Розрахунок ресурсу причіпних обприскувачів по довговічності несучих елементів: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / П.В. Попович, Терноп. держ. техн. ун

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia Ioethy

Iiiiae/ Iaaei Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 631.3:669.539

?IC?AOOIIE ?ANO?NO I?E*?IIEO IAI?ENEOAA*?A II AeIAAIA?*IINO? IANO*EO
AEAIAIO?A

05.05.11- N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? iaoeie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? ?aaia Ioethy I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?eaae Oeiio?e
?aaiiae/, Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
Ioethy, i?i?aeoi? c iaa/aeueii-iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo eiiieaen?a oa
ciai?oiuei-oi?aa?neoaonueei? ae?yeueiino?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith
oaoi?/ii? iaoai?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe i?ioani? Ne/ia ?aai Iao?iae/, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e «oaoi?/ia aenieoaoaoe?y iaoei ? iaeaaeiaiiy»

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ao?y Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?ith o?i??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Eooeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Eooeuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «22_» _a?oaeiy_ 1998?. i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae58.052 02 c caoenoo aeieoi?nueeeo
aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ia?o a Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia Ioethy ca aae?anith 282000, i. Oa?iii?eue, aoe.
?onueea, 56, aoae. 79

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia
Ioethy, 282000, i. Oa?iii?eue, aoe. ?onueea, 56

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «20» eenoiiaaea 1998?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ___________________
Aieue/aiei I. ?.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Iacaeaaeii a?ae aeineiiaeino? oaoiieia??
aeaioiaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei, i?aeoe/ii o eiaei?e
iaoaeieiino?oeoe?? i?enooi? ??ciiieaiia? aeaoaeoe: ii/aoeia?, aai iaaoo?
a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??. Iayai?noue oaeeo aeaoaeo?a i?ecaiaeeoue a
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aei niiioaiiiai ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e.

C oe??? i?e/eie ia no/aniiio ??ai? i?iaeooaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei, cie?aia iai?eneoaa/?a, iaiao?aei?
iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ?ano?no ?iaioe, ye? a?aoiaothoue ?aaeueiee noai
aeaioiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e oa iaoo?ieo oiia aenieoaoaoe??.

Oiio oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aeooaeueiith ? ia? aaaeeeaa
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaiaoeee Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia Ioethy

Ae?-65-96.

Iaoa ?iaioe: ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no ?iaioe
iai?eneoaa/?a ii aeiaaia?/iino? iano/eo aeaiaio?a ia aac? e?eoa??aeueii?
ioe?iee i?oeiino? c iiceoe?e iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy, a oaeiae ae?iaeaiiy
i?iiiceoe?e uiaei ?ano?no ?iaioe eiie?aoieo eiino?oeoe?e

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iinoaaeaio iaoo ?iaioe ?aae?ciaaii oeyoii
ae??oaiiy ianooiieo caaea/:

Anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae aeey aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a ?ioaineaiino?
iai?oaeaiue oa aeaeueoa-?ice?eooy o??uei i?ieaoieo i?io?e?a ia iniia?
iaoiae?a a?aie/ii? ?ioa?iieyoe?? oa aea?aaeaioieo noai?a.

Anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae aeey aecia/aiiy caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no ia iniia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee ?oeioaaiiy iano/eo aeaiaio?a iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e
iaoei aeey o?i?/iiai caoenoo o ?ineeiieoeoa?.

I?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee oeeee?/ii?
o??ueiio?eieino? oaaea?ieo noaeae.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o aeeiai?/ii? iaaaioaaeaiino? iai?eneoaa/a o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?aaeueieie oiiaaie aenieoaoaoe??.

