Розробка комплексних моделей елементної бази МЕА для систем автоматизації проектування: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / А.В. Пархоменко, Держ. ун-т

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

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Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Ia?oiiaiei Aiaeae?ea Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 621.396.6.001.2:681.3

?IC?IAEA EIIIEAENIEO IIAeAEAE AEAIAIOII? AACE IAA

AeEss NENOAI AAOIIAOECAOe?? I?IAEOOAAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.13.12 — Nenoaie aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?iaeooaaiiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa

oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

E?euoe Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e “Eiino?othaaiiy oa
ae?iaieoeoai ?aae?iaia?aoo?e”

Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nia?aeia Aiae??e Aiae??eiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

“Eiino?othaaiiy oa oaoiieia?y ?aae?iaia?aoo?e”

Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

Aoo ?aai ?aaiiae/, ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eo Euea?anueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?aae?ioaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo I?i?noa?noaa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo e?aa?iaoeee ?i. A.I.Aeooeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie,
a?aeae?eaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo cania?a ? nenoai, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 3 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 16.00
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.05 i?e
Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” ca aae?anith 290646,
i. Euea?a — 13, aoe. N.Aaiaea?e, 12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeiai — oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 290646, i.Euea?a, aoe.I?ioani?nueea 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 28 ” n?/iy__ 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe N.I.Oea/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. sse na?ae/eoue aiae?c no/aniiai i?ioeano
i?iaeooaaiiy i?e?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e (IAA), aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith
caeeoa?oueny nei?i/aiiy oa?i?i?a oa i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?iaeooaaiiy ?
aeaioiaeaiiy i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a (IAI), i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
iaae?eiino?.

Ia an?o aoaiao ?ic?iaee IAI aeei?enoiaothoueny nenoaie aaoiiaoecaoe??
i?iaeooaaiiy (NAI?), ui coiiaeaii c?inoath/ei nooiaiai ?ioaa?aoe??,
aenieei ??aiai eiino?oeoeaii? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii? neeaaeiino? ae?ia?a,
iaiao?aei?noth caaacia/aiiy eiieo?aioii?eaeaoiino? i?iaeoeoe??, yea
aeaioiaey?oueny. Oi/a ?nio? aeinoaoiuei ?icaeiooa iaoaiaoe/ia, i?ia?aiia
oa ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy aeey i?aenenoai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai
noaiioaoi?/iiai ? eiino?oeoi?nueeiai i?iaeooaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy eiai o
?yae? aeiaaee?a i?e i?iaeooaaii? aiaeiaiai? IAA ia aeaei caaeia?eueieo
?acoeueoao?a, ye? a aeia?a ocaiaeaeoaaeeny c ?acoeueoaoaie aei?iaoaaiue.
Iaei??th c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai, ye? aeieeathoue i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aia?aoo?e ia iniia? a?a?eaeieo ?ioaa?aeueieo iiaeoe?a, i?e?icai?ie ?
caaea/a aaeaeaaoiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo oa oaieiaeo i?ioean?a, ui
ni?eueii a?aeaoaathoueny a aia?aoo?? i?e ?? ooieoe?iioaaii?. ?ioa
i?iaeaia iia’ycaia c aeai?ii iiaeaeae oa aecia/aiiyi ?o ia?aiao??a.

Aiae?c ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ?nioth/iai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy
aeey noaiioaoi?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy IAA aeia?a, ui a?eueo?noue i?ia?ai ia
aeicaiey? o?aooaaoe ?aaeuei? oaieia? ?aaeeie ?iaioe aeaiaio?a noaie, ye?
aecia/athoueny iniaeeainoyie eiino?oeoeaiiai aeeiiaiiy IAI,
iaiaeii??aeiinoyie oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a, ia?aa??aaie aeoeaieo cii
aeaiaio?a.

?nioth/? i?ia?aie aiae?co oaieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee a eiino?oeoe?yo IAA ia
aeicaieythoue a?aooaaoe eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? aeaeo?e/ieo oa
oaieiaeo i?ioean?a, a ie?aia iiaeaethaaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a a noaiao ?
eiino?oeoe?yo ia ? aaeaeaaoiei oa aoaeoeaiei.

Iaoiae eiiieaeniiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a
?aae?ciaaii o i?aenenoaiao ANII?EA-AO, IEA IAA. Aea canoinoaaiiy oeueiai
caaacia/aiiy a ?yae? aeiaaee?a ia aeicaieeei aeinyaoe aeniei? oi/iino?
iiaeaethaaiiy, aiane?aeie iaoi/iinoae iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii?
aace IAA, ye? iia’ycai? c /anoeiaei a?aooaaiiyi iaeaaaeeea?oeo o?ce/ieo
aoaeo?a oa caeaaeiinoae ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae a?ae ??cieoe? aeaeo?e/ieo
iioaioe?ae?a, oaiia?aoo?e.

?nioth/? aeaeo?e/i? ? oaieia? iiaeae? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a
(III) oa ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai (?IN), c oi/ee ci?o iiaeeeaino? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy aeey eiiieaeniiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo oa oaieiaeo
i?ioean?a a IAA iathoue oae? iaaeie?ee

· aeaye? ?nioth/? aeaeo?e/i? iiaeae? iac?o/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
aiae?co aeaeo?iiieo noai c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a oai??? aeaeo?e/ieo
e?e, ai aeiaaathoue aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoaiaoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue

· a?eueo?noue aeaeo?e/ieo iiaeaeae a?ae??ciythoueny aenieith oi/i?noth
iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo i?ioean?a, aea ia aeicaieythoue a?aoiaoaaoe
?aaeuei? oaieia? ?aaeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaiaio?a, a o?ce/i? i?ioeane a
ieo iienothoueny oi?iaeueieie ai?ieneiaoe?yie, ye? neaai iia’ycai? c
o?ce/ieie i?eioeeiaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa oiiieia??th i?eeaae?a

· ?yae a?aeiieo iiaeaeae oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeinoaoiuei aaeeeith
e?euee?noth ia?aiao??a oa niaoe?aeueiith iaoiaeeeith ?o aecia/aiiy, yea
aeiaaa? i?iaaaeaiiy neeaaeieo, o?eaaeeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei??thaaiue
ia?aiao??a ia?o?e aeine?aeieo c?ace?a

· oaieia? iiaeae? o aeaeyae? aaaaoioa?iaeo nenoai ??cii??aeieo aeaiaio?a
aeicaieythoue c aenieith oi/i?noth iiaeaethaaoe oaieia? i?ioeane a
neeaaeieo no?oeoo?ao, aea ia a?aeaeaathoue ?o aieea ia aeaeo?e/i?
i?ioeane ? ia iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey iiaoaeiae iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae aeaeo?iiieo noai.

Oiio, ?ic?iaea i?eaeaoieo aeey aeei?enoaiiy a no/anieo NAI? ooi/iaieo
eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA, ye? aeicaieythoue c
?iaeaia?iith oi/i?noth a?aooaaoe aca?iiiia’ycaiee oa?aeoa? i?io?eaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a, a oaeiae iaoiaeeee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?o
ia?aiao??a, ui aaco?oueny ia ?ic?aooieiaiio niinia?, ? aeooaeueiith
caaea/ath.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeiia?aea? ieaiai i??i?eoaoiiai iai?yieo
aaeocaai? i?ia?aie “Ia?niaeoeai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, i?eeaaee
eiiieaenii? aaoiiaoecaoe??, nenoaie ca’yceo”, ui i?iaiaeyoueny ia
eaoaae?? “Eiino?othaaiiy oa ae?iaieoeoai ?aae?iaia?aoo?e” Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a
?ic?iaoe? eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace i?e?iaeaeo?iiii?
aia?aoo?e ? iaoiaeeee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?o ia?aiao??a aeey ?icoe?aiiy
iaoaiaoe/iiai oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy NAI? ? i?aeaeuaiiy ia oe?e
iniia? oi/iino? iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a a IAA ia
?aii?o aoaiao i?iaeooaaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ?iaioe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

· ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace
IAA, yea aeicaieeoue iiaoaeoaaoe eiiieaenio o?ceei-oiiieia?/io iiaeaeue
aeaiaioa, ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?? ia?aiao??a oa
ia?aa??eoe oi/i?noue ? aaeaeaaoi?noue iiaeae? oa iaoiaeeee;

· ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaeni? o?ceei-oiiieia?/i? iiaeae? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaiai
aei?inooaaeueiiai ae?iaeo, a?iiey?iiai oa IAeI-o?aicenoi??a,
iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a, ye? ?icoe?youe ?nioth/a iaoaiaoe/ia
caaacia/aiiy NAI? oa aeicaieyoue i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue iiaeaethaaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a a IAA;

· ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae
aeaiaio?a, ui aaco?oueny ia ?ic?aooieiaiio niinia? c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeinooiieo ao?aeieo aeaieo, ye? i?noyoueny o
eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/i?e aeieoiaioaoe?? oa oaoi?/ieo oiiaao ia
aeaiaioe;

· ?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iee eiiieaen ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aiao??a
eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA, ca?aeii c aeiiaaie aei
no/anieo i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a;

· ?ic?iaeoe i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy canoinoaaiiy
eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace oa i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iiai eiiieaeno
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae i?e aaoiiaoeciaaiiio i?iaeooaaii?
IAA.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. A i?ioean? ??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/
canoiniaoaaeeny i?eioeeie nenoaiiiai aiae?co, iaoiaee aiae?co
aeaeo?iiieo noai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy, oai??? a?ao?a, oai???
oaieiianiiai?io, aia?ao ? iaoiaee ?ioa?aaeueii? iaoaiaoeee, i?eeeaaeiiai
oa nenoaiiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy, aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

· aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii i?ea?iaeueio iaoiaeeeo ?ic?iaee eiiieaenieo
iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA, yea ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiieo aeicaiey?
aeeiiaoe ?ic?iaeo iiaeae? aeaiaioa c a?aooaaiiyi eiiieaeniiai oa?aeoa?o
i?io?eaiiy aca?iiiia’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo oa oaieiaeo i?ioean?a;

· ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaeni? o?ceei-oiiieia?/i? iiaeae? aei?inooaaeueiiai
ae?iaeo, a?iiey?iiai oa IAeI-o?aicenoi??a, iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a,
ye? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?nioth/eo nooiaiai a?aooaaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo
o?ce/ieo aoaeo?a oa caeaaeiinoae ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae a?ae ??cieoe?
aeaeo?e/ieo iioaioe?ae?a ? oaiia?aoo?e;

· ?ic?iaeaii ?ic?aooieiao iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a eiiieaenieo
iiaeaeae, yea aeicaiey? i?iaanoe ?ic?aooiie ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a
iiaeaeae c aeei?enoaiiyi aaiiao?e/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo, aeaeo?io?ce/ieo
ia?aiao??a iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo? oa aeaieo oaoi?/ieo oiia, ye
ao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

· aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii oa iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ioa?aaeueii? iaoaiaoeee aeey io?eiaiiy aeiioneiaeo
cia/aiue ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae;

· ?ic?iaeaii no?oeoo?o i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iiai eiiieaeno ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
ia?aiao??a eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae, yeee ? nooo?aei ?icoe?aiiyi ?nioth/iai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy NAI?, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
eiiieaeniiai iiaeaethaaiiy aca?iiiia’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo oa oaieiaeo
i?ioean?a a IAA.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

· ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a, yea
iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue a i?aeoeoe? ?iaeaia?iiai i?iaeooaaiiy aeey
iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a oa ?ioaa?aeueieo
i?e?inoai;

· ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaeni? o?ceei-oiiieia?/i? iiaeae? aeaiaioii? aace IAA,
ye? aeicaieythoue i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo ?
oaieiaeo i?ioean?a i?e aaoiiaoeciaaiiio i?iaeooaaii? IAA;

· cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaenieo
iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA, ui ooai?th? iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeey
?ic?iaee i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iiai eiiieaeno ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aiao??a
iiaeaeae (IIE? II);

· ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/ia, e?iaa?noe/ia oa i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae oa IIE? II
i?e aaoiiaoeciaaiiio i?iaeooaaii? IAA.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii??cueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaii a
i?aeoeeo ?iaeaia?iiai i?iaeooaaiiy EA “?ne?a”, IAI «OA?O?II-NIA?E», a
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a io?eiaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoaoao iieyaa? a
oiio, ui an? iieiaeaiiy, ye? noaiiaeyoue nooue aeena?oaoe??, aoee
noi?ioeueiaai? oa ae??oai? naiino?eii. O ioae?eaoe?yo, ye? iaienai? o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, caeiaoaa/o iaeaaeeoue 1- ?ic?iaea a?ae?ioaee
?ioa?aaeueieo iia?aoe?e ? ooieoe?e aeey ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a
eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a; 2-?ic?iaea no?oeoo?e oa iieno
eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a; 3- ?ic?iaea
aeai?eoio iaoiaeeee noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae oa ci?noo iniiaieo ??
aoai?a; 4- ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a eiiieaenii? iiaeae?
a?iiey?iiai o?aicenoi?o; 5- ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a
eiiieaenii? iiaeae? aei?inooaaeueiiai ae?iaeo; 6- ?ic?iaea
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei canoinoaaiiy ia aoai? noaiioaoi?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy
IAA iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace, ye? iaea?eueo iiaii a?aeia?aaeathoue
o?ce/i? i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa no?oeoo?o i?eeaae?a; 7- ?ic?iaea
ocaaaeueiaii? eiiieaenii? iiaeae? aeaiaioa; 8- i?aeo?ae aei ?ic?iaee
?ic?aooieiai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae
aeaiaioii? aace IAA ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeaieo oaoi?/ieo oiia oa
eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??; 11- iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii?
aace oa iaoiaeee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?o ia?aiao??a i?e aaoiiaoeciaaiiio
i?iaeooaaii? IAA; 12- ?ic?iaea ?ioa?aaeueieo iia?aoe?e oa ooieoe?e, ui
iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoeny aeey ?ic?aooie?a ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae aeaiaioii?
aace IAA.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoeiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea e iaania/aiea
iaaeaaeiinoe yeaeo?iiiuo ono?ienoa» (1993?.,Aa?aeyinuee); i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani? i?iaeaie aaoiiaoeciaaii?
?ic?iaee ? ae?iaieoeoaa ?aae?iaeaeo?iiieo cania?a oa i?aeaioiaee
?iaeaia?ieo eaae??a” (1994?.,1996?.,Euea?a); iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeina?ae ?ic?iaee ? canoinoaaiiy i?eeaaei-oaoiieia?/ieo
NAI? a i?e?iaeaeo?ii?oe?” (1995?.,1997?.,Euea?a); iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu ea/anoaa iao/aiey e iao/aiey
ea/anoao” (1997?.,Oa?e?a); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“No/ani? i?iaeaie cania?a oaeaeiioi?eaoe??, eiii’thoa?ii? ?iaeaia??? oa
i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a”(1998 ?., Euea?a).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iioae?eiaaii a 13 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo (3 iaienai? aac ni?aaaoi??a), c
ieo 3 — a oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ui aeeeaaeai? ia 154 noi??ieao (120
noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (117
iaeiaioaaiue) oa 5 aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa i?noeoue 20 ?enoie?a oa 13
oaaeeoeue.

CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? aeeeaaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaaii
aeooaeuei?noue oa aaaeeea?noue ieoaiue, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aecia/aii iaoo oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno oa
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e iineoue iaeyaeiaee oa?aeoa? ? i?enay/aiee aiae?co
iniaeeainoae no/aniiai i?ioeano aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy
i?e?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e, i?ia?aiiiai, iaoaiaoe/iiai oa
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy NAI?.

