Розроблення технологій та апаратури для подовження терміну зберігання харчових продуктів: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / А.І. Українець, Укр. держ.

OE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OA?*IAEO OAOIIEIA?E

OE?A?IAOeUe AIAOIE?E ?AAIIAE*

OAeE 663.465:663.255.7

?ic?iaeaiiy oaoiieia?e oa aia?aoo?e

aeey iiaeiaaeaiiy oa?i?io caa??aaiiy

oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a

05.18.12 — I?ioeane oa aia?aoe oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeaaeai?e OAAI, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aoeee ?aai Noaiaiiae/,

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, ?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eoi/ee Ieoaeei Iao?iae/,

eaoaae?a ioi?iie i?aoe? oa oeea?eueii? iai?iie,

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

??iaeia Iao?i Iao?iae/,

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiiei a?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a o?i?/ii? oa aeieia?/ii? oaoi?ee, i?ioani?

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iiiiia?ueia Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/,

a?aeae?e aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo iaoiae?a ?icae?eaiiy noi?oae ?inoeoooo
eiei?aeii? o?i?? oa o?i?? aiaee ?i. Aeoiainueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo oa?/iai? o?i?? ? oaoiieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie oa I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie (Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 6 ” ;aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

Ae 26.058.02 Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e, aoaeeoi??y A — 311.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e ca aae?anith:

252033, Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 68,

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 31 ” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

e. o. i., A.E.Caa’yeia

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?iaeoeoaie
oa?/oaaiiy aeniei? yeino? oa ?o eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ia ciai?oiueiio
?eieo ? iaeiei c iniiaieo caaaeaiue a?o/eciyii? oa?/iai? oa ia?a?iaii?
i?iieneiainoae.

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ? ?ic?iaeaiiy iiaeo
oaoiieia?e, aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a,
ia?aoiae?a ia iia? aeieia?/ii /eno? oaoiieia?? oa oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy
aeinyaiaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee o ae?iaieoeoaao, ye? caaacia/othoue
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? i?e aeiiiii?e aeo?ao? iaoa??aeueieo ?
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a. Na?aae i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy cia/ia
i?noea iaeaaeeoue ??aeeei oa?/iaei i?iaeoeoai: aacaeeiaieueiei iaiiyi,
ieao, nieai, aeno?aeoai, iieieo, iaoo?aeueiei aeiai oiui.

A?aeii? oaoiieia?? iiaeiaaeaiiy oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy oeeo i?iaeoeo?a
aacothoueny ia oa?i?/iiio ia?iaeaii? (ianoa?ecaoe?y oa noa?ee?caoe?y),
canoinoaaii? oeueo?ao?eueo?aoe??, aeiaaaeao aei i?iaeoeoo ??cieo ca
nai?th i?e?iaeith o?i?/ieo eiina?aaio?a. I?e oeueiio oa?/ia? oa
i?aaiieaioe/i? aeanoeaino? ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a nooo?ai
iia??oothoueny aiane?aeie aeaiaoo?aoe?? a?ee?a, ?oeioaaiiy
oa?iaioii-a?oai?iiiai eiiieaeno. Ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yiii i?aeaeuaiiy
oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy oeeo i?iaeoeo?a ? canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo
iaoiae?a ?o ia?iaeaiiy. Aeey ?ic?iaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e caa??aaiiy
??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a oeyoii ?o ia?iaeaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieie
iaoiaeaie iio??aii i?iaanoe anaa?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa
aeaeo?iiiaa?oiaaeo yaeu, ye? iathoue i?noea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao.

Iniiaieie ia?aaaaaie oaoiieia?e, ?ic?iaeaieo ia iniia? aeaeo?e/ieo oa
iaai?oii-?iioeuenieo iie?a (AI oa I?I), ? iiaia caa?aaeaiiy oa?/iaeo oa
niaeiaeo aeanoeainoae i?iaeoeo?a, oi?aa?naeuei?noue, yea aeicaiey?
canoiniaoaaoe ?o a ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao; aeiiii?/i?noue —
caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith ?iioeuenieo oaoiieia?e; aeieia?/i?noue — ca
?aooiie aeeeth/aiiy aeei?enoaiiy oaiea ? o?i?/ieo eiina?aaio?a;
iiaeeea?noue iiaii? aaoiiaoecaoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a.

O na?o? a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y i?eae?ey?oueny aaeeea oaaaa canoinoaaiith
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo iaoiae?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oa?i?io caa??aaiiy oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a. A ?ic?iaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo iniia canoinoaaiiy
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo iaoiae?a aeey oeeo oe?eae cia/iee aianie c?iaeee a/ai?
e?a?i NIAe, O?aioe??, I?ia//eie, NOA, ?oae??. Iaeiae a?eueo?noue
aeine?aeaeaiue iaee ianenoaiiee oa?aeoa?, ?i i?eoaiaiia a?aenooi?noue
oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaieo eiioeaioe?e, a a?eueoino?
iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o a?aenooi? eiie?aoi? ia?aiao?e ia?iaeaiiy /a?ac
eiia?oe?eiee oa?aeoa? ?o canoinoaaiiy. A Oe?a?i? oey i?iaeaia noaea, ye
i?eiee, aeooaeueiith. Aaacaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?y oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a
oa?i?iii caa??aaiiy a?eueoa ?ieo aac a?aeiia?aeiiai aeieoiaioaeueiiai
iiyniaiiy canoiniaaieo iaoiae?a ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy aeeeeea?
caiaiiei?iiy uiaei aacia/iino? ?o niiaeeaaiiy aeey caei?ia’y ethaeeie.

Oiio o?eueee eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo
iaoiae?a (oeueo?acaoe (OC), oeueo?ao?ieaoiaa (OO) ii?ii?iaiiy, eiioaeoia
oa aaceiioaeoia aeaeo?iia?iaeaiiy (AI), iaai?oii-?iioeueni? aieeae,
eiiieaenia ae?y oeeo iaoiae?a oa ?i.) c aeeaieith ?o
iaaeeei-a?ieia?/iith ioe?ieith iiaea ni?eyoe iiaei oaoiieia?/ieo
??oaiyi.

Caaaeaiiy ae??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue ? aeooaeueiei oa nai?/aniei aeey
Oe?a?ie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c ?anioae?eainueeeie iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie,
oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoeee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o OAeOOO, ca?aeii c:

— ?anioae?eainueeith i?ia?aiith “?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean
iaea?aeaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a iiaeiaaeaiiai oa?i?io caa??aaiiy
c canoinoaaiiyi aeaeo?io?ce/iiai aieeao”, caaaeaiiy 3.ACI.02.03.
(Iinoaiiaa ?aaee I?i?no??a O?N? ?340 a?ae 2.11.88 ?.);

— ?anioae?eainueeith i?ia?aiith “Aeine?aeeoe aieea o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a ia
i?e?ioei?o ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a” (Iinoaiiaa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie ?280 a?ae 10.12.95 ?.);

— caaaeaiiyi I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie “?ic?iaea iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa a?o/eciyieo ??aeeeo
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c canoinoaaiiyi iiaeo aeaeo?io?ce/ieo iaoiae?a
ianoa?ecaoe??” (aeiaia?? I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ?15 a?ae 20.02.1997 ?.).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaeaiiy
oaoiieia?e oa aia?aoo?e aeey iiaeiaaeaiiy oa?i?io caa??aaiiy ??aeeeo
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a eiiieaeniiai oai?aoe/iiai oa
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo aeaeo?iI?I ia ?o
o?ceei-o?i?/i?, a?io?i?/i? oa i?e?ia?ieia?/i? aeanoeaino?, c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae oa canoinoaaiiyi iia?oi?o
eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e, oai?aoe/ia i?iaiicoaaiiy oa aenia?eiaioaeueia
iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iie?a (AII), iiaeeaeai?
iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aacia/iino? canoinoaaiiy oeeo
iaoiae?a.

A?aeiia?aeii iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoee noi?ioeueiaai? oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?? oa ?o aia?aoo?ia ioi?ieaiiy aeey iiaeiaaeaiiy
oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a aeaeo?io?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie;

— aeine?aeeoe aieea OO ii?ii?iaiiy, OC, aaceiioaeoiiai AI ia
anoaiiaeaiiy aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy oeeo iaoiae?a o i?iieneiaino?;

— ?ic?iaeoe oa aeine?aeeoe aieea aenieeo aeaeo?e/ieo iai?oa a
aaceiioaeoiiio ?aaeei? ia i?e?ia?ieia?/i?, o?eueo?aoe?ei? oa ?io?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iieiea oa ieaa, aecia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie AI;

— ?ic?iaeoe oa aea/eoe oaoiieia?th iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy
(I?I) ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e
ia?iaeaiiy;

— i?iaanoe eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy iioe/ieo ? niaeo?aeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ieaa oa aiaee i?ney I?I oa niaeo?e eiia?iaoe?eiiai
?icn?thaaiiy (E? (?aiai-niaeo?e));

— i?iaanoe eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue c aacia/iiai canoinoaaiiy I?I aeey
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? i?ioean?a aaceiioaeoiiai
aenieiaieueoiiai AI oa I?I c o?aooaaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoai?ci?a
oaeiai aieeao ia ?iaeoeaaoe?th ee?oei i?e?ii?aai?ci?a;

— iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaanoe aoaeoeai?noue
cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiae?a ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?io caa??aaiiy oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a;

— iaa?oiooaaoe aeiiii?/io oa nioe?aeueio aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiae?a iiaeiaaeaiiy caa??aaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A eiiieaen? ?ica’ycaia
aaaeeeaa ia?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueea i?iaeaia noai?aiiy a?o/eciyieo
oaoiieia?e oa aia?aoo?e aeey iiaeiaaeaiiy oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy ??aeeeo
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a aeaeo?io?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie. Iaa?oioiaaia
aeioe?euei?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy AI aenieeo iai?oa a
aaceiioaeoiiio ?aaeei? oa I?I aenieeo iai?oaeaiinoae ? /anoio aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy a?ieia?/ii? oa eiei?aeii? no?eeino? ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a i?e iiaiiio caa?aaeaii? ?o niaeiaeo oa oa?/iaeo yeinoae,
anoaiiaeai? iaoaiaoe/i? caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a oa aeyaeai? iiaeeea?
iaoai?cie aieeao aeaeo?io?ce/ieo iaoiae?a ia ee?oeie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a.

Ia iniia? i?aaenoaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiinyoueny ia caoeno iaoeia? eiioeaioe??:

Aia?oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia oa anoaiiaeaia aeioe?euei?noue ?
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao aeaeo?e/ieo,
iaai?oii-?iioeuenieo oa ?ioeo o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a aeey iiaeiaaeaiiy
oa?i?io caa??aaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a oa ?ioaineo?eaoe??
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaai? oa anoaiiaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino?
aieeao aeaeo?e/ieo ? iaai?oii-?iioeuenieo iie?a, a oaeiae ?ioeo o?ce/ieo
iaoiae?a (oeueo?acaoeo, ?io?acaoeo, oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiai ii?ii?iaiiy,
aeaeo?i?ne?iaiai ?ic?yaeo) ia i?e?ioei?o ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.
Aeiaaaeaii iaaeioe?euei?noue ? iaia?niaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy
oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiai ii?ii?iaiiy, oeueo?acaoeo, eiioaeoiiai
aeaeo?iia?iaeaiiy a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao /a?ac aaeee? aia?aaoe/i? cao?aoe
oa iia??oaiiy i?aaiieaioe/ieo aeanoeainoae oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeaii, ui i?ae ae??th aeaeo?e/ieo aenieeo iai?oa a
iioioe? ia o?eueee cieaeo?oueny e?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a ??aeeeo
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoao, cie?aia a iea?, ia 1,5…2 ii?yaeee, a e
ca?eueoo?oueny oaeaee?noue o?eueo?aoe?? ieaa a 1,5…2 ?ace ca ?aooiie
??ceiai ca?eueoaiiy aeaeo?iiiaa?oiaaiai ca?yaeo ee?oei (x-iioaioe?aeo).

Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii oa cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a aeaeo?i?ne?iaiai ia?iaeaiiy
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a. A?i aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oa
i?oaeieo oaeeue oeueo?acaoeiaiai ae?aiaciio oa a?ae?aae?/ieo aoaeo?a,
ye? aeieeathoue aiane?aeie i?ioiaeaeaiiy aeaeo?i?ic?yaeo a ?ia?n?ei?e
??aeei?. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeueia caa?oaeiai?noue
ieaa oa iieiea i?e?ii?aai?ciaie cieaeo?oueny ia 2,5…3 ii?yaeee.
A?ae?ie?c iaeoeio c ao?yeiaiai aeiio i?ney aeaeo?i?ne?iaiai ia?iaeaiiy
iieacaa, ui oaeaee?noue i?ioeano ca?eueoo?oueny a 2…2,5 ?aca i?e
ciaioaii? e?eueeino? n??/aii? eeneioe aeey a?ae?ie?co aei 30 %. sse?noue
aioiaiai iaeoeio i?e oeueiio cia/ii i?aeaeuoaaeany.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa ?ic?iaeaii iiao oaoiieia?th iiaeiaaeaiiy
oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, yea aaco?oueny ia
aoaeo? ae?? ia i?iaeoeo iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a aeniei? ?ioaineaiino?
(Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ?14841 A a?ae 18.02.97.) a ae?aiacii? /anoio caiiaiaiiy
iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a aei 100 eAoe oa ?ioaineai?noth aei 10 Oe.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaeoa?eoeeaeiee aoaeo iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy
??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie ?ia?aoth/iai
oaeoi?a — ?iioeueno aia?a?? iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ?ic?yaeo; ciaeaeaii
iioeiaeueio /anoioo caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a, yea noaiiaeoue 100
eAoe, oa iioeiaeueio ?ioaineai?noue iaai?oiiai iioieo, yea ia?aaoaa? a
ae?aiacii? 4…5 Oe.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaaaeai? ii?oieiai-oeeoieia?/i?, eoeueoo?aeuei? oa
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaii? iayaii? a ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeoao i?e?ioei?e iieacaee, ui iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy a
iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei? cieaeo? e?euee?noue ioeoiaieeneeo aaeoa??e aeaeo
A.aceti ia 1,5…2 ii?yaeee, iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa??e aeaeo Lactobacillus
sp. oa ae??aeaeae?a aeaeo Sacharomyces turbidans — ia 1,5…2 ii?yaeee aac
iooaaaiieo ci?i i?e?ii?aai?ci?a; anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ney oaeiai ia?iaeaiiy
caeaoi?noue aei naiia?aeoai?aiiy an?o i?e?ii?aai?ci?a cia/ii
ciaioo?oueny; aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii c?iaeai? iaie oai?aoe/i?
aeniiaee i?i iayai?noue ia??iaeo ?ia?aoaaiiy i?e?ioei?e, i?e yeiio
eiao?oe??io a?aeie?aiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a caeaaeii a?ae aaee/eie aaaaeaii?
aia?a?? ?iioeueno aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaaaeai? eiiieaeni?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iioe/ieo ? niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ieaa oa aiaee
i?ney iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy, oa ?o niaeo??a eiia?iaoe?eiiai
?icn?thaaiiy. Aeyaeaii, ui ? aiaea, ? ieai i?ney iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai
ia?iaeaiiy ci?ithoue naith iioe/io aeoeai?noue, a i?e niaeo??
oeoi?anoeaioe?? 400…600 ii a?aeaoaa?oueny cnoa ieiuei iiey?eciaaiiai
na?oea ia 6 °. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iaai?oii-?iioeueniiio ia?iaeaii? a
eiia?iaoe?eiiio ?icn?thaaii? ? ci?ie oi?ie, oe?eie oa no?oeoo?e eiioo?o
nioae II-a?oi. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i ci?ie no?oeoo?ieo aiaeiaaeo
ca’yce?a o ?ic/eiieeo i?e iaai?oii-?iioeueniiio ia?iaeaii? c?
caa?aaeaiiyi iai’yo? oaei? no?oeoo?e aei 20 ae?a.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaaaeai? eiiieaen
iiaeeaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue noiniaii aacia/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy aeey oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a. Aeyaeaii
iaoiaeii aeaeo?iiiiai ia?aiaai?oiiai ?aciiaino, ui e?euee?noue a?eueieo
?aaeeeae?a o iea? i?ney iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy ia
ca?eueoo?oueny. Iaoiaeii iaoeaiiai ??aeeiiiai aeaeo?ioi?aco anoaiiaeaii,
ui iaai?oii-?iioeuenia ia?iaeaiiy ia aeeeeea? aoaeue-yeeo ci?i a?eeiaiai
neeaaeo ieaa. I?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a
?inoeooo? aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaoieia??, iieieia?? oa ?aae?ia?ieia?? AII
Oe?a?ie ?i.aeaae. ?.A.Eaaaoeueeiai c iaoith aeyaeaiiy aieeao ia?iaeaiiai
iaai?oii-?iioeuenieie iieyie ieaa ia iaoaaie?/io aeoeai?noue ia/?iee
uo??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoaaie?/ia aeoeai?noue ia/?iee uo??a ia
ci?ith?oueny i?e aaeeaaii? ia?iaeaiiai oa iaia?iaeaiiai ieaa.
I?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?inueeiio
IAe? oa?/oaaiiy IIC Oe?a?ie iieacaa, ui ia?iaeaia iaai?oieie ?iioeuenaie
ieai ia ni?e/eiy? iani?eyoeea? ci?ie a i?aai?ciao aenia?eiaioaeueieo
oaa?ei, ? ca nai?th ae??th ??aiicia/ia ae?? o?aaeeoe?eiiai ieaa.

Cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??aeueia ??aiyiiy, yea aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aiinaiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a iioioe? i?ae ae??th
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a? ?o ieoiiee iio?e, ni?yiiaaiee aei no?iie, a oaeiae
aaee/eio eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a?ey no?iee o cii? iaea?eueoi?
iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?ioeano iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai
ia?iaeaiiy, yea aaco?oueny ia iaoai?ci? aeeneiaoe?? aia?a?? a aeaeyae?
oo?aoeaioieo ioeuenaoe?e, noi??ieo ca ?ici??ii c ?ici??ii
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa aeyaeaii, ui i?ae /an
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a o i?ioiieaci?
ee?oei i?e?ii?aai?ci?a aeieea? iaai?oii-oaciaee aoaeo, yeee ni?e/eiy?
?icae?eaiiy aaaaoieiiiiiaioii? nenoaie i?ioiieacie ee?oei. Oea iiaea
aooe i?e/eiith ?ia?aoaaiiy aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a aiane?aeie
ae?? iaaii? /anoioe caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeaii
aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/io noaio aaceiioaeoiiai aenieiaieueoiiai AI ieaa.
I?iaaaeaii ?? i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ia Ee?anueeiio AO “Ieacaaiae ia
Iiaeie?”. Anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ia?iaeaiiy, iai?oaeaii?noue
AI a ae?aiacii? 1…1,25 eA/ni oa o?eaae?noue ia?iaeaiiy 12…16 n.
Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy neeaa (/anoea OAeOOO) 216900 iei.
ea?aiaaioe?a o oe?iao ii/aoeo 1994 ?ieo.

?ic?iaeaii aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/io noaio ?aae?caoe??
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai iaoiaeo ia?iaeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a o aa?iaoe/i?e
neeyi?e oa??, ?aae?caoe?y yei? ia Ee?anueeiio AO “Ieacaaiae ia Iiaeie?”
aeicaieeea ca?eueoeoe oa?i?i caa??aaiiy ieaa c 7 aei 30 ae?a oa
aeicaieeea io?eiaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo 54000 a?eaaiue ia ??e.

?ic?iaeai? oei/ania? aeiiiaiaiiy aei oaoiieia?/ii? ?ino?oeoe?? c
ae?iaieoeoaa ieaa i?e canoinoaaii? aaceiioaeoiiai aenieiaieueoiiai AI oa
I?I.

Cai?iiiiiaai? ocaaaeueithth/? e?eoa???, ye? aeicaieeee c?iaeoe ioe?iee
noaiiiai oa eiino?oeoeaiiai ?ic?iaeaiiy I?O aeey ia?iaeaiiy ieaa a
oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ?iai/i? /anoioe, iai?oae ? aia?ai?iiino?. ?ic?iaeai?
iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ?iaeoeoi??a oa I?O a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaaeaiiai
aaiiao?e/iiai eiao?oe??ioo, ia’?i?a ia’?eoo ia?iaeaiiy, aeaeo?e/ieo oa
eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a oa cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo
eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a I?O.

?ic?iaeai? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iaeaaiaeaeaiiy oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaai?oii-?iioeuenieo onoaiiaie (I?O) oa oaoiieia?e
ia?iaeaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao AO “Oe?ieai”. ??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o noaiiaeoeia 198980 a?eaaiue.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?iaioe. Aeinoia??i?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoiaeee ?ic?aooie?a, aeniiae?a oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e caaacia/aia aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo aei??thaaeueieo
i?eeaae?a, iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a ia?iaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, cania?a ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee oa
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aaeaeaaoi?noth ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a ca
iaoaiaoe/ieie iiaeaeyie, aeaieie eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue ?ic?iaeaieo oaoiieia?e ? aia?aoo?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i?
eiioeaioe?? oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo AII aeey iiaeiaaeaiiy oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a ?ic?iaeaieo oaoiieia?e, cai?iiiiiaai? iia? i?aeoiaee aei
c’ynoaaiiy iaoai?ci?a i?ioean?a, no/anieie iaoaiaoe/ieie iaoiaeaie
ia?iaeai? oa ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe /enaeaiieo a?io?i?/ieo,
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo, i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeai? iaoaiaoe/i?
iiaeae? i?ioean?a, cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueithth/? e?eoa??? oa iaoiaee
?ic?aooieo I?O, ai?iaaaeaeaii oaoiieia?? oa aia?aoo?a ia i?aei?e?inoaao.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoeaiiai ??aeeiiiai aeaeo?ioi?aco a?ee?a, aeine?aeaeaiiy
?-iioaioe?aeo ee?oei oa iioe/ii? aeoeaiino? aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a i?iaaaeaii
?acii c iaoeiaoeyie ?inoeoooo aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaoieia??, iieieia??
oa ?aae?ieia?? ?i.aeaae.?.A.Eaaaoeueeiai AII Oe?a?ie e.a.i. Iia?aaiei
I.A., ae.a.i. Oeyoiaaiei A.I., e.a.i. Oaaei?/oeii I.A., ocaaaeueiaiiy
iaoaiaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae c ae.o.i. Oaaeioe?iei ?.I., iaea?aeaiiy oa
?icoeo?oaaiiy niaeo??a AI? a ?inoeooo? oieneeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie c e.a.i.
Oaiae?aiei N.A. ? ae.o.i. Aeaaoy?ueiaei E.N. Iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ii? ioe?iee c?ace?a — c e.o.i. sso/aiei I.I. oa e.a.i.
O?i?/ O.E., aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue — c
iaoeiaei eiinoeueoaioii, ae.o.i., aeaaeai?eii OAAI Oe?a?ie Aoeei ?.N.
?yae aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiiaii a i?ioean? ea?oaaiiy iaoeiaith ?iaioith
ani??aio?a Ie?oaanueeiai A.A. oa Anaoeaiei A.I.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue, iaaiai?thaaeenue ? aoee noaaeai? ia ui??/ieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo Ee?anueeiai oaoiieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo oa?/iai?
i?iieneiaino? o 1988-1998 ??. (iei? Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e), Ananithci?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “?ic?iaea ?
aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, iaoei ? iaeaaeiaiiy aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa, caa??aaiiy ? ia?aaacaiiy i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy” (Iineaa,
1987 ?.), ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?ic?iaea ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaieo ?ano?nicaa?aaeieo oaoiieia?e,
iaeaaeiaiiy ? iiaeo aeae?a oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a a oa?/iao ? ia?a?iai?
aaeoc? AIE” (Ee?a, 1991 ?.), ia I?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue-2000” (Eacaiue, 1996 ?.); ?O
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a
o?i?/ieo, oa?/iaeo oa iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa” (Iaeana, 1996 ?.);
i?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiaiio eiia?an? nooaeaio?a, ani??aio?a oa iieiaeeo
a/aieo ”Oaoieea e oaoiieiaey yeieiae/anee /enoeo oeie/aneeo
i?iecaiaenoa” (Iineaa, 1996 ?.), 2-e i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oi?aae?iiy aia?aiaeei?enoaiiyi” (Euea?a, 1997 ?.), 8-e
iaoeia?e oeie? “O?ceea ?iioeuenieo ?ic?yae?a a eiiaeainiaaieo
na?aaeiaeuao” (Ieeiea?a, 1997 ?.), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? ”?ic?iaeaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo ?ano?niiuaaeieo
oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy a oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue”
(Ee?a,1997 ?.), ?aae? I?iaeaiii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaai?aoi??? OAeOOO
(1988-1997 ??.).

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a I?iaeaii?e iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e
eaai?aoi???, ia eaoaae?? oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, ia eaoaae?? aeaeo?io?ceee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a ?inoeoooao
i?e?ia?ieia?? oa a??onieia?? ?i.aeaae. Ae.E.Caaieioiiai AII Oe?a?ie,
aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaoieia??, iieieia?? oa ?aae?ieia?? ?i.aeaae.
?.A.Eaaaoeueeiai AII Oe?a?ie, a?a??ie oa?/oaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie,
oieneeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie oa ia ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoaao i. Ee?aa.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 49 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeue (?c ieo 26 noaoae), 14 oac ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo,
iaea?aeaii 6 iaoaio?a Oe?a?ie, aeaiiiiaai? 3 ?iaioe.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeeeaaeaiee ia 268 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, yeee neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, naie ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.
Aeena?oaoe?y ?ethno?iaaia 81 ?enoieii oa 15 oaaeeoeyie. Iaaiaeeoueny
nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, ui i?noeoue 425 iaeiaioaaiiy
oa 14 aeiaeaoe?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Anooi. Iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/ai? iaoa oa iniiai?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaaaeai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?icae?e 1. Aiae?c a?aeiieo niinia?a i?aeaeuaiiy oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy
??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

?icaeyioo? iniiai? a?aeii? oaoiieia?? oa iaoiaee ianoa?ecaoe?? ?
noa?ee?caoe?? oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c?iaeaii oae? aeniiaee:

1. Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a oaieiaiai ia?iaeaiiy (ianoa?ecaoe?y,
noa?ee?caoe?y oa ?i.) i?eaiaeeoue aei no?eeiai cieaeaiiy eiioai?ioth/i?
i?e?ioei?e ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a; oaieiaa ia?iaeaiiy oaeeo
i?iaeoeo?a i?enei?th? ?yae o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, a ?acoeueoao? yeeo oa?/ia?
oa i?aaiieaioe/i? aeanoeaino? i?iaeoeo?a nooo?ai iia??oothoueny
(aeaiaoo?aoe?y a?ee?a, ?oeioaaiiy oa?iaio?a oa a?oai?i?a).

2. Niiniae, ui aacothoueny ia canoinoaaii? oeueo?ao?eueo?aoe??,
aeiaaaeaiiyi aei i?iaeoeoo ??cieo ca nai?th i?e?iaeith o?i?/ieo
eiina?aaio?a oa neioaoe/ieo noaa?e?caoi??a, i?aeaeuothoue a?aeiinio
a?ieia?/io oa eiei?aeio no?ee?noue ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a;
iniiaieie iaaeie?eaie oeeo iaoiae?a ? a?aeiinia aei?iaiaecia
noaa?e?coth/eo i?aia?ao?a oa oeueo?ao?eueo?aoe?eii? aia?aoo?e; nooo?aee
aieea ia iia??oaiiy niaeiaeo, oa?/iaeo oa aeieia?/ieo yeinoae i?iaeoeo?a
i?e aeiaaaeaii? o?i?/ieo eiina?aaio?a oa noaa?e?caoi??a oa cieaeaiiyi
yeinoae i?iaeoeo?a i?e oeueo?ao?eueo?aoe??, ui iiaeia iiynieoe
cao?eieith ia iaia?aiao eiei?ae?a oa aenieiiieaeoey?ieo a?ee?a
i?iaeoeo?a.

3. ?acoeueoaoe iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue c OC oa OO ii?ii?iaiiy,
eiioaeoiiai AI oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a iaiaeiicia/i? uiaei noeioeyoe?? /e
i?eai?/aiiy ?inoo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ? oiio iio?aaothoue aeiaeaoeiai?
ia?aa??ee.

?en.1. Eeaneo?eaoe?y niinia?a ia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a

4. I?iaaaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y no/anieo aeaeo?io?ce/ieo niinia?a ia?iaeaiiy
??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, yea aeeth/a? a naaa oe?ieee niaeo? ?o
oaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe, ui iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaieie c ieo ?: aaceiioaeoi? aeaeo?e/i? aenieiaieueoi?,
iaai?oii-?iioeueni? aeniei? /anoioe oa ?ioaineaiino? oa aeaeo?i?ne?iaa
ii?ii?iaiiy (?en.1).

5. Canoinoaaiiy A?I aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a oaieiianiiai?-io
??aeeeo, ianoiiiae?aieo, aeenia?nieo oa ?ioeo i?iaeoeo?a caeeoa?oueny
iaaea/aiei.

7. Iaaea/aieie caeeoathoueny ? iaoai?ci ae?? aeaeo?io?ce/ieo niinia?a ia
i?e?ioei?o ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a,
?aaeeie ?iaioe oiui.

8. Ia ?ic?iaeai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? i?ioeano ae?? AI oa iaai?oieo
?iioeuen?a ia i?e?ii?aai?cie oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

9. A?aenooi? iaoiaee ?ic?aooie?a i?ioean?a ? aia?aoo?e oaeeo oaoiieia?e.

Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo noi?ioeueiaaii eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue ? aea?ai? oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy.

?icae?e 2. Oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
eiioai?iaoe?? i?e?ii?aai?ciaie ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Iaa?oioiaaii aea?? iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee oa
eiino?oeoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo onoaiiaie, aea?oueny ioe?iea iioeaee
aei??thaaiue.

Aeey ioe?iee aieeao eiia?iiaaiiai OC oa OO ii?ii?iaiiy ia a?ieia?/io
no?ee?noue ieaa oa iieiea aeei?enoai? OC aeenia?aaoi? oeio OCAeI-2O oa
OC aaiia ae?iaieoeoaa Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueeiai IAI “Ae?aiacii” c
?aaoeueiaaieie ?ioaineaiinoyie aei?ii?ithaaiiy a ae?aiacii? 0,1…1,1
Ao/ni2, a oaeiae OO eaiia NAAe-120A c ?iai/ith aeiaaeeiith oaee? 254±10
ii oa ?ioaineai?noth OO ii?ii?iaiiy 63 ieAo/ni2.

?en.2. Aieea eiiieaenii? ae?? oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiai oa oeueo?acaoeiaiai
ii?ii?iaiiy ia caaaeueio caa?oaeiai?noue ieaa:

N — EI a iao?eueo?iaaiiio iea?, EOI/ni3; t — o?eaae?noue ia?iaeaiiy, oa;
j — aeica OO ii?ii?iaiiy, Aeae/i2; h — a?aenoaiue aei OO aei?ii?ithaa/a,
ii; /anoioa i?oaeieo oaeeue 44 eAoe

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeany i?aea?? ia?aiao??a aeonoe/iiai oa
OO ia?iaeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy ieaa
oa iieiea (cieaeaiiy aaee/eie caaaeueii? caa?oaeiaiino?
i?e?ii?aai?ciaie).

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?iaeaiiy ieaa i?oaeieie
oaeeyie “aeeaeiueiai” OC ae?aiaciio /anoioith 44 eAoe oa iaeii/aniith
ae??th OO ii?ii?iaiiyi a ae?aiacii? aeic 14-170 Aeae/i2 i?eaiaeeoue aei
cieaeaiiy aaee/eie caaaeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? ieaa iaeneiaeueii c 109 aei
106 ii?yaee?a (?en.2). I?e oeueiio ia?aiao?ii, yeei aecia/a?oueny
aoaeoeai?noue ia?iaeaiiy ? o?eaae?noue ae?? (60 n i?e /anoio? 44 eAoe,
?ioaineaiino? 1,1 Ao/ni2 oa aeiaaeei? oaee? OO 254 ii). Iiaeaeueoa
ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?io ia?iaeaiiy ??cei i?aeaeuo? oaiia?aoo?o i?iaeoeoo oa
ca?eueoo? aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe, a oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeae?eaiiy
aoaeaeeneiai aaco c ieaa ? iia??oaiiy eiai i?aaiieaioe/ieo yeinoae.

A i?ioean? eiia?iiaaiiai (OC oa OO ii?ii?iaiiy) iieiea iaea?aeai? iaio
aoaeoeai? ?acoeueoaoe (?en.3). A?aoiaoth/e aaeeeo iiaeeiath/o
aeanoea?noue iiei/ieo aee??a aia?a?? OC oa OO ii?ii?iaiiy, c?iaeaii
aeniiaie i?i iaia?niaeoeai?noue aeaiiai iaoiaeo aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
a?ieia?/ii? no?eeino? iieiea.

