Склад, статус і структура семантичного об’єднання слів зі значенням ‘характер поверхні’ у сучасній українській мові: Автореф. дис… канд. філол. наук

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IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IIAICIAANOAA ?i. I.I.IIOAAI?

?aaiiaa Iaoae?y Aeieo??aia

OAeE 808.3–001.2

NEEAAe, NOAOON ? NO?OEOO?A NAIAIOE*IIAI IA?AeIAIIss

NE?A C? CIA*AIIssI OA?AEOA? IIAA?OI?

O NO*ANI?E OE?A?INUeE?E IIA?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.01 — oe?a?inueea iiaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? iiae ?cia?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Nieieianueea AEaiia Iaae?aia,

Oaa??enueeee
aeieia?/iee ?inoeooo,

caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e caaaeueii? o?eieia??,

i. N?ioa?iiieue

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Ei/a?aai Ieoaeei
Iao?iae/,

Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee

oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai oa

oe?a?inueeiai
iiaiciaanoaa, i. Ee?a

– eaiaeeaeao
o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Neiiiaiei
Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo
iiaiciaanoaa

?i. I.I.Iioaai?
IAI Oe?a?ie,

iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

a?aeae?eo
caaaeueiineaa?noe/ii?

i?iaeaiaoeee oa
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo

iia, i. Ee?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee

iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao

?i. Aieiaeeie?a
Aeiie/aiea,

eaoaae?a
oe?a?inueei? iiae,

i. E??iaia?aae

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “29 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.172.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
iiaiciaanoaa ?i.I.I.Iioaai? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, i.Ee?a-1,
aoe. A?ooaanueeiai, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iiaiciaanoaa ?i. I.I.Iioaai? (252001, i. Ee?a-1, aoe.
A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “28” o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
I.A.Ica?iaa

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

No/aniee noai iiaiciaa/i? iaoee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iino?eiei ?ioa?anii
aei i?iaeai nenoaiiiai iieno eaene/ii? naiaioeee. Aeine?aeaeaiith
nenoaiieo yaeu o eaeneoe?, ?o naiaioe/ieo iniaeeainoae i?enay/aii /eiaei
i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo iiaiciaaoe?a. A oe?a?inueeiio
iiaiciaanoa? aea/aiiy eaeneee ye nenoaie caeia? iaeaaeia i?noea o
?iaioao E.A.Eene/aiei, I.I.Oa?aiaiea, I.I.Ei/a?aaia, I.TH.A?eoeaiea,
A.A.Aeyo/oe, AE.I.Nieieianueei?, A.N.Aauaiea, I.I.Io?aaeoeueei?,
O.A.Eeiiee, O.I.Ia?onaiei. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie o oeueiio iai?yieo
aeyaeeeny iaoeia? iiooee, ye? iathoue ca iaoo aea/aiiy ie?aieo
naiaioe/ieo eean?a ye o?aaiaio?a eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie iiae, ui ?
coiiaeei aea?? i?aaeiaoa ? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aiae?co ia?aii naiaioe/ia ooai?aiiy i?eeiaoiee?a no/anii?
oe?a?inueei? iiae c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui a oe?a?inuee?e iia?
aei oeueiai /ano ia c’yniaaia ieoaiiy i?i e?eoa??? a?aeai?o, neeaae,
noaoon ? aioo??oith i?aai?caoe?th naiaioe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy ne?a c?
cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’, ia anoaiiaeaii i?noea aiae?ciaaiiai
naiaioe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy ne?a o eaeneei-naiaioe/i?e nenoai? no/anii?
oe?a?inueei? iiae. ?ica’ycaiiy aeooaeueieo ieoaiue cae?enith?oueny
oeyoii aiae?co no?oeoo?e naiaioe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a no/anii?
oe?a?inueei? iiae c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ ye ie?aiiai o?aaiaioa
iiaii? ea?oeie na?oo.

3a’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee c eiiieaeniith iaoeiaith
oaiith eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae ?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo “?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? iiae ia eaene/iiio oa
a?aiaoe/iiio ??ai?”.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy e?iaa?noe/ii?
nooiino? naiaioe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy ne?a c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’
? anoaiiaeaiiy i?noey oeueiai ia’?aeiaiiy o iiai?e ea?oei? na?oo.

Iniiaia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeea iinoaiiaeo oa iine?aeiaia aeeiiaiiy
oaeeo eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue:

1) aecia/eoe nooi?iue aea/aiiy i?iaeaie nenoaiiiai iieno eaene/ii?
naiaioeee i?eeiaoiee?a o no/aniiio iiaiciaanoa?;

2) anoaiiaeoe e?eoa??? a?aeai?o naiaioe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a c?
cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’;

3) aecia/eoe neeaae naiaioe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a;

4) aeyaeoe no?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th ia’?aeiaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a c?
cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’;

5) nenoaiaoecoaaoe cia/aiiy ia iniia? ???a?o?? nai, anoaiiaeoe noaoon
aiae?ciaaiiai naiaioe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy.

Aeaea?aeii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai eaene/iiai iaoa??aeo iineoaeeee: Neiaiee
oe?a?inueei? iiae a 11-oe oiiao, Neiaiee anioe?aoeaieo icia/aiue
?iaiiee?a a oe?a?inuee?e iia? I.I.Aooaiei, oaenoe ooaeiaei?o oai??a
??cieo aeai??a (I.Eioethaeinueeiai, I.Aii/a?a, I.Noaeueiaoa) aeai?
iieooaaiiy iiaoe?a-?ioi?iaio?a. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue i?iaiae?ciaaieo oa
eaoaeia?ciaaieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue noaiiaeoue iiiaae 2500. Aoee
aeei?enoai? oaeiae aeai? neiii?i?/ieo, aioii?i?/ieo, ?aeaia?ao?/ieo,
aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo oa niaoe?aeueieo neiaiee?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? oai??y a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?
i?ciaiiy, nenoaiii-aio?iiioeaio?enonueeee i?aeo?ae aei iiae, iieiaeaiiy
i?i aca?iica’ycie iiae ? ieneaiiy.

C iaoith aeinyaiaiiy ia’?eoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a o ?ica’ycaii? iinoaaeaieo
caaaeaiue aoa eiiieaenii canoiniaaiee ?yae iaoiae?a e?iaa?noe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??aeo: nenoaiii-iieniaee, no?oeoo?iee,
ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/iee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e neiaa,
ooi/iaiiy aeaiaio?a cia/aiiy ne?a cae?enithaaeiny ca aeiiiiiaith
eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co. Eiioaenoiee ? aaeaioi?niee aiae?ce caeo/aeeny
aeey aeyaeaiiy neioaaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aaaaoicia/ieo i?eeiaoiee?a oa
?o anioe?aoeaieo ca’yce?a. Oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaea
iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ineoie?iaa?noe/iiai anioe?aoeaiiai
aenia?eiaioo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aia?oa
i?iaiaeeoueny no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy naiaioe/iiai
ia’?aeiaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ ye nenoaiiiai
ooai?aiiy o noeoiiino? an?o eiai ca’yce?a. O ?iaio? ooi/iththoueny
cia/aiiy ie?aieo ne?a, neiaieeia? oeoia/aiiy yeeo, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue ?o ?aaeueiiio aaeeaaiith. I?iiiio?oueny neioaaiaoe/ia ?
ooieoe?iiaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ne?a aiae?ciaaiiai naiaioe/iiai
ia’?aeiaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? oaeiae o canoinoaaii?
eiiieaeno iaoiae?a aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeine?aeaeoaaieo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue – eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co iio?aeieo ne?a, aeaiaio?a
nenoaiii-iieniaiai, ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaoiae?a oa ineoie?iaa?noe/iiai
anioe?aoeaiiai aenia?eiaioo.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? iieiaeaiue
caaaeueii? naian?ieia?? i?i nenoaiio i?aai?caoe?th eaeneee ia
oe?a?inueeiio iaoa??ae?, a oaeiae iieiaeaiue ineoie?iaa?noeee, ui
noinothoueny /eaioaaiiy iiaiiai i?inoi?o no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iiae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o i?aeaioiaoe? oa i?iaaaeaii?
niaoeeo?n?a, niaoenai?ia??a c eaene/ii? naiaioeee, aoiie?iaa?noeee,
/anoeiai c ineoie?iaa?noeee; o aoc?anueeeo eo?nao no/aniiai ?
caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa, o i?aeoeoe? oe?eueiiai aeeeaaeaiiy iiae.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. On? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaea?aeai?
aeena?oaioeith naiino?eii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe, a oaeiae i?aeoe/i?
?acoeueoaoe ai?iaiaaii ia anaoe?a?inueeeo oa i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo
c i?iaeai naiaioeee iiae ? oaenoo (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1993, 1996);
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aniaeoo naiaioeee iiaieo iaeeieoeue (Oa?e?a, 1997);
e?iaa?noe/ieo aniaeo?a eoeueoo?e ia?iae?a I?e/i?iiii?’y (N?ioa?iiieue,
1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o 10
ioae?eaoe?yo caaaeueiei ianyaii 3 ae?oe. a?e. Na?aae ioae?eaoe?e 5
noaoae, ?aooa – oace oa iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae i?aeia?iaeieo,
anaoe?a?inueeeo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo eiioa?aioe?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe aecia/athoueny caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?noyoue oae? no?oeoo?i? /anoeie: anooi, o?e iniiai? ?icae?ee, aeniiaee,
nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 176 noi??iie,
ianya aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (aac nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
? aeiaeaoe?a) – 159 noi??iie, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae — 17
noi??iie.

