ia?ae?/ai? ?ic?iaee aeeiiaii a oiiaao eaiaiieiii? Iaeiaiu oa ia ?yae?
aoa?eueieo oaoo N?eacnueeiai aanaeio.

?ic?aooieiaee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae canoinoaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe
neeaaea? eeoa ca noaooath “aeaooia? iaoa??aee” ia 1000 o A? (aai 1,6
iei.i3 a??nueei? iane) aeecueei 88 oen.a?i.

AENIIAEE

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ae??oaii aeooaeueio iaoeiao
caaea/o, yea iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a
aeaooiaiai a?aeaeaaiiy, ui caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy aeaoiiaoe?eii?
caeaoiino? nenoaie naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a a?oaiaeenia?nieo noi?oaaeo A?
c eiiaa?n?eieie aeii?oeaie a niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao a??nueeeo ianea?a
??cii? i?oeiino?. Iniiai? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
?iaioe iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio.

C?inoaiiy aeeaeie ?ic?iaee ia ea?’??ao ci?ith? a??ie/iaaieia?/i? oa
a??ie/ioaoiieia?/i? oiiae ?ic?iaie, ui aeyaey?oueny a ia?oo /a?ao a
c?inoaii? iaaiaeiaiino? ianea?a a??nueeeo ii??ae, ca?eueoaii? ieoiii?
aaae oa?oaaoeo ii??ae c ??cei a?aei?iiith i?oei?noth, a oaeiae o
ciaioaii? oe?eie ?iai/i? ciie oa aeiaaeeie o?iioo ?ia?o. Ciaioaiiy
aeiaaeeie o?iioo ?ia?o i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ?iai/eo
ai?eciio?a ? ciaioaiiy ?ici???a ?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue. O oaeeo oneeaaeiaieo
oiiaao iniaeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue aeaooia? ?iaioe, aaeineiiaeaiiy yeeo
iiaeeeaa oeyoii caaacia/aiiy aeniei? iaae?eiino? aeaoiiaoe?? ca?yae?a o
naa?aeeiaeiao i?e ?ic?iaoe? ai?eciio?a.

Iaa?oioiaaii iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? oaea?ieo ? aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue oa
eiai aieea ia ?aaeei aeaoiiaoe??. Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie iaiiaii?
aeaoiiaoe?? naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a A? ? ci?ia ?o u?eueiino?
(ia?aou?eueiaiiy ca?yaeo), eaiaeueiee aoaeo. Ineaaeaiiy aai i?eieiaiiy
aeaoiiaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e i?ae?eaaii? na??? ca?yae?a c
a?oaiaeenia?nieo aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei. Aeiaaaeaii, ui aieea oaea?ieo oaeeue
?ai?oa caeaoiiiaaieo ca?yae?a A? ia ua ia caeaoiiiaai? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ii?ooaiiy ii?iaeueiiai ?aaeeio aeaoiiaoe?? a ianooiieo ca?yaeao
aiane?aeie c?oeiaiiy oeeo oaeeue. Aecia/aii oiiae, ca yeeo /a?ac
aca?iiee aieea aeaoiiaoe?eieo oa oaea?ieo oaeeue a?aeaoaa?oueny
i?eieiaiiy aeaoiiaoe?? a “ianeaiiio” ca?yae?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiane?aeie aca?iiiai aieeao ca?yae?a iiia?aaeiuei? a?oie
ia aeaoiioth/ee ca?yae a oeueiio ca?yae? aai a ie?aieo eiai /anoeiao A?
iiaea ciaoiaeeoenue o noai? iiieaeaii? aai i?aeaeuaii? u?eueiino?, yea a
iiiaio aeaoiiaoe?? iiaea iii?oii a?ae??ciyoenue a?ae e?eoe/ii?. O oaeiio
ca?yae? aeaoiiaoe?y ia?aoiaeeoue o ai??iiy, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
niinoa?aaeaiiyie o i?iieneiaeo oiiaao. C?eaaiiy aeaoiiaoe?? a
naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yaeao a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ?o ia?a?i?oe?thaaiiy.
O i?ioean? aca?iiae?? oaea?ieo oa aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue aeae?ey?oueny
e?eueea cii, a yeeo oeae i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny ii-??ciiio caeaaeii a?ae
?ioaineaiino? oaea?ii? oaee? ia iaae? “ia?aiiia-ianeaiee ca?yae”, c /ei
iiaeia ai?ioenue oeyoii aaaaoioi/eiaiai ?i?oe?thaaiiy.