A?aeiiee aoaeo aaeoa?eoeeaeii? ae?? iino?eiiai oa ci?iiiai aeaeo?e/iiai
no?oio aeey ciaca?aaeaiiy no?/ii? oa ieoii? aiaee aea? iiaeeea?noue
canoinoaaiiy eiai aeey ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

?en.3. Aieea eiiieaenii? ae?? oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiai oa oeueo?acaoeiaiai
ii?ii?iaiiy ia caaaeueio caa?oaeiai?noue iieiea:

N — EI a iao?eueo?iaaiiio iea?, EOI/ni3; t — o?eaae?noue ia?iaeaiiy, oa;
j — aeica OO ii?ii?iaiiy, Aeae/i2; h — a?aenoaiue aei OO aei?ii?ithaa/a,
ii; /anoioa i?oaeieo oaeeue 44eAoe

Aeey ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio aeaeo?e/ieo iai?oa, neee no?oio, eiai oi?ie
iaie ?acii c aeine?aeiei caaiaeii Euea?anueeiai o?ceei-iaoai?/iiai
?inoeoooo IAI Oe?a?ie ?ic?iaeaii oa aeaioiaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueia
aeaea?aei no?oio. Oaoi?/i? iiaeeeaino? eiai aeicaieyee i?iaiaeeoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ye a aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo iecueeeo iai?oa (a?ae 10 A) aei
a?aeiinii aenieeo iai?oa (950 A) i?e iaea?eueo?e aaee/ei? neee ci?iiiai
no?oio 0,6 A oa i?yiieooi?e, o?aiaoei?aei?e, o?eeooi?e oi?iao no?oio.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eiioaeoiiai AI ia i?e?ioei?o ieaa oa
iieiea aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie i?e oeueiio aoee AI,
noai?ai? neaiaeaie i?yiieooii? oi?ie c o?eaae?noth ?iioeueno 1,25·10-4 n
oa c /anoioith iiaoi?aiiy 200 Aoe, o?eaae?noue ia?iaeaiiy noaiiaeea a?ae
1 aei 5 oa (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea eiioaeoiiai aeaeo?iia?iaeaiiy ia i?e?ioei?o oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a

Aoaeoeai?noue aeaiiai niiniao ia?iaeaiiy cia/ii cieaeo?oueny /a?ac
i?ioeane, ye? ia?aeaeueii i?ioiaeyoue i?e oeueiio: iaa??aaiiy i?iaeoeoo,
aeaeo?ie?c c aeae?eaiiyi aoiia?iiai eenith ? oei?o, eiaaoeyoe?? oa
?iceeaaeaiiy a?ee?a oa eiei?ae?a. Oiio aeey oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a
canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeo iaia?niaeoeaia.

Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a aaceiioaeoiiai AI ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a a
iioioe?. A?i aaco?oueny ia aieea? AI ia iiaa?oiaaee ca?yae
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Eaai?aoi?ia onoaiiaea (?en.4) neeaaea?oueny c
ae?aeaeo?e/iiai oeee?iae?e/iiai ei?iono 4, eiaen?aeueii ?ici?uaieo a
iueiio aeaeo?iae?a: iaoaeaaa oeee?iae?-o?oaa 2 oa iao?oaie 3, /a?ac yeee
i?io?ea? iao?eueo?iaaia ieai c i?noeino? 3. Iino?eiee aai ?iioeueniee
aeaeo?e/iee no?oi iai?oaith 1…20 eA iiaeaaaany ia aeaeo?iaee a?ae
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy 7, ?ic?iaeaiiai oa aeaioiaeaiiai
?acii c aeine?aeiei caaiaeii Euea?anueeiai o?ceei-iaoai?/iiai ?inoeoooo
IAI Oe?a?ie. Eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui caaaeueia
caa?oaeiai?noue ieaa i?e?ii?aai?ciaie ??cei cieaeo?oueny i?e o?eaaeino?
ia?iaeaiiy iiiaae 10 n (?en.5). Iioeiaeueia iai?oaeai?noue AI noaiiaeea
1,25 eA/ni oa o?eaae?noue ia?iaeaiiy 12 n. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy
iai?oaeaiino? oa o?eaaeino? ia?iaeaiiy cia/ieo ci?i ia aeeeeeaei.

?en.4. I?eioeeiiaa noaia aeine?aeii? onoaiiaee aeey aaceiioaeoiiai
aeaeoiia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a:

1- i?noe?noue aeey i?iaeoeoo; 2 oa 3 — aeaeo?iaee; 4 — ei?ion onoaiiaee;
5 — i?noe?noue aeey ia?iaeaiiai i?iaeoeoo; 6 — ianin aeey oee?eoeyoe??
i?iaeoeoo; 7 — aenieiaieueoia aeaea?aei aeeaeaiiy

?en.5. A?ao?e caeaaei?noue i?e?ia?ieia?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy
iao?eueo?iaaiiai ieaa N a?ae iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey E oa
o?eaaeino? ia?iaeaiiy t

I?e aaceiioaeoiiio ia?iaeai? iao?eueo?iaaiiai ieaa nii-noa??aaany aoaeo
ca?eueoaiiy eiaaoeyoe?? eiei?aeieo /anoeiie oa ae??aeaeae?a a 1,5…2
?ace, i/aaeaeii, ca ?aooiie aeaeo?iiiaa?oiaaeo yaeu c /anoeiaei
?oeioaaiiyi iiaea?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o, aiane?aeie /iai oaeaee?noue
o?eueo?aoe?? ieaa ca?eueooaaeanue a 1,5 ?aca. Ci?i o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa
i?aaiieaioe/ieo aeanoeainoae ieaa ia a?aeaoaaeiny.

Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a A?I oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a oa eiai aia?aoo?ia
ioi?ieaiiy (?en.6). A?i aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oa
i?oaeieo oaeeue OC ae?aiaciio oa a?ae?aae?/ieo aoaeo?a.

Ei?ion ?c ia?aeaa?th/i? noae? ?icae?eaiee ia aea? aa?iaoe/i? /anoeie
aeanoe/iith ae?aeaeo?e/iith ia?aai?iaeeith 5. Ia?aai?iaeea i?ecia/aia
aeey ?icae?eaiiy eaia?e 3, yea caiiaith?oueny ?ia?n?eiith ??aeeiith
(aeenoeeyo, ae?oea?ei oa ?i.) a?ae ae?oai? /anoeie 8, yea caiiaith?oueny
ia?iaethaaiei oa?/iaei i?iaeoeoii. A eaia?? 3 /a?ac ?cieyoe?eiee
iaoa??ae anoaiiaeai? aeaeo?iaee 2, 12, i?aeeeth/ai? aei
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ?aaoeueiaaiiai ii iai?oc? aaia?aoi?a ?iioeuenieo
no?oi?a (A?N). A iiiaio i?aeeeth/aiiy A?N (iai?oaa i?ae aeaeo?iaeaie
iiaea ea?iaaii ci?ithaaoenue a?ae 1 aei 50 eA) i?ae aeaeo?iaeaie aeieeaa
?iioeueniee aeaeo?e/iee ?ic?yae. I?e oeueiio aeieea? oe?iea /anoioia
aaia aeaeo?iiaai?oieo, OC oaeeue, ye? iioe?ththoueny a on? noi?iie
eaiaeo. I?e aeei?enoaii? ?iioeueniiai aeaeo?e/iiai ?ic?yaeo
aaciina?aaeiuei a oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoao, ui ia?iaeththoueny aiane?aeie
aeieeiaiiy ieaciiaiai eaiaeo oa iia?/ieo aoaeo?a, ye? eiai
noi?iaiaeaeothoue (aeaeo?ie?c oa ?i.), a?aeaoaaeiny ?oeioaaiiy
eiei?ae?a, a?eeiai-a?oai?iiiai oa i?aaiieaioe/iiai eiiieaen?a, ui
?iaeoue ?o iai?eaeaoieie aei aaeeaaiiy. Aeey onoiaiiy oeeo iaaaoeaieo
yaeu ? canoiniaaia ?cieueiaaia ca aeiiiiiaith ieanoe/ii? ia?aai?iaeee 5
a?ae ia?iaethaaieo i?iaeoeo?a aeaeo?i?ic?yaeia eaia?a.

?en.6. I?eioeeiiaa noaia aeine?aeii? onoaiiaee aeey ?icae?eueiiai
aeaeo?i?ne?iaiai ia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a:

1 — aaia?aoi? ?iioeuenieo no?oi?a; 2, 12 — aeaeo?iaee; 3 — ?ic?yaeia
eaia?a; 4 — iao?oaie aeey a?aeaaaeaiiy aaco; 5 — aeanoe/ia ae?aeaeo?e/ia
ia?aai?iaeea; 6 — iao?oaie aeey aaaaeaiiy i?iaeoeoo; 7, 10 — i?noeino?
aeey i?iaeoeoo; 8 — i?iaeoeoiaa eaia?a; 9 — caaaioaaeoaaeueia e?eoea;
11 — iao?oaie aeey a?aeaaaeaiiy i?iaeoeoo; 13 — iao?oaie aeey aaaaeaiiy
?ia?n?eii? ??aeeie

Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeueia caa?oaeiai?noue ieaa oa
iieiea i?e?ii?aai?ciaie i?ney ia?iaeaiiy cieaeo?oueny ia 2,5…3 ii?yaeee
(oaae. 2). I?e oeueiio iioeiaeueiei ?aaeeiii A?I ? ?aaeei c iai?oaith
aeaeo?e/iiai ?ic?yaeo 10 eA oa o?eaae?noth ?ic?yaeo 2·10-4 n. sse
?ia?n?eia ??aeeia aeei?enoaia aiaea iiaea?eii? aeenoeeyoe??.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea aeaeo?i?ne?iaiai ia?iaeaiiy ia i?e?ioei?ooa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a

Aeaiee niin?a ?icae?eueiiai A?I iiaea iaoe oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a
oa?/ia?e i?iieneiaino? aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a aeno?aeoe??,
a?ae?ie?co, o?eueo?aoe?? oa ?i. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?ie?co
iaeoeio c noi?o? nooiai aeiio c eeneioii-aiaeiaaei ?ic/eiii iieacaee, ui
i?ney ?icae?eueiiai A?I o?eaae?noue i?ioeano ciaioo?oueny a 2…2,5 ?aca,
a e?euee?noue n??/aii? eeneioe aeey a?ae?ie?co ciaioo?oueny ia 30 %.

I?e A?I iaina?oeaiiai yaeo/iiai nieo i?e iai?oc? aeaeo?e/iiai ?ic?yaeo
20…25 eA oa o?eaaeino? ?ic?yaeo 4·10-5…5·10-5 n oaeaee?noue o?eueo?aoe??
eiai ca?eueooaaeanue a 1,5…2 ?ace, a caaaeueia caa?oaeiai?noue
i?e?ii?aai?ciaie cieceeanue ia 2,5…3 ii?yaeee a ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieueiei c?aceii iaia?iaeaiiai nieo.

?ic?iaeaiee oa aeine?aeaeaiee ?acii c eaoaae?ith ?iaeaia?ii?
aeaeo?io?ceee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(OAeIO) iaai?oii-?iioeueniee niin?a ia?iaeaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a. A?i iieyaa? a oiio, ui oa?/ia? i?iaeoeoe a eiioaeia?ao ?c
iaoa??aeo c aaeeeei aeaeo?e/iei iii?ii ?ici?uothoue ana?aaeei?
aeaeo?iiaai?oii? eioooee (?iaeoeoi?a, ?iaeoeoi?a-eiioeaio?aoi?a) oa
ae?thoue ia ieo iaeiei aai e?eueeiia ?iioeuenaie AII.

?en.7. Aeie-noaia aeine?aeii? onoaiiaee aeey iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai
ia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a i?iaeoeo?a:

1 — ?ii?niee iaeiie/oaa/; 2 — i?aeaeuoaaeueii-aei?yieyth/ee i?eno??e; 3
— caaeaaa/ iai?oae; 4 — ?ic?yaeiee; 5 — ?iaeoeoi?

No?oeoo?ia noaia onoaiiaee iiaeaia ia ?en.7. Ca aeiiiiiaith
i?aeaeuoaaeueii-aei?yieyth/iai ca?yaeiiai i?eno?ith 2, ?ii?niee
iaeiie/oaa/ 1 ca?yaeaeoaaany aei caaeaii? iai?oae (a?ae 1 aei 20 eA).
I?ney oeueiai ia oi?aaeyth/ee aeaeo?iae o?eaeaeo?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeieea 4
iiaeaaaany i?aeiaethth/ee ?iioeuen. ?ic?yaeiee ni?aoeueiaoaaa ? ?ii?niee
iaeiie/oaa/ ?ic?yaeaeoaaany /a?ac ?iaeoeoi? 5, a aeoeai?e /anoei? yeiai
aoei ?ici?uaii eiioaeia? c ia?iaeyaaiei i?iaeoeoii. sse eiioaeia?e
canoiniaoaaee noaiaea?oi? neeyi? i?ia??ee (ae?aiaai?oiee iaoa??ae)
ae?aiao?ii 22 ii. Aeey ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio ia?aiao??a I?I c ??ciith
?ioaineai?noth iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a oa /anoioith ?o caiiaiaiiy
?ic?iaeai? o?e oeie ?iaeoeoi??a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia /enoeo eoeueoo?ao i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, a
?acoeueoao? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? yeeo a iniiaiiio iia??oothoueny
oa?/i-niaeia? oa i?aaiieaioe/i? aeanoeaino? ieaa: ae??aeaeae? aeaeo
Sacharomyces cerevisiae, ioeoiaieene? aaeoa??? Acetobacter aceti oa
iiei/iieene? aaeo?a?? Lactobacillus sp. oa Str.lactis.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui e?euee?noue ioeoiaieeneeo aaeoa??e i?e /anoio?
caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a aei 100 eAoe cieaeo?oueny ia 1,5…2
ii?yaeee, iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa??e oa ae??aeaeae?a ia 1…1,5 ii?yaeee i?e
/anoio? caiiaiaiiy ?iioeuen?a 67 oa 100 eAoe.

I?e /anoio? caiiaiaiiy ?iioeuen?a 7 oa 38 eAoe iaaiaee — niinoa??aaeanue
iacia/ia noeioeyoe?y ?inoo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, iniaeeai ae??aeaeae?a.
Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a nooo?ai ia aieeaaea ia
aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Iieacaii, ui e?euee?noue
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ieaa oa iieiea i?e oaeiio oaoi?/iiio aeeiiaii?
(ia?iaeaiiy a i?ia??eao) niinoa??aa?oueny i?ioean iacia/iiai
aeiaeaoeiaiai i?e?ia?ieia?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy, ui iaaiith i??ith cieaeo?
io?eiaiee aaeoa?eoeeaeiee aoaeo.

I?I oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a a aa?iaoe/ii-caeoii?ai?e oa?? ia?niaeoeaia oa
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeey iiaeaeueoiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia ae?iaieoeoa?.

?icae?e 3. Iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a aeaeo?io?ce/iiai ia?iaeaiiy ??aeeeo
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

?icaeyiooi aieea AI ia ia?aianaiiy /anoeiie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a no?oiai?
i?iaeoeoo c a?aooaaiiyi ?iciiae?eo AI a eaiae? (?en.8).

Iaoaiaoe/ia oi?ioethaaiiy caaea/? caieno?oueny oaeei /eiii:

(1)

C a?aie/ieie oiiaaie:

i?e y=1, u(±1)=0, c(±1)=cw ; i?e y=0, u(0)=1, ?e=?eo, Ey(0)=0; c(0)=c0,

aea n(x,y) – iioi/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y i?e?ii?aai?ci?a o iioioe? ??aeeiai
noano?aoo.

I?ney a?aeiia?aeiiai ?ioaa?oaaiiy o e?ioeaaiio aeiaaeeo io?eia?ii
??aiyiiy:

. (2)

I?e i?aenoaiiaoe? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

. (3)

Io?eiaiee i?io?eue aeicaiey? ?ic?aooaaoe eiioeaio?aoe?th i?e?ii?aai?ci?a
nw, a?aeianaii? aei no?iie eaiaeo, aea iai?oaeai?noue iiey aeinyaa?
iaeneioio ? ? aeey ieo iaaacia/iith.

*anoeia i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ui ni?eeiyee ca?yae ??aeeie (-A), ?ooa?oueny
aei no?iie eaiaeo, aea ca?yae (+A). Aoaeaii aaaaeaoe, ui ia?aianaiiy
iane o ?aae?aeueiiio iai?yieo iaaaaaoi a?eueoa, i?ae a inueiaiio. Oiae?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith d2c/dx2 iiaeia ciaoooaaoe. E??i oiai, Wy=0.
??aiyiiy (1) i?e oeueiio iiaea aooe caienaii o aeaeyae?:

. (4)

I?e a?aooaaii? oo?aoeaioiiai ia?aianaiiy

, (5)

aea DT – eiao?oe??io oo?aoeaioii? aeeooc??.

I?ney a?aeiia?aeieo ia?aoai?aiue c a?aooaaiiyi aieeao AI ia eiao?oe??io
aeeooc?? /anoeiie i?e iayaiino? e?i?eii? caeaaeiino? ????????n?
aecia/a?ii ?ioaineai?noue caaaeueiiai ia?aianaiiy /anoeiie:

(6)

A e?ioeaaiio aeaeyae? ae??oaiiy caaea/? c aeei?enoaiiyi cia/aiiy
aoaeoeaiiai eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc?? a AI ia? aeaeyae:

, (7)

aea

Iaaaaeaia e?eoa??aeueia ??aiyiiy, yea a?aeia?aaea? anth neeaaei?noue
i?ioeano, aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aianaiiy
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a o iioioe? i?ae ae??th AI ? ?o ieoiiee iio?e jw ,
ni?yiiaaiee aei no?iie, a oaeiae cia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a
a?ey no?iee o cii? iaea?eueoi? iai?oaeaiino? AI (?en.8).