I?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no iano/i? ?aie iai?eneoaa/a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeaia ?iaeaia?ia iaoiaeeea i?iaiicoaaiiy
?ano?no iai?eneoaa/?a ii aeiaaia?/iino? iano/eo aeaiaio?a, yea
aaco?oueny ia oai?aoe/ieo canaaeao iaoai?ee e?eoeiai ?oeioaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeei, canoiniaoth/e iaoiae Iaeaa?a oa
iaoiae aea?aaeaioieo noai?a, a?aeiia?aeii, io?eiaii aiae?oe/i?
caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue,
SYMBOL 100 f «Symbol» s 14d — ?ice?eooy o??uei, ?ic?aooieo ?ano?no
iano/eo aeaiaio?a ?aiieo eiino?oeoe?e iaoei aeey o?i?/iiai caoenoo o
?ineeiieoeoa?. Aeey a?aooaaiiy iaoo?ieo oiia aenieoaoaoe?? iai?eneoaa/?a
iaa?oioiaaii aea?? aeeiai?ee iaaaioaaeaiino? a cina?aaeaeaieo iii?ao ian
ia ?aio, cie?aia i?e/?iiiai iai?eneoaa/a II 2000-2-01.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Noai?aia ?iaeaia?ia iaoiaeeea oa io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aecia/aiiy caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no ?iaioe
iia?eueieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei, cie?aia i?e/?iieo
iai?eneoaa/?a, aecia/eoe aeiionoei? oa e?eoe/i? ?ici??e aeaoaeoiino? o
aeaiaioao iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi ?aaeueii? aeeiai?ee
iaaaioaaeaiino?, io?eiaii? a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? iai?eneoaa/a. Ia
iniia? io?eiaieo a ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a cai?iiiiiaaii oaeineiiaeaiiy
eiino?oeoe?? iai?eneoaa/a II-2000-2-01, ye? aeicaieythoue ciaioeoe
iaoaei?ii?noue i?e oiia? caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ?ano?no ?iaioe.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee i?iaiaeeeenue ia iniia?
no/anieo iaoiae?a iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy, eeane/ii? iaoai?ee, no/anieo
iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ye? iathoue
i?noea i?e ?iaio? iai?eneoaa/?a. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeeny c iaoith ia?aa??ee oa i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee oeeee?/ii?
o??ueiio?eieino? eiino?oeoeaieo iaoa??ae?a c yeeo aeaioiaeythoueny
iano/? ?aie iai?eneoaa/?a. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeeny c canoinoaaiiyi
no/anieo i?eeaae?a c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, i?eeiyoieie aeey ?a?no?aoe??
ia?aiao??a i?ioean?a, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue.

Aiae?c iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? oa ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeeeny c canoinoaaiiyi
no/aniiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy (MATHCAD 7p).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia: III I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiiceoi?
«Iaeeane/i? i?iaeaie oai??? oiieino?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e oa
o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a» o
?aaii-O?aie?anueeo, 1995?., Iaoeiai — oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoai?ea ?
iia? oaoiieia??». — Naaanoii?eue, 1995 ?., I?aeia?iaeiiio
Oe?a?inueei-Iieuenueeiio neiiiceoi?. — Oa?iii?eue 1997 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? o
8 ioae?eaoe?yo, na?aae yeeo 4 noaoo? o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 115
noi??ieao oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c 86 iaca, i?noeoue
32 iaethiee ? 9 oaaeeoeue, a oaeiae aeiaeaoee ia 8 noi??ieao.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
noi?ioeueiaaii? iaoa oa caaea/? ?iaioe, aeeeaaeaia ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia ?
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c i?e/ei aeoiaeo c eaaeo iaoei
aeey o?i?/iiai caoenoo o ?ineeiieoeoa?, iaeyae aaciaeo aoce?a ca
ooieoe?iiaeueiei i?ecia/aiiyi oa oeiiaeo caa?ieo c’?aeiaiue iano/eo
eiino?oeoe?e iai?eneoaa/?a. I?iaiae?ciaaii ?nioth/? aiaeiae c i?iaeai
ioe?iee i?oeiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? caa?ieo iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai coi?ioeueiaaia iaoa oa caaea/? ?iaioe.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/o?oueny aena?oeaiith iniiaieo iieiaeaiue iaoai?ee
?oeioaaiiy. Ca iaoiaeii a?aie/ii? ?ioa?iieyoe?? io?eiothoueny aiae?oe/i?
caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/iiy eiao?oe??ioa ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue (E?I)
aa?oeie o??ueie oaaea?a.