INIIAI?E CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, aecia/aii
iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe, ie?aneaii oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa oi?ie ?o ai?iaaoe??, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo,
caaaeaiiy ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “I?eeiaoieee c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ ye
ie?aia i?aenenoaia eaene/ii? nenoaie oe?a?inueei? iiae” o o?ueio
ia?aa?aoao ?icaeyaeathoueny iine?aeiaii ?noi??y iieno i?eeiaoiee?a c?
cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’, iniiai? iiiyooy e?iaa?noe/iiai aia?aoo ?
oeaio?aeueia i?iaeaia – aecia/aiiy noaoono aiae?ciaaiiai naiaioe/iiai
ia’?aeiaiiy o eaeneei-naiaioe/i?e nenoai? oe?a?inueei? iiae.

O ?iaioao, i?enay/aieo aea/aiith naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e i?eeiaoiee?a c?
cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ iiaeia a?aecia/eoe aeaa ni?yioaaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue: ia?oa noino?oueny naiaioeee ia iniia? iiiyoo?aiai
/eaioaaiiy iiaiiai i?inoi?o (?iaioe AE.I.Nieieianueei?, I.A.Ea?aeauoe);
ae?oaa iia’ycaia c /anoeiiiiaiith niaoeeo?eith eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue
i?inoi?iai? naiaioeee. Oeth i?iaeaio aena?oeaii a ?iaioao O.A.Eeiiee,
Ae.I.O?aiia.

Neiaa iaei??? iiae o noeoiiino? nai?o cia/aiue ?icaeyaeathoueny ye yaeua
nenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?o. Iiaeaethaaiiy naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue ie?aieo
ae?eyiie eaeneee ye i?eeii aeine?aeaeaiiy caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiei aeey
iieno eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie iiae. Iaei??th c? ni?ia aaeaeaaoii
iienaoe oaeo nenoaio iiae aecia?oueny ni?iaa iiaoaeiae iiaii? iiaeae?
(ea?oeie) na?oo aai ?? o?aaiaioa. Naiaioe/i? a?aeiioaiiy o eaeneoe? ?
neeaaeiei ia’?eoii aeey i?ciaiiy, ? oi/iee aea?? iiaeae?, yeee ae
aaeaeaaoii ni?aa?aeiineany ?c nooi?noth ia’?eoa iiaeaethaaiiy, ?
aaaeeeaei aeey iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiaeaeue naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue,
ia yeo i???ioo?iinue o iao?e ?iaio?, caniiaaia ia o?einionueeeo
eaoaai??yo i?ciaiiy ? noa? aoooy. Aiae?ciaaia naiaioe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo i?eeiaoiee?a c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ aenooia? ??
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith Iaiiaiaiiy iiaeae?, anoaiiaeaiiy ?ioeo aeae?a
a?aeiioaiue o eaene/i?e naiaioeoe? a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii ?ice?eooy
ci?noo eaoaai??e i?ciaiiy e aaaaoiieaiiaino? noa? aoooy. Iaeiei c
aieiaieo iiiaio?a caaaeueii? iiaeae? naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue aenooia?
oi?aa?naeueia aeey i?ciaiiy o?einionueea iiiyooy ‘I?ino??’, neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith yeiai ? ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’. Iaeeieoeath aiae?co ? naiaia,
aeaiaioii yei? aenooia? naia ye nieneiaa neeaaeiaa i?aaeiaoii-eia?/ii?
/anoeie naiaie. Naia ? i?i?iaeueiith, a?aie/iith iaeeieoeath ci?noiaiai
ieaio, /anoeiith no?oeoo?e eaene/iiai cia/aiiy, eiiiiiaioii naiaie. O
caaaeuei?e iiaeae? naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue, yea noaiiaeoue iniiao
iiaeaeueoiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aiiai naaiaioa eaeneei- naiaioe/ii?
nenoaie, naie ? iniiaith ???a?o?/ii? eeaneo?eaoe??, yea neeaaea?oueny
a?aeiia?aeii aei eaoaai??e i?ciaiiy ? ?o iiaeaeueoiai /eaioaaiiy, ?
?iciiae?eythoueny ia aeaeinaie ??cieo ii?yaee?a. O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii?
c?noaaeaiiy o?einionueeeo, aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo, niaoe?aeueieo aecia/aiue
iiiyooy ? eaenaie ‘iiaa?oiy’ a 11-oiiiiio oeoia/iiio Ceiaieeo
oe?a?inueei? iiae aeicaieeei aeae?eeoe ye iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iiaa?oi? oae?: aeaaee?noue, ia??aiino?, aeioee?noue, aeaoi?iiaai?noue,
iie?ea iiaa?oi?, ?aeue?o, iniaeeaino? i?noeaaino?. Oea aeiiiiiaei
anoaiiaeoe neeaae ? iaae? aiae?ciaaiiai naiaioe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy
i?eeiaoiee?a c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ ia ia?oiio aoai? aiae?co.

I?eiaeaaei?noue aei a?oie naiai c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’
anoaiiaethaaeany ca aeiiiiiaith eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co c caeo/aiiyi
neiaieeiaeo oi?ioethaaiue ia o?eueee naieo iio?aeieo i?eeiaoiee?a, a e
oa??ieo eaenai (iae/ano?oa ?iaiiee?a), /anoi iayaieo o neiaieeiaeo
oeoia/aiiyo, a oaeiae ne?a, ye? aeooae?cothoue caaaeueiia?aeiia aeey
an?o iiaoe?a ciaiiy ? oiio aeaiaeyoueny iaoiaeii eia?/iiai aiae?co ye
aeaiaioe nieneo i?eeiaoiee?a c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’.

Iniaeea?noth ae/eaioaaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a, ia’?aeiaieo cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa?
iiaa?oi?’, ? iaiao?aei?noue nie?aoeny ia no?eueee ia aeai? neiaieeiaeo
oi?ioethaaiue, ye? ia?aaaaeii aeyaeythoueny iaaeinoaoi?ie aeey oaeiai
caaaeaiiy, ne?eueee ia neeaae aeaiaio?a nieneo naiai, anoaiiaeaiee o
?acoeueoao? aaaaoinooi?iii? i?ioeaaeo?e eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co. Oiio i?e
eeaneo?eaoe?? iaoeo i?eeiaoiee?a a?aoiaoaaeany iayai?noue aai
a?aenooi?noue a naiiiio neeaae? oiai /e ?ioiai aeaiaioa. Ia?ae?e
eiiiiiaio?a naiai, oiaoi nai, io?eiaiee a ?acoeueoao? eiiiiiaioiiai
aiae?co, aeyaey? aeayeo ia??aiii??i?noue ?iciiae?eo aeaeinai ??cieo
ii?yaee?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaiaeii??aeio no?oeoo?o naiiai iiiyooy
‘oa?aeoa?

iiaa?oi?’.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieeee aecia/eoe naiaioe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy
i?eeiaoiee?a ?c naiith ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ ye aeaeinaio ia?oiai ii?yaeeo
(A1). Aiia ?ai?acaioo? i?aeeaoaai??th a?eueo oe?ieiai iiiyooy ‘I?ino??’,
ui ? ?i’yi naiaioe/iiai iiey. Iiaeaeueoee aiae?c iio?aaoaaa
eiino?oeoeaiiai inieneaiiy oeo aeaeinai, ci?no yeeo aoa iaaeinoaoiuei
/?oeei, ? aeiaeaoeiaiai aiae?co neiaieeiaeo noaoae.

sse aeaeinaie ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo (A2) aoei aeae?eaii naie ‘caiia
iiaa?oiy’ ? ‘iiaa?oiy o?ea’. Oae, aeey aeaeinaie ‘caiia iiaa?oiy’ (A2)
ye aeaeinaie o?aoueiai ii?yaeeo (A3) aoee aeae?eai?: ‘?aeue?o’ – ia
iniia? iayaiino? o neiaieeiaeo oi?ioethaaiiyo aeaiaio?a ‘ai?e’,
‘iaai?aee’, ‘?aeue?o’, ‘i?noeaa?noue’, aai ia iniia? iayaiino? o
neiaieeiaeo oi?ioethaaiiyo eiiiiiaio?a: ‘aei?iaa’, ‘eie?y’ oiui. O
iaaeao aeaeinai ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo (A2) aeae?eythoueny aeaeinaie
o?aoueiai ii?yaeeo (A3):

Aeey A2 ‘caiia iiaa?oiy’‘?aeue?o’, ‘eaiaeoaoo’, ‘aieea ee?iaoo’Aeey A2
‘iiaa?oiy o?ea’‘iayai?noue/a?aenooi?noue ia??aiinoae’, ‘iayai?noue/
a?aenooi?noue iie?eooy’, ‘ia?iaeai?noue ethaeeiith’, ‘/ooo?aa
ni?eeiyooy’, ‘aeaoi?iiaai?noue’, ‘caeiyo?noue/ iacaeiyo?noue’,
iayai?noue/a?aenooi?noue a?oaeo’Aeey aeaeinai o?aoueiai ii?yaeeo (A3)
aeae?ey?ii aeaeinaie /aoaa?oiai, i’yoiai ii?yaee?a:

Aeey A3 ‘?aeue?o’‘c ia??aiinoyie’, ‘aac ia??aiinoae’ (A4); ‘c
caaeeaeaiiyie’, ‘c i?aeaeuaiiyie’ (A5)Aeey A3
‘eaiaeoaoo’‘iayai?noue/a?aenooi?noue ?ineeiiino?’ (A4); ‘oa?aeoa? nioneo
– i?aeeiio’ (A4); ‘iniaeeaino? i?noeaaino?’ (A4); ‘??ceee / iinooiiaee’
(A5)Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co a iao?e ?iaio? iaaeaei
iiaeeea?noue ia o?eueee ?icuaieoe ia’?eo ia /anoeie, aea e neioacoaaoe
?o ia a?eueo aenieiio ??ai? i?ciaiiy, a ?acoeueoao? /iai aeyaeeeny
?ai?oa i?eoiaai? aeanoeaino? ia’?eoa, aecia/eeany niaoeeo?ea eiai
iiaeaethaaiiy. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co o aeine?aeaeaii?
i?eeiaoiee?a ?c ni?eueiith naiith ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ aeyaeei
cao?eniaaio a neiaao ???a?o?/ii iiaoaeiaaio ?aaeueio ae?eni?noue,
ine?eueee iiaa ? a?aeaeoeii iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo, ??aiy i?ciaiiy ?
caniaii eiai ia?aaea/? o noni?euenoa?. I?eioeeiiaei aaaaea?ii oa, ui
i?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue oa ???a?o?/ia iiaoaeiaa nai anoaiiaeththoueny ?c
neiaieeiaeo oi?ioethaaiue iayaieo oeoia/ieo neiaiee?a. O i?ioean?
aiae?co naiaioe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy i?eeiaoiee?a c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa?
iiaa?oi?’ anoaiiaeaii, ui oea – nenoaiia ooai?aiiy – naiaioe/ia
i?e?iiiea (II), a iniia? yeiai eaaeeoue oe?iea eia?/ia iiiyooy i?inoi?o.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Aioo??oiy i?aai?caoe?y i?e?iiiey ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’
i?enay/aii iieno aioo??oi?o ca’yce?a II ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’.