?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aieeao I?I ia ??aeea na?aaeiaeua. A
iniiao iiaeae? iieeaaeaia niaeo?aeueia oai??y oo?aoeaioiino?
Eieiiai?iaa–Iaooiaa. Ca?aeii ?c niaeo?aeueieie oyaeaiyie a oai???
oo?aoeaioiino? i?e aaaaeaii? a na?aaeiaeua ?iioeueno aia?a?? aeieeathoue
iae?icao?aiiy — a?eueo? ca ?ici??ii ca ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
i?e?icao?aiiy — iaio? aai noi??i? ca ?ici??ii c ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Inoaii? ? aeeeeeathoue oo?aoeaioi? i?ioeane a ??aeeiio na?aaeiaeu?, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ye?nieo ci?i (a aeaiiio ?ac? ci?i, ui iaaaoeaii
iicia/athoueny ia aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a).

?en.8. Noaia ?iciiae?eo iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a iiia?a/iiio
ia?aoei? eaiaeo

Aia?a?y, aaaaeaia a ia?iaethaaia na?aaeiaeua, aiane?aeie a’yceino?
oeueiai na?aaeiaeua ia?aoiaeeoue a?ae aaeeeiianooaaieo aeoi??a aei
a?eueo ae??aieo. I?ioean i?iaeiaaeo?oueny aei iaaiiai no?eeiai ooai?aiiy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 (“??aee?” /anoeiee), a iaaeao yeiai a?aeaoaa?oueny a??aiiaaaeaiiy
nee ?ia?oe?? oa nee oa?oy:
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 (8)

A e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? niinoa??aa?oueny i?ioean ia?aoiaeo aia?a??
aeoi??a a oaieiao (aeeneiaoe?y aia?a??). Iacia/ia iiooaei?noue aaaaeaii?
aia?a?? oa ieoo?a?noue ?? aaaaeaiiy (o?eaae?noue ?iioeueno — 1/f)
i?aeoe/ii ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e i?iaeoeoo.

sse?ni? oa e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aieeao iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a ia
i?e?ii?aai?cie ieaa caeaaeaoue a?ae ianooaao oo?aoeaioieo ioeuenaoe?e,
aaee/eia yeeo aecia/a?oueny ca?aeii c oi?ioeith “aeaio o?aoei”
Eieiiai?iaa–Iaooiaa:

(9)

aea — oaeaee?noue aeeneiaoe?? aia?a?? ia iaeeieoeth ia’?io a iaeeieoeth
/ano.

?ica’ycoth/e ?acii ??aiyiiy (8) oa (9), io?eia?ii ??aiyiiy:

(10)

yea i?ney ianooiieo ia?aoai?aiue iiaea aooe caienaii o aeaeyae?:

, (11)

aea ?m- oaeaee?noue aeeneiaoe?? aia?a?? ia iaeeieoeth iane,.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui aia?a?y aeeneiaoe?? aei??aith? iaaeoiaeaeaiith aia?a??
a?ae aeaea?ae ?? aaaaeaiiy, oiaoi a iaoiio aeiaaeeo a?ae aia?a??
iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a ?ic?yaeo eiiaeainaoi??a aenia?eiaioaeueii? I?O,
aia?a?th aeeneiaoe?? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye ieoiio aia?a?th I?I () a
?iai/?e cii? ?iaeoeoi?a onoaiiaee ? ae?ac (11) iiaeia caienaoe a oae?e
oi?i?:

. (12)

Oaeaee?noue ci?ie caaaeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? ieaa (dN/dt) iieno?oueny
oaeei ae?acii:

dN/dt=kN (13)

aea k — eiao?oe??io oaeaeeino? a?aeie?aiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a.

Ca?aeii c i?aoean??th Ea?ia?a i?ae ae??th ciai?oiueiai II any
noeoii?noue aeaeo?ii?a ?cieueiaaiiai aoiia iaaoaa? neio?iiiiai
iaa?oiaiai ?ooo iaaeiei in?, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac oeaio? aoiia
ia?aeaeueii iai?yieo aaeoi?a iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe?? I. I?ney iaiao?aeieo
ia?aoai?aiue c a?aooaaiiyi a?aeiinii? oa aaniethoii? iaai?oii?
i?iieeiino?, iaai?oii? ni?eeiyoeeaino?, /anoioe caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo
?iioeuen?a, aaee/eie iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe?? ??aiyiiy (11) aoaea iaoe
aeaeyae:

, (14)

aea C — eiinoaioa.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeeeaaeaiiai iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?ioeano ia?iaeaiiy ieaa
iaai?oieie ?iioeuenaie iiaeia iiaeaoe o aeaeyae?:

. (15)

I?iaaaeaii eiii’thoa?iee ?ic?aooiie aaee/ei
(picscalex1010100090000039a0000000200170000000000050000000b0200000000050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,pi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) caeaaeii a?ae onueiai
ae?aiaciio ao?aeieo ia?aiao??a iiaeae? (f, I). Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooieo na?ae/eoue, ui ?nio? ae?aiacii ia?aiao??a f ? I, ye?
caaacia/othoue aaee/eio ianooaao ioeuenaoe?e noi??io c ?ici??aie
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a (ae??aeaeae?, ioeoiaieene? oa iiei/iieene? aaeoa???,
a?eae).

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano I?I, yea aaco?oueny ia
iaoai?ci? aeeneiaoe?? aia?a?? o aeaeyae? oo?aoeaioieo ioeuenaoe?e,
noi??ieo ca ?ici??ii c ?ici??aie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ia? caaaeueiee
oa?aeoa? ? ia a?aoiao? niaoeeo?eo i?ioean?a, ye? i?io?eathoue i?e ??cieo
aa??aioao I?I i?iaeoeo?a.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui a?aeie?aiiy aai /anoeiaa ?iaeoeaaoe?y
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ?icoa?oaaiiy i?ioiieacie
ee?oei i?ae ae??th I?I aeo?aeiith nenoaiith e?eoa???a aoaea:

. (16)

I?e cono??/i?e aeeooc?? aeey neeaaeiaeo iioie?a o aeiaaeeo
aeaieiiiiiaioii? noi?o? A ? A:

, (17)

aea ?T — oa?iiaeeooc?eia a?aeiioaiiy,

.

?I- iaai?oiaeeooc?eia a?aeiioaiiy,

.

sseui aaee/eie ?I ?? ??? aeiaeaoi?, oi eiiiiiaio A ia?ai?uo?oueny o
“oieiaeio” iaeanoue ? iaeanoue c a?eueo iecueeith iai?oaeai?noth II,
yeui aaee/eie ?I?? ?? a?ae’?ii? — oi iaaiaee, a “aa?y/o” iaeanoue ?
iaeanoue a?eueo aeniei? iai?oaeaiino? II.

I?ney ianooiieo ia?aoai?aiue e?eoa??aeueia ??aiyiiy aoaea iaoe aeaeyae:
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 , (18)

aea eiinoaioe A, n, m, s ? p aecia/athoueny aenia?eiaioaeueii.

??aiyiiy iaai?oiaeeooc??, yea iieno? aoaeo iaai?oiaeeooc?? a i?ioiieaci?
ee?oeie i?ae ae??th II, i?e iayaiino? caeaaeiino? C=C(H) iiaeia caienaoe
o aeaeyae?:

, (19)

aea DM — eiao?oe??io iaai?oii? aeeooc??, DM=D(dC/dH);

D — eiao?oe??io iieaeoey?ii? aeeooc??.

I?eaaaeaia e?eoa??aeueia ??aiyiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe
eiao?oe??io iaai?oiaeeooc??, yeee aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe i?ioeane, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a i?ioiieaci? ee?oeie i?ney I?I.

?icaeyiooi aieea I?I ia i?ioiieacio ee?oeie c iiceoe?e oai???
iie?a?aae??ioieo iie?a (aeea. ?en.8).

Iaai?oiee iio?e o na?aaeiaeu?

(20)

i?e e?aeiaeo oiiaao ?iioeueniiai iiey

; ; (21)

aoaea iaoe aeaeyae:

. (22)

Aeaaaeai? caeaaeiino? aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe cnoa oac i?ae
iai?oaeai?noth II ? iaai?oiei iioieii:

, (23)

aea , . (24)

Io?eiai? ??aiyiiy aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe aaee/eio cnoao oac a
?acoeueoao? iaai?oii-oaciaiai aoaeoo, yea nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae
cia/aiiy ieoiii? aia?a?? II — eiai /anoioe oa ?ioaineaiino? iaai?oiiai
iioieo.

?icae?e 4. ?ic?iaeaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy niiniao aaceiioaeoiiai
ia?iaeaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a aeaeo?iiieyie aenieeo iai?oa.

Iaaiaeyoueny eiino?oeoe?y aeine?aeii? onoaiiaee, ?acoeueoaoe ??
ai?iaaoe?? oa aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo, aeaeo?ie?iaoe/ieo oa
i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ieaa.

?en.9. Aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa i?ioi/ia onoaiiaea aeey aaceiioaeoiiai
aeaeo?iia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a:

1 — oeaioe?; 2 — neeyiee ?ciethth/ee eiaeoo; 3 — oieeueee; 4 — eaiae
aeaaaeaiiy; 5 — iaoaeaaee aeaeo?iae; 6 — aioo??oiy neeyia o?oaa; 7 —
eaiae aaaaeaiiy; 8 — aeaeo?e/i? eiioi?eaoe??

Onoaiiaea ciiioiaaia ia iaa?aeiiio o?oaii?iaiae? a noai? Ee?anueeiai AO
“Ieacaaiae ia Iiaeie?” (?en.9). Aenieiaieueoia aeaea?aei aeeaeaiiy
(AAeAE) niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy c ae?aiaciiii ?aaoethaaiiy a?ae 100 A
aei 11 eA c ?ioa?aaeii ?aaoethaaiiy 100 A aoei ?ic?iaeaii oa aeaioiaeaii
iaie ?acii c AI “Iao/i?eai?” (i.I?ae, ?O). A cii? ae?? aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai
iiey ieai i?io?eaei /a?ac neeyiee (ae?aeaeo?ee) o?oaii?ia?ae 6.
Aeaeo?iaeaie neoaeeee iaoaeaaa oeee?iae?-o?oaa 5 oa no?oi?iue ieaa 6.
Aeaeo?iae 5 i?noeany a ?cieueiaaiiio eiaeon? 3, yeee neeaaeaany c
neeyii? o?oae 2 oa aeaio oaenoie?oiaeo oeaioe?a 1 aeey ?ciethaaiiy a?ae
iaoaeaaeo o?oaii?iaiae?a.

?en.10. Caeaaei?noue i?e?ia?ieia?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy iao?eueo?iaaiiai
ieaa (N) a?ae iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (A) oa o?eaaeino?
ia?iaeaiiy (to)

?acoeueoaoe i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeeee ?ia?aoth/ee aieea
aenieiaieueoiiai AI ia i?e?ioei?o i?iaeoeoo (?en.10). I?e aaee/ei?
iai?oaeaiino? AI A>1 eA/ni niinoa??aa?oueny anoaiiaeaiiy
aaoiiiaeaeueiino?. I?e o?eaaeino? AI, noi??i?e c o?eaae?noth
oa?iiia?iaeaiiy (e?eueea oaeeei) iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi cia/ia cieaeaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a aei cia/aiiy iai?oaeaiino? AI A=2,0
eA/ni, , oiaoi i?e Ea=283,7 eAeae/aiieue aeey oa?iio?eueieo
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a (?en.11). I?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? A aaee/eia
eiinoaioe a?aeie?aiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ii/eia? ciaiooaaoenue, oiaoi
caeaaei?noue ia? iaeneioi, i?ney yeiai a??ai?on?anueeee oa?aeoa?
caeaaeiino?, iia’ycaiee c aeoeaaoe??th oa?iaioaoeaieo i?ioean?a, c?
ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? aenieiaieueoiiai AI ia? ?ioee oa?aeoa?, yeee
iia’ycaiee c ?iaeoeaaoe??th oa?iaioaoeaiiai eaoae?co, aeeoo?ai
aaaeeeaiai aeey ee?oei i?e?ii?aai?ci?a.

?en.11. Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa a?aeie?aiiy (k) i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a?ae
aia?a?? aeaeo?iia?iaeaiiy (??)

?en.12. Ci?ia aeaeo?ie?iaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo ee?oei i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ieaa
i?ney aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai ia?iaeaiiyI?e cia/aiiyo iai?oaeaiino? AI
0,5…1eA/ni oaeee ia?ao?ae a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ci?oa. Iieacaii, ui i?e
aeinoaoi?e o?eaaeino? AI iiaeooue aooe aeinyaiai? oae? nai? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaeoeaaoe?? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye ? i?e oa?iiia?iaeaii? c oaiia?aoo?ith
120 °N.

Aieea AI ia ?iaeoeaaoe?th i?e?ii?aai?ci?a iiaeia iiynieoe ii?ooaiiyi
??aiiaaae eiei?aeii? nenoaie (ieaa) ca ?aooiie ci?ie aeaeo?iiiaa?oiaaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee /anoeiie (i?e?ii?aai?ci?a) i?e AI ?, ui iiaea ni?e/eiyoe
iacai?ioi? ci?ie a o?c?ieia?/ieo i?ioeanao iai?io a ee?oeiao.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ney aenieiaieueoiiai AI??-iioaioe?ae i?e?ii?aai?ci?a
??cei ca?eueoo?oueny aaea i?e iai?oaeaiino? AI 0,5 eA/ni oa caa??aa?
naith aaee/eio aeineoue o?eaaeee ia??iae (?en.12). Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ? ?ic?aooieii ieoiii? aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? i?e oaeeo
ia?aiao?ao AI.

Eeoa eiioeaio?aoe?y aia?a?? a oeaio?? oeee?iae?e/iiai eiiaeainaoi?a, aea
i?io?ea? no?oi?iue, iiaea aieeiooe ia a?io?i?/i? i?ioeane a ee?oei?
(cie?aia oa?iaioieo nenoaiao) c aia?a??th aeoeaaoe?? 40…80 eAeae/aiieue,
a oei a?eueoa ia aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a i?e aia?a??
aeoeaaoe?? 250…280 eAeae/aiieue (aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee noa?ee?coth/i? ae??
aea?aii nii?e i?e?ii?aai?cio Bac.Sterothermophilus, ooaie 1518, aia?a?y
aeoeaaoe?? 283,7 eAeae/aiieue).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae ae??th AI niinoa??aa?oueny ? cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy
oaeaeeino? o?eueo?aoe?? ieaa. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui i?ney AI
ca?eueoo?oueny aaee/eia ?-iioaioe?aeo (a?ae’?iiee ca?yae)
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. I?e o?eueo?oaaii? ia cacaieaieo o?eueo?ao ca?yaeaeai?
/anoeiee i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, eiei?aeieo ?a/iaei, a?ee?a ieaa i?enei?ththoue
na?e ?oo aei o?eueo?oaaeueiiai iaoa??aeo (aeayeei /eiii ?aea i?ioean
aeaeo?io?eueo?aoe??).

Aenieiaieueoia aeaeo?inoaoe/ia ia?iaeaiiy iao?eueo?iaaiiai ieaa aeaei
ciiao i?iaeiaaeeoe oa?i?i eiai caa??aaiiy a ca??ieeao ia?aae ?iceeaii
aei 3 ae?a aac ci?i o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa i?aaiieaioe/ieo aeanoeainoae.

Iieacaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue ianoa?ecaoe?? aeaiei niiniaii cia/ii
cieaeo?oueny i?e iiaoi?iiio caa?oaeiaii? i?e?ii?aai?ciaie i?ae /an
eiioaeooaaiiy c o?eueo?oaaeueiith aia?aoo?ith, ieaii?iaiaeaie, ?iceeaiei
aaoiiaoii oa ?i.

?icae?e 5. ?ic?iaeaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai niiniao
ia?iaeaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

?ic?iaeaia oa aeaioiaeaia aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa onoaiiaea I?O-5
(?en.13). Iaaaaeai? aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao I?I ia
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? iciaee aeae?a i?e?ii?aai?ci?a oa ?o ?iaeoeaaoe??.

?en.13. Aeie-noaia aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a: I?I-
ionei-?aaoethth/ee i?eno??e; II- i?aeaeuoth/ee i?eno??e; AI-
aei?yieyth/ee i?eno??e; N — aaoa?ay eiiaeainaoi??a; ? — ?iaeoeoi?; ?I —
?icii-ae?eueiee iai?oae; ? — eiioooth/ee i?eno??e; C- caaeaaa/; AA —
aeie aaoiiaoeee; AI — aeie i?aeiaethaaiiy

Anoaiiaeaii, ui cieaeaiiy caaaeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? i?e?ii?aai?ciaie
ieaa ia 1,5…2 ii?yaeee i?e iaeii/aniiio ?o ?ia?aoaaii? niinoa??aaeinue
i?e /anoio? caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a 4…5 Oe. I?e?ioei?a ieaa
a?aeiiaethaaea naith caeaoi?noue aei naiia?aeoai?aiiy eeoa /a?ac 30 ae?a
(?en.14).