Ine?eueee aeey oaaea?a iaeaieueo eiiai?iei iinoeai ca?iaeaeaiiy o?iuei ?
aa?oeia eiai iiee/ie, aecia/a?oueny E?I o aa?oeii oaei? o?iueie i?e aei?
ia oaaea? caeiaeueiiai iiiaioo. ?ioaiiy aiaeia?/ii? caaea/i oai???
o?iuei iia’ycaia ic cia/ieie o?oaeiiuaie, yei aeieeathoue c i?e/eie
neeaaeii? eiioiao?aoei? ia?aoeio oaaea?a (?en1). Aeey ?ica(ycaiiy oaei?
caaea/? canoiniao?oueny ?ioa?iieyoe?eiee iaoiae Iaeaa?a (iaoiae
a?aie/ii? ?ioa?iieyoe??).

EMBED Word.Picture.8

?en. 1 Noaia ia?a??co oaaea?a c o??ueiith

Caaea/a aecia/aiiy EII iiaeaia a iiaeaia?iie iinoaiiaoei c iaaiei
iaaeeaeaiiyi. Aeey oeueiai iai?oaeaiee noai, ui aeieea? a ia?aoeii
oaaea?a c ii/aoeiaith o?iueiith iiaeaethaaany aeoiaey/e c ianooiieo
i?eiouaiue:

a) aeiaaeeia o?iueie ? iaeith o ii?iaiyiii c iioeie ?icii?aie ia?aoeio.
O oaeiio aeiaaeeo iai?oaeaiee noai a ieiei o?iuei aaaaea?oueny
aeaiaaeaioiei aei noaio, yeee aeieeaoeia i?e ?icoyaoaaiii
iaiiaaaceiia/ii? ieanoeie c e?aeiaith o?iueiith iai?oaeaiiyieEMBED
Equation.3. E?I aecia/a?oueny ?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy:

EMBED Equation.3 (1)

aeaEMBED Equation.3 — eiaoioei?io iioaineaiinoi iai?oaeaiue aa?oeie
o?iueie iieeoe? oaaea?a, EMBED Equation.3; EMBED Equation.3 —
iai?oaeaiiy, ye? aeieeathoue o iieeoe? oaaea?a, IIa; EMBED
Equation.3 — aeiaaeeia o??ueie, EMBED Equation.3.

Ine?eueee oiaueia no?iee oaaea?a ? iaeith o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie
aaaa?eoieie ia?aoeio, aeaiee i?io?eue ? oiieinoiiiei. Iai?oaeaiiy, yei
aeieeathoue i?e caeii iiee/ee, i?eaeecii, aecia/athoueny ca oi?ioeith:

EMBED Word.Picture.8

?en. 2 Noaia iaaaioaaeaiiy iieeoe? oaaea?a

EMBED Equation.3, (2)

aea I — aaee/eia caeiaeueiiai iiiaioo,EMBED Equation.3; I — iiiaio
iia?oei? iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio oaaea?a,EMBED Equation.3; I — aenioa
oaaea?a, EMBED Equation.3.

O ae?aci (1) aeaeieythoueny neeiaa i aaiiao?e/ia /anoeie. Aaiiao?e/ia
ae?aaea?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi:

EMBED Equation.3, (3)

aea EMBED Equation.3 — aac?icii?iee ia?aiao?; b — oe?eia iieeoei
oaaea?a, EMBED Equation.3.

Neeiaa /anoeia aecia/a?oueny niiaaiaeiioaiiyi (2).

a) aa?oeia o?iueie iaaeeaea?oueny aei iaeo?aeueii? eiii? iiia?a/iiai
ia?aoeio oaaea?a. I/aaeaeii, iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai a ieiei
eiioo?o o?iueie aeecueeee aei noaio, yeee aeieeaoeia i?e caeii noaeueii?
iieine c oaeei iiiaioii iia?oei? ye oaaea? caeiaeueiei iiiaioii I
(?en.3). Iiaiee aeeeaae ?ioaiiy caaea/i aeey aeaii? ?ic?aooieiai? noaie
i?aaenoaaeaii o ?iaioi. E?ioeaaee ae?ac aeey aecia/aiiy EMBED
Equation.3 io?eiaii o ianooiiiio aeaeyaei:

EMBED Equation.3 (4)

aeaEMBED Equation.3 — eiaoioei?io iioaineaiinoi iai?oaeaiue aa?oeie
o?iueie no?iee oaaea?a, EMBED Equation.3; EMBED Equation.3 —
iiiiiaeueia iai?oaeaiiy a ineaaeaiiio o?iueiith iaooi-ia?a?ici aaeee,
IIa; h — aenioa aaeee, EMBED Equation.3, EMBED Equation.3; d —
oiaueia noiiee aaeee, EMBED Equation.3, *********************

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***********aaea/, aaaaea?oueny, ui ?icieoey o EII aeey iaio aeiaaeeia
ae?aaea?oueny o?eueee iiiiiaeueieie iai?oaeaiiyie.

Ia i?aenoaa? iieiaeaiue iaoiaeo a?aie/ii? ?ioa?iieyoe??, iaaaaeaieo
iaa?oiooaaiue ? aeiaeaoeiaeo ia?aoai?aiue io?eio?ii caeaaei?noue aeey
aecia/aiiy EII aa?oeie o?iueie aeiaieueii? aaee/eie

EMBED Equation.3 (7)

aea EMBED Equation.3

EMBED Equation.3 — aiaeiiee ia?aiao? oaaea?a aeaii? eiioiao?aoei?.

Io?eiaia caeaaei?noue (7) aea? aeinoaoith ei?aeyoe?th c ?acoeueoaoaie
io?eiaieie ca a?aeiieie o e?oa?aoo?? oi?ioeaie. Ia ianooiiiio aoai?
noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo ?ano?no ca aeiaaia?/i?noth aeaiaio?a
iaea?aeothoueny caeaaeiino? aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy aaee/eie ?ice?eooy
o??ueie yea aeoiaeeoue c aa?oeie iieeoe? oaaea?a, ui ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae
ae??th caeiaeueiiai iiiaioo. I?e ?ica(ycaii? aeaii? caaea/?
canoiniaoaoaaany iaoiae aea?aaeaioieo noai?a.

Iaoa caaea/? — aecia/eoe aaee/eio ?ice?eooy ooieeiai? /anoeie o??ueie o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?? ?ici???a.

sse aeiiii?aeia caaea/a i?eeia?oueny oe?iei iienaia o e?oa?aoo??
ocaaaeueiaia iiaeaeue A??o?ona: iaoaeaaa iieina c o??ueiith
?icoyao?oueny iai?oaeaiiyie (. EMBED Equation.3 — ?ice?eooy o??ueie
caieno?oueny o ianooiiiio aeaeyae?

EMBED Equation.3, (8)

aea EMBED Equation.3 — aaee/eia aeaeueoa- ?ice?eooy o??ueie aeey
aeiiii?aeii? caaea/?, EMBED Equation.3; EMBED Equation.3 — iaaea
oaeo/ino? iaoa??aeo, IIa; EMBED Equation.3 — aeiaaeeia o??ueie,
EMBED Equation.3; EMBED Equation.3 — iai?oaeaiiy, yeeie
?icoyao?oueny iieina c o??ueiith, IIa; EMBED Equation.3 — iiaeoeue
i?oaeiino? iaoa??aeo, IIa.

Aeey aeiiii?aeii? caaea/? E?I caieno?oueny o aeaeyae?

EMBED Equation.3 (9)

aea EMBED Equation.3 — aeey aeiiii?aeii? caaea/?, IIaEMBED
Equation.3; EMBED Equation.3 — aeiaaeeia o??ueie o ieanoei?,
EMBED Equation.3;

EMBED Equation.3 — iai?oaeaiiy yeeie ?icoyao?oueny ieanoeia IIa.