Naiaioe/iee aiae?c iaoiai ianeao ne?a aeaa iiaeeea?noue iiae?eeoe ?o ia
iaai? ia’?aeiaiiy, na?aae yeeo ia?aaeeaiaoe/iei iiaiei ooai?aiiyi ?
eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia (ENA), o ye?e ca aeiiiiiaith eiiiiiaioiiai
aiae?co eaaei aeae?eythoueny ?ioaa?aeuei? ? aeeoa?aioe?ei? naie ca
iayai?noth ni?eueii? aeey anueiai II eaoaai??aeueii? i?eeiaoieeiai?
naie.

O ?iaio? aeio?eio?iinue aeoiee, ui oaiaoe/ia a?oia (OA) – oea
ia’?aeiaiiy eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, caniiaaia ia iicae?iaa?noe/i?e
ae?eniino?, a iniia? aecia/aiiy yeiai eaaeeoue /eaioaaiiy caaaeueiiai
iiiyooy, ui aoiaeeoue o ci?no eaoaai??? i?ciaiiy. Iniaeea?noue
oaiaoe/ii? a?oie a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeyaey?oueny o ii?aeiaii? eia?/iiai
/eaioaaiiy oe?ieiai iiiyooy ? eiai iiaiiai “iaiiaiaiiy”, iiaiiai
/eaioaaiiy oyaeaiue ethaeeie i?i ia’?eoeaio ae?eni?noue. Oaiaoe/i? a?oie
iiaeooue aeeth/aoe o na?e neeaae neiaa, ye? ia’?aeiai? a
eaeneei-naiaioe/i? a?oie. A?aoiaoth/e iniiai? iiiaioe iiiyooy ‘oa?aeoa?
iiaa?oi?’, oaiaoe/ieie a?oiaie aaaaea?ii aea?: OA –1 – ‘caiia iiaa?oiy’
? OA – 2 – ‘iiaa?oiy o?ea’ ye? ia’?aeiothoueny iaaeiei iaeii?iaiieo
aeaeinai ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo (A2). Ia?oa oaiaoe/ia a?oia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ni?euei?noth ?noioieo aeey ethaeeie aeaiaio?a cia/aiiy ‘oa?aeoa?
iiaa?oi?’.

Neeaae oaiaoe/ieo a?oi oi?ioaaany ia iniia? caaaeueiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy
iiiyooy ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’. I?e oeueiio ?noioiei aoei ?iciaaeoaaiiy
iaea?eueo cia/oui? aeey ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy ? /?oei ie?aneaii?
oaiaoe/ii? a?oie ‘caiia iiaa?oiy’. Ae?oaa oaiaoe/ia a?oia (OA-2)
aecia/aeany ye ia iano?eueee nooo?aa aeey aeaeeaaiiy ethaeeie, aea oaea,
ui ioiieth? ?aooo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oi?, iia’ycaieo c ??ciiiai?oieie
o?ce/ieie o?eaie. ??ciiiai?oi?noue iniaeeainoae ?oiuei? iiaa?oi?,
caeaaeia a?ae ia’?eoeaieo aeanoeainoae o?e ? noa’?eoeaiiai ethaenueeiai
ni?eeiyooy, aeyaey?oueny o iayaiino? oaeeo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo a?oi o
neeaae? OA-2: ‘iayai?noue/a?aenooi?noue ia??aiinoae’,
‘aeaoi?iiaai?noue’, ‘iayai?noue/a?aenooi?noue iie?eooy’, ‘/ooo?aa
ni?eeiyooy’, ‘ia?iaeai?noue ethaeeiith’, ‘caeiyo?noue/iacaeiyo?noue’,
‘iayai?noue/a?aenooi?noue a?oaeo’. Oaiaoe/iith eeaneo?eaoe??th o neeaae?
OA-2 ioiieththoueny ? iaeo?ae?cothoueny oae? iniaeeaino?, ye /anoeia ?
?? oe?ea, iiaa?oiy aeeaiai aai iaaeeaiai o?ea, oaeiae /anoeia aeeaiai
o?ea, iai?eeeaae, iaee//y (“eanoaoee 0”, “ii?uaaee 0”, “ia?oi’yiaiee
//”); aieiae (“eenee 1”, “eiaaoee 0”); aoa (“caia/aiee 2”, “caiaeeee
1”); o?ea (“aieee 1”, “iooe?/anoee 0”). O oaiaoe/i?e eeaneo?eaoe?? iaia?
??cieoe? i?ae oa?aeoa?ii iiaa?oi? o?ea ethaeeie ? oaa?eie (“/e?yeoaaoee
0”, “iaeaoaoee 1”, “ia?aiieeee 2”).

Oaiaoe/ia a?oia ‘iiaa?oiy o?ea’ /eaio?oueny ia oaiaoe/i? i?aea?oie ? ?
a?eueoith ca ianyaii, ??ciiiai?oiith ca neeaaeii eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo
a?oi, ui ? i?iyaii a?aeia?aaeaiiy o eaene/iiio neeaae? oe?a?inueei? iiae
niaoeeo?/iiai /eaioaaiiy iaaeieeoiuei? ae?eniino?. Oaiaoe/ia a?oia
‘caiia iiaa?oiy’ a?aeia?aaea? o nai?io neeaae? ea?oeio na?oo, a?eueo
iaaeeaeaio aei niaoe?aeueii?, nooi iaoeiai-aaia?ao?/ii? ea?oeie na?oo.
Aiia eaaoa ae/eaiiao?oueny c onueiai ianeao i?eeiaoiee?a c aeaiei
cia/aiiyi ? ia ? oaeith /eneaiiith ye OA-2.

sseui aeae?eaiiy oaiaoe/ieo a?oi o naiaioe/iiio i?e?iiie? ??oioo?oueny
ia eeaneo?eaoe?? naieo i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu ae?eniino?, oi ia iniia?
?iaiaioieo ca’yce?a i?ae neiaaie aeae?eythoueny eaeneei-naiaioe/i?
a?oie.

Aecia/aiiy naiaioe/ieo iciae – aeeoa?aioe?eieo oa ?ioaa?aeueieo nai o
i?e?iiie? ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ aeyaey? ?o o?niee ca’ycie c iicaiiaiith
ae?eni?noth. Ia’?eoeaii ?nioth/? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaa?oi? io?eiothoue
?aaeueia eaene/ia iaiiaiaiiy caeaaeii a?ae ?noioieo aeey iiaoe?a
aeanoeainoae iiaa?oi?. ?ioaa?aeueieie naiaie aoaeooue aenooiaoe naie,
ye? eeaneo?eothoueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei caaaeueii? iiaeae?
naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue ye ni?aa?aeiini? c a?eueo oe?ieei /eaioaaiiyi
iiiyooy ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’, oiaoi ?ioaa?aeueieie naiaie II ‘oa?aeoa?
iiaa?oi?’ ? aeaeinaie o?aoueiai ii?yaeeo (A3). Inoaii? /eaiothoue
aeaeinaie ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo (A2) ‘caiia iiaa?oiy’ ? ‘iiaa?oiy o?ea’.

Eaene/i? iaeeieoe?, ia’?aeiai? ?ioaa?aeueiith naiith ‘?aeue?o’,
iiae?eythoueny ia aea? a?oie ca aeeoa?aioe?eieie iciaeaie: ‘c
ia??aiinoyie’ oa ‘aac ia??aiinoae’. Iai?eeeaae, aeaeinaia /aoaa?oiai
ii?yaeeo (A4) ‘c ia??aiinoyie’ ? ?ioaa?aeueiith aeey naiai, ye? , a
naith /a?ao, iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe ia oae? aea? a?oie:

1) ‘c caaeeaeaiiyie’ – “ieceiiee 0”, “ieciaee 2”, “ieciaee 3”,
“ieciaeiiee 0”, “n?aeeoaaoee 0”, “aeai?noee 0”, “neiee?iaeueiee 0”,
“ai?icai/anoee 0”, “ai?icienoee 0”, “aaeathaaoee 0”;

2) ‘c i?aeaeuaiiyie’ – “aoa?enoee 0”, “aoa?oaaoee 0”, “a??nueeee 1 //”,
“ai?aanoee 0”, “ai?aaoee 1”, “ai?aenoee 0”.