Aeyaeaii ia??iae ?ia?aoaaiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, i?e yeiio
niinoa??aa?oueny niia?eueiaiiy ?o ?inoo oa ?iciiiaeaiiy. ?ia?aoth/ei
oaeoi?ii ? a?aeiia?aeia aaee/eia ?iioeueno aia?a?? iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai
?ic?yaeo (?en.15). Aeaeii, ui eiao?oe??io a?aeie?aiiy (?ia?aoaaiiy)
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie ?iioeueno aia?a?? (f, H). Ii/aoeiaa oaca
?icaeoeo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a (a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai) ianooiaea cia/ii
i?ci?oa ?, ca iaeiaeiai? o?eaaeino? caa??aaiiy e?euee?noue
eiioai?ioth/i? i?e?ioei?e a ia?iaeaiiio iea? aoea cia/ii iaioith.
Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?aeaioe/i? aeey i?e?ioei?e ??cieo ni?o?a ieaa —
“Iaaeaei?i?yinueea”, “ss?ineaanueea”, “Iiae?euenueea oaiia” ae?iaieoeoaa
AO “Ieacaaiae ia Iiaeie?”.

N·10-5, EOI/ni3

?en.14. Ci?ia i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? caa?oaeiaiino? ieaa a i?ioean? caa??aaiiy
(t) ieaa a i?ioean? caa??aaiiy i?ney iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy,
aea N — eiioeaio?aoe?y i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a iea?, EOI/ni3; f — /anoioa
caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a, eAoe; B — ?ioaineai?noue
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai iieyk, ae?a-1

??·10-8, eAo/i3

?en.15. Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa a?aeie?aiiy (k) a?ae aia?a??
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy (??)?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeiiai iia?
eiino?oeoe?? iaeii- oa aeaiaeoeiaeo ?iaeoeoi??a, aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e
yeeo aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue ia?iaeyoe a ieo i?iaeoeoe a aa?iaoe/ii
caeoii?ai?e neeyi?e oa?? Ia ?en.16 iieacaii eiino?oeoe?th
oeee?iae?e/iiai aeaiaeoeiaiai ?iaeoeoi?a.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ?iaeoeoi??a (iaeii- oa aeaiaeoeiaee c
eiioeaio?aoi?ii II) oa ocaiaeaeoaaeueiiai i?eno?ith ye ie?aii, oae ? a
eiia?iaoe?? ia I?O aea? ciiao iaea?aeoaaoe I?I oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio
/anoio oa ?ioaineaiinoae:

iaeiiaeoeiaee ?iaeoeoi? — /anoioa caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a 67…100
eAoe i?e ?ioaineaiino? a ae?aiacii? 1,5…4 Oe;

aeaiaeoeiaee ?iaeoeoi? c eiioeaio?aoi?ii II — /anoioa caiiaiaiiy
iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a 67…100 eAoe i?e ?ioaineaiino? a ae?aiacii? 4…10 Oe;

iaeiiaeoeiaee ?iaeoeoi? c ocaiaeaeoaaeueiei i?eno?i?i — /anoioa
caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a 7…38 eAoe i?e ?ioaineaiino? a ae?aiacii?
1…8 Oe;

aeaiaeoeiaee ?iaeoeoi? c eiioeaio?aoi?ii II c ocaiaeaeoaaeueiei
i?eno?i?i — /anoioa caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a 7…38 eAoe i?e
?ioaineaiino? a ae?aiacii? 1…15 Oe.

?en.16. Oeee?iae?e/iee aeaiaeoeiaee ?iaeoeoi?:

1 — ei?ion; 2 — ci?ii? anoaaee; 3 — ?iai/ee ioa??; 4 — ?cieyoe?eia
i?ieeaaeea; 5 — ieine? aeaiaee

Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai aieeao ca ?aooiie
ia?iaeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a aeaiia cono??/ieie ci?iieie aeaeo?iiaai?oieie
?iioeuenaie oa noaio eiai ?aae?caoe??. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy niiniao
iieacaee, ui ia?iaeaiiy ieaa cono??/ieie aeaeo?iiaai?oieie ?iioeuenaie
iacia/iith i??ith cieaeo? e?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a o ii??aiyii? c
?acoeueoaoaie ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a iaeiei ?iioeuenii
o??? naii? /anoioe oa ?ioaineaiino?.

?Icae?e 6. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo iaoai?ci?a aieeao
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy ia ee?oeie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a oa
aacia/iino? canoinoaaiiy iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy i?e
ae?iaieoeoa? oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Aeey a?eueo a?oioiaiiai aea/aiiy iaoai?cio ae?? I?I ia i?e?ii?aai?cie
iaie i?iaaaeaii eiiieaen aeiaeaoeiaeo iiaeeaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

1. I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?ie??-iioaioe?aeo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a i?ae
aieeaii I?I. A?aei?/aii, ui aaee/eia iiaa?oiaaeo ca?yae?a
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a i?ney I?I i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny (?en.17).

Iaoiaeii ??aeeiiiai aeaeo?ioi?aco anoaiiaeaii , ui i?ae aieeaii
iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a aeei?enoaieo ia?aiao??a e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo ci?i
a?eeiaeo iieaeoe ieaa ia a?aeaoaa?oueny.

???iA

t, ae?a

a???iA

t, ae?a

a ?en.17. Ci?ia aeaeo?ie?iaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo (?) ee?oei
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a i?ney I? ia?iaeaiiy:

a — /eno? eoeueoo?e ieaieo ae??aeaeae?a Sacch.cerevisiae (?ana 34); a —
i?e?ii?aai?cie ieaa; t — o?eaae?noue caa??aaiiy, ae?a

2. ?acii c ?inoeoooii i?e?ia?ieia??, a??onieia?? oa ?ioiieia?? ?i.aeaae.
Ae.E.Caaieioiiai IAI Oe?a?ie i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo,
eoeueoo?aeueieo oa o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae iniiaii?
eiioai?ioth/i? i?e?ioei?e ieaa i?ney I?I.

E??i iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai aieeao ia ieai, oaeiae aoei aeine?aeaeaii ?
aaeoa?eoeeaeio ae?th ia iueiai ?ii?a n??aea (Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ?14884 A,
1997 ?.).

Iieacaii, ui c iaia?iaeaiiai ieaa ? ieaa, yea ia?iaeyeinue I?I oa
?iiaie n??aea, aeae?eythoueny oa ?aeaioeo?eothoueny iaei? ? o? nai?
aeaee ae??aeaeae?a (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), ioeoiaieeneeo
(Acetobacter aceti) oa iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa??e (Lactobacillus sp.).
Aeyaeaii, ui ii?oieia?/i?, eoeueoo?aeuei? oa o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? iciaee
oeeo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ia ci?iththoueny i?ae aieeaii oaeoi??a, ui
aeine?aeaeothoueny. E?euee?noue eiioai?ioth/i? i?e?ioei?e ye aaeoa??e,
oae ? ae??aeaeae?a, iiieaeo?oueny a i?ioean? caa??aaiiy (30 ae?a) ia
e?eueea ii?yaee?a. I?enooi?noue ?ii?a n??aea a iea? ia aea?
yeiai-iaaoaeue cia/iiai aaeoa?eoeeaeiiai aoaeoo.

3. C o?aooaaiiyi aoaeoo caaiai?anueeiai ?icuaieaiiy aeaeo?iiiiai niaeo?a
“aeii?oeiaeo” aoii?a cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae oai?aoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
iaoai?cio aieeao ciai?oiueiai II ia o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/io aeoeai?noue
ee?oeie. I?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo ii?iaiaiai cia/aiiy aaee/eie iaai?oii?
?iaeoeoe??, yea iiaea a?ae?a?aoe yeo-iaaoaeue nooo?ao ?ieue a
o?ainiaia?aiiiio o?ainii?o? ?ii?a ee?oeie i?e ae?? ia ia? I?I.

Aaee/eia aeoeaii? ii?iaiai? iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe??, iia’ycaii? c
aia?aiaeo?aoaie ee?oeie, oa ianeaii?, iia’ycaii? c ia?aiaaeii
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iioaioe?aeo ii iaia?ai?, neeaaeiaeo o?ainiaia?aiiiai
o?ainii?oo ?ii?a noaiiaeoue: Bn>1,7·106 Oe.

I/aaeaeii, ui oaea aeniea ii?iaiaa cia/aiiy iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe??
na?ae/eoue i?i iaaecae/aeii iaeee aieea II ia o?ainiaia?aiiee o?ainii?o
oa ia aoaeo caaiai?anueeiai ?icuaieaiiy aeaeo?iiiiai niaeo?a aoii?a.

4. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i aiaee oa aiaeieo
?ic/ei?a ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoiae, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia iiaeo i?aeoiaeao
aei??thaaiiy ?? iioe/ii? aeoeaiino?. Aeey aeeiiaiiy oaeeo aei??thaaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaany i?eno??e “Bicon” ae?iaieoeoaa o??ie “Brugemann GMBH”
(I?ia//eia), yeee aeaaaa iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe ia?iaeaiiy a?ieia?/ieo
oa o?i?/ieo ia’?eo?a niiioaiieie iaaeneaaeeie aeaeo?iiaai?oieie
aei?ii?iaiiyie ?ioeo iiae?aieo (oaeeo naieo) ia’?eo?a. Aei?ii?iaiiy, ye?
aaia?othoueny oaeei i?eno?i?i, ia?aaeathoue (ianooue), cie?aia,
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aeaeici?ie (o??aeuei?noue) iieaeoe o c?aceo.

?en.18. Ci?ia iioe/ii? aeoeaiino? (?) ?a/iaei i?ney
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy:

1 oa 5 — iaia?iaeai? a?aeiia?aeii ieai oa aiaea; 2, 3 oa 4 — ieai i?ney
I?I c /anoioith caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a 100 eAoe oa
?ioaineai?noth a?aeiia?aeii 1 Oe, 2 Oe oa 4 Oe; 6 — aiaea i?ney I?I —
100 eAoe oa 4 Oe

?c ?en.18 aeaeii, ui ye aiaea, oae ? ieai i?ney I?I ci?iththoue naith
iioe/io aeoeai?noue, ui na?ae/eoue i?i no?oeoo?i? ci?ie ye o aiae?, oae
? a iea?, ? aaee/eia oeeo ci?i caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie iaai?oii?
?iaeoeoe?? i?e noae?e /anoio? caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a.

?en.19. Cnoa ieiueie iiey?ecaoe?? na?oea i?ney iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai
ia?iaeaiiy ieaa c /anoioith caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a 100 eAoe oa
?ioaineaiino? 3 Oe; aeiaaeeia oaee? oeoi?anoeaioiiai neaiaeo 512 ii i?e
aeiaaeei? oaee? caoaeaeaiiy 405 ii

Niaeo?e oeoi?anoeaioe?? c?ace?a ieaa aea/aeenue ia niaeo?iiao?? NAeE-1
(EIII). Caoaeaeaiiy oeoi?anoeaioe?? i?iaiaeeeinue i?e aeiaaeeiao oaeeue
365 oa 436 ii. Niaeo? oeoi?anoeaioe?? ?a?no?oaaany a ?ioa?aae? 400…600
ii. ?c iaaaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeaeii, ui cnoa ieiueie iiey?eciaaiiai
na?oea ciaioo?oueny ia 6° i?e I?I ieaa (?en.19). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa,
ui a?aeaoaathoueny no?oeoo?i? ci?ie ?ic/eiieea.

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy niaeo?a E? a?oac?ainueei? aiaee oa ieaa i?ney
I?I i?e ??cieo aaee/eiao iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe?? (?en.20, 21).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui i?e I?I aiaee a E? niaeo??
niinoa??aa?ii ci?ie oi?ie, oe?eie oa no?oeoo?e eiioo?o iieine II-a?oi.
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ??ceo ci?io no?oeoo?e aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a a aiae? ?c
caa?aaeaiiyi “iai’yo? aiaee” aeineoue o?eaaeee /an — 20 ae?a, i?ney /iai
niinoa??aa?oueny ?aeaenaoe?y aiaeii? nenoaie aei noaio ??aiiaaae.

?, ni-1

?en.20. E? niaeo?e a?oac?ainueei? aiaee, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa ieaa i?e o?eaaeino? caa??aaiiy 20 ae?a:

1 — aiaea, ia?iaeaia iaai?oii-?iioeuenieie iieyie c /anoioith caiiaiaiiy
iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a 100 eAoe, ?ioaineai?noth 1 Oe; 2 — 100 eAoe, 4,0
Oe; 3 — iaia?iaeaia aiaea

?, ni-1

?en.21. E? niaeo?e ieaa i?e o?eaaeino? caa??aaiiy 20 ae?a:

1 — ieai, ia?iaeaia iaai?oii-?iioeuenieie iieyie c /anoioith caiiaiaiiy
iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a 100 eAoe, ?ioaineai?noth 1 Oe; 2 — 100 eAoe, 4,0
Oe; 3 — iaia?iaeaia ieai?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioe/ieo
oa niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee aiaee oa ieaa i?ney I?I, niaeo??a E?
na?ae/aoue i?i ci?io no?oeoo?ii? aoaeiae iieaeoe aiaee oa ooai?aiiy
oaei? no?oeoo?e aiaeieo eeanoa??a, yea iiaea aooe iani?eyoeeaa aeey
ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?
?acoeueoaoaie i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue caeaaeii a?ae o?eaaeino?
caa??aaiiy ieaa oa oa?i?io caa??aaiiy “iai’yo?” no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae
iieaeoe aiaee (aeea. ?en.15).

Aeey aacia/iiai canoinoaaiiy I?I i?e ae?iaieoeoa? oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a
i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeni? iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeii
aeaeo?iiiiai ia?aiaai?oiiai ?aciiaino aeyaeaii, ui e?euee?noue a?eueieo
?aaeeeae?a o iea? i?ney I?I ia ca?eueoo?oueny.

I?iaaaeai? ?acii c ?inoeoooii iaoieia??, ?aae?ia?ieia?? oa iieieia??
?i. aeaae. ?. A. Eaaaoeueeiai iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c?ace?a
ieaa i?ney I?I iieacaee, ui iaoaaie?/ia aeoeai?noue ia/?iee uo??a
i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ithaaeanue. Niiioaiiee ??aaiue ?aaa?n?? ooaio OA 100 aoa
noaoe/ii aeinoia??ii ieae/ei o a?oi? uo??a, ye? niiaeeaaee ieai,
ia?iaeaia iaai?oieie ?iioeuenaie. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueo i’yeoee
aieea ia?iaeaiiai ieaa ia iaoaaie?/io aeoeai?noue ia/?iee — aeoeaaoe?y
oa?iaio?a aoaea aeuith ca iayaiino? aieeao a?eueo oiene/ieo niieoe.

?acii c Oe?a?inueeei iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei ?inoeoooii oa?/oaaiiy
I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie i?iaaaeaii iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ieaa, iaea?aeaiiai ca iaai?oii-?iioeueniith oaoiieia??th.
I?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui ieai i?ney I?I ia
aeeeeea? iani?eyoeeaeo ci?i o i?aai?ciao aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei ? ca
nai?th ae??th ??aiicia/ia ae?? o?aaeeoe?eiiai ieaa.

?icae?e? 7. I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue

Iaaaaeaii ?ic?iaeaio iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo I?O, cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa???
?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy onoaiiaie, iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo oaoiieia?e o ae?iaieoeoai oa ocaaaeueiaii
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee.

Ia?oee e?eoa??e iacaaii “e?eoa???i aia?ai?iiino?”. A?i oa?aeoa?eco?
ocaiaeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a I?O oa ?iaeoeoi?a:

(25)

Ae?oaee e?eoa??e — “e?eoa??e yeino? ?ic?yaeiiai eiioo?o” oa?aeoa?eco?
?aoaeuei?noue aeeiiaiiy neeueiino?oiiaiai eaioethaa ca oiiae iaea?aeaiiy
i?i?iaeueii? ia?aceoii? ?iaeoeoeaiino?:

(26)

O?ao?e e?eoa??e — “e?eoa??e e?aoiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy” oa?aeoa?eco?
aaee/eio ?iaeoeoeaiino? oa e?eueeino? aeoe?a ?iaeoeoi?a i?e caaeai?e
?iai/?e /anoio?:

. (27)

*aoaa?oee e?eoa??e — “e?eoa??e ciino eiioaeo?a eiiooaoi?a” a?aeia?aaea?
i?ioean ciino eiioaeo?a eiiooaoi?a:

, (28)

aea — a?aie/ia cia/aiiy ca?yaeo eiiaeainaoi??a.