I?e??aithth/e E?I iniiaii? oa aeiiii?aeii? caaea/, a ?acoeueoao?,
io?eio?oueny ianooiia caeaaei?noue

EMBED Equation.3 (10)

Aeoiaey/e c (10) io?eiaia oi?ioea aeey aecia/aiiy aeiaaeeie o??ueie o
ieanoei?. ?? i?aenoaiiaeith o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (8) io?eio?oueny oi?ioea
aeey aecia/iiy ?ice?eooy o??ueie, ui aeoiaeeoue c aa?oeie iieeoe?
oaaea?a iaaaioaaeaiiai caeiaeueiei iiiaioii I, oiaoi

EMBED Equation.3 (11)

Oaeiae o ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?eaiaeyoueny caaaeuei? iieiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aecia/aiiy aeeiai?/ii? iaaaioaaeaiino? ?ai o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?aaeeiii oa oiiaaie aenieoaoaoe??.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oiia aenieoaoaoe??, ia ?iai/eo oaeaeeinoyo 8-16
ei/aiae, ca aeiiiiiaith oaiciiao??? io?eioaaee ?iciiae?eaiiy aeiaaeeiaeo
aaee/ei iaaaioaaeaiiy a iii?ao ia ?aio aaea, neeiaiai oa ianiniiai
aa?aaao?a, aaioeeyoi?ii? onoaiiaee. Aeey ooaiaiaeo iai?eneoaa/?a
aecia/aee ieoii? ?ia?oe?ei? iaaaioaaeaiiy a oeaio?ao ian iano/eo
ea?ean?a naeoe?e oe?ieicaoaaoieo ooaia.

Aei??thaaeuei? caniae (aeeiaiiiao?e) anoaiiaeththoueny i?ae iii?aie
iiioiaaii? iane oa iniiae ? caaacia/othoue io?eiaiiy o?ueioeiiiiiaioieo
aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeoe?e a cina?aaeaeaieo iii?ao. Aeai? aei??thaaiue
o?enothoueny niaoe?aeueieie i?eeaaeaie (inoeeeia?ao, aaeueaaiiiao?),
i?e/iio nooi?iue /ooeeaino? aeeiaiiiao??a ?aaoeth?oueny a caeaaeiino?
a?ae iane ia(?eoa, yeee aeine?aeaeo?oueny. Inoeeeia?ao?/i? caiene
aiie?ooae aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei iaaaioaaeaiue noaoenoe/ii ia?iaeythoueny
ca a?aeiieie o e?oa?aoo?? iaoiaeaie.

C aeei?enoaiiyi o aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaee/iiai iaoa??aeo, iienaieo
aei??thaaeueieo cania?a,io?eio?oueny ianea noaoenoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeeiai?/ii? iaaaioaaeaiino? iai?eneoaa/?a: na?aaeia a?eoiaoe/ia
cia/aiiy, aeenia?n?y, na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy, niaeo?aeueia
aonoeia aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?ioean?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iienothoueny aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
o??ueiio?eieino? oaaea?ieo noaeae iano/eo ?ai iai?eneoaa/?a. sse ia(?eo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue noaiaea?oi? c?acee ?ici??ii
8(18(220ii, ae??cai? c ??cieo cii iieeoe? oaaea?a ? ooo/ii ia??caieie
eiioeaio?aoi?aie iai?oaeaiue (?en. 4a,4a). C?acie iaaaioaaeo?oueny ca
noaiith /ioe?ueiooi/eiaiai (/enoiai) caeio.

 EMBED Word.Picture.8

?en. 4 Eaai?aoi?i? c?acee aeey aei?iaoaaiue:

a) c?acie c iniiaiiai iaoaeo; a) c?acie c i?eaa?aiei aeaiaioii

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia ? aeaioiaeaia
aenia?eiaioaeueia onoaiiaea: iaoeia c iaoai?/iei caoaeaeoaa/ai
oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue. ??no o??ueie eiio?ieth?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
eaoaoiiao?a EI-8. O oiae? aenia?eiaioo cae?enithaaeeny iine?aeiai?
aei??thaaiiy /a?ac iaai? ?ioa?aaee /ano aeiaaeeie o??ueie oa /enea
oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ia?iaee aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iiaoaeiaai? e?iaoe/i? ae?aa?aie aoiiethaaeueiiai ?oeioaaiiy oa
iaea?aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeee?/ii? o??ueiio?eieino? iniiaiiai iaoaeo
oa caa?iiai c(?aeiaiiy oaaea?ii? noae? 5Ain, a?aeiia?aeii, , EMBED
Equation.3EMBED Equation.3EMBED Equation.3EMBED
Equation.3;

EMBED Equation.3EMBED Equation.3EMBED Equation.3.