Naiaie c ?ioaa?aeueiith naiith ‘eaiaeoaoo’ (A3) ?iciaaeathoueny ca
aeeoa?aioe?eieie iciaeaie ia /ioe?e i?aea?oie: ‘iayai?noue ?ineeiiino?’,
‘a?aenooi?noue ?ineeiiino?’, ‘oa?aeoa? nioneo-i?aeeiio’, ‘iniaeeaino?
i?noeaaino?’. O i?aea?oi? ‘oa?aeoa? nioneo-i?aeeiio’ aeeoa?aioe?eieie
aeey ?ioaa?aeueii? naie ‘oa?aeoa? nioneo-i?aeeiio’ aenooiaoeiooue naie
‘iinooiiaee’ ? ‘??ceee’. Ni?aa?aeiinii ?ic??ciythoueny oae? aea?
i?aea?oie naiai:

1) ‘iinooiiaee nione-i?aeeii’ – “iiaaeenoee 0”, “iieioenoee 1”, “iieiaee
0”, “iieiaeenoee 0”, “iioeeaiee 4”, “iioeeee 2”, “?iceiaee 4”,
“?iceiaeenoee 0”, “niaaeenoee 0”, “niaaeenoee //”;

2) ‘??ceee nione-i?aeeii’ – “aa?oeeaeueiee 0”, “e?ooee 1”, “e?o/oaaoee
0”, “ia?eaenoee 2”, “ia?ea/anoee 0”, “ia?iaiaeeeoey?iee 0”,
“i?inoiaeniee 0”, “i?yiiaeniee 0”, “no??ieee 1”, “no??i/anoee 0”,
“o?ea/anoee 0”.

Anueiai o neeaae? aiae?ciaaiiai i?e?iiiey ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’
i?iiiio?oueny ?ic??cithaaoe 46 eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo a?oi: 14 o neeaae? OA
-1 ? 32 o iaaeao OA-2.

?i’y eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie anoaiiaeth?oueny ca oaeeie e?eoa??yie:
1) iaoneeaaeiai?noue naiaioeee; 2) noee?noe/ia iaeo?aeuei?noue;
3) iayai?noue neiii?i?a. Iai?eeeaae, ?i’yi ENA-12 ? i?eeiaoiee “Aieiaee
//”. Neiaieeiaa oi?ioethaaiiy eiai aeyaey? iaoneeaaeiaio naiaioeeo –
“iie?eoee aiaeith” ? iaeo?aeueio iiceoe?th o noee?noe/iiio ieai?. O
neeaae? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie “Aieiaee //” niinoa??aa?ii /eiaeo
e?euee?noue neiii?i?a aei i?eeiaoieea, yeee ? ?i’yi ENA-12. Iiaeaia
eeaneo?eaoe?y a?aeia?aaea? eaene/ia iaiiaiaiiy ?noioieo aeey
iiaoe?a-oe?a?ioe?a ia’?eoeaieo, ?aaeueii ?nioth/eo aeanoeainoae caiii?
iiaa?oi?.

Naiaie, ia’?aeiai? ?ioaa?aeueiith naiith ‘iayai?noue/a?aenooi?noue
ia??aiinoae’ (A3), a?aeia?aaeathoue eiiieaenio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iiaa?oi?:
? ci?iao, ? oaeoeeueio iaeii/anii o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a.

Canoinoaaiiy eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co o iiaeaethaaii? eaene/ii? nenoaie
aea? aeo?ae ia neiii?i?/iee ?yae ii?yae c oaeeie naiaioe/ieie
ia’?aeiaiiyie ye i?e?iiiea, oaiaoe/ia a?oia, eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia.

I?eeia?ii, ui neiii?i?/iee ?yae – oea oaea eaene/ia iiiaeeia, /eaie yei?
ia’?aeiai? ni?eueiei eaene/iei cia/aiiyi, ?ic??ciythoueny
aeeoa?aioe?eiei eiiiiiaioii cia/aiiy, ni?iiiaeiei iaeo?ae?coaaoeny i?e
iaaieo oeiao aioo??oiueiiiaieo i?ioenoaaeaiue, aai ia iathoue eiai.

Ioaea, ia iniia? aeaio aeae?a naiaioe/ieo iciae – aeeoa?aioe?eieo oa
?ioaa?aeueieo – iiaeia aecia/eoe neeaae eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie.
Aeeoa?aioe?ei? iciaee nooo?a? aeey ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo i?ioenoaaeaiue,
?ioaa?aeuei? – “caiiaiththoue” eaene/iee ci?no neiaa. ENA
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeiae ? noaa?euei?noth a?aeiioaiue ana?aaeei?
a?oioaaiiy. Iai?eeeaae, o iaaeao ENA “Aeai?noee” aeae?ey?oueny
neiii?i?/iee ?yae c aeii?iaioith “aeai?noee”, aei iueiai a?aeiineii
i?eeiaoieee: ai?icai/anoee, ai?icienoee, caa?eiee. Aeii?iaioith ?
noee?noe/ii iaeo?aeueiee i?eeiaoiee, yeee iaeneiaeueii oa?aeoa?eco?
aiae?ciaaia iiiyooy.

I?ae /eaiaie ?yaeo niinoa??aa?ii a?aaeoaeueiee ca’ycie, yeee
a?aeia?aaea? ??ciee nooi?iue iicia/oaaii? iciaee, oae, i?eeiaoieee
“aeai?noee” ? “caa?eiee” iathoue iciaee ‘c a?eueoeie caaeeaeaiiyie’, ‘c
?o aaeeeith e?euee?noth’, ‘c aeoaea aaeeeith e?euee?noth’
(iaeneiaeueiith).

O iaoiio iaoa??ae? a?aei?/athoueny yaeua aioii?i??, iai?eeeaae,
aeaeinaia ia?oiai ii?yaeeo (A1) ‘?aeue?o’ aeeth/a? a na?e neeaae oae?
ia?aiao?e caiii? iiaa?oi? – ‘c caaeeaeaiiyie’, ‘c i?aeaeuaiiyie’, ye? ?
eiio?anoieie, c iaeiiai aieo, a c ?ioiai – oa?aeoa?ecothoue iiiyooy c
??cieo aie?a. I?ioeeaaei?noue cia/aiue o aeneiaeaii? aai iaeiaeiaa noa?a
eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino? e neoaoaaea e?eoa???i aeae?eaiiy aioii?i?a.

Iaeaea eiaeia aeaeinaia o?aoueiai ? iiaeaeueoiai ii?yaee?a neeaaea?oueny
c aioii?i?/ii i?ioenoaaeaieo ENA, ye? ii-??ciiio oa?aeoa?ecothoue
iiaa?oith. Oae, iai?eeeaae, aeaeinaia o?aoueiai ii?yaeeo (A3)
‘iayai?noue aai a?aenooi?noue ia??aiinoae’ ia? o nai?io neeaae? aeaa
?yaee aioii?i?/ieo i?ioenoaaeaiue: ‘aeaaeea iiaa?oiy’ ? ‘oi?noea
iiaa?oiy’; ‘c i?aeaeuaiiyie’, ‘c caaeeaeaiiyie’. Na?aae aeaeinai
/aoaa?oiai ii?yaeeo oaeiae iiaeia niinoa??aaoe aioii?i?/ia
i?ioenoaaeaiiy: aeaeinaia ‘oa?aeoa? nioneo – i?aeeiio’ oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
c aeaio ??cieo aie?a i?ioeeaaeieie ca cia/aiiyi naiaie ‘iinooiiaee’ ?
‘??ceee’, ye? i?aaenoaaeai? oaeeie naiaiaie: “iiaaeenoee 0”, “iieiaee
0”, “iieiaeenoee 0”, “niaaeenoee 0”, “iioeeee 2”, “?iceiaeenoee 4”,
“cai?enoee 0” ? i?ioeeaaeia a?oia: “e?ooee 1”, “no??ieee 0”,
“no??i/anoee 1”, “i?yiiaeniee 0”.

Niinoa??aathoueny aioii?i?/i? i?ioenoaaeaiiy a?aaeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o:
“aa?oeeaeueiee”, “einee”, “ai?eciioaeueiee”. Aioii?i?/iee ca’ycie ?
oaeoeueoaoeaiei o ieai? a?aeiioaiue naiaioe/ieo iaeeieoeue, aea iao
iaoa??ae, ci???ioiaaiee ia iicae?iaa?noe/iee ci?no i?aaeiaoii-eia?/ii?
/anoeie aeine?aeaeoaaieo naiai, iieacaa iaiao?aei?noue oaeiai oeio
ca’yceo aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaiieo a?aeiioaiue o iaaeao aiae?ciaaiiai
i?e?iiiey. Oaiaoe/i? oa eaeneei-naiaioe/i? a?oie i?iiiio?oueny aaaaeaoe
ia?aeiieie nenoaiieie ooai?aiiyie.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Niieo/oaai?noue i?eeiaoiee?a aiae?ciaaiiai i?e?iiiey oa
eiai anioe?aoeaie ca’ycee” aeiiiaith? naiaioe/iee aiae?c i?e?iiiey
‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino?.
A?aeiii, ui neioaene/iith iniiaith niieo/oaaiino? i?eeiaoiee?a ?
?iaiieee. Iao aiae?c iieacaa, ui i?eeiaoieee c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa?
iiaa?oi?’ niieo/athoueny c iaaiith a?oiith ?iaiiee?a, ye? iiaeia
?iciiae?eeoe ia 15 ENA.

Oe?a?inuee? ?iaiieee, ye? niieo/athoueny c i?eeiaoieeaie i?e?iiiey
‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’, iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe ia oae? eaeneei-naiaioe/i?
a?oie:

1. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy nooi aaia?ao?/ieo iiiyoue: ?aeue?o, eaiaeoaoo.

2. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy ae?eyiee noo?: iiea, noai, ??aieia, aeieeia.

3. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy ae?eyiee caie? iaaaeeeeo ?ici???a: oeiaiaeia,
eoea.

4. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy iniaeeainoae caiii? iiaa?oi?: neaey, ai?a,
ai?a, niaaeeno?noue oiui.

5. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy caie? ye ??oioo: caiey, ??oio.

6. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy aei?iae: oeyo, iooue, aei?iaa, noaaeea, ieae.

7. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy i?noeaaino?: ionoe?, i?noeaa?noue.

8. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy iiaa?oi? o?ea oaa?eie, a naia oe??e.

9. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy iiaa?oi? o?ea ethaeeie , a naia ?? oe??e.

10. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy iaeyao ethaeeie: oonoea, noeiy, ni?i/ea.

11. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy i?aaeiao?a iiaooo: oaoa, no?ia, neaoa?oeia,
no?e oiui.

12. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy /anoeie o?ea ethaeeie aai oaa?eie: nieia,
iaeueoe?, iiae oiui.

13. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy aea?aaeie aai ?? /anoeie: aa?aca, aeoa,
yeeiea oiui.

14. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy oeaieie, iaoa??aeo: oa?noue, neoaoeue,
eeoaeea, ienaieo, aoean oiui.

15. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy /anoeie ?ineeie: eenoy, noaaeeia oiui.

I?eeiaoieee c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ o ooaeiaei?o oai?ao
iaaoaathoue iaaeanoeai? ?i niieo/oaaiino?, ui coiiaeaii aaoi?nueeei
caaeoiii ?, aacia?a/ii, ?icoe?th? eaene/ia cia/aiiy neiaa. Oea aea?
iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui o oaenoao ooaeiaei?o oai??a aei ianeao
iiia?aaeiuei ae?a?aieo ca neiaieeii i?eeiaoiee?a aeiaea?oueny ua cia/ia
?o e?euee?noue, yeo ie ?ioo?oeaii ia a?aeiineee aei eiea aiae?ciaaieo
i?eeiaoiee?a oa ia aeeth/eee a II ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ ia iiia?aaeiueiio
aoai? aiae?co.

Aeieeiaiiy o iiaeaii?, iia? iiaeo iacae/ieo niieo/oaaiinoae iia’ycaia,
ia iao iiaeyae, c ia?eoa???th iiae, c anioe?aoeaieie ca’yceaie, ye?
noai?ththoue aeeao oeaieio iiae, coiiaethth/e oei naiei ia?aoiaee a?ae
iaaeieeoiuei? ae?eniino? aei iiaii?. Eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue
i?eeiaoiee?a o i?aeoeoe? iiae oe?eeii i?e?iaeii caeaaeeoue a?ae
anioe?aoeaieo ca’yce?a c ?aaeueiith ae?eni?noth, c iiiyooyi, c neiaaniei
ia?acii.

Iiaeaethaaiiy naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue a ie?aii acyo?e ae?eyioe?
eaene/ii? nenoaie oe?a?inueei? iiae aoaea iaiiaiei, yeui ii?yae c oaeeie
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ieie ooai?aiiyie, ye naiaioe/ia iiea, i?e?iiiea,
eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia, neiii?i?/i? ?yaee, aioii?i?/i? i?ioenoaaeaiiy,
ia aoaea i?aaenoaaeaii naiaioe/ieo ia’?aeiaiue, aoi?eiieo ca nai?th
i?e?iaeith.

Eaene/i? anioe?aoe?? caeaaeaoue a?ae ??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a: a?eiaeo,
noaoaaeo, aaia?ao?/ieo oiui, iayaiino? aeey eiaeiiai iieooaaiiai
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? nenoaie naiaioe/ieo ca’yce?a ne?a. Aeey ian aaaeeeaei
? oa, ui ni?euei?noue, iaeii??aei?noue ? oeiia?noue anioe?aoe?e aeey
iiaiiai eieaeoeao noa? oaeoii, ?aaeuei?noth caaaeyee iayaiino? ni?eueieo
nai, ye? aeooae?cothoueny a i?ioean? ieneaiiy, aiai??iiy, ni?eeiaiiy.
Anioe?aoeai? ca’ycee i?ae ??cieie neiaaie aeieeathoue aiane?aeie
ineo?/ii? caeaoiino? ethaeeie aa/eoe ni?eueia, oeiiaa o ??cieo yaeuao,
i?aaeiaoao ye ?acoeueoao a?aeia?aaeaiiy ae?eniino? o iia?.

Iao iaoa??ae aea? iiaeeea?noue aeae?eeoe aoi?eiia naiaioe/ia ooai?aiiy –
anioe?aoeaia iiea. I?ae anioe?aoeaiei iieai ?icoi??ii iiaiee iaa??
anioe?aoeaieo ?aaeoe?e (aai anioe?ao?a). Naiaioe/i? anioe?aoe??
aiae?cothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith i?iaaaeaiiy ineoie?iaa?noe/iiai
aenia?eiaioo /a?ac i?aae’yaeaiiy iieooaaiei iaaiiai neiaa-noeioeo.
Oaeiae aeei?enoiaothoueny aeai? Neiaieea anioe?aoeaieo icia/aiue
?iaiiee?a oe?a?inueei? iiae I.I.Aooaiei. Aeey ian aaaeeeaei ? oa, ui
ni?euei?noue, iaeii??aei?noue ? oeiia?noue anioe?aoe?e aeey iiaiiai
eieaeoeao noa? oaeoii, ?aaeuei?noth caaaeyee iayaiino? ni?eueieo nai,
ye? aeooae?cothoueny a i?ioean? ieneaiiy, aiai??iiy, ni?eeiaiiy.
Anioe?aoeai? ca’ycee i?ae ??cieie neiaaie aeieeathoue aiane?aeie
ineo?/ii? caeaoiino? ethaeeie aa/eoe ni?eueia, oeiiaa o ??cieo yaeuao,
i?aaeiaoao ye ?acoeueoao a?aeia?aaeaiiy ae?eniino? o iia?.

O ?iaio? aoea aeei?enoaia iaoiaeeea a?eueiiai anioe?aoeaiiai
aenia?eiaioo c o?enaoe??th ia?oeo i’yoe anioe?ao?a, ye? “niaee ia
aeoieo” i?ney i?aae’yaeaiiy neiaa-noeioeo “noai”. Oeae aenia?eiaio
i?iaiaeeany na?aae nooaeaio?a ?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo a oaeee niin?a. Iieooaaiei (360 in?a) aeaaaany
nienie c o?ueio ne?a: noai, caiey, iiea, ye? a oe?a?inuee?e iia? ?
neiii?iaie (ca Ei?ioeei neiaieeii neiii?i?a oe?a?inueei? iiae). Aei
eiaeiiai c ne?a i?iiiioaaeiny iaienaoe ii i’youe anioe?ao?a (o
eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo – i?eeiaoiee?a), cia/ia /anoeia yeeo iaea
iiaoi?thaaoenue. Aeyaeeiny, ui ia ?iaiiee noai aeaye? ?ioi?iaioe aeaaaee
iaioa a?aeiia?aeae i?ae ia neiai iiea ? caiey, e??i oiai, inoaii?
io?eiaee iaaaaaoi oe?oee iaa?? anioe?aoe?e, i?ae neiai-noeioe “noai”.
Iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue iaea?aeaieo aeey ?iaiieea-noeioeo anioe?ao?a
noaiiaeea 2017 ne?a aeey iiea.

Ineoie?iaa?noe/iee aenia?eiaio aeyaea cia/io e?euee?noue noaiaea?oieo
iiaoi?thaaieo anioe?ao?a, na?aae yeeo aaaaea?ii iaea?eueo oeiiaeie aei
neiaa “noai” oae? i?eeiaoieee: oe?ieee – 213, a?eueiee – 180, aaciaaeiee
– 153, aace?aei?e – 147, i?inoi?ee – 118. O ii??aiyii? c Neiaieeii
anioe?aoeaieo icia/aiue cia/ii a?eueoa aoei io?eiaii
anioe?ao?a-i?eeiaoiee?a ia iicia/aiiy eieuei?o: aeiaoee – 38, n??ee –
15, caeaiee – 43, /i?iee – 19; iaeeie/ieo icia/aiue aeyaeeiny eeoa 28,
aei ?iaiiee?a-noeioe?a “iiea” oa “caiey” oaeeo aeyaeeiny a?aeiia?aeii 35
? 33.

Anueiai ia ?iaiiee-noeioe “noai” aoei iaea?aeaii i?eaeecii 1700
anioe?ao?a, ia ?iaiiee-noeioe “caiey” – 1860, a ia ?iaiiee-noeioe “iiea”
– 2017 i?eeiaoiee?a. Aaeeea e?euee?noue iiaoi?thaaieo anioe?ao?a
iaiaaeeea ?aaeueio e?euee?noue iaea?aeaieo a?aeiia?aeae. Oae, ia neiai
“noai” aoei aeaii anueiai 76 anioe?ao?a, ia neiai “caiey” – 61, “iiea” –
89 i?eeiaoiee?a.

E?euee?niee ? ye?niee neeaae iaea?aeaieo a anioe?aoeaiiio aenia?eiaio?
iaeeieoeue ia ni?aa?aeiini? i?ae niaith. ??ciiiai?oi? aai iaeeie/i?
anioe?aoe, ye? ie a?aeiineii aei ia?eoa??? anioe?aoeaiiai iiey,
noaiiaeyoue a?eueoo a?oio ca e?euee?noth, aea iaio oaeeaaio a iiaeaii?.

Anioe?aoe aei neiaa “noai” aeyaeythoue iaaeinoaoi? oeoia/aiiy oe???
eaenaie o Neiaieeo oe?a?inueei? iiae, aea aiii cao?eniaaii ye iiiinaiia
neiai.

Iaaaaeai? anioe?aoe i?e eeaneo?eoaaii? ca cia/aiiyi aeathoue ??ciia?/io
oa?aeoa?enoeeo cacia/aiiai neiaa-noeioeo ? iiaeooue /anoeiai e
iiina?aaeeiaaii neoaeeoe i?aenoaaith aeey a?aeianaiiy neiaa “noai” aei
iie?nai?/ieo o oeoia/iiio neiaieeo oe?a?inueei? iiae.