A?aecia/aii, ui iniaeea?noth i?iaeoiaaii? ia iniia?
a?a?eaeii-?ioaa?aeueieo iiaeoe?a oa i?e?icai?ie IAA, ? aeniea
eiino?oeoeaia oa ooieoe?iiaeueia neeaaei?noue, aei?noe? oaiia?aoo?i?
oiiae aenieoaoaoe??, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iei ae?aiaciiii ci?ie
oaiia?aoo?e iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (a?ae –60 aei +65°N). Aenieee
nooi?iue ?ioaa?aoe?? aeaiaio?a a IAI ? a aia?aoo?? a oe?eiio ni?e/eiy?
iiyao i?e ooieoe?iioaaii? IAA cia/ieo oaieiaeo iioie?a. Oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth ? cia/ia oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue ia?aiao??a aeaiaioii?
aace, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e i?iaeooaaii? IAA, a oaeiae
iaiaeii??aei?noue oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey eiino?oeoe??. O ca’yceo c oeei,
cia/ii i?aeaeuothoueny aeiiae aei aaeaeaaoiino? iiaeaethaaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a, ui ni?eueii i?io?eathoue a IAI, a
oaeiae aei oi/iino? ?ic?aooie?a, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny ia ?aii?o aoaiao
i?iaeooaaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaoiiiiia aeei?enoaiiy ?nioth/eo NAI? ia aoaiao
noaiioaoi?/iiai ? eiino?oeoi?nueeiai i?iaeooaaiiy IAA ia aeicaiey?
io?eiaoe caaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe, aiane?aeie /iai c?inoathoue oa?i?ie
i?iaeooaaiiy oa aeo?aoe ia aei?iaeo aia?aoo?e. Oea coiiaeaii iaiaaeaieie
ooieoe?iiaeueieie iiaeeeainoyie i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy c oi/ee ci?o
a?aooaaiiy aca?iiiia’ycaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a, ui
ni?eueii a?aeaoaathoueny a IAI i?e eiai ooieoe?iioaaii?.

Aeeiiaii aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
no/anieo NAI? IAA. Iieacaii, ui oi/i?noue iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy,
ia/enethaaeuei? aeo?aoe oa aaeaeaaoi?noue iiaeaethaaiiy o?ce/ieo
i?ioean?a a noaiao ? eiino?oeoe?yo IAA aecia/athoueny iaoaiaoe/ieie
iiaeaeyie iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a oa ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai, a
oaeiae cia/aiiyie ?o ia?aiao??a. Oiio, aeooaeueiith ? caaea/a ?ic?iaee
eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA, ye? aeicaieyoue iaea?eueo
iiaii o?aooaaoe o?ce/i? i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy, no?oeoo?o, oiiieia?th
aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae aca?iiiia’ycai? aeaeo?e/iee oa oaieiaee ?aaeeie ?o
?iaioe.

A?aecia/aii, ui o?aaeeoe?ei? iaoiaeeee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aiao??a
iiaeaeae aacothoueny ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei??thaaiiyo aai ?ic?aooieao
ca aeaieie oaoi?/ieo oiia (OO) ia aeaiaioe. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaeeee
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith o?oaeii?noe?noth, neeaaei?noth, o?eaae?noth,
cia/ieie iioeaeaie aei??thaaiue iniiaieo ia?aiao??a, iaiao?aei?noth o
aei??thaaeueieo eiiieaenao. ?ic?aooiee ca aeaieie OO cacae/ae iia’ycai?
c ona?aaeiaiiyi aeaieo, aeai?ii aeia?eueieo cia/aiue c aeacaieo
?ioa?aae?a aai a?aenooi?noth iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Oiio, ?ic?iaea
?ic?aooieiai? iaoiaeeee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae, ui
aeicaiey? c aeinoaoiueith oi/i?noth aecia/eoe iaiao?aei? ia?aiao?e ?
aeiionee ia ieo, ? aeooaeueiith caaea/ath.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aca?iiiia’ycaieo o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a aeaiaioi?e aac? IAA, ui aeicaieeei aecia/eoe o?ce/i?
aoaeoe, caeaaeiino? ia?aiao??a a?ae ?aaeeio (??cieoe? aeaeo?e/ieo
iioaioe?ae?a, oaiia?aoo?e), ye? iaiao?aeii o?aooaaoe a iiaeaeyo
aeaiaioii? aace i?e ?o ?ic?iaoe?.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaee iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee oa canoinoaaiiy
a ?nioth/eo NAI? IAA eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace ? iaoiaeee
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?o ia?aiao??a, caniiaaieo ia ?ic?aooieiaiio niinia?, c
aeei?enoaiiyi aeinooiii? aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui i?noeoueny a
eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/i?e aeieoiaioaoe?? (EOAe), oaoi?/ieo oiiaao
ia aeaiaioe oa a aeia?aeeia?e e?oa?aoo??.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? eiiieaenieo o?ceei-oiiieia?/ieo
iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA ? iaoiaeeee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?o ia?aiao??a.

Aeiiae aei eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA aeo?eathoue c
iaaeie?e?a iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a no/anieo NAI?
IAA ? iaoiaeee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?o ia?aiao??a, a oaeiae ?c nooiino? oa
iniaeeainoae canoinoaaiiy iiaeaeae aeey eiiieaeniiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a a aia?aoo??, yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny.
Aiie iiaeooue aooe noi?ioeueiaai? ianooiiei /eiii:

— iiaeae? iathoue aooe aaeaeaaoi? ia’?eoo iiaeaethaaiiy, c aeinoaoiueith
oi/i?noth a?aeia?aaeaoe o?ce/i? i?ioeane a i?eeaae?;

— iiaeae? iathoue a?aeaeaaoe aca?iiee aieea aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo
i?ioean?a, ui ni?eueii i?io?eathoue a i?eeaae?, aeicaieyoe
i?iaiae?coaaoe ?iaioo aeaiaioo c o?aooaaiiyi eiai ?aaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e;

— ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae ia? cae?enithaaoenue
?ic?aooieiaei niiniaii, c aeei?enoaiiyi aeinooiii? ao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

— iaoiaeeea ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia? caaacia/oaaoe ?ic?aooiie aeiioneiaeo
cia/aiue ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae;

— iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae ia? eaaei i?ia?aiii
?aae?ciaoaaoeny.

Aiae?c iniaeeainoae iiaeaethaaiiy IAA, a oaeiae aeiia aei eiiieaenieo
iiaeaeae aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaea?eueo iiaii o?aooaaoe
o?ce/i? i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy, no?oeoo?o, oiiieia?th, a oaeiae
o?niee aca?iiee aieea aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a aeicaieythoue
eiiieaeni? o?ceei-oiiieia?/i? iiaeae? aeaiaioii? aace (EOOI). Oea
iiaeae? o aeaeyae? aea?aaeaioii? canooiii? noaie, a?oee yei?
a?aeaeaathoue oeyoe ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iioieiaeo ci?iieo c o?aooaaiiyi
?aeaae?caoe?? o?ce/iiai i?ioeano, aocee iiaeae? a?aeiia?aeathoue
iiaa?oiyi, ia’?iai, aai /anoeiai ia’?i?a, a ia?aeii? ia?aiao?e
aecia/athoueny o?ceei-oiiieia?/ieie oa o?ceei-oaoiieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? no?oeoo?e. Iiaeae? iiaeooue aooe i?aaenoaaeai? o
aeaeyae? aeaio neeaaeiaeo /anoei — iiaeae? aeaeo?e/ieo (AI) oa iiaeae?
oaieiaeo i?ioean?a (OI) (?en.1). Aca?iica’ycie i?ae neeaaeiaeie
/anoeiaie eiiieaenii? iiaeae? cae?enith?oueny /a?ac caeaaeiino?
ia?aiao??a eiiiiiaio?a a?ae ci?iieo iiaeae? — ??cieoe? aeaeo?e/ieo
iioaioe?ae?a, oaiia?aoo?e (oaae.1).

I?eioeeie ia’?aeiaiiy aeaio oiiieia?/ieo iiaeaeae a?aeia?aaeathoue
?aaeueiee aca?iiee ca’ycie i?ae aeaeo?e/ieie oa oaieiaeie i?ioeanaie o
i?eeaaeao ? iiaeooue aooe caaaeai? aei ianooiiiai:

— aeaea?aei oaieiaiai iioieo a oaieia?e iiaeae?, yea iiaeaeth?
oaieiaeae?eaiiy a aeaiaio?, i?aaenoaaey?oueny ye caeaaeia aeaea?aei,
ea?iaaia iioaioe?eieie ci?iieie a?oie aeaeo?e/ii? iiaeae?;

— cai?ioiee ca’ycie i?ae aeaeo?e/iith oa oaieiaith iiaeaeeth
anoaiiaeth?oueny oeyoii aaaaeaiiy a AI caeaaeiinoae aioo??oi?o
ia?aiao??a eiiiiiaio?a a?ae oaiia?aoo?iiai iioaioe?aeo aeoeaii? ciie OI,
i?e/iio aioo??oi?e ia?aiao? a?oee AI a?aeiia?aea? o?ce/iiio ia?aiao?o
aeaiaioa, a aeaeyae oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? aeei?enoiao?oueny
a?aeiiee.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Caeaaeiino? aioo??oi?o ia?aiao??a eiiiiiaio?a a?ae ci?iieo iiaeaeae.