Aecia/aii aieea nooiaiy ??ciii?oeiino? a??nueeeo ii??ae ia ?iciiae?e
aia?a?? oaeeue iai?oaeaiue i?e aca?iiae?? noi?nieo ca?yae?a, cie?aia a
i?eeiioaeoieo ciiao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c c?inoaiiyi ??ciii?oei?noiino?
eiioaeooth/eo oa??a a??nueeiai ianeao nooi?iue ia??aiii??iino?
?iciiae?eo aia?a?? ?iioeueno oaee? iai?oaeaiue o i?eeiioaeoieo ciiao
c?inoa?, ui iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e i?iaeooaaii? ianiaeo aeaoo?a ?
iniaeeai i?e aecia/aii? /a?aiaino? ?i?oe?thaaiiy naa?aeeiaeiieo
ca?yae?a.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae?eaaiiy ca?yae?a A? ia ae?eyieao ieano?a c
??ciith i?oei?noth iaeaaeeoue cae?enithaaoe a iai?yieo a?ae ii??ae c
iaioith aeonoe/iith aei?noe?noth aei ii??ae c a?eueoith aeonoe/iith
aei?noe?noth; ?ioa?aae niia?eueiaiiy i?ae aeaooaie ca?yae?a,
?icoaoiaaieo o noi?aeieo ae?eyieao ianeao c ??ciith i?oei?noth
aecia/a?oueny ca cai?iiiiiaaiith oi?ioeith, ui a?aoiao? ia o?eueee
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ii??ae, ui ?oeiothoueny, aea e i?inoi?iaa
?icoaooaaiiy ieiueie ?o eiioaeoo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ai?no? a ca?yae? i?iieneiai? A? (naeao?io?a /e
a?aioeioieo) aei 30% niaoe?aeueieo eiiaa?n?eieo aeii?oie, caeaoieo
aeae?eyoe cia/io e?euee?noue aaciaeo i?iaeoeo?a, oaeaee?noue aeaoiiaoe??
ca?yaeo i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny, a i?aoeacaeaoi?noue aeinyaa?
iaeneioio, ui aeicaiey? i?aeoe/ii oe?eeii caa?aaoe aia?aaoe/i? ia?aiao?e
iniiaiiai A? ? i?e oeueiio nooo?ai cieceoe aa?o?noue i?ae?eaaiiy ca
noaooath “aeaooia? iaoa??aee”. E??i oiai, aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo aeii?oie
aeicaiey? ae??ooaaoe aeieiai-aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie eiiaa?n??.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui i?e canoinoaaii? iaeiu?eueieo oa aioeuen?eieo A? c ??ciei
ai?noii ioce?/ee?a iia?o?y aai i?e?inoa? ? a?aeiia?aeii niaoeeo?/ieie
aeonoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ci?ith?oueny iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? oaea?ieo
oa aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue. ?icaeyiooi iaoai?ci noeneaiiy aaciaeo
ioce?/ee?a a aioeuen?eieo A? i?ae aieeaii oaee? noeniaiiy, aaia?iaaii?
non?aei?i ca?yaeii; ca?aeii c oeei c?inoa? a??ia?aei?noue ciaioaiiy
/ooeeaino? “ianeaiiai” ca?yaeo. Aeyaeaii iia?/iee ei?eniee aoaeo yaeua
i?eaeooaiiy aeaooiai? oaee? ae?aiii c ioce?/ee?a, yeee aeei?enoaii i?e
?ic?iaoe? ii?oaaoeo ae?ao?aai aeey caoenoo i?aecaiieo ae?iaie a oiiaao
caa?ice iiaeaae? oa aeaooo iaoaiiiia?o?yii? noi?o? o aoa?eueieo oaooao.

?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
caaacia/aiiy iiaiioe aeaoiiaoe?? naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a a oiiaao
ii??ae ??cii? i?oei?no? ? ?ic?iaeaia ia ?o iniia? oaoiieia?y aeeiiaiiy
ianiaiai aeaooo c canoinoaaiiyi nooeo neieeo oa i?iiiiae?aieo noi?oaaeo
A? c aeiaeaaaiiyi eiiaa?n?eieo iaoa??ae?a aei?iaoaai? a i?iieneiaeo
oiiaao eaiaiieiii? “Iaeiaiu”. Iaoiaee i?eaeooaiiy oaea?ii? oaee? ca
aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo ae?ao?aai, aeaioiaeaieo c i?iiiiae?aiiai
iaoa??aeo, i?ieoee i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo ia ?yae? oaoo N?eacnueeiai
aanaeio.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CAeIAOAA*A CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Kajdasz Z., Koz?owski W., Zawisza J. Nowe rozwi?zania zabezpieczen
przeciwwybuchowych w czasie akcji przeciwpo?arowych w podziemnych
zak?adach gorniczych// Wiadomo?ci Gornicze.- 1998. -?5.- s. 190-193.