I’yoee e?eoa??e — “/anoioiee e?eoa??e”, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
e?eoa??yie yeino? ?ic?yaeiiai eiioo?o oa e?eoa???i e?aoiino?
iaaaioaaeaiiy; /ei aeuee /anoioiee e?eoa??e, oei aeua ?iai/a /anoioa
onoaiiaie:

. (29)

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? I?O ia?o ca ana ne?ae cina?aaeeoe oaaao
ia e?eoa??? ky oa kf. I?aeaeuaiiy ky i?ecaiaeeoue aei iie?auaiiy
/anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee onoaiiaie, a iaaei??ia ca?eueoaiiy kH (iiiaae 5)
i?ecaaaea aei cieaeaiiy ?iai/i? /anoioe. Oiio o aeniei/anoioieo I?O
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ia?aeaeueii-iine?aeiaia i?aeeeth/aiiy eiiaeainaoi??a
aai canoinoaaiiy niaoe?aeueieo eiiaeainaoi??a c aenieith ?iai/ith
iai?oaith.

C o?aooaaiiyi iaea?aeaieo ?ai?o caeaaeiinoae aecia/a?ii iniiai?
ia?aiao?e aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? I?O ca oi?ioeaie:

?iai/a iai?oaa eiiaeainaoi??a ?ii?niiai iaeiie/oaa/a

; (30)

e?euee?noue aeoe?a ?iaeoeoi?a

; (31)

?ii?noue ia eiiaeainaoi?ao

; (32)

aia?a?y ?ii?niiai iaeiie/oaa/a:

W=U2C/2 (33)

C o?aooaaiiyi caeaaeiinoae (26) oa (27) ae?ac (28) aoaea iaoe oaeee
aeaeyae:

. (34)

Iiooaei?noue ca?yaeiiai i?eno?ith aecia/a?oueny:

P=W/(toe/picscalex100010009000003bb0000000200170000000000050000000b02000
00000050000000c024001040105000000090200000000040000000201010005000000010
2ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b02000000000500000
00c020002a0011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffffc0ffffff600
10000c00100000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000500010000000fb0280f
e0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d0100000900000
0320a60012300010000006800e80017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc000
2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0101000400000
0f001000009000000320ac001e30001000000620070000a00000026060f000a00fffffff
f01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656
d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000000000030000320a) (35)

aea — o?eaae?noue oeeeeo ca?yae-?ic?yae eiiaeainaoi??a;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- eiao?oe??io
ei?enii? ae?? ca?yaeiiai i?eno?ith (ae?aiacii 0,7…0,9).

Aeo?aoe aia?a?? ia ia?iaeaiiy iaei??? ieyoee aoaeooue noaiiaeoe:

Wie=P/n, (36)

aea n — i?iaeoeoeai?noue onoaiiaee.

Ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy, aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo onoaiiaie aoee
noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? caaea/? aeey i?iieneiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
aaceiioaeoiiai aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai niiniao ia?iaeaiiy ieaa oa I?I ia
eiioai?ioth/o i?e?ioei?o ieaa oa eiai aeanoeaino?.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ?ia?o c ai?iaaaeaeaiiy niiniao aaceiioaeoiiai
aenieiaieueoiiai AI ?ic?iaeaii aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/io noaio (?en.22),
?aae?caoe?y yei? aeaea iiaeeea?noue i?aeeeth/eoe iaeaaeiaiiy (aeea.
?icae. 4) o ae?th/o oaoiieia?/io noaio ae?iaieoeoaa ieaa AO “Ieacaaiae
ia Iiaeie?”.

Noaia aeeth/aea oeee?iae?e/ii-eii?/iee a?iaeeeueiee aia?ao 1, nenoaio
o?oaii?iaiae?a, ianin 7, o?eueo? 5, ca??iee 4. Ia a?ae??ceo
o?oaii?iaiaeo o o?eueo?oaaeueiiio a?aeae?eaii? i?aei?e?inoaa aoei
ciiioiaaii aeiaeaoeiaee oee?eoeyoe?eiee eiioo?, i?aeeeth/aiiy yeiai aei
ae?th/i? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith aaioee?a 6.
Aeiaeaoeiaee eiioo? aeeth/aa o naaa aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao i?ioi/io
onoaiiaeo aaceiioaeoiiai aenieiaieueoiiai AI 2 oa AAeAE 3.

?en.22. Aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ia noaia aaceiioaeoiiai aenieiaieueoiiai
aeaeo?iia?iaeaiiy ieaa:

1 — OeAEA; 2 — onoaiiaea; 3 — aenieiaieueoia aeaea?aei aeeaeaiiy; 4 —
ca??iee; 5 — o?eueo?; 6 — aaioee?; 7 — ianin

I?ney ia?aa??ee cacaieaiiy AAeAE 3 aeaiaeeee ia ?iai/ee ?aaeei, i?ney
aeinyaiaiiy yeiai i?ia?aioaaee ?aaeeie ?iaioe AAeAE (?iai/a iai?oaa,
iaea?eueoee aiiaeiee no?oi, /an aeniiceoe??) oa iiaeaaaee iai?oao ia
aeaeo?iaee onoaiiaee 2, i?ney /iai a?aee?eaaee aaioee? 6. Iao?eueo?iaaia
ieai c oeee?iae?e/ii-eii?/iiai a?iaeeeueiiai aia?aoa 1 /a?ac nenoaio
o?oaii?iaiae?a ca aeiiiiiaith ianina 7 oa aaioee?a 6 ni?yiiaoaaee o
aeiaeaoeiaee oee?eoeyoe?eiee eiioo?. I?ney AI a i?ioi/i?e onoaiiaoe? 2,
iiea a ye?e noai?aii ca aeiiiiiaith aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy 3, ieai
iiaeaaaee o o?eueo? 5 ia iia?aoe?th o?eueo?aoe??, i?ney aeeiiaiiy yei?
aiii iaaeoiaeeei o ca??iee 4 oa ia ianooii? oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe??.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue niiniao aaceiioaeoiiai
aenieiaieueoiiai AI i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie aieeao
(iai?oaeai?noue AI a ae?aiacii? 1…1,25 eA/ni oa o?eaae?noue ia?iaeaiiy
12…16 n), ca yeeo niinoa??aaeiny cieaeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ieaa ia 1,5…2 ii?yaeee, ciaioaiiy o?eaaeino?
o?eueo?aoe?? a 1,5…2 ?ace.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy aaceiioaeoiiai aenieiaieueoiiai AI ia
aeeeeea? ci?i a?oai?iiiai oa a?eeiaiai neeaaeo ieaa, a oaeiae iiyae a
iueiio oiene/ieo ?a/iaei.

Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy noaiiaea 216900 iei. ea?aiaaioe?a
o oe?iao ii/aoeo 1994 ?ieo.

?en. 23. Aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa onoaiiaea aeey iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai
ia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a

?en.24. Aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ia noaia iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a:

1 — ?iceeaaeueii-caeoii?thaaeueiee aaoiiao; 2 — eiiaa??; 3 —
aeiaeaoeiaee iaeiie/oaaeueiee no?e; 4 — aaoa?ay ?iaeoeoi??a; 5 — I?O; 6
— oeeaaeaeueiee; 7 — iaeiie/oaaeueiee no?e; 8 — aoeeaooaaeueia iaoeia; 9
— i?ae?eiaeueii-iioneiee i?eno??e ?acii c eaoaae?ith aeaeo?io?ceee OAeIO
iaie ?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?th aeine?aeiiai c?acea i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee
aeey I?I ieaa a ieyoeao (?en.23), a iniiao yei? aoei iieeaaeaii
iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, oiiae ae?th/iai
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? e?i?? ?iceeao ieaa a ieyoee.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ?ia?o c ai?iaaaeaeaiiy niiniao I?I ?ic?iaeaii
aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/io noaio (?en.24), ?aae?caoe?y yei? aeaea
iiaeeea?noue i?aeeeth/eoe ?ic?iaeaia iaie iaeaaeiaiiy (aeea. ?icae. 5) a
ae?th/o oaoiieia?/io e?i?th ?iceeao ieaa a neeyi? ieyoee i?noe?noth 0,5
e oeaoo ?iceeao Ee?anueeiai AO “Ieacaaiae ia Iiaeie?”.

Noaia aeeth/aea ?iceeaaeueii-caeoii?thaaeueiee aaoiiao 1, nenoaio
eiiaa???a 2, aeiaeaoeiaee iaeiie/oaaiee no?e 3, i?ae?eiaeueii-iioneiee
i?eno??e 9 (i?eno??e iiaea/?), aaoa?ath ?iaeoeoi??a 4, I?O 5, aaoiiao
aeey oeeaaeaiiy ieyoie o oa?o 6, iaeiie/oaaiee no?e 7, aoeeaooaaeueio
iaoeio 8.

Aaoa?ay ?iaeoeoi??a 4 aeaaaea iiaeeea?noue ia?iaeyoe iaeiei ?iioeuenii
(c ?iai/ith /anoioith 100 eAoe i?e ?ioaineaiino? 2…4 Oe) iaeii/anii
i’youe ieyoie.

I?ney caiiaiaiiy ieaii oa caei?eiaoaaiiy o
?iceeaaeueii-caeoii?thaaeueiiio aaoiiao? 1 ieyoee ii eiiaa??o 2
iaaeoiaeeee ia aeiaeaoeiaee iaeiie/oaaiee no?e 3, ui neoaoaaa aooa?iith
i?noe?noth aeey oi?ioaaiiy “iaeao?a” c i’yoe ieyoie aeey I?I.
Noi?iiaaiee “iaeao” c 5 ieyoie iaaeoiaeea ia i?ae?eiaeueii-iioneiee
i?eno??e 9, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai ieyoee iieiyeenue o ?iai/?e cii?
aaoa?a? ?iaeoeoi??a 4. I?ney cae?eniaiiy I?I ?iioeuenii, noi?iiaaiei I?O
5, ieyoee ca aeiiiiiaith i?ae?eiaeueii-iioneath/iai i?eno?ith 9
aeaiaeeee c ?iai/i? ciie aaoa?a? ?iaeoeoi??a 4 oa iiaeaaaee ia nenoaio
eiiaa???a 2 aeey o?ainii?ooaaiiy a ?iai/? ciie aoeeaooaaeueii? iaoeie 8
oa ca aeiiiiiaith iaeiie/oaaiiai noiea 7 — a aaoiiao oeeaaeaiiy ieyoie o
oa?o 6.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue niiniao I?I aoei
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui aaeoa?eoeeaeiee aoaeo I?I ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie ?ia?aoth/iai oaeoi?a — ?iioeueno
aia?a?? iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ?ic?yaeo; i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iioeiaeueio
/anoioo caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a, yea noaiiaeoue 100 eAoe, oa
iioeiaeueio ?ioaineai?noue iaai?oiiai iioieo, yea ia?aaoaa? a ae?aiacii?
4…5 Oe.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo Oe?a?inueeei IAe? oa?/oaaiiy
iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ieaa i?ney I?I i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui
ia?iaeaia ieai ia aeeeeea? iani?eyoeeaeo ci?i a i?aai?ci?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei ? ca nai?th ae??th ??aiicia/ia ae??
o?aaeeoe?eiiai ieaa.

Oaoiieia?y oa aia?aoo?a I?I ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a ai?iaaaeaeaieo
ia Ee?anueeiio AO “Ieacaaiae ia Iiaeie?”, caaacia/othoue ca?eueoaiiy
oa?i?io caa??aaiiy ieaa c 7 aei 30 ae?a oa aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
io?eiaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo 54000 a?eaaiue ia ??e.

Ca?aeii c ?acoeueoaoaie i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii oei/aniaa
aeiiiaiaiiy aei oaoiieia?/ii? ?ino?oeoe?? c ae?iaieoeoaa ieaa oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iaeaaiaeaeaiiy oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy
iaai?oii-?iioeuenii? oaoiieia?? ia?iaeaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a
ia i?aei?e?inoaao AO “Oe?ieai”, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yei? aea? iiaeeea?noue
io?eiaoe 198980 a?eaaiue ia ??e.

Aeniiaee

— A ?acoeueoao? oai?aoe/ieo, aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? i?iieneiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
AI aenieeo iai?oa a aaceiioaeoiiio ?aaeei? oa I?I aaeeeeo iai?oaeaiinoae
? /anoio aeey i?aeaeuaiiy a?ieia?/ii? oa eiei?aeii? no?eeino? ??aeeeo
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a i?e caa?aaeaii? ?o niaeiaeo oa oa?/iaeo yeinoae;
aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane ? aia?aoo?a, ?ic?iaeaii iia? oaoiieia??
i?iaeiaaeaiiy oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a oa ?o
aia?aoo?ia ioi?ieaiiy, cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??? oa iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo
aeaeo?e/ieo oa iaai?oii-?iioeuenieo onoaiiaie, ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/i?
iiaeae?.

— I?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui OO ii?ii?iaiiy a ae?aiacii? 14…170 Aeae/i2 oa OC
ia?iaeaiiy a ae?aiacii? 22 eAoe ieaa i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy
caaaeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? i?e?ii?aai?ciaie ia 1,5…2 ii?yaeee.
Aiaeia?/ia ia?iaeaiiy iieiea iieacaei, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny cieaeaiiy
caaaeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? i?e?ii?aai?ciaie o?eueee ia 1,5 ii?yaeee /a?ac
aenieo iiaeeiath/o aeanoea?noue iiei/ieo aee??a.

Anoaiiaeaii iaaeioe?euei?noue ? iaia?niaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy
cacia/aieo iaoiae?a ia?iaeaiiy a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao /a?ac aaeee?
aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe oa iia??oaiiy i?aaiieaioe/ieo aeanoeainoae oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a.

— Aeyaeaii, ui i?ae ae??th AI aenieeo iai?oa ia o?eueee cieaeo?oueny
caaaeueia e?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a o ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoao (ia
1,5…2 ii?yaeee), a ? cia/iith i??ith cieaeo?oueny caeaoi?noue
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a aei naiia?aeoai?aiiy, ui caaacia/o? iiaeiaaeaiiy
oa?-i?io caa??aaiiy ieaa a ca??ieeao ia?aae ?iceeaii aei 3 ae?a;
iieacaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo cia/ii cieaeo?oueny i?e
ia?iaeaii? ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a iiaoi?ii caa?oaeiaieo
i?e?ioei?ith i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy ii iaaeinoaoiuei noa?eeueieo
ieaii?iaiaeao oa i?e eiioaeooaaii? c o?eueo?oaaeueiith aia?aoo?ith,
?iceeaiei aaoiiaoii, ieyoeaie oa ?i.

— Iieacaii, ui a i?ioean? ia?iaeaiiy ieaa a iioioe? iino?eiei AI aenieeo
iai?oa iioeiaeueii? iai?oaeaiino? (1…1,25 eA/ni) ?-iioaioe?ae
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ??cei ca?eueoo?oueny, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?iaeoeaaoe??
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a oa a?eueo ?ioaineaii? o?eueo?aoe??. Oaeaee?noue
o?eueo?aoe?? ieaa ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,5…2 ?ace.

— Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a A?I oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a (??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o
iaoaioa Oe?a?ie ?97063358, 1998 ?.). A?i aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii?
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oa i?oaeieo oaeeue OC ae?aiaciio oa a?ae?aae?/ieo
aoaeo?a, ui aeieeathoue aiane?aeie i?ioiaeaeaiiy aeaeo?i?ic?yaeo a
?ia?n?ei?e ??aeei?. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeueia
ca-a?oaeiai?noue i?e?ii?aai?ciaie ieaa oa iieiea cieaeo?oueny ia 2,5…3
ii?yaeee. A?ae?ie?c iaeoeio c ao?yeiaiai aeiio i?ney A?I iieacaa, ui
oaeaee?noue i?ioeano ca?eueoo?oueny a 2…2,5 ?ace i?e ciaioaii?
e?eueeino? n??/aii? eeneioe aeey a?ae?ie?co aei 30 %. sse?noue aioiaiai
iaeoeio i?e oeueiio cia/ii i?aeaeuoaaeany.

— ?ic?iaeaii iiao oaoiieia?th i?iaeiaaeaiiy oa?i?i?a caa??aaiiy ??aeeeo
oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, ui aaco?oueny ia aoaeo? ae?? ia i?iaeoeo iaai?oieo
?iioeuen?a aeniei? ?ioaineaiino? (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ?14841 A 1997 ?.) a
ae?aiacii? /anoio caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a aei 100 eAoe oa
?ioaineai?noth aei 10 Oe. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaeoa?eoeeaeiee aoaeo I?I
??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie ?ia?aoth/iai
oaeoi?a — ?iioeueno aia?a?? iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ?ic?yaeo; ciaeaeaii
iioeiaeueio /anoioo caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a, yea noaiiaeoue 100
eAoe, oa iioeiaeueio ?ioaineai?noue iaai?oiiai iioieo a ae?aiacii?
4…5Oe.

— Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a I?I i?iaeoeo?a aeaiia cono??/ieie ci?iieie
aeaeo?iiaai?oieie ?iioeuenaie oa noaio eiai ?aae?caoe??. I?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy niiniao iieacaee, ui ia?iaeaiiy ieaa cono??/ieie
aeaeo?iiaai?oieie ?iioeuenaie iacia/iith i??ith cieaeo? e?euee?noue
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a o ii??aiyii? c ?acoeueoaoaie ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a iaeiei ?iioeuenii o??? naii? /anoioe oa ?ioaineaiino?.

— I?iaaaeai? ii?oieiai-oeeoieia?/i?, eoeueoo?aeuei? oa
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaii? iayaii? i?e?ioei?e a
??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoao iieacaee, ui I?I a iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei?
cieaeo? e?euee?noue ioeoiaieeneeo aaeoa??e aeaeo A.aceti ia 1,5…2
ii?yaeee, iiei/iieeneeo aaeoa??e aeaeo Lactobacillus sp. oa ae??aeaeae?a
aeaeo Sacharomyces turbidans — ia 1,5…2 ii?yaeee aac iooaaaiieo ci?i
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a; anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ney oaeiai ia?iaeaiiy caeaoi?noue aei
naiia?aeoai?aiiy an?o i?e?ii?aai?ci?a cia/ii ciaioo?oueny;
aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii c?iaeai? iaie oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee i?i
iayai?noue ia??iaeo ?ia?aoaaiiy i?e?ioei?e, i?e yeiio eiao?oe??io
a?aeie?aiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a caeaaeii a?ae aaee/eie aaaaeaii? aia?a??
?iioeueno aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy.

— I?iaaaeaii eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy iioe/ieo ? niaeo?aeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ieaa oa aiaee i?ney I?I oa niaeo??a ?o E?. Aeyaeaii, ui ?
aiaea, ? ieai i?ney I?I ci?iththoue naith iioe/io aeoeai?noue, a i?e
niaeo?? oeoi?anoeaioe?? 400…600 ii a?aeaoaa?oueny cnoa ieiuei
iiey?eciaaiiai na?oea ia 6°. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e I?I a E? ? ci?ie oi?ie,
oe?eie oa no?oeoo?e eiioo?o nioae II-a?oi. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i ci?ie
no?oeoo?ieo aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a o ?ic/eiieeo i?e I?I ?c caa?aaeaiiyi
iai’yo? oaei? no?oeoo?e aei 20 ae?a.

— I?iaaaeaii eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei aacia/iiai aeei?enoaiiy I?I
aeey oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a. Iaoiaeii AI? aeyaeaii, ui e?euee?noue a?eueieo
?aaeeeae?a o iea? i?ney I?I ia ca?eueoo?oueny. Iaoiaeii iaoeaiiai
??aeeiiiai aeaeo?ioi?aco anoaiiaeaii, ui I?I ia aeeeeea? aoaeue-yeeo
ci?i a?eeiaiai neeaaeo ieaa. I?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a ?inoeooo? aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaoieia??, iieieia?? oa
?aae?ia?ieia?? ?i.aeaae.?.A.Eaaaoeueeiai c iaoith aeyaeaiiy aieeao
ia?iaeaiiai I?I ieaa ia iaoaaie?/io aeoeai?noue ia/?iee uo??a.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoaaie?/ia aeoeai?noue ia/?iee uo??a ia ci?ith?oueny
i?e aaeeaaii? ia?iaeaiiai oa iaia?iaeaiiai ieaa. I?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen
iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a ?inoeooo? oa?/oaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie
iieacaa, ui ia?iaeaia iaai?oieie ?iioeuenaie ieai ia aeeeeea?
iani?eyoeeaeo ci?i a i?aai?ciao aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei ? ca nai?th
ae??th ??aiicia/ia ae?? o?aaeeoe?eiiai ieaa.

— Cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??aeueia ??aiyiiy, yea aea? ciiao ioe?ieoe cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aianaiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a o iioioe? i?ae ae??th AI ?
?o ieoiiee iio?e, ni?yiiaaiee aei no?iie, a oaeiae aaee/eio
eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a?ey no?iee o cii? iaea?eueoi?
iai?oaeaiino? AI.

— Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano I?I, yui aaco?oueny ia
iaoai?ci? aeeneiaoe?? aia?a?? o aeaeyae? oo?aoeaioieo ioeuenaoe?e,
noi??ieo ca ?ici??ii c ?ici??ii i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Oai?aoe/ii aeyaeaii, ui
i?ae /an I?I oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a o i?ioiieaci? ee?oei i?e?ii?aai?ci?a
aeieea? iaai?oii-oaciaee aoaeo, yeee ni?e/eiy? ?icae?eaiiy
aaaaoieiiiiiaioii? nenoaie i?ioiieacie ee?oei. Oeae aoaeo iiaea aooe
i?e/eiith ?ia?aoaaiiy aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a aiane?aeie ae??
iaaii? /anoioe caiiaiaiiy iaai?oieo ?iioeuen?a.

— Cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueithth/? e?eoa???, ye? aeicaieeee aeaoe ioe?iee
noaiiiio oa eiino?oeoeaiiio ?ic?iaeaiith I?O aeey ia?iaeaiiy ieaa a
oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ?iai/i? /anoioe, iai?oae ? aia?ai?iiino?. ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ?iaeoeoi??a oa I?O caeaaeii a?ae aaaaeaiiai
aaiiao?e/iiai eiao?oe??ioa, ia’?i?a ia’?eoa ia?iaeaiiy, aeaeo?e/ieo oa
eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo
eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a I?O.

— ?ic?iaeaii aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/io noaio aaceiioaeoiiai
aenieiaieueoiiai ia?iaeaiiy ieaa. I?iaaaeaii i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ??
ia Ee?anueeiio AO “Ieacaaiae ia Iiaeie?”. Anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei?
ia?aiao?e ia?iaeaiiy, iai?oaeai?noue AI a ae?aiacii? 1…1,25 eA/ni oa
o?eaae?noue ia?iaeaiiy 12…16 n. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
noaiiaea (/anoea OAeOOO) 216900 iei. ea?aiaaioe?a o oe?iao ii/aoeo 1994
?ieo.

— ?ic?iaeaii aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/io noaio ?aae?caoe??
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai iaoiaeo ia?iaeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a o aa?iaoe/i?e
neeyi?e oa??, ?aae?caoe?y yei? ia Ee?anueeiio AO “Ieacaaiae ia Iiaeie?”
aeicaieeea ca?eueoeoe oa?i?i caa??aaiiy ieaa c 7 aei 30 ae?a oa aeaea
iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo 54000 a?eaaiue ia ??e.

— ?ic?iaeaii oei/ania? aeiiiaiaiiy aei oaoiieia?/ii? ?ino?oeoe?? c
ae?iaieoeoaa ieaa i?e canoinoaaii? aaceiioaeoiiai aenieiaieueoiiai AI oa
I?I.

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iaeaaiaeaeaiiy oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaai?oii-?iioeuenieo onoaiiaie oa oaoiieia?e ia?iaeaiiy
ia i?aei?e?inoaao AO “Oe?ieai”. ??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ?o
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy noaiiaeoeia 198980 a?eaaiue.

Ia?ae?e ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

A?ioo?e:

1. Niiniau oaaee/aiey n?ieia o?aiaiey aeeaeeeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia. /
E.N.Aoeue, A.E.Oe?aeiaoe, E.I.Iueieea, N.I.Aeaaaeeineee, I.E.Aeeei/oe,
TH.A.Aeaoeianeee. -E.: Oe?IEEIOE, 1991. -32n. — (Iiaia a iaoea, oaoieea
e i?-aa: Iaci?. eioi?i. Na?. I?ii. ia?a?aa. e o?aiaiea ieu. i?iae.; Aui.
1.

Noaoo? a oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue:

2. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. Oaaee/aiea n?ieia o?aiaiey ieaa yeaeo?ioece/aneei
niiniaii // Ieai e iaieoee. -I., 1997. -? 3. -N. 8.

3. Oe?aeiaoe A.E. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna iaaieoii-eiioeueniie
ia?aaioee aeeaeeeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia // O?aiaiea e ia?a?aaioea
naeueoicnu?uey. -I., 1997. -? 12. -N. 54-56.

4. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iiaeeeaeo iaoai?ci?a ciai?oiueiai
II ia o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/io aeoeai?noue ee?oei i?e?ii?aai?ci?a: Ca. iaoe.
i?. -E.: Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, 1997.
-? 3. -C. 44-46.

5. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. Aieea iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy ia
o?c?ieia?/i? oa ii?oieia?/i? iciaee eiioai?ioth/i? i?e?ioei?e ieaa: Ca.
iaoe. i?. -E.: Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e,
1997. -? 3. -C. 77-79.

6. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. Iiaee niin?a ?icae?eueiiai aeaeo?i?ne?iaiai
ia?iaeaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a: Ca. iaoe. i?. -E.: Oe?a?inueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, 1997. -? 3. -C. 102-103.

7.Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. Iaoai?ci aieeao aeaeo?inoaoe/ii? aenieiaieueoii?
ia?iaee ia aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue i?e?ioei?e ieaa // Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea,
oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai. -E.: Oe??IOA?, 1998. ? 1-2. -N. 25-26.

8. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio ae?? ?iioeueniiai
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iiey ia aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ee?oei i?e?ioei?e oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a // Aanoiee OAIO, 1998. -? 25. -N. 164-171.

9. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. ?ic?aooiie iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeey
“oieiaeii?” ianoa?ecaoe?? ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a: Ca. iaoe. i?.
-E.: Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, 1998. -?
4. -/. 1. -C. 89-92 .

10. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. Aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/ia ia?iaea oa?/iaeo ??aeei ?
noniaic?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy aeey ?? ?aae?caoe??: Ca. iaoe. i?. -E.:
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, 1998. -? 4.
-/. 1. -C. 27-28.

11. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. Aieea aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iie?a ia aeaeo?ie?iaoe/iee
iioaioe?ae ee?oei i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. -E., Oa?/. i?ii-oue, 1998. -? 44. -N.
194-196.

12. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. Iiaee niin?a aeaeo?i?ne?iai? ia?iaee oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a // I?aei?e?inoaa ? oeaoe iaei? iiooaeiino? aeey ia?a?iaee
n?eueneiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie: aoaeoeai?noue ? iniaeeaino?
i?aai?caoe??”. -Iieoaaa: Iieoaanueeee eiiia?aoeaiee oaoi?eoi, 1997. -N.
249-252.

13. Oe?aeiaoe A.E. Aeeyiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iieae ia aaee/eio
aeaeo?ieeiaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea eeaoie iee?ii?aaieciia // O?aiaiea e
ia?a?aaioea naeueoicnu?uey. -I., 1999. -? 5. -N. 52.

14. Eaaioiaio?i?/i? ?ic?aooiee aeaeo?iiii? aoaeiae oa
eiiieaeniooai?thth/i? caeaoiino? o?aaiaio?a iaeoeio. /A.?.Oe?a?iaoeue,
?.N.Aoeee, E.Ae.Aia??aiee, I.I.?eue/aiei: Ca. iaoe. i?. -E.:
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, 1998. -? 4.
-/. 2. -C. 45-47.

15. Aieea oeueo?acaoeiaiai oa oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia
i?e?ioei?o oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a. /A.?.Oe?a?iaoeue, ?.N.Aoeee,
TH.A.Aeaoeianueeee, A.A.Ie?oaanueeee, ?.A.Ai?oaoeueeee. -E.: Oa?/.
i?ii-noue, 1998. -? 43. -N. 189-193.

16. Aicaeaenoaea yeaeo?inoaoe/aneiai iiey aunieeo iai?yaeaiee ia
oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa ieaa / E.N.Aoeue, A.E.Oe?aeiaoe,
N.I.Aeaaaeeineee, I.E.Aioioai, A.A.*aaaio, A.I.Eiaaana, N.A.Aa?cie //
Yeaeo?iiiay ia?aaioea iaoa?eaeia. -Eeoeiaa.:  Ooeeioea, 1991. -? 4. -N.
50-55.

17. Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Aoeee ?.N., Aeaoeianueeee
TH.A. Iaaieoii-eiioeueniue iaoiae i?iaeeaiey n?ieia o?aiaiey aeeaeeeo
ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia // Ieai e iaieoee. -I., 1997. -? 3. -N. 20.

18. Canoinoaaiiy iaai?oii-?iioeuenii? oaoiieia?? a oa?/ia?e
i?iieneiaino?. / A.?.Oe?a?iaoeue, A.A.Ie?oaanueeee, TH.I.Aeaoeianueeee,
E.O.O?iaiei, E.O.Ai?e?i // Aanoiee OAIO. -Oa?ueeia, 1997. -? 8. -N.
50-52.

19. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua i?ioeannu a ieineeo ieanoeiao i?e aicaeaenoaee
ano?a/iuo eiioeueniuo iaaieoiuo iieae. / E.O.Oeiaiei, E.Ae.Ai?eei,
A.TH.Oai?ino, A.E.Oe?aeiaoe //Aanoiee OAIO. -Oa?ueeia, 1999. ? 24. -N.
146-151.

20. Oe?aeiaoe A.E., Oaaeioeei E.I., Aoeue E.N. Iaaieoiay aeeooocey
iee?ii?aaieciia i?e iaaieoii-eiioeueniie ia?aaioea. E?eoa?eaeueiia
iaiauaiea /Aanoiee OAIO. -Oa?ueeia, 1999 -? 29. -N. 157-164.

21. Iioeiecaoeey eiaeoeoi?iuo nenoai aeey iia?aoeee oi?iiia?aciaaiey
oiieinoaiiuo o?oa/aouo caaioiaie. /E.O.Oeiaiei, E.Ae.Ai?eei, Eaaaca
A.A., A.E.Oe?aeiaoe, A.TH.Oai?ino //Aanoiee OAIO. -Oa?ueeia, 1999. -?
36. -N. 98-106.

22. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Oaaeioe?i ?.I., Aoeee ?.N. Iaai?oii-?iioeuenia
ia?iaea c iiceoe?e oai??? iie?a?aae??ioieo iie?a // Ca. iaoe. i?. -E.:
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, 1999. -? 5.
-N. 113-116.

23. Iaai?oii-?iioeuenia oaoiieia?y ye aeueoa?iaoeaa oa?i?/ii?
ianoa?ecaoe??. /A.?.Oe?a?iaoeue, A.A.Ie?oaanueeee, ?.N.Aoeee,
TH.I.Aeaoeianueeee, A.I.Anaoeaiei // Oi?aae?iiy aia?aiaeei?enoaiiyi.
-Euea?a: Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, 1997. -N.
3.28-3.31.

24. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I., O?iaiei
E.O. Ocaaaeueithth/? e?eoa??? ?ic?aooieo iaai?oii-?iioeuenieo onoaiiaie
aeey ia?iaee ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a // Yeieiaey /aeiaaea e i?iaeaiu
ainieoaiey iieiaeuo o/aiuo. -Iaeanna: Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y
oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, 1997. -N. 323-325.

25. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Eiaaana A.I., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Anaoeaiei A.I.
Niin?a iiaeiaaeaiiy caa??aaiiy nooeo ni?aeaie?a // I?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo niiaeeaaiiy oe?aii?iaeoeo?a. -Iaeana: Iaeanueea
aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, 1997. -o. 3: Iiaa a oaoiieia??
oa oaoi?oe? oe?aiiaea?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa iaeoaaiiy oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a. -N. 82.

26. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Eiaaana A.I., Eiaaeueia I.A. sse iiaeiaaeeoe
oa?i?i caa??aaiiy oe?aa // Oiaeiaea. -E., 1998. -? 2 (70). -N. 14.

Iaoaioe:

27. Iao. 14841 A. Oe?a?ia, N 12I 1/16. Niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy oa?i?i?a
caa??aaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, ?icoaniaaieo a oa?o /Oe?a?iaoeue
A.?., Aoeee ?.N., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I., Ieeie?a ?.I.,
O?iaiei E.O., Eaaaca A.A., Ai?e?i E.Ae., Eiiioii A.A. ?96041540; Cayae.
18.04.96.

28. Iao. 14884 A. Oe?a?ia, N 12I 1/16. Niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy oa?i?i?a
caa??aaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, ?icoaniaaieo a oa?o /Oe?a?iaoeue
A.?., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aoeee ?.N., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I., Ieeie?a ?.I.
?96062367; Cayae. 17.06.96.

29. Iao. 21586 A. Oe?a?ia, N 12I 1/16. Niin?a ia?iaee ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a a aeaeo?e/iiio iie? /Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Ie?oaanueeee A.A.,
Aoeee ?.N., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I., Anaoeaiei A.I., Oeeiaae I.A. ?97062764;
Cayae. 11.06.97.

30. Iao. 21588 A. Oe?a?ia, N 12I 1/16. I?eno??e aeey ia?iaee ??aeei a
aeaeo?e/iiio iie? /Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aoeee ?.N.,
Aeaoeianueeee TH.I., Ai?iaaoeue N.A., Anaoeaiei A.I., Oeeiaae I.A.
?97063353; Cayae. 27.06.97.