Aeaeyae Iiaeaeue oa ??
ia?aiao?ecaeaaeiino?Iiaeaeue ae?iaeaIiaeaeue a?iiey?iiai
o?aicenoi?aIiaeaeue

IAeI-o?aicenoi?aIiaeaeue

iia?aoe?eiiai

i?aeneethaa/af (O)IS, kIOA, IOE, mOA, mOES, FAO,UCI, Of (U)RA,

PRA, Pp-nI, N, I, PIE-A,

PIA-A, PRA, PRE, PRACCN, CCA, PRCA, PRCN, PRAI, PRNI, PNA?1, ?2, ?3f
(O,U)CA, CAeCAIA, CAIE, NCAI, CNI,

Aeey noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo
?ic?iaee iiaeaeae, yea ia’?aeio? iniiai? aoaie iiaoaeiae iiaeae?: aea??
no?oeoo?e iiaeae? ? ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeey iieno ?? a?oie; ?ic?iaeo
iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ?? ia?aiao??a; ia?aa??eo oi/iino? ? aaeaeaaoiino?
iiaeae? oa iaoiaeeee. Iaoiaeeea iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey noai?aiiy
iiaeaeae iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a oa ?IN.

?ic?iaeaii eiiieaeni? o?ceei-oiiieia?/i? iiaeae? aei?inooaaeueiiai
ae?iaea, a?iiey?iiai oa IAeI-o?aicenoi??a, iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a,
ye? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?nioth/eo nooiaiai o?aooaaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo
o?ce/ieo aoaeo?a ? caeaaeiinoae ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae a?ae
aca?iiiia’ycaieo aeaeo?e/iiai oa oaieiaiai ?aaeei?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?eeaaeo. Iien iiaeaeae iaaaaeaii a ianooii?e iine?aeiaiino?:

— ianeai? eiiiiiaioe iiaeae? – ia?aiao?e e?i?eieo ? iae?i?eieo
eiiiiiaio?a, iioieia? ci?ii? iae?i?eieo eiiiiiaio?a;

— aeoeai? eiiiiiaioe iiaeae? – iioieia? ? iioaioe?ei? aieeae caeaaeieo
oa iacaeaaeieo aeaea?ae, eiao?oe??ioe ea?oaaiiy caeaaeieo aeaea?ae ?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey iioaioe?eieo aieea?a iacaeaaeieo aeaea?ae;

— a?aeiia?aeii aei iieno ianeaieo ? aeoeaieo eiiiiiaio?a aeae?eaii
aaeoi? aioo??oi?o ia?aiao??a eiiiiiaio?a iiaeae?;

— iaaaaeaii aiae?oe/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey caeaaeiinoae aioo??oi?o
ia?aiao??a eiiiiiaio?a iiaeae? a?ae ci?iieo iiaeae? (??cieoe?
aeaeo?e/ieo iioaioe?ae?a, oaiia?aoo?e);

— c o?aooaaiiyi ia?aiao??a iaaaaeaieo caeaaeiinoae aeae?eaii aaeoi?
ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a EOOI.

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae a aaeoc? oai??? ? i?aeoeee i?iaeooaaiiy
eiino?oeoe?e oa oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy III oa ?IN na?ae/eoue, ui
iaeiie/aiee aeina?ae oa ?nioth/? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo
eiino?oeoeaieo, oaieiaeo, aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a no?oeoo? iiaeooue c
oni?oii aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e aecia/aii? ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a
?ic?iaeaieo EOOI aeaiaioii? aace IAA. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeey ?ic?iaee
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae iaiao?aeii aeeiiaoe ianooiia:

— aecia/eoe ao?aei? aeai? aeey ?ic?aooieo (aaiiao?e/i?, aeaeo?io?ce/i?,
oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e no?oeoo?e oa aeai? OO ia aeaiaio);

— aea?aoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ye? aeicaieythoue c aeinoaoiueith oi/i?noth
?ic?aooaaoe ooeai? ia?aiao?e;

— aecia/eoe iine?aeiai?noue ?ic?aooieo;

— aeeiiaoe ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a eiie?aoieo
oeiiiii?iae?a.

Aacoth/enue ia aeeeaaeaiiio i?aeoiae?, ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy
ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae aei?inooaaeueiiai ae?iaea, a?iiey?iiai oa
IAeI-o?aicenoi??a, iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a.

Iieacaii, ui caaea/a ?ic?aooieo aeiioneiaeo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a EOOI ia
iniia? cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaeee iiaea aooe ae??oaia ca aeiiiiiaith
?ioa?aaeueii? iaoaiaoeee. Iaiao?aei?noue ?ioa?aaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a
iaoiiaeaia oei, ui aeai? EOAe oa OO ia aeaiaioe /anoi iaaiaeyoueny o
aeiionoeieo ?ioa?aaeao. Aeioe?euei?noue io?eiaiiy aeiioneiaeo cia/aiue
ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae iaoiiaeaia ?o aeei?enoaiiyi i?e aiae?c? iieaciee?a
iaae?eiino? oa yeino? aiaeiaiaeo IAI.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae aoaeoeaia ?
aeicaiey? oieeiooe i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?o?e
aeine?aeieo c?ace?a, ui ?noioii cieaeo? o?oaeii?noe?noue ? aa?o?noue
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iiai eiiieaeno
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aiao??a eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA
(IIE? II).

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeey ?ic?iaee IIE? II ooai?ththoue cai?iiiiiaai?
iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae
aeaiaio?a.

Iieacaii, ui i?ia?aiiee eiiieaen, c oi/ee ci?o eiai i?ecia/aiiy,
i?aai?caoe?? i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy oa iniaeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy o
aca?iiae?? c ?nioth/ith i?aenenoaiith aaoiiaoeciaaiiai noaiioaoi?/iiai
i?iaeooaaiiy IAAN-I, ia?:

— caaacia/oaaoe ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae;

— iaoe aio/eo no?oeoo?o, ui aeicaiey? aeiiiaithaaoe eiiieaen ?ioeie
ooieoe?iiaeueieie iiaeoeyie ? aeieaie, ye? a ?icoe?thaaee eiai
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino?;

— caaacia/oaaoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy ye a aaoiiiiiiio ?aaeei?, oae ? o
aca?iiae?? c ?ioeie NAI?(iai?eeeaae, IAAN-I);

— aaaaeaiiy ao?aeieo aeaieo ia? cae?enithaaoenue a i?inoiio, c?o/iiio
aeey ei?enooaa/a aeaeyae?;

— caa??aaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th a AAe, caaacia/oaaoe ?? aaaaeaiiy,
ei?aeooaaiiy, ooieoe?? aenii?oo a AAe ?ioeo NAI?;

— caaacia/oaaoe iiaeeea?noue i?aaenoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe IIE? II
o no/aniiio oaenoiaiio oa a?ao?/iiio aeaeyae?.

C a?aooaaiiyi aeacaieo aeiia ?ic?iaeaii no?oeoo?io noaio IIE? II.
No?oeoo?ia ?icaeooy aeeiiaii o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iniiaieo caaea/, ui
ae??oothoueny i?ia?aiiei eiiieaenii. Ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy aeie?a
IIE? II ianooiia.

Iii?oi? eiiieaeno cae?enith? eii?aeeiiaaio aca?iiae?th ooieoe?iiaeueieo
aeie?a oa i?ia?aiieo iiaeoe?a a i?ioean? ?iaioe.

Aeie aaaaeaiiy ao?aeieo aeaieo caaacia/o? aaaaeaiiy (ei?aeooaaiiy)
ao?aeieo aeaieo oa iia?aoe?? iiia?aaeiuei? ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??.