Oaeei /eiii, anioe?aoe, io?eiai? a oiae? ineoie?iaa?noe/iiai
aenia?eiaioo, iiaeooue aeaaaoe ?aaeueio ea?oeio iayaiino? aeiaeaoeiaeo
cia/aiue ne?a-noeioe?a aei oeo, ye? iienaii a neiaieeiaeo noaooyo
no/anieo oeoia/ieo neiaiee?a.

?oa?eeaoe?? i?aeeyaathoue ? nai? anioe?aoe-i?eeiaoieee aei ne?a-noeioe?a
“noai”, “caiey”, “iiea” ca oaeeie iciaeaie: i?ino??, eie??, noai oiui.
Iai?eeeaae: ia?iaeai?noue – iai?aiee, oe?eeiiee, can?yiee, ci?aiee.

?iciiae?e o?aaiaioa aa?aaeueii – anioe?aoeaii? ia?aae? (ca aeneiaii
TH.I.Ea?aoeiaa) eaae?o?eoaaany ? ca oaeeie ia?aiao?aie: naiaioe/ieie,
a?aiaoe/ieie, oaiaoeei-neooaoe?eieie, oiaoi oacao?onieie, ?
ioe?iii-i?aaiaoe/ieie. Naiaioe/ieie, iai?eeeaae, ? oae? anioe?aoe: nooee
– aieiaee, aeeaee – ia?oaee, oe?eeiiee – ci?aiee, ea?oo/ee – aeiaeaiee
oiui.

Oaiaoeei-neooaoe?ei?, aai oacao?oni?, anioe?aoe ?iciiae?eeeeny, a naith
/a?ao, ia /ioe?e a?oie: oaiaoe/i?, ia?acii-neooaoe?ei?, ee?oiaai?
aeaiaioe, aiioe?eii-ioe?ii?. Oae, aei ia?acii-neooaoe?eieo anioe?ao?a
iaeaaeaoue i?eeiaoieee ni?ao/ee, niie?eiee, oeoee, caiaoiee, niiy/iee,
oaieee, ea?oo/ee, aeooiyiee.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iaai? ?ica?aeiino? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ?
cacia/aieo o Neiaieeo anioe?aoeaieo icia/aiue, aaaaea?ii, ui
anioe?aoeai? ca’ycee i?ae naiaiaie “noai”, “iiea”, “caiey” II ‘oa?aeoa?
iiaa?oi?’ ooai?ththoue anioe?aoeaii-naiaioe/io ia?aaeo, yea aaco?oueny
ia ciaiiyo iiaoe?a i?i na?o. A?eueo?noue ne?a, io?eiaieo a oiae?
ineoie?iaa?noe/iiai aenia?eiaioo, ia cao?eniaaii oeoia/ieie,
neiii?i?/ieie oa ?i. neiaieeaie ye neiii?ie.

I?ae neiaaie-anioe?aoaie a?aeaoaa?oueny aeno?ae?iaa?noe/iee ca’ycie.
Oaiaoe/i?, ia?acii-neooaoe?ei? oa ?io? aeaee oacao?onieo anioe?ao?a
oaeiae aeiaiaeyoue nieneia? ca’ycee, ca yeeie aoaeo?oueny anioe?aoeaia
ia?aaea i?ae aeaeaeeie, ia ia?oee iiaeyae, neiaaie. Anioe?aoeai?
?aaeoe?? ? a iniiaiiio cae/ieie, oaeeaaieie aeey ?ioi?iaio?a, oiaoi
oaeeie, ye? ia?aaeathoue ?aaeuei? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae ia’?eoaie, coiiaeai?
iaaeieeoiueith ae?eni?noth. A?oioaaiiy ne?a o a?eueiiio anioe?aoeaiiio
aenia?eiaio? a?aeaeaa? oaiaeaioe?th ia’?aeiaiiy ne?a ia iniia?
i?ioenoaaeaiiy aai aeecueeino? cia/aiue. Ioaea, anioe?aoeai? ca’ycee
i?ae eaenaiaie “noai”, “iiea”, “caiey”: 1) aeyaeythoue iaeoiio?
a?aeo?iee cia/aiue, ui ? ?noioiei aeey eiioi?eaoe??; 2) coiiaeththoueny
iicae?iaa?noe/ieie nieneiaeie ca’yceaie i?ae ia’?eoaie ? caeaoi?noth
ethaeeie aei aano?aaoaaiiy; 3) aeyaeythoue iaea?eueo ? iaeiaio oaeeaai?
neiaa a anioe?aoeaiiio iie? o aeaeyae? eiai yae?a ? ia?eoa???.

Ethaenuee? ?iaa??aioi? oyaeaiiy i?i na?o a?aeaeaathoueny o i?e?iaei?e
ethaenuee?e iia?, yea ? iaeiei ?c cania?a ae?aaeaiiy Ciaiiy i?i na?o.
Noeoii?noue oyaeaiue i?i na?o neeaaea? iniiao, nieneiaee ea?ean
eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie iiae, ? i?eioeei ?iaa??aioiino?, aeanoeaee
ethaenueeiio ieneaiith, ae?? o no?oeoo?oaaii? iiaii? nenoaie.

Anioe?aoeai? ca’ycee i?ae /eaiaie anioe?aoeaiiai iiey c aeii?iaioith
‘Noai’ ia?aa??yeeny ia oai?ao oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a
(I.Eioethaeinueeiai, I.Aii/a?a, I.Noaeueiaoa) ?c canoinoaaiiyi
eiioaenoiiai aiae?co.

?aeaieaenaia ‘Noai’ ye ?iaa??aioia iaeeieoey ?aae?co?oueny a iiaieo
aa??aioao caaaeyee iayaiino? e ?aaeueiino? aeey iiaoe?a ia?eoa??eieo
eiiiiiaio?a i?aaeiaoii-eia?/ii? /anoeie neiaa, oiaoi a naiaioe/i?e
no?oeoo?? neiaa ?niothoue ? ia?eoa??ei? naie (?aeaieia?/i?,
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i?, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i?, iaoe?iiaeueii-iiai?), ye?
iia’ycai? c ciaiiyie i?i na?o ? aeooae?cothoueny a iaai?e iiai?e
neooaoe??. A?aei?iiino? oeeo eiiiiiaio?a ia caaaeaee /?oei ?icaaeoaeai?;
iacaaaeath/e ia oea, cacia/ai? ia?eoa??ei? aeaiaioe i?aaeiaoii-eia?/ii?
/anoeie neiaa ae??ciythoueny nai?i ci?noii ? ooieoe?yie. Ci?no
?aeaieia?/ieo nai iieyaa? a aeooae?caoe?? ?aea? oai?o, aeneiaeaiiy,
/ano?oa ca ana oae? naie aenooiathoue iin?yie ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
aaoi?nueeeo anioe?aoe?e, ye? aeinyaathoue nai?? iaoe a iaaiiio
neiaaniiio eiioaeno?, a caiaeii noathoue caaaeueiiaeciaieie. Iai?eeeaae,
o iaoiio iaoa??ae? neiaaie, a yeeo aeooae?co?oueny ?aeaieia?/ia naia ?
?aae?cothoueny aaoi?nuee? anioe?aoe??, ? eaenaie /aaainueeee, /enoee,
/i?iee. ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i? naie aeooae?cothoue ae??oaeuei? aeey
eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/i? iiae?? ? ? iniiaith aeey iiae?aieo
anioe?aoe?e, iai?eeeaae, iin?yie oaeeo nai ? anioe?aoe?e ? eaenaie
aanna?aanueeee, aneai?enueeee, ?aeaoiee. Iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? naie
?ai?acaioothoue a?aeaeoee cae/a?a, o?aaeeoe?e, neiaie?a, oyaeaiue, ye?
noi?ioaaeeny o i?ioean? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, eoeueoo?iiai ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, iai?eeeaae, /oiaoeueeee,
ao?eaoeueeee, uaae?ee, ?ice?oiee, ?iaeth/ee. Iaoe?iiaeueii-iiai? naie
?icoi??ii ye a?aeaeoie iiaiiai iaioae?oaoo, iiaeaii?ai? i?aeoeee,
a?aeaeoie e?oa?aoo?ii? oai?/ino?, ao?eaii? o i?aaeiaoii-eia?/i?e /anoei?
neiaa, iai?eeeaae, o eaenaiao y?i-caeaiee, oaeeynoee, ni?ao/ee,
caiia?aeiee, ianoiaeeiee.

Eiaeia c cacia/aieo aeua nai o oaenoao ooaeiaei?o oai??a iiaea noaoe
oeaio?ii anioe?aoeaiiai iiey, ui ? iiina?aaeeiaaiei na?ae/aiiyi
?aaeueiino? ?nioaaiiy iiae?aieo nai a oe?a?inuee?e iia?. Ia?eoa??ei?
naie iiaeooue niieo/aoeny o neiaao ? a oaeiio aeiaaeeo ia /?oei
a?aeie?aiethaaoeny iaeia a?ae iaeii?, a?ao?/ii iayai?noue a neiaao
ia?eoa??eieo aeaiaio?a iiaeia a?aeia?aceoe a oaaeeoe?:

Oaaeeoey 3.1.