Kajdasz Z., Koz?owski W., Zawisza J. Do?wiadczenia Centralnej Stacji
Ratownictwa Gorniczego w poszukiwaniu nowych technologii i metod
zabezpieczen przeciwpo?arowych i przeciwwybuchowych w gornictwie//
Wiadomo?ci Gornicze.- 1998.- ?11.- s. 467-472.

Kraviets V., Olek J., Zawisza J. O wzajemnym oddzia?ywaniu fali
uderzeniowej z ?adunkiem porowatego materia?u wybuchowego// Wiadomo?ci
Gornicze.- 1999. -?10.- s. 428-430.

Kraviets V., Zawisza J. Badanie procesu detonacji uk?adu ?adunkow
otworowych w kopalniach odkrywkowych// Wiadomo?ci Gornicze.- 1999. —
?7-8.- s. 341-343.

Zawisza J. Proces wzajemnego oddzia?ywania fali udarowej i detonuj?cej
przy strzelaniu grupowym// Wiadomo?ci Gornicze.- 1999. — ?5. -s.
239-241.

Zawisza J. Zastosowanie dodatkow prochowych w mieszaninach materia?ow
wybuchowych przy strzelaniu rozszczepowym// Wiadomo?ci Gornicze.- 1999.-

?9.- s. 379-380.

Yeieiai-yia?aaoe/aneea aniaeou eieoeee?iaaiey AA n iaaeaoiie?othueie
aeiaaaeaie/ A.Caaeoa, A.A.E?aaaoe, A.Aiaaiaeea, I.A.Eaeeia // A?niee
Oe?a?inueeiai aoaeeieo aeiiii?/ieo oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ciaiue.-
Ee?a.:-1999.-?7.-N.71-77.

AIIOAOe?ss

Caa?oa ?.O. “Noaa?e?caoe?y aeaoiiaoe?? naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a A? i?e
a?aeaeaaii? a??nueeeo ii??ae ??cii? i?oeiino?”; aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ia
caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth
05.15.11 — “O?ce/i? i?ioeane a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa”, Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ioi?iie i?aoe?, Ee?a, 1999 ?.

Aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy aeaoiiaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a A? i?e onooii?e ?ic?iaoe? ii?iaeieo ianea?a
??cii? i?oeiino? ia ea?’??ao. Aecia/aii oiiae, ca yeeo a ?ac? aca?iiae??
oaea?ieo oa aeaoiiaoe?eieo oaeeue a nenoai? naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a
aeieea? iiaeeea?noue i?eieiaiiy aeaoiiaoe?? a ni?eeiath/eo oaea?io
oaeeth ca?yaeao, iniaeeai i?e iayaiino? iiaa?oiiue ?icae?eo ae?eyiie
ianeao c nooo?ai ??cieie i?oei?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie; aea/aii oa?aeoa?
?iciiae?eo aia?a?? oaeeue iai?oaeaiue, aaia?iaaieo nenoaiith
naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a a ??ciii?oei?niiio ianea? oa aecia/aii
a?aeiia?aei? ia?aiao?e aeaooiaeo ?ia?o a i?eeiioaeoieo ciiao;
anoaiiaeaii aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?e a?aeaeaaii? a??nueeeo ii??ae
aeaooiaeo noi?oae, ui neeaaeathoueny c i?iieneiaeo a?oaiaeenia?nieo
aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei oa iaaeaoiioth/eo niaoe?aeueieo aeii?oie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaooia? ?a/iaeie, aeaoiiaoe?y, ca?yae, ea?’??,
iaaeaoiioth/? aeii?oee, ??ciii?oei?ni? ii?iaee, naa?aeeiaeia,
a?aeaeaaiiy, oa?oaao? na?aaeiaeua.

AIIIOAOeEss

Caaeoa A.O. “Noaaeeecaoeey aeaoiiaoeee neaaaeeiiuo ca?yaeia AA i?e
ioaieea ?aciii?i/iuo ai?iuo ii?iae”; aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa ia
nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
05.15.11 – “Oece/aneea i?ioeannu ai?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa”,. Iaoeeiiaeueiue
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo io?aiu o?oaea, Eeaa, 1999 a..