Aeie ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae i?ecia/aiee aeey ?ic?aooieo
ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a iiaeae? caaeaiiai aeaiaioo c aeei?enoaiiyi ao?aeieo
aeaieo ii oeueiio aeaiaioo, ui caa??aathoueny a AAe.

Aeie ?iaioe c aacith aeaieo i?ecia/aiee aeey aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e iaae
?ioi?iaoe??th, ui i?noeoueny a AAe.

Aeie ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeaieo AAe i?ecia/aiee aeey ocaaaeueiaiiy oa
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui i?noeoueny a AAe IIE? II o no/aniiio
oaenoiaiio oa a?ao?/iiio aeaeyae?.

Aeie aca?iiae?? IIE? II c i?aenenoaiith IAAN-I caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy
oaeeo, ui i?noeoue nienie ia?aiao??a iiaeae? aeaiaioa eiie?aoiiai
oeiiiii?iaeo o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei aecia/aii? no?oeoo?e oa aeiia
ao?aeii? iiae IAAN-I.

Cai?iiiiiaaia a?o?oaeoo?a eiiieaeno aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaio oa
iaae?eio ?iaioo an?o aeie?a, ui aoiaeyoue a IIE? II, a oaeiae eiio?ieue
ei?aeoiino? aeaieo ia eiaeiiio aoai? ?iaioe. I?e oeueiio eiiieaen
caeeoa?oueny i?inoei a aeei?enoaii? ? a?aeiia?aea? an?i aeiiaai.

sse ?ino?oiaioaeueiee can?a aeey ?ic?iaee aea?aii Borland Delphi V2.0,
yeee aeicaiey? iaea?eueo iiaii ?aae?coaaoe aeiiae aei IIE? II oa
caaacia/o? ia’?eoii-i???ioiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei ?ic?iaee i?ia?ai c
aeei?enoaiiyi oaeeo ooieoe?e ye iane?aeoaaiiy, ?ieainoeyoe?y,
iie?oi?i?ci, ui cia/ii ni?iuo? ?ic?iaeo, a?aeeaaeeo ?, iniaeeai,
iiaeaeueoo iiaea?i?caoe?th oa aeiiiaiaiiy i?ia?ai.

?ic?iaeaii c?o/iee no/aniee a?ao?/iee ?ioa?oaen i?ia?aie, yeee aeicaiey?
ei?enooaa/o cina?aaeeoeny ia ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo caaea/ oa aiae?c?
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ioa?oaen i?ia?aie i?noeoue noaiaea?oi? aeaiaioe
ea?oaaiiy, ui iaaeathoueny Delphi (eiiiiiaioe): aaaaoi??aiaa? iaith,
?iai/? oa ae?aeiaia? a?eia, iaiae? ?ino?oiaio?a, eiiiee, oaenoia? iiey,
a?ao?/i? ia’?eoe oa ?io?. E??i oiai, ?ic?iaeaii aeaiaioe, ye? aeiiiaiaii
niaoeeo?/ieie aeanoeainoyie. ?ioa?aeoeaia a?ao?/ia na?aaeiaeua
iiaoaeiaaii c aeei?enoaiiyi i?eioeeio aaaaoia?eiiiiai ?ioa?oaeno, eiee
eiaeia a?eii a i?ia?ai? iaeaaeeoue ie?aiiio aeieo oa iaaea? ei?enooaa/o
na?e iaa?? ooieoe?e.

?ic?iaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy IIE? II aeey eiiiaeoiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiiy aeaieo oa c?o/ii? ?iaioe c ieie, a oaeiae e?iaa?noe/ia
caaacia/aiiy i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno, yea aeicaiey? aoaeoeaii
?aae?ciaoaaoe ooieoe?? ii ia?aoai?aiith aeaieo aei oi?iaoo ao?aeieo
oaee?a i?aenenoaie IAAN-I.

?ic?iaeaiee IIE? II aeicaiey? aoaeoeaii oa oi/ii ?ic?aooaaoe iaiao?aei?
ia?aiao?e iiaeaeae oa ? nooo?aei ?icoe?aiiyi ?nioth/iai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy no/anieo NAI?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy canoinoaaiiy EOOI aeaiaioii? aace oa IIE? II i?e
aaoiiaoeciaaiiio i?iaeooaaii? IAA.

C iaoith iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy EOOI aeaiaioii? aace i?e
aaoiiaoeciaaiiio i?iaeooaaii? IAA, iiaeae? aoei aaoaeiaaii o a?aeiio
a?o/eciyio i?aenenoaio noaiioaoi?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy IAAN-I, ui
?iciianthaeaeaia o aaeoc?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui no?oeoo?i? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? i?aenenoaie
aeicaieythoue aaaaeaoe ?? aeineoue c?o/iith ? aoaeoeaiith aeey
iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?iiieo noai c aeei?enoaiiyi EOOI aeaiaioii? aace IAA.
Aieiaiith ia?aaaaith IAAN-I ? iayai?noue a?aee?eoi? a?ae?ioaee iiaeaeae
aeaiaio?a (AIA) oa a?ae?ioaee ia?aiao??a (AIIA), ui aeicaiey?
iiiiaithaaoe ?o iiaeie iiaeaeyie aac ci?ie aeai?eoio ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?aenenoaie.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy ii canoinoaaiith eiiieaenieo
iiaeaeae, yea aeicaiey? aeeiiaoe:

— iien EOOI iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a oa ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai ia
ao?aei?e iia? IAAN-I, caianaiiy ?o a a?ae?ioaeo iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a;

— ?ic?iaeo oi?o?ai-i?aei?ia?ai e?i?eieo oa iae?i?eieo ooieoe?e, ui
iienothoue a?oee iiaeaeae, caianaiiy ?o a a?ae?ioaeo iae?i?eieo ooieoe?e
(AIO);

— ia?aaea/o ?ic?aoiaaieo IIE? II ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a iiaeae? aeaiaioa
eiie?aoiiai oeiiiii?iaeo a a?ae?ioaeo ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a
IAAN-I aeey aeei?enoaiiy i?aenenoaiith i?e ?ic?aooieo iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae noai, ui i?noyoue aaoaeiaai? EOOI aeaiaioii? aace IAA.

I?aeoe/ii ?aae?ciaaii aaoaeoaaiiy a i?aenenoaio ?ic?iaeaieo eiiieaenieo
iiaeaeae aei?inooaaeueiiai ae?iaeo, a?iiey?iiai oa IAeI-o?aicenoi??a,
iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a. Aeeiiaii ia?aa??eo oi/iino? ? aaeaeaaoiino?
iiaeaeae oeyoii iiaeaethaaiiy niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaieo oanoiaeo noai.
Io?eiaii aeai? aeey iiaeaeae i?eeaae?a eiie?aoieo oeiiiii?iae?a, ye?
aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c aeaieie OO, oiio ?acoeueoaoe aeciaii
caaeia?eueieie, a ?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? oa ia?aiao?e caianaii aei a?ae?ioae
i?aenenoaie.

Aaoaeoaaiiy a i?aenenoaio IAAN-I ?ic?iaeaieo EOOI aeaiaioii? aace IAA
aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue aeaiiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy oa
?icoe?eoe eiai ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino?: oaia? a ?acoeueoao?
?ic?aooieo ? iiaeeea?noue aiaeii/an iaea?aeaoe aeaeo?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
? oaieia? ia?aiao?e (oaiia?aoo?e aeoeaieo cii aeaiaio?a) c o?aooaaiiyi
aca?iiiia’ycaieo aeaeo?e/iiai ? oaieiaiai ?aaeei?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy IAI,
ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe a IAI
“OA?O?II-NIA?E”.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy oi/iino? iiaeaethaaiiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o IAI aoei
aeeiiaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee oanoiai?
i?e?icai?ee. I?ae /an i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue cae?enithaaeeny
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aei??thaaiiy oa aeeiioaaany aiae?c ?aaeeiieo ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee oanoiaiai aocea ca aeiiiiiaith
i?aenenoaie IAAN-I. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aee
aei??thaaiiy ia?aiao??a oa oa?aeoa?enoee ia aei??thaaeueiiio
iaeaaeiaii?, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a EA “?ne?a”. Iiaeaethaaiiy onoaeaieo
?aaeei?a oanoiaiai aocea i?iaiaeeeiny c o?aooaaiiyi cia/aiue iai?oa
aeeaeaiiy ? caaeaii? ?iai/i? oaiia?aoo?e.