Iayai?noue ia?eoa??eieo nai o naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo?? neiaa

Naie

Neiai?aeaieia?/ia ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia Iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia
Iaoe?iiaeueii-iiaia Nooee

?iceiaee

Oaeeynoee+

-+

+-

+

+Ia?eoa??ei? naie iiaeooue aooe i?enooi?ie a naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo?? neiaa
a iiaiiio neeaae? e iiiaeeioe?. Ia?eoa??ei? aeaiaioe naiiiai neeaaeo
neiaa iiaeooue aeooae?coaaoeny a iaaiiio neiaaniiio ioi/aii? ? ?
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi ? ii?iaeaeaiiyi aca?iica’yce?a i?ae ?a/aie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo, ye? ona?aeiieththoueny ? canaiththoueny ethaeeiith
caaaeyee iniaeeainoyi ?? ineo?ee, a naia caeaoi?noth aano?aaoaaoe e
ocaaaeueithaaoe. Oaeei /eiii, ?nioaaiiy naiaioe/ieo ?iaa??aio?a ia
??oio? ni?eueiino? eaene/ieo cia/aiue ? anioe?aoeaieo ca’yce?a
aca?iica’ycaia ? coiiaeaia iniaeeainoyie ineo?/iiai eaaeo ethaeeie.
Anioe?aoeai? ca’ycee, ye? ii?iaeaeo? neiai-noeioe, a oaeiae anioe?aoeai?
?aaeoe?? ye i?iaeiaaeaiiy oeeo ca’yce?a ooai?ththoue anioe?aoeaia iiea.

O iaoiio anioe?aoeaiiio iie? niinoa??aa?ii ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aaoi?nuee?
anioe?aoeai? ia?aaeeaie, aea oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaa?oi? noaio (caiii?
iiaa?oi?) noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny, aeiiiaith?oueny ? ?ice?eaa?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith oa?aeoa?enoee iia?o?yiiai ? aiaeiiai i?inoi??a. O neeaae
anioe?aoeaiiai iiey ‘Noai’ aoiaeyoue ia eeoa i?eeiaoieee, aea e ?io?
/anoeie iiae: ?iaiieee, ae??neiaa, i?ene?aieee.

Naia ?iaiieee iiaeia aaaaeaoe iin?yie oaiaoeei-neooaoe?eieo anioe?aoe?e.
Iai?eeeaae, ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy eaiaeoaooo ? ee?iaoo noai?a: aa?oai,
aacaeiu?a’y, caa??thoa, aeaeiie?ae, ai?eciio, caaeooa, caiaoe, eo?yaa,
ao?y, ao?ai, o?aaai, aooiaeua, i?nee, ionoaey, ionoe?, ionoa/a,
ionoecia, ionoeiy, ionoe?eua, ??aieia, ??/ea, ?iceea, nieii/ae, noeo?y,
oia?a, oia?iaeua, y?oaa.

?aeaieaenaia ‘Noai’ ye naiaioe/iee ?iaa??aio ia ??ai? oaenoo a?oio?
iaaeiei naaa anioe?aoeaia iiea c aeineoue noaa?eueiei yae?ii ?
?icai?iooith /eneaiiith ia?eoa???th.

Aeniiaee

1. O no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia? neeaae eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue i?e?iiiey
‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ noaiiaeoue iiiaae 2500 iaeeieoeue. Oeae o?aaiaio
eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie iiae a?ae?a?aii ia iniia? neiaiee?a ?c
canoinoaaiiyi eiiiiiaioiiai, eiioaenoiiai aiae?co oa ineoie?iaa?noe/iiai
aenia?eiaioo.

2. Ia i?aenoaa? caaaeaieo aeua i?ioeaaeo? aiae?co ia?aiee aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ianea naiaioe/iiai eiioeiooio aecia/a?oueny iaie ye
naiaioe/ia i?e?iiiea. I?ae i?e?iiieai ?icoi??ii iaaio iiaio ?aei?noue,
ui aaco?oueny ia naiieo ca’yceao.

3. I?e?iiiea ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ ? aeyaii nenoaiiino? a eaene/i?e
naiaioeoe? e iaeiei ?c o?aaiaio?a iiaii? iiaeae? na?oo. sseui nie?aoeny
ia ?aeaia?ao?/i? iiaeae?, i?aaenoaaeai? a i?aoeyo O.Eana?ana,
TH.I.Ea?aoeiaa, A.A.Ii?eiae?ia, AE.I.Nieieianueei?, oi aiii ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith naiaioe/iiai iiey ‘I?ino??’.

4. I?e?iiiea i?eeiaoiee?a ?c cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ o no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e iia? ? no?oeoo?iaaiei ia’?aeiaiiyi. Aioo??oiy i?aai?caoe?y
i?e?iiiey anoaiiaeth?oueny ia iniia? naiiiai aiae?co, oiaoi nieneiaeo
a?aeiioaiue, aecia/aieo ca aeiiiiiaith eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co. Iniiaiith
ia?aaeeaiaoe/iith a?oiith aeine?aeaeoaaiiai i?e?iiiey ?
eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia, eiie?aoieie i?aaenoaaieeaie yei? aenooiathoue
neiii?i?/i? ?yaee oa aioii?i?/i? i?ioenoaaeaiiy.

5. Aaeaioi?niee oa eiioaenoiee aiae?c iieacaee, ui o naiaioe/iiio
i?e?iiie? ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ o iiaeaii? ooieoe?iio? iaaaaaoi a?eueoa
i?eeiaoiee?a, i?ae cao?eniaaii o neiaieeao.

6. Iaeiei ?c eiiiiiaio?a naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e naiaie a neioaaiaoe/iiio
aniaeo? ? eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue ne?a. I?eeiaoieee aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
i?e?iiiey ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ iae/ano?oa niieo/athoueny c ?iaiieeaie
??cieo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo a?oi. Niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae niieo/oaai?noth
i?eeiaoiee?a ? oeoia/aiiyie a 11-oiiiiio Neiaieeo oe?a?inueei? iiae aea?
i?aenoaae oaa?aeeoe, ui aeaye? cia/aiiy aiae?ciaaieo i?eeiaoiee?a,
iiaeai? a Neiaieeo oe?a?inueei? iiae ye a?aeo?iee cia/aiue, iaiao?aeii
aaaaeaoe ie?aieie cia/aiiyie.

7. O iao?e ?iaio? aecia?ii ?nioaaiiy oaeiai aoi?eiiiai naiaioe/iiai
ooai?aiiy c nenoaiiith i?aai?caoe??th, ye anioe?aoeaia iiea. Inoaii?
aaco?oueny ia ia?aae? anioe?aoeaieo ca’yce?a, ye? eaaei aeooae?cothoueny
o na?aeiiino? iiaoe?a, ine?eueee caniiaai? ia nieneiaeo iicae?iaaaeueieo
ca’yceao iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo ? caeaoi?noth ethaeeie aei aano?aaoaaiiy.
Ia?aaea anioe?aoeaieo ca’yce?a caeaoia aac coneeue aeyaeyoeny ca
aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo iaoiaeee.

8. A?eueiee ineoie?iaa?noe/iee aenia?eiaio aeicaieea aeyaeoe niaoeeo?eo
iaaiiai o?aaiaioa iiaii? ea?oeie na?oo ? iiaeeaeoe ciaiiy i?i ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

9. ?icaeyae ia ??ai? anioe?aoeaiiai iiey c caeo/aiiyi ?iaa??aioii?
eaene/ii? iaeeieoe? – ?aeaieaenaie ‘Noai’ – ia ianea? oaeno?a ooaeiaei?o
oai??a oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a aeicaieea aeyaeoe ia?eoa??ei? naie:
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i?, ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i?, iaoe?iiaeueii-iiai? oa
?aeaieia?/i? a naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo naiai.

10. Anioe?aoeaia iiea, a?ae?a?aia ia iniia? anioe?aoeaieo ca’yce?a i?ae
i?eeiaoieeaie i?e?iiiey ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ oa neeaaeii? ia?aae?
anioe?aoeaieo a?aeiioaiue aiae?ciaaiiai i?e?iiiey o nenoai?
ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo, ia? /?oei aecia/ai? yaea?io ? ia?eoa??eio /anoeie.
Aei neeaaeo aeine?aeaeoaaiiai anioe?aoeaiiai iiey aoiaeyoue ia o?eueee
i?eeiaoieee, aea e ?iaiieee, ae??neiaa, i?ene?aieee.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. O?aaiaio ea?oeie na?oo a ??cieo nai?ioe/ieo nenoaiao: eoeueoo?e ?
iiae // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. – 1997. – ?2. – N. 143-147.

2. Iiaeaethaaiiy naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue ne?a c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa?
iiaa?oi?’: OA // Iaoea ? no/ani?noue. Ca. iaoe. i?. – Ee?a: Iaoe. iaae.
oi-o. ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 1998. – *. ??? – N.192-197.

3. Eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue i?e?iiiey ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ //
Ia?niaeoeae. – 1998. – ?3-4. – N. 15-18.

4. Eaeneei-naiaioe/i? a?oie oe?a?inueeeo i?eeiaoiee?a c? cia/aiiyi
‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ // Iaoeiaee a?niee ?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo. Aeione 6. – ?cia?e: ?AeI?, 1999. – N. 43-48.

5. I?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nai ? iciae eaenaie iiaa?oiy // E?iaa?noe/i?
nooae??: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aeione 5. – Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeO. – 1999. –
N. 263-267.

6. Nienee naiai c aeaiaioii “I?ino??” (ia iaoa??ae? i?eeiaoiee?a
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iiae) // Iaoeiaee a?niee ?cia?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo. Aeione 1. – ?cia?e, 1997. – N.
22-29.

7. Ea?oeia na?oo a no?oeoo?? aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy: Noai
I?e/i?iiii?nueeee // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. – 1997. – ?2. –
N. 268-270.

8. Neiaa c? cia/aiiyi i?inoi?o a iia?no? I.A.Aiaiey “Oa?an Aoeueaa”//
Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “Naiaioeea iiae ? oaenoo”
13-15 aeiaoiy 1993 ?ieo. *. 1. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: I?eea?iao. oi-o. ?i.
A.Noaoaieea, 1993. – N.98-100.