31. Iao. 21587 A. Oe?a?ia, N 12I 1/16. .Niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy oa?i?i?a
caa??aaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, ?icoaniaaieo a oa?o /Oe?a?iaoeue
A.?., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aoeee ?.N., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I., Ai?iaaoeue
N.A., Anaoeaiei A.I., Oeeiaae I.A., O?iaiei E.O., Ai?e?i E.Ae.
?97063358; Cayae. 27.06.97.

32. ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ?97115449 a?ae
09.10.98. Niin?a aeaeo?ia?ae?aae?/ii? ia?iaee oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a
/Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Aoeee ?.N., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I.,
Anaoeaiei A.I., E?aieaieoeueea ?.I., ss?iaee A.E., Ai?iaaiei A.I.

Aeaiiiiaai? ?iaioe:

33. Aeaeo?io?ce/iee iaoiae ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?io caa??aaiiy ieaa
/Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Aoeee ?.N., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I.,
Ieeie?a ?.I., Oiei/ei I.A. -E., 1996. -10 n. -Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie
19.03.96, ? 751-Oe96.

34. I?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? ieaa iaoiaeii aaceiioaeoii? aeaeo?e/ii?
ia?iaee / Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Aoeee ?.N., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aeaoeianueeee
TH.I., Ieeie?a ?.I. -E., 1996. -11 n. -Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie 19.03.96, ?
752-Oe96.

35. Aeonoe/i? iaoiaee ia?iaee ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a / Oe?a?iaoeue
A.?., Aoeee ?.N., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I., Ieeie?a ?.I.
-E., 1996. -6 n. Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie 19.03.96, ? 753-Oe96.

Oace aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:

36. Aoeue E.N., Oe?aeiaoe A.E., Nee/ei I.I. Yeaeo?ii/enoea
aeeoooceiiiiai niea // Oac. aeiee. ia 6-e Ananithc. iao/.-oaoi. eiio.
“Yeaeo?ioece/aneea iaoiaeu ia?aaioee ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey”. -I, -1989. -N. 182-183

37. Aoeue E.N., Oe?aeiaoe A.E., Aeaaaeeineee N.I., Aeieeineay E.I.
Yeaeo?ioece/aneee iaoiae ia?aaioee ieaa // Oac. aeiee. ia 6-e Ananithc.
iao/.oaoi. eiio. “Yeaeo?ioece/aneea iaoiaeu ia?aaioee ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia
e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey”. -I., 1989. -N. 194.

38. Aiieo?iaa A.A., Aia?iaiee E.Ae., Oe?aeiaoe A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea
inaaeaeaiey iaeoeia n iiiiuueth yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey // Oac. aeiee. ia
6-e Ananithciie iao/.oaoi. eiio. “Yeaeo?ioece/aneea iaoiaeu ia?aaioee
ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey”. -I., 1989. -N.
195-196.

39. Oe?aeiaoe A.E., Aeaaaeeineee N.I., Aeeei/oe I.E., Aeaoeianeee TH.A.
Aeeyiea naa?oneeueiuo eiioeueniuo iaaieoiuo iieae ia
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue iee?ioei?u ieaa e iieiea // Oac. aeiee. ia ?ani.
iao/.-oaoi. eiio. “?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea aunieiyooaeoeaiuo
?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee, iai?oaeiaaiey e iiauo aeaeia ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia a ieuaaoth e ia?a?aaaouaathuea io?anee AIE”. -E., 1991. -N.
145.

40. Aeaoeianeee TH.A., Oe?aeiaoe A.E., Iueieea E.I., Aeeei/oe I.E.
Ia?aaioea aeeaeeeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia a iieyo oi?oaeo aiei aunieie
eioaineaiinoe // Oac. aeiee. ia ?ani. iao/.-oaoi. eiio. “?ac?aaioea e
aiaae?aiea aunieiyooaeoeaiuo ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee,
iai?oaeiaaiey e iiauo aeaeia ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia a ieuaaoth e
ia?a?aaaouaathuea io?anee AIE”. -E., 1991. -N. 150-151.

41. Oe?aeiaoe A.E., Ieeoaaneee A.A., Ooothe A.A., Aanna?aa A.N. Iiaue
niinia ia?aaioee aeeaeeeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia // Oac. aeiee. ia
Iaaeaeoia?. neiiiceoia “Oaoieea e oaoiieiaey yeieiae/anee /enouo
oeie/aneeo i?iecaiaenoa”. -I., 1996. -N. 17.

42. Oe?aeiaoe A.E., Aoeue E.N., Ieeoaaneee A.A. Iiauoaiea noieeinoe ieaa
n i?eiaiaieai iaaieoii-eiioeueniie ia?aaioee //Oac. aeiee. ia
Iaae?aaeii. iao/.-i?ae. eiio. “Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue- 2000”. -Eacaiue,
1996. -N. 129.

43. Iaai?oii-?iioeuenia oaoiieia?y ye aeueoa?iaoeaa oa?i?/ii?
ianoa?ecaoe?? / Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aoeee ?.N.,
Aeaoeianueeee TH.I., Anaoeaiei A.I. // Oace aeii. ia 2-e i?aeia?.
iaoe.-i?ae. eiio. “Oi?aae?iiy aia?aiaeei?enoaiiyi”. Euea?a, 1997. -N.
93-94.

44. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aoeee ?.N., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I.
Canoinoaaiiy iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai aieeao ia ??aee? oa?/ia? i?iaeoeoe.//
Oace aeii. ia 8-e iaoe. oeie? “Oeceea eiioeueniuo ?ac?yaeia a
eiiaeaine?iaaiiuo n?aaeao”. -Ieeieaaa, 1997. -N. 121.

45. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aoeee ?.N., Anaoeaiei A.I.
I?e?ia?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, ia?iaeaieo
iaai?oii-?iioeuenieie iieyie. // Oace aeii. ia I?aeia?. iaoe.-oaoi.
eiio. “?ic?iaeaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo ?ano?niiuaaeieo
oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy a oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue”. -E.,
1997. -N. 201.

46. Oe?a?iaoeue A.?., Ie?oaanueeee A.A., Aoeee ?.N., Aeaoeianueeee TH.I.
?ic?iaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai aieeao ia
eiioai?ioth/o i?e?ioei?o ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a // Oace aeii. ia
I?aeia?. iaoe.-oaoi. eiio. “?ic?iaeaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo
?ano?niiuaaeieo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy a oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio
i?iieneia?noue”. -E., 1997. -N. 201.

47. O?iaiei E.O., Ai?e?i E.Ae., Eaaaca A.A., Oe?a?iaoeue A.?.
Iaai?oii-?iioeuenia iaeaaeiaiiy aeey ia?iaeaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a //
Oace aeii. ia I?aeia?. iaoe.-oaoi. eiio. “?ic?iaeaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?ia?aneaieo ?ano?niiuaaeieo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy a oa?/iao oa
ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue”. -E., 1997. -N. 200.

48. O?iaiei E.O., Ai?e?i E.Ae., Eaaaca A.A., Oe?a?iaoeue A.?.
?iaeoeoi?i? nenoaie aeey iniauaiiy iaai?oii-?iioeuenieo onoaiiaie //
Oac.e aeii. ia I?aeia?. iaoe.-oaoi. eiio. “?ic?iaeaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?ia?aneaieo ?ano?niiuaaeieo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy a oa?/iao oa
ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue”. -E., 1997. -N. 200.

49. O?iaiei E.O., Ai?e?i E.Ae., Eaaaca A.A., Oe?a?iaoeue A.?.
Iaai?oii-?iioeuenia oaoiieia?y ye aeueoa?iaoeaa oa?i?/ii? ianoa?ecaoe??
// Oac.e aeii. ia I?aeia?. iaoe.-oaoi. eiio. “?ic?iaeaiiy oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo ?ano?niiuaaeieo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy a
oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue”. -E., 1997. -N. 200.

Oe?a?iaoeue A.?. ?ic?iaeaiiy oaoiieia?e oa aia?aoo?e aeey iiaeiaaeaiiy
oa?i?io caa??aaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.18.12 — I?ioeane oa aia?aoe oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa. —
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ic?iaeaiith oaoiieia?e oa aia?aoo?e aeey
iiaeiaaeaiiy oa?i?io caa??aaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c aeine?aeaeaiiyi
iiaeeeaeo iaoai?ci?a aieeao ia ee?oeie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a.

Aeine?aeaeaii a?eueo?noue aeaeo?io?ce/ieo iaoiae?a ia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a: oeueo?acaoeiaa oa oeueo?ao?ieaoiaa ii?ii?iaiiy, aeaeo?e/ia
iecueei- oa aenieiaieueoia ia?iaeaiiy iino?eiei oa ci?iiei no?oiii,
iaai?oii-?iioeuenia iiea aaeeeeo iiooaeiinoae, aeaeo?i?ne?iaee iaoiae.
Cai?iiiiiaai?, ?ic?iaeai? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? oaoiieia?? aaceiioaeoiiai
aenieiaieueoiiai ia?iaeaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a a iioioe? oa
iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a a eiioaeia?ao.
Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii e??oa??aeueia ??aiyiiy, yea aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe
cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aianaiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a iioioe?. Aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??aeueia ??aiyiiy, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaeia
aecia/eoe eiao?oe??io iaai?oiaeeooc??. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue i?ioeano iaai?oii-?iioeueniiai ia?iaeaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?iaeaiiy, oa?/ia? i?iaeoeoe, iaai?oii-?iioeueni? oa
aeaeo?e/i? iiey, oeueo?ao?ieaoiaa oa oeueo?acaoeiaa ii?ii?iaiiy, iieiei,
ieai, o?oeoiaee n?e.

Ucrainets A.I. Development of technologies and equipment for extension
of term of a storage of articles of food. — Manuscript.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of
engineering science on a speciality 05.18.12 — processes and meanses of
food productions — Ukrainian state university of food technologies,
Kiev, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to development of technologies and equipment for
extension of term of a storage of articles of food with a research of
possible mechanisms of influence for cells of microorganisms.

The majority of electrophysical methods of processing of articles of
food is investigated: ultrasonic and ultraviolet an exposure, electrical
low and high-voltage processing to constants and alternating current,
magnetic — impulse field of large strength, electrospark method. Are
offered, are developed and the technologies of contactless high-voltage
processing of liquid articles of food in a stream and magnetic — impulse
processing of articles of food in containers are introduced. The
criteria equation for the first time is offered which allows to evaluate
significance of factor masse-moving of microorganisms in a stream. The
criteria equation for the first time is offered, with the help of which
factor magnetic diffusion is possible to define(determine). The
mathematical model of process magnetic-pulse processing is offered.

Key word: processing, articles of food, magnetic — impulse and
electrical fields, ultra-violet and ultrasonic exposure, milk, beer,
fruit juice.

Oe?aeiaoe A.E. ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee e aiia?aoo?u aeey i?iaeeaiey n?iea
o?aiaiey ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.18.12 – I?ioeannu e aiia?aou ieuaauo i?iecaiaenoa. –
Oe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ieuaauo oaoiieiaee, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee e aiia?aoo?u aeey
i?iaeeaiey n?iea o?aiaiey ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia n enneaaeiaaieai aiciiaeiuo
iaoaieciia aeeyiey ia eeaoee iee?ii?aaieciia.

Enneaaeiaaii aieueoeinoai yeaeo?ioece/aneeo iaoiaeia ia?aaioee ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia: oeueo?acaoeiaia e oeueo?aoeieaoiaia iaeo/aiea, yeaeo?e/aneay
iecei- e aunieiaieueoiay ia?aaioea iinoiyiiui e ia?aiaiiui oieii,
iaaieoii-eiioeueniia iiea aieueoie iai?yaeaiiinoe, yeaeo?iene?iaie
iaoiae. I?aaeeiaeaiu, ?ac?aaioaiu e aiaae?aiu oaoiieiaee aaneiioaeoiie
aunieiaieueoiie ia?aaioee aeeaeeeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia a iioiea e
iaaieoii-eiioeueniie ia?aaioee ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia a eiioaeia?ao. Aia?aua
i?aaeeiaeaii e?eoa?eaeueiia o?aaiaiea, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eiyooeoeeaio iaaieoiaeeooocee.

Aia?aua i?aaeeiaeaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna
iaaieoii-eiioeueniie ia?aaioee, eioi?ay aace?oaony ia iaoaiecia
aeenneiaoeee yia?aee a aeaea oo?aoeaioiuo ioeuenaoeee, niecia?eiuo ii
?acia?ai n ?acia?aie iee?ii?aaieciia. Oai?aoe/anee auyaeaii, /oi ai
a?aiy iaaieoii-eiioeueniie ia?aaioee ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia a i?ioiieacia
eeaoie iee?ii?aaieciia aicieeaao iaaieoii-oaciaue yooaeo, eioi?ue
aucuaaao ?acaeaeaiea iiiaieiiiiiaioiie nenoaiu i?ioiieaciu eeaoie.

I?aaeeiaeaii e?eoa?eaeueiia o?aaiaiea, eioi?ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ioeaieoue cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa ianniia?aiina iee?ii?aaieciia a iioiea
iiae aeaenoaeai yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey e eo oaeaeueiue iioie, iai?aaeaiiue
e noaieai, a oaeaea aaee/eio eiioeaio?aoeee iee?ii?aaieciia aicea noaiee
a ciia iaeaieueoae iai?yaeaiiinoe yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey.

I?iaaaeaiu ii?oieiai-oeeoieiae/aneea, eoeueoo?aeueiua e
oeceieiai-aeioeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iniiaiie i?enoonoaothuae a
aeeaeeeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoao iee?ioei?u iieacaee, /oi
iaaieoii-eiioeueniay ia?aaioea a iioeiaeueiii ?aaeeia nieaeaao
eiee/anoai oenoniieeneuo aaeoa?ee aeaea A.aceti ia 1,5…2 ii?yaeea,
iiei/iieeneuo aaeoa?ee aeaea Lactobacillus sp. e ae?iaeaeae aeaea
Sacharomyces turbidans — ia 1,5…2 ii?yaeea aac iooaaaiiuo eciaiaiee
iee?ii?aaieciia; onoaiiaeaii, /oi iinea oaeie ia?aaioee niiniaiinoue e
naiiaini?iecaaaeaieth anao iee?ii?aaieciia cia/eoaeueii oiaioaaony;
yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu naeaeaiiua iaie oai?aoe/aneea auaiaeu
i iaee/ee ia?eiaea eiaeae?iaaiey iee?ioei?u, i?e eioi?ii eiyoeoeeaio
ioie?aiey iee?ii?aaieciia a caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu aaaaeaiiie yia?aee
eiioeuena aeinoeaaao iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiey.

I?aaeeiaeaiu iaiauathuea e?eoa?ee, eioi?ua iicaieeee naeaeaoue ioeaiee
noaiiie e eiino?oeoeaiie ?ac?aaioee iaaieoii-eiioeueniuo onoaiiaie aeey
ia?aaioee ieaa a oe?ieii aeeaiaciia ?aai/eo /anoio, iai?yaeaiee e
yia?aiaieinoe. ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeu ?an/aoa eiaeoeoi?ia e
iaaieoii-eiioeueniuo onoaiiaie a caaeneiinoe io aaaaeaiiiai
aaiiao?e/aneiai eiyooeoeeaioa, iauaiia iauaeoa ia?aaioee, yeaeo?e/aneeo
e eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia e i?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa
eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia iaaieoii-eiioeueniuo onoaiiaie.

I?iaaaeai eiiieaen enneaaeiaaiee ii aaciianiinoe eniieueciaaiey
iaaieoii-eiioeueniie ia?aaioee aeey ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia. Iaoiaeii
yeaeo?e/aneiai ia?aiaaieoiiai ?aciiaina onoaiiaeaii /oi eiee/anoai
naiaiaeiuo ?aaeeeaeia a ieaa iinea iaaieoii-eiioeueniie ia?aaioee ia
oaaee/eaaaony. Iaoiaeii iaoeaiiai aeeaeeinoiiai yeaeo?ioi?aca
onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaaieoii-eiioeueniay ia?aaioea ia aucuaaao eaeeo-eeai
eciaiaiee aaeeiaiai ninoaaa ieaa. I?iaaaeaiiue eiiieaen
iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a Einoeoooa yenia?eiaioaeueiie
iaoieiaee, iieieiaee e ?aaeeiaeieiaee ei. aeaae. E.A.Eaaaoeeiai e a
Einoeoooa ieoaiey IAI Oe?aeiu iieacae, /oi ia?aaioaiiia iaaieoiuie
eiioeuenaie ieai ia aucuaaao iaaeaaii?eyoiuo eciaiaiee a i?aaieciao
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeeaioiuo e ii naiaio aeaenoaeth ?aaiicia/ii
aeaenoaeth o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ieaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?aaioea, ieuaaua i?iaeoeou, iaaieoii-eiioeueniua e
yeaeo?e/aneea iiey, oeueo?aoeieaoiaia e oeueo?acaoeiaia iaeo/aiea,
iieiei, ieai, o?oeoiaue nie.

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