?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa ?ic?aoiaaieo
cia/aiue aeiaaee, ui iaeneiaeueia iioeaea ii ?ic?aooieo aeaeo?e/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee neeaaea? 3,6%, i?e oeueiio io?eiaii ianooii? cia/aiiy
ioe?iee iaoaiaoe/iiai i/?eoaaiiy ? iaci?uaii? ioe?iee aeenia?n?? iioeaee
iiaeaethaaiiy m()=1,24%, ()=1,9%. Iaeneiaeueia a?aeoeeaiiy i?ae A*O,
iaea?aeaieie aenia?eiaioaeueii ? oeyoii ?ic?aooieo neeaei 7%.

Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i aeinoaoiuei aenieo oi/i?noue iiaeaethaaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a a IAI c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaieo
eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae. Oea aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ?ia?o ia
?aii?o aoaiao i?iaeooaaiiy, cieceoe oa?i?ie ?ic?iaee oa aeo?aoe ia
aei?iaeo ae?ia?a, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
?iaioe a i?aeoeeo ?iaeaia?iiai i?iaeooaaiiy EA “?ne?a”.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean i?aeaioiaee
?iaeaia??a ca niaoe?aeueiinoyie “Ae?iaieoeoai aeaeo?iiieo cania?a”,
“I?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai” a Caii??cueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue
i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a a ieai? i?aai?caoe?? no/aniiai i?ioeano
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy IAA ca e?eoa??yie nei?i/aiiy oa?i?i?a
i?iaeooaaiiy, a oaeiae caaacia/aiiy yeino? oa iaae?eiino? i?iaeoiaaii?
aia?aoo?e, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
aeuiai o/aiaiai caeeaaeo.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE

Iaea?eueo nooo?a? oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio:

1.Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaei??th c iaea?eueo nooo?aeo i?iaeai, ye? aeieeathoue
i?e aaoiiaoeciaaiiio i?iaeooaaii? IAA ia iniia? a?a?eaeii-?ioaa?aeueieo
iiaeoe?a oa i?e?ica??ie ? iaaaeaeaaoia iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo ?
oaieiaeo i?ioean?a, ye? noi?nii a?aeaoaathoueny a aia?aoo??. Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy oa?i?i?a i?iaeooaaiiy ? aeaioiaeaiiy IAI,
aeo?ao ia ?o aei?iaeo, cieaeaiiy yeino? i?iaeoiaaieo i?eeaae?a oa
coiiaeaia ?yaeii aniaeo?a:

— iaaeie?eaie i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy, yea ia aeicaiey? a aeinoaoi?e
i??? a?aooaaoe o?niee aca?iiee aieea aeaeo?e/ieo oa oaieiaeo i?ioean?a,
ui i?io?eathoue a aia?aoo??, ?aaeuei? ?aaeeie ?iaioe aeaiaio?a noaie,
ye? iaoiiaeai? nooo?aith oaiia?aoo?iith caeaaei?noth ia?aiao??a
aeaiaioii? aace, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny, a oaeiae ia?aa??aaie aeoeaieo
cii aeaiaio?a;

— iaaeie?eaie ?nioth/eo iiaeaeae iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a oa
?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai, ye? iaoiiaeai? /anoeiaei a?aooaaiiyi
caeaaeiinoae ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae a?ae ?aaeeio (??cieoe? aeaeo?e/ieo
iioaioe?ae?a, oaiia?aoo?e), a oaeiae iaiae?eii aeayeeo aaaeeeaeo
o?ce/ieo aoaeo?a;

— iaaoaeoeai?noth canoinoaaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiaeee ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae, aiane?aeie aeniei? o?oaeii?noeino?, o?eaaeino?,
neeaaeiino?, iioeaie aei??thaaiue, iaiao?aeiino? a aei??thaaeueieo
eiiieaenao, a oaeiae /a?ac a?aenooi?noue aeiaaa?ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a
oaoi?/ieo oiiaao ia aeaiaioe.

2.?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a, yea
iiaea aooe canoiniaaia aeey iiaoaeoaaiiy iiaeaeae iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
i?eeaae?a oa ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai, aeicaiey? aeeiiaoe aea?? aeo?aeii?
iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ? ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeey iieno ?? a?oie, ?ic?iaeoe
iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a iiaeae?, ia?aa??eoe oi/i?noue oa
aaeaeaaoi?noue iiaeae? ? iaoiaeeee.

3.?ic?iaeaii eiiieaeni? o?ceei-oiiieia?/i? iiaeae? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaiai
aei?inooaaeueiiai ae?iaeo, a?iiey?iiai oa IAeI-o?aicenoi??a,
iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a, ye? aeicaieythoue iaea?eueo iiaii a?aooaaoe
o?ce/i? i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?eeaae?a, ?o no?oeoo?o ? oiiieia?th,
a oaeiae eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? i?io?eaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo oa oaieiaeo
i?ioean?a.

4.?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a
cai?iiiiiaaieo eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae, a?ae??ciyth/eie iniaeeainoyie yei?
? ?ic?aooieiaee i?aeo?ae, c aeei?enoaiiyi ye ao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??
aaiiao?e/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo oa aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a no?oeoo?e
aeaiaioa, ye? i?noyoueny a eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/i?e aeieoiaioaoe??
oa oaoi?/ieo oiiaao ia aeaiaioe, a oaeiae canoinoaaiiy ?ioa?aaeueii?
iaoaiaoeee aeey aecia/aiiy aeiioneiaeo cia/aiue ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a
iiaeaeae.

5.?ic?iaeaii no/aniee i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iee eiiieaen ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
ia?aiao??a eiiieaenieo o?ceei-oiiieia?/ieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA,
yeee ? nooo?aei ?icoe?aiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy NAI?, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey eiiieaeniiai iiaeaethaaiiy aca?iiiia’ycaieo
aeaeo?e/ieo oa oaieiaeo i?ioean?a a IAA.

6.?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aaoaeoaaiiy eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a a
i?aenenoaio IAAN-I c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoai?cio e?i?eieo oa iae?i?eieo
ooieoe?e oa neeaaeaiiy oi?o?ai-i?aei?ia?ai e?i?eieo oa iae?i?eieo
ooieoe?e aeey noai?aiiy iieno iiaeae? a aac? aeaieo iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a
IAAN-I.

7.Caaacia/aii aaoaeoaaiiy a i?aenenoaio IAAN-I iiaeaeae
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaiai aei?inooaaeueiiai ae?iaeo, a?iiey?iiai oa
IAeI-o?aicenoi??a, iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a, aeeth/ath/e oanooaaiiy
iiaeaeae oa ?o caien a a?ae?ioaee IAAN-I, ui aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy i?aenenoaie IAAN-I, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe a IAI
“OA?O?II-NIA?E”.

8.Canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace oa
IIE? II i?e aaoiiaoeciaaiiio i?iaeooaaii? IAA aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe
oi/i?noue iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a a IAA, a oea
aeicaieeoue nei?ioeoe oa?i?ie ?ic?iaee oa aeo?aoe ia aei?iaeo, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe a i?aeoeeo
?iaeaia?iiai i?iaeooaaiiy EA ”?ne?a”.

9.Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a iaa/aeueiee
i?ioean aeuiai o/aiaiai caeeaaeo aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue
niaoe?ae?no?a a ieai? i?aai?caoe?? no/aniiai i?ioeano aaoiiaoeciaaiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy i?e?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e ca e?eoa??yie nei?i/aiiy
oa?i?i?a i?iaeooaaiiy, a oaeiae caaacia/aiiy yeino? oa iaae?eiino?
i?iaeoiaaii? IAA.

IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

1. E?euoe A.I., Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Oeei A.I. Canoinoaaiiy ?ioa?aaeueiiai
aiae?co aeey ?ic?aooie?a aeiioneiaeo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae
aeaiaioii? aace IAA // Aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/i? oa aeaeo?iiaoai?/i? nenoaie.
A?niee AeO ”Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” .- ? 340.-Euea?a, 1997.- N.147-152.