?acaeoea ioe?uouo ?ac?aaioie n oaaee/aieai eo aeoaeiu nouanoaaiii iaiyao
ai?ii-aaieiae/aneea e ai?ii-oaoiieiae/aneea oneiaey, i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo
iaaiaeiaiiinoe ii?iae, ?aciii?i/iinoe eiioaeoe?othueo aeieia ianneaa,
oiaiueoaieth ?acia?ia ?aai/eo ieiuaaeie. A oaeeo oneiaeyo aicieeatho
aeiiieieoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe a iaania/aiee onoie/eaie aeaoiiaoeee nenoaiu
neaaaeeiiuo ca?yaeia.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa i?eaiaeyony ?acoeueoaou iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee, auiieiaiiuo n oeaeueth auyaeaiey i?e/ei iaiieiie
aeaoiiaoeee a nenoaia neaaaeeiiuo ca?yaeia e niioaaonoaaiii ieceiai
ea/anoaa ae?iaeaiey ai?iuo ii?iae a i?eeiioaeoiuo ciiao aeieia e neiaa n
nouanoaaiii ?acee/iie i?i/iinoueth, ii?aaeaeaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiuo
ia?aiao?ia ac?uaiuo ?aaio a neiaeiuo ai?iioaoiieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo,
onoaiiaeaiey aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey a oaeeo oneiaeyo i?iiuoeaiiuo
a?oaiaeenia?niuo AA a niane ni niaoeeaeueiuie iaaeaoiie?othueie
aeiaaaeaie, iicaieythueie iiauneoue ea/anoai ae?iaeaiey ii?iae, nieceoue
noieiinoue ac?uaiuo ?aaio ii noaouea “ac?ua/aoua iaoa?eaeu” e ?aoeoue
aeooaeueioth caaea/o ooeeecaoeee iaoa?eaeia iai?iiiiai iacia/aiey.

Enoiaey ec iieiaeaiey, /oi i?e ac?uaaiee na?ee oaeeeiaiiuo ca?yaeia
a?oaiaeenia?niuo AA, caiaoii eciaiythueo ia?aiao?u aeaoiiaoeee n
eciaiaieai ieioiinoe ca?yaea, ?anoao aa?iyoiinoue iaaaoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey oaea?iuo aiei, aaia?e?iaaiiuo ?aiaa aci?aaiiuie ca?yaeaie,
ia ac?uaaaiua iicaea a?oiiu ca?yaeia, eco/ai iaoaieci acaeiiaeaenoaey
oaea?iuo e aeaoiiaoeeiiiuo aiei a nenoaia neaaaeeiiuo ca?yaeia;
onoaiiaeaii, /oi n oaaee/aieai eiyooeoeeaioa ?aciii?i/iinoe ianneaa
aic?anoaao noaiaiue ia?aaiiia?iinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey yia?aee eiioeuenia
aiei iai?yaeaiee a i?eeiioaeoiuo ciiao, /oi iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?e
auai?a i/a?aaeiinoe ac?uaaiey a na?ee.

Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ac?uaiuo ?aaio aeinoeaaaony iaania/aieai
iaia?a?uaiinoe i?ioeanna aeaoiiaoeee e i?eiaiaieai ac?ua/aouo ninoaaia
ec a?aioee?iaaiiuo nianaauo i?iiuoeaiiuo AA, ii?enouo e yioeueneiiiuo AA
ni niaoeeaeueiuie iaaeaoiie?othueie aeiaaaeaie a iioeiaeueiuo
niioiioaieyo, iaania/eaathueo caaeaiioth ?aaioiniiniaiinoue ac?ua/aouo
ninoaaia i?e oiaiueoaiiii niaea?aeaiee a ieo AA caaiaeneiai
ecaioiaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ac?uaiua ?aaiou, ac?ua/aoua aauanoaa, aeaoiiaoeey,
ca?yae, ea?uea?, iaaeaoiie?othuea aeiaaaee, ?aciii?i/iua ii?iaeu,
neaaaeeia, ioaieea, ii?enoua n?aaeu.

Annotation

Zavisha E.T. “Improvement of detonation properties of the system of
borehole explosive charges while mining of horizons in opencast mines”.

Doctor’s dissertation to obtain a doctor’s degree of technical science
(candidate of technical sciences) in the major 05.15.11 – „Physical
processes of mining production” National Scientific Research Institute
of Labour Protection, Kiev 1999.

The delivery regards scientific works in which scientific and practical
recommendation have been presented focused on improvement of detonation
properties of borehol explosive charges while mining horizons in
open-cast mines. The conditions have been determined under which fading
(breaking) of detonation in passive charges occurs in the result of
interaction of impact and detonation waves in the system of borehole
explosive charges. The character of separation of energy of stresses
waves was investigated and advised parameters of shotfiring works with
borehole charges was determined in the zone of circum-contact rocks with
differentiated strength. The principality has been determined regarding
utilisation of explosive mixtures during mining of horizon consisting of
industrial explosives and special non-detonation additives.

Key words: explosives, detonation, charge, opencast mines,
non-detonating additives, rocks with differentiated strength,
shot-firing hole, mining of rocks.

Caeiaoaa/: Caa?oa ?.O.

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