9. Iiaia ?aae?caoe?y eaoaai??? i?inoi?o o noai?aii? ia?aco noaio (ia
iaoa??ae? oai??a I.I.Eioethaeinueeiai) // Iaoa??aee V I?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “Naiaioeea iiae ? oaenoo” 30 aa?aniy – 2 aeiaoiy.
– 1996 ?. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: I?eea?iao. oi-o. ?i. A.Noaoaieea, 1996. –
N.73-74.

10. ?ieue ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/iiai iiey i?inoi?o o oi?ioaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? iiaii? ea?oeie na?oo o ooaeiaeiueiio oaeno?
//Ooieoeeiiaeueiue aniaeo naiaioeee ycueiauo aaeeieoe. Iaoa?eaeu V???
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee ii aeooaeueiui i?iaeaiai
naiaioe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. *.1. – Oa?ueeia: OAIO ei. A.N.Neiai?iaeu,
1997. – N.13-15.

Aiioaoe??

?aaiiaa I.Ae. Neeaae, noaoon ? no?oeoo?a naiaioe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy ne?a
c? cia/aiiyi ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’ o no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa. – ?inoeooo
iiaiciaanoaa ?i. I.I.Iioaai? IAI Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? e i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie iieno
eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie, cie?aia ?? ie?aiee o?aaiaio. Aeaoaeueii
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny naiaie a iaaeao naiaioe/iiai i?e?iiiey c? cia/aiiyi
‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi?’. Aiae?c naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e neiaa, iien naiai,
??ciiiai?oieo ca’yce?a i?ae naiaiaie, anoaiiaeaiiy ?o ???a?o??,
iiaoaeiaa iiaeae? naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue ? iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
i?e aeine?aeaeaii? oa?aeoa?enoee eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? nenoaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiaeaeue naiaioe/ieo a?aeiioaiue, naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a
neiaa, naiaioe/ia i?e?iiiea, eaeneei-naiaioe/ia a?oia, naiaia, naia,
?aeaieaenaia, anioe?aoe?y, iiaia ea?oeia na?oo

Ivanova N.D. Composition, Status and Structure of Semantic Unite of the
Words in the Meaning ‘Characteristic of Surface’ in the Modern Ukrainian
Language. – Manuscript.

The dissertation competing for the Candidate degree in Philology,
speciality 10.02.01 – the Ukrainian language. – O.O.Potebnya the
Institute of linguistics National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. —
Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis presented for detence deals with the theoretical and
practical problems of the description of lexicosemantic system, in
particular its specific fragment. A detailed characteristics of semems
within the semantic microfield in the meaning ‘characteristic of
surface’. The analysis of semantic structure of the word, the
description of sememe different kinds of relations between semems, the
establishment of their hierarchy, the structure of the model of semantic
relations make up the methodology of studying of the lexicosemantic
system and units, structure, integrity, functional direction.

Key words: model of semantic relations, semantic structure of the word,
semantic microfield, lexicosemantic group, sememe, seme, idealexeme,
language picture of the world.

Eaaiiaa I.Ae. Ninoaa, noaoon e no?oeoo?a naiaioe/aneiai iauaaeeiaiey
neia ni cia/aieai ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oiinoe’ a nia?aiaiiii oe?aeineii ycuea.
– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.01 – oe?aeineee ycue. – Einoeooo
ycueiciaiey ei. A.A.Iioaaie IAI Oe?aeiu. – Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia iienaieth iaeiiai ec o?aaiaioia naiaioe/aneiai
eiioeiooia nia?aiaiiiai oe?aeineiai ycuea. Oai?aoe/aneia cia/aiea,
aeooaeueiinoue e iao/iay iniiaa ii?aaeaeythony oai, /oi eca?aiiue aeey
aiaeeca o?aaiaio eaeneei-naiaioe/aneie nenoaiu oe?aeineiai ycuea aeai ia
a io?uaa io anaai naiaioe/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa, a n /aoeei ii?aaeaeaieai
aai ianoa, aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u e aiaoieo aeey iaai naycae n ae?oaeie
/anoyie naiaioe/aneiai eiioeiooia. Yoi aeinoeaaaony oai, /oi
eniieuecoaony iiiyoea iiaeaee naiaioe/aneeo ioiioaiee a eaeneea eae
i?iyaeaiea nenoaiiinoe eaene/aneie naiaioeee. A iniiaa i?eieiaaiie
iiaeaee eaaeeo iiiyoea “ea?oeiu ie?a”, eioi?ia e iaoneaaeeaaao eae
nenoaiiinoue aioo?aiiae i?aaiecaoeee aeaiiiai naiaioe/aneiai
iauaaeeiaiey neia, oae e ii?aaeaeaiea aai noaoona a iauae naiaioe/aneie
nenoaia e onoaiiaeaiea naycae aai n ae?oaeie /anoyie naiaioe/aneiai
eiioeiooia nia?aiaiiiai oe?aeineiai ycuea.

Aia?aua i?iaiaeeony no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iauaaeeiaiey
eiai i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ni cia/aieai ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oiinoe’ eae nenoaiiiai
ia?aciaaiey a niaieoiiinoe anao aai naycae, ?ane?uaaaony iaoaieci
oi?ie?iaaiey yoie a?oiie?iaee iooai ii?aaeaeaiey naiaioe/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey aiaeece?oaiiai cia/aiey. I?iaa?ythony iauea iniaaiiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee eaene/aneie nenoaiu, au?aaeaiiua a iiaeaee nenoaiiuo
ioiioaiee a eaeneea; auyaeythony niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou aeaiiiai aa
o/anoea (aiaeece?oaiiai iauaaeeiaiey naiai ni cia/aieai ‘oa?aeoa?
iiaa?oiinoe’). Ooi/iythony cia/aiey ioaeaeueiuo neia, neiaa?iua
oi?ioee?iaee eioi?uo ia niioaaonoaotho eo ?aaeueiiio oiio?aaeaieth.
I?aaeeaaaaony neioaaiaoe/aneay e ooieoeeiiaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea neia
enneaaeoaiiai naiaioe/aneiai iauaaeeiaiey, i?ioeanna ?acaeoey e ianoa
annioeeaoeee a iauae iiaeaee naiaioe/aneeo ioiioaiee. Eniieuecoaony
eiiieaen iaoiaeia aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee enneaaeoaiuo aaeeieoe:
eiiiiiaioiue aiaeec i?iecaiaeiuo neia, yeaiaiou nenoaiii-iienaoaeueiiai,
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iaoiaeia e eeiaaenoe/aneee yenia?eiaio.

A naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?a neiaa ?anniao?eaathony eae acaeiiniioianaiiua
e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiua niune a ea/anoaa “na?aeoeaaeiu” naiaioe/aneie
no?oeoo?u naiaiu e “naoue annioeeaoeee”, ia?acothuae aianoa ni niuneii
“i?aie” naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?u neiaa. Naiaioe/aneea annioeeaoeee
aiaeece?othony n iiiiuueth i?iaaaeaiiiai ineoieeiaaenoe/aneiai
yenia?eiaioa ia?yaeo n eniieueciaaieai eiathueony neiaa?ae annioeeaoeee.

A aeenna?oaoeee ia iniiaa iiaeaee naiaioe/aneeo ioiioaiee e ea?a?oee nai
ii?aaeaeyaony aioo?aiiyy no?oeoo?a aiaeece?oaiiai naiaioe/aneiai
iee?iiiey, eaeneei-naiaioe/aneeo a?oii, neiiieie/aneeo ?yaeia e
aioiieie/aneeo i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee, auyaeaiu oeiu naycae iaaeaeo naiaiaie
a naiaioe/aneii iee?iiiea ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oiinoe’ e iaaeaeo ae?oaeie
o?aaiaioaie ycueiaie ea?oeiu ie?a. Aaeeieoeu naiaioe/aneiai iee?iiiey
‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oiinoe’ – naiaiu – enneaaeothony n iiiiuueth
eiiiiiaioiiai aiaeeca.

Eca?aiiia aeey aiaeeca (onoaiiaeaiea noaoona a iauai naiaioe/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa ia iniiaa i?eieiaaiiai aa?eaioa iiaeaee, eiiiiiaioiue
aiaeec niunea, aiaeec ae?oaeo /anoae naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?u neiaa)
auiineony ia o?iaaiue auneacuaaiey, oaenoa e enneaaeoaony ia aieueoii
iaoa?eaea i?iecaaaeaiee oe?aeineeo ienaoaeae. Oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieyao
oi?ioee?iaaoue auaiaeu i ooieoeeiie?iaaiee naiai aeaiiiai o?aaiaioa
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneie nenoaiu nia?aiaiiiai oe?aeineiai ycuea, ioe?uaaao
aiciiaeiinoe aeiiieiaiey e aeaaea ei??aeoeee iieacaiee eae oieeiauo, oae
e niaoeeaeueiuo neiaa?ae nia?aiaiiiai oe?aeineiai ycuea.

Naiaioe/aneia iee?iiiea ‘oa?aeoa? iiaa?oiinoe’ aunooiaao eae i?iyaeaiea
nenoaiiinoe a eaene/aneie naiaioeea e iaeiei ec o?aaiaioia iiaeaee ie?a,
eioi?ue iie?aaony ia eaeaia?aoe/aneea iiaeaee, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a o?oaeao
O.Eana?ana, TH.I.Ea?aoeiaa, A.A.Ii?eiaeeia, AE.I.Nieieianeie e ae?oaeo
enneaaeiaaoaeae, e yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth naiaioe/aneiai iiey
‘I?ino?ainoai’.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e
ninoaaeaiee eaeaia?aoe/aneeo neiaa?ae oe?aeineiai ycuea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiaeaeue naiaioe/aneeo ioiioaiee, naiaioe/aneay
no?oeoo?a neiaa, naiaioe/aneia iee?iiiea, eaeneei-naiaioe/aneay a?oiia,
naiaia, naia, eaeaieaenaia, annioeeaoeey, ycueiaay ea?oeia ie?a.

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