2.Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Eiiiaaeue/oe A.N. Eiiieaenia iiaeaethaaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a o iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaaeao //
Eiii’thoa?i? nenoaie i?iaeooaaiiy. Oai??y ? i?aeoeea. A?niee AeO
”Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”.- ? 327.-Euea?a, 1998.- N.241-245.

3. Eiiiaaeue/oe A.N., Ia?oiiaiei A.A. ?ic?iaeaiiy iaoiaeeee
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a eiiieaenieo o?ceei-oiiieia?/ieo
iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA // Eiii’thoa?i? nenoaie i?iaeooaaiiy.
Oai??y ? i?aeoeea. A?niee AeO ”Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” .- ?
327.-Euea?a, 1998.- N.256-260.

4. Eiiiaaeue/oe A.N., Ia?oiiaiei A.A. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey iiaeaee
o?aicenoi?a ia iniiaa oeceei-oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia. -Oaoieea,
yeiiiieea. Iaaeio?aneaaie iao/ii-oaoie/aneee nai?iee, Na?ey:
”Aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey”,aui.1-2,I.: AEIE,1995.-N.37-45.

5. Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Eiiiaaeue/oe A.N. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey ia?aiao?ia
oeceei-oiiieiae/aneie iiaeaee iieoi?iaiaeieeiaiai aeeiaea // Iaoa??aee
I?aeia?iaeii? IOE, i?enay/aii? 150-??//th AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”
“No/ani? i?iaeaie aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ic?iaee ? ae?iaieoeoaa
?aae?iaeaeo?iiieo cania?a oa i?aeaioiaee ?iaeaia?ieo eaae??a” *.1.-
Euea?a,1994.- N.71-74.

6. Eiiiaaeue/oe A.N., Ia?oiiaiei A.A. I?eiaiaiea oeceei-oiiieiae/aneeo
iiaeaeae ia yoaia noaiioaoie/aneiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey iee?iyeaeo?iiiie
aiia?aoo?u // Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? IOE “No/ani? i?iaeaie
aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ic?iaee ? ae?iaieoeoaa ?aae?iaeaeo?iiieo cania?a oa
i?aeaioiaee ?iaeaia?ieo eaae??a”.- Euea?a, 1996. — N.141.

7. Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Eiiiaaeue/oe A.N. Eiiieaeniia iiaeaee?iaaiea
yeaeo?e/aneeo e oaieiauo i?ioeannia a iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?eai?ao //
Oace aeiiia?aeae 4-i? IOE “Aeina?ae ?ic?iaee oa canoinoaaiiy
i?eeaaei-oaoiieia?/ieo NAI? i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee”. -Euea?a, 1997.-N.141-142.

8. Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Eiiiaaeue/oe A.N. Oeceei-oiiieiae/aneia e
oaoiieiae/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea i?e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiii i?iaeoe?iaaiee IYA
// Oacenu aeieeaaeia IOE “Iaoeiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea e iaania/aiea
iaaeaaeiinoe yeaeo?iiiuo ono?ienoa”.- Aa?aeyine, 1993.- N.46.

9. Ia?oiiaiei A.A. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey ia?ae/iuo ia?aiao?ia
oeceei-oiiieiae/aneie iiaeaee IAeI-o?aicenoi?a // Oace aeiiia?aeae 4-i?
IOE “Aeina?ae ?ic?iaee oa canoinoaaiiy i?eeaaei-oaoiieia?/ieo NAI?
i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee”. — Euea?a, 1997.-N.140.

10. Ia?oiiaiei A.A. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey ia?ae/iuo ia?aiao?ia oiiieiae/aneeo
iiaeaeae iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?eai?ia // Oace aeiiia?aeae IOE “Aeina?ae
?ic?iaee oa canoinoaaiiy i?eeaaei-oaoiieia?/ieo NAI?
i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee”.-Euea?a, 1995 .-N.155.

11. E?euoe A.I., Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Na?aethe N.I. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey
ia?aiao?ia iiaeaeae yeaiaioiie aacu i?e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiii
i?iaeoe?iaaiee IYA // Iaoa??aee IOE “No/ani? i?iaeaie cania?a
oaeaeiioi?eaoe??, eiii’thoa?ii? ?iaeaia??? oa i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a
(TSEF’98)”.- Euea?a, 1998.-N.3

12. Aaiiiaiei I.I., Oeei A.I., Ia?oiiaiei A.A. Eioa?aaeueiay a?eoiaoeea
aeey iiaeaee?iaaiey a ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea // Iaoa??aee IOE “No/ani?
i?iaeaie cania?a oaeaeiioi?eaoe??, eiii’thoa?ii? ?iaeaia??? oa
i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a (TSEF’98)”.- Eueaia, 1998.-N.4-5.

13. Ia?oiiaiei A.A. I?ia?aiiii-iaoiaee/aneee eiiieaen eaeaioeoeeaoeee
ia?aiao?ia iiaeaeae yeaiaioiie aacu IYA // Iaoa?eaeu IIE
“Iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu ea/anoaa iao/aiey e iao/aiey
ea/anoao”.-Oa?ueeia,1997.-N.67.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ia?oiiaiei A.A. ?ic?iaea eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace IAA aeey
nenoai aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?iaeooaaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.13.12 — nenoaie aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?iaeooaaiiy. —
Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ica’ycaiith aeooaeueii? iaoeiai? caaea/? —
?ic?iaoe? eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioii? aace i?e?iaeaeo?iiii?
aia?aoo?e ? iaoiaeeee ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?o ia?aiao??a aeey ?icoe?aiiy
iaoaiaoe/iiai oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy NAI?. O ?iaio?
caoeua?oueny i?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeeea noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo
o?ceei-oiiieia?/ieo iiaeaeae aeaiaio?a, yea iiaea aooe canoiniaaia a
i?aeoeoe? ?iaeaia?iiai i?iaeooaaiiy i?e iiaoaeia? iiaeaeae
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a oa ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai. ?ic?iaea oa
i?aeoe/ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aenenoaio IAAN-I eiiieaenieo iiaeaeae
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaiai ae?iaeo, a?iiey?iiai oa IAeI-o?aicenoi??a,
iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a, a oaeiae i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iiai eiiieaeno
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ia?aiao??a iiaeaeae aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
oeueiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy ? oi/i?noue iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo
oa oaieiaeo i?ioean?a, ye? ni?eueii a?aeaoaathoueny a aia?aoo??.
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?iieneiaino? ? a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaoiiaoecaoe?y i?iaeooaaiiy, iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy,
o?ceei — oiiieia?/ia iiaeaeue, ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y, i?ia?aiiee eiiieaen.

ABSTRACT

A.V.Parkhomenko. Elaboration of comprehensive models of elements base of
microelectronic equipment for CAD systems.- Manuscript.

Thesis for the Degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences in sppeciality
05.13.12. – Computer Aided Design Systems. — State University “Lvivska
Polytechnica, Lviv, 1999.

The dissertation was dedicated to the solution of the urgent problem —
elaboration of comprehensive models of elements base of microelectronic
equipment and methodology of identification of their parameters in order
to improve software and database organization and management of CAD
systems. The proposed work supports the original methods of creation of
comprehensive physical and topological models of elements which can be
applied in engineering and construction modeling of semiconductor
devices and integrated chips. Comprehensive models of semiconductor
diode, bipolar and MDS transistors, operational amplifier, along with
software-methodical set of identification of model parameters were
elaborated and introduced into subsystem MAES-P. That allowed to
increase the efficiency of this software, and the accuracy of modeling
of electric and thermal processes which run simultaneously in the
equipment. The results of the work were introduced into industrial and
education processes.

Key words: CAD, mathematical modeling, physical and topological model,
identification, software package.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ia?oiiaiei A.A. ?ac?aaioea eiiieaeniuo iiaeaeae yeaiaioiie aacu IYA aeey
nenoai aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.13.12. — Nenoaiu aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey.
-Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao “Eueaianeay iieeoaoieea”, Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?aoaieth aeooaeueiie iao/iie caaea/e –
?ac?aaioea eiiieaeniuo iiaeaeae yeaiaioiie aacu iee?iyeaeo?iiiie
aiia?aoo?u (IYA) e iaoiaeeee eaeaioeoeeaoeee eo ia?aiao?ia aeey
?anoe?aiey iaoaiaoe/aneiai e eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey NAI?, a oaeaea
iiauoaiey oi/iinoe iiaeaee?iaaiey yeaeo?e/aneeo e oaieiauo i?ioeania a
IYA.

A ?aaioa caueuaaony i?eaeiaeueiay iaoiaeeea nicaeaiey eiiieaeniuo
oeceei-oiiieiae/aneeo iiaeaeae yeaiaioia, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaia
a i?aeoeea eiaeaia?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?e iino?iaiee iiaeaeae
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?eai?ia e eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai. Iaoiaeeea
iauaaeeiyao neaaeothuea iniiaiua yoaiu: auai? enoiaeiie iaoaiaoe/aneie
iiaeaee e niioiioaiee aeey iienaiey aa aaoaae; ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee
?an/aoa ia?ae/iuo ia?aiao?ia iiaeaee; i?iaa?ea oi/iinoe e aaeaeaaoiinoe
iiaeaee e iaoiaeeee. ?ac?aaioaia iaiauaiiay eiiieaeniay iiaeaeue
yeaiaioa, i?aaenoaaeaiiay a aeaea niaieoiiinoe aeaoo ninoaaiuo /anoae –
iiaeaee yeaeo?e/aneeo i?ioeannia e iiaeaee oaieiauo i?ioeannia,
acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo eioi?uie inouanoaeyaony /a?ac caaeneiinoe
ia?aiao?ia eiiiiiaioia iiaeaee io ia?aiaiiuo iiaeaee (?aciinoe
yeaeo?e/aneeo iioaioeeaeia, oaiia?aoo?u). ?aaeeciaaiiua i?eioeeiu
iauaaeeiaiey aeaoo oiiieiae/aneeo iiaeaeae io?aaeatho ?aaeueioth
acaeiioth naycue iaaeaeo yeaeo?e/aneeie e oaieiauie i?ioeannaie a
i?eai?ao.

I?aaeeiaeaiu eiiieaeniua oeceei-oiiieiae/aneea iiaeaee aui?yieoaeueiiai
aeeiaea, aeiiey?iiai e IAeI-o?aicenoi?ia, iia?aoeeiiiiai oneeeoaey,
eioi?ua ioee/athony io nouanoaothueo noaiaiueth o/aoa aaaeiaeoeo
oece/aneeo yooaeoia e caaeneiinoae ia?aiao?ia iiaeaee io acaeiinaycaiiuo
yeaeo?e/aneiai e oaieiaiai ?aaeeiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeaiaioia.
I?aaenoaaeaii iienaiea iiaeaeae, auaeaeaiu aaeoi?a ia?aiao?ia
eiiiiiaioia iiaeaeae e ia?ae/iuo ia?aiao?ia iiaeaeae yeaiaioia.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea eaeaioeoeeaoeee ia?aiao?ia eiiieaeniuo iiaeaeae
yeaiaioia, ioee/eoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie eioi?ie yaeyaony ?an/aoiue
iiaeoiae e i?eiaiaiea eioa?aaeueiie iaoaiaoeee aeey iieo/aiey
aeiioneiauo cia/aiee ia?ae/iuo ia?aiao?ia iiaeaeae. A ea/anoaa enoiaeiie
eioi?iaoeee aeey ?an/aoa eniieuecothony aaiiao?e/aneea,
yeaeo?ioece/aneea, oaoiieiae/aneea ia?aiao?u no?oeoo?, a oaeaea aeaiiua
oaoie/aneeo oneiaee ia yeaiaiou.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?ac?aaioai i?ia?aiiii-iaoiaee/aneee eiiieaen
eaeaioeoeeaoeee ia?aiao?ia iiaeaeae (IIEE II). ?aaeeciaaiiue a ?aieao
eiiieaena aeie acaeiiaeaenoaey n ae?oaeie NAI? iicaieyao iaeoe
iaiaoiaeeiua ia?aiao?u iiaeaeae yeaiaioiie aacu a AAe IIEE II e aianoe
eo a oaaeii caaeaiiiai aeaea, /oi iaania/eaaao oi?ie?iaaiea oaeea
aeaiiuo caaeaiiie no?oeoo?u e ia?aaea/o aai aeieo aaaeaiey aeaeeioaee
iiaeaeae e ia?aiao?ia IAYN-I.

I?aaeeiaeaiiay a?oeoaeoo?a eiiieaena iicaieyao iaania/eoue yooaeoeaioth
e iaaeaaeioth ?aaioo anao aeieia, aoiaeyueo a nenoaio, a oaeaea
ia?ae?anoiue eiio?ieue ei??aeoiinoe aeaiiuo ia eaaeaeii yoaia ?aaiou.
I?e yoii eiiieaen inoaaony i?inoui a eniieueciaaiee e ioaa/aao anai
iinoaaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi.

Aeey iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai i?eiaiaiey i?aaeeiaeaiiuo eiiieaeniuo
oeceei-oiiieiae/aneeo iiaeaeae yeaiaioiie aacu IYA e
i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/aneiai eiiieaena eaeaioeoeeaoeee eo ia?aiao?ia
?ac?aaioaia e i?aeoe/anee ?aaeeciaaia iaoiaeeea ano?aeaaiey iiaeaeae a
iiaenenoaio IAYN-I. Iaoiaeeea i?aaeoniao?eaaao nicaeaiea iienaiey
iiaeaee a aeaeeioaea iiaeaeae yeaiaioia; ?ac?aaioeo oi?o?ai-iiaei?ia?aii
eeiaeiuo e iaeeiaeiuo ooieoeee, iienuaathueo aaoae iiaeaeae e eo caienue
a aeaeeioaeo iaeeiaeiuo ooieoeee; oanoe?iaaiea ?ac?aaioaiiuo iiaeaeae;
ia?aaea/o ?ann/eoaiiuo IIEE II ia?ae/iuo ia?aiao?ia iiaeaee yeaiaioa
eiie?aoiiai oeiiiiieiaea e caienue eo a aeaeeioaeo ia?aiao?ia iiaeaeae
yeaiaioia iiaenenoaiu.

Ano?aeaaiea a iiaenenoaio IAYN-I ?ac?aaioaiiuo eiiieaeniuo iiaeaeae
aui?yieoaeueiiai aeeiaea, aeiiey?iiai e IAeI-o?aicenoi?ia,
iia?aoeeiiiiai oneeeoaey iicaieeei iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue aa
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e ?anoe?eoue ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe n
oi/ee c?aiey eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca acaeiinaycaiiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo e
oaieiauo i?ioeannia, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaii aeoii aiaae?aiey ?acoeueoaoia
?aaiou a III “OA?O?II-NIA?E”.

A ?aaioa iieacaii, /oi eniieueciaaiea i?aaeeiaeaiiuo eiiieaeniuo
iiaeaeae yeaiaioiie aacu IYA, a oaeaea ?ac?aaioaiiiai
i?ia?aiiii-iaoiaee/aneiai eiiieaena eaeaioeoeeaoeee ia?aiao?ia iiaeaeae
iicaieeei iiauneoue oi/iinoue iiaeaee?iaaiey oece/aneeo i?ioeannia a
iee?iyeaeo?iiiii ono?ienoaa, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaii ?acoeueoaoaie
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ia?aiao?ia e oa?aeoa?enoee oanoiaiai
ocea, a oaeaea aeoii aiaae?aiey ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou a i?aeoeeo
eiaeaia?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey EA “Ene?a”.

?acoeueoaou oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee aiaae?aiu a
o/aaiue i?ioeann iiaeaioiaee eiaeaia?ia ii niaoeeaeueiinoyi:
”I?iecaiaenoai yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa”, “I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai”, /oi iicaieeei iiauneoue o?iaaiue
niaoeeaeenoia a ieaia i?aaiecaoeee nia?aiaiiiai i?ioeanna
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey iee?iyeaeo?iiiie aiia?aoo?u ii
e?eoa?eyi nie?auaiey n?ieia i?iaeoe?iaaiey, a oaeaea iaania/aiey
ea/anoaa e iaaeaaeiinoe i?iaeoe?oaiie IYA.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey, iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea, oeceei-oiiieiae/aneay iiaeaeue, eaeaioeoeeaoeey,
i?ia?aiiiue eiiieaen.

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