EMBED Equation.3I?iaaaeai? oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?iaanoe ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoiaeeee
?ic?aooieo ?ano?no ii aeiaaia?/iino? iano/eo aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae oea
iineoaeeei aacith aeey io?eiaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo caeaaeiinoae ye?
aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?iaeooaaii? iiaeo ? aaeineiiaeaii?
?nioth/eo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei.

Ca i?iaaaeaieie eeane/ieie ?ic?aooieaie o?eieeo caa?ieo eiino?oeoe?e
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei ia aeiaaia?/i?noue o?aaeeoe?eii
i?iaiaeeoueny ?ic?aooiie ii aeo?eaaeino?.

Iine?eueee o ?aaeuei?e ?iaeaia?i?e eiino?oeoe?? caaaeaee i?enooi?
ii/aoeia? aeaoaeoe (ye ii/aoeia?, oae ? iaaoo? o i?ioean?
aenieoaoaoe??), ?oeioaaiiy iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e a?aeaoaa?oueny
aiane?aeie ca?iaeaeaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aeaieo aeaoaeo?a,
i/aaeaeii, ui aeiaaia?/i?noue aecia/a?oueny ?ioa?aaeii /ano, i?ioyaii
yeiai aeaoaeoe ?icaeaathoueny aei e?eoe/ii? aaee/eie. C oe??? i?e/eie,
ie??i eeane/iiai ?ic?aooieo aeiaaia?/iino? n/a iaoei ii ?oi?e
aeo?eaaeino?, aeiaeaoeiai i?iaiaeeoueny ?ic?aooiie caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no
?iaioe c iiceoe?? iaoai?ee e?eoeiai ?oeioaaiiy:o iaoa??ae? eiino?oeoe??
iinooeth?oueny i?enooi?noue o??ueie ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ?ic?aooiie
caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no ?iaioe a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioeano ?icaeoeo oaeiai aeaoaeoo.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? ?ic?aooieo caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no ?iaioe ca a?aeiieie
niiniaaie i?iaiaeeoueny aeaoaeueiee aiae?c oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy
eiino?oeoe?? i?e ?? aenieoaoaoe??, aecia/a?oueny IAeN ?aie i?e ae??
?aaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue: ia/eneth?oueny aaee/eia aioo??oi?o neeiaeo
oaeoi??a (caeiaeuei? iiiaioe, iicaeiaaei? oa iiia?a/i? coneeey), ye?
ae?thoue o eiaeiiio aeaiaio? eiino?oeoe??. Aeey a?aooaaiiy ae??
aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue i?iaiaeeoueny aenia?eiaioaeueia aecia/aiiy
aeeiai?/ieo iieaciee?a o iii?ao iniiaieo ian ia ?aio. Aei oiai ae,
aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeyoueny a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao. I?ney ia?iaee
inoeeeia?ai, o ?acoeueoao? iie?aiieo aei?iaoaaiue, aecia/athoueny
eiiiiiaioe iai?oaeaiiai noaio, a oaeiae oa?aeoa? ?oiuei? ci?ie o /an? ?
a ?aaeei? aenieoaoaoe??, aoaeo?oueny aith?a ?iciiae?eo aioo??oi?o
neeiaeo oaeoi??a. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai oaeei /eiii aiae?co
iai?oaeaiiai noaio o?eiei? eiino?oeoe?? aecia/athoueny iaeneiaeueii
iaaacia/i?, c iiceoe?? o??ueiiooai?aiiy, ia?aoeie.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? ?ic?aooieo i?iaiaeyoueny aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
IAeN i?e iinooethaaii? i?enooiino? o??ueie oa?aeoa?ii? eiio?ao?aoe?? o
aeae?eaiiio iaaacia/iiio ia?aoei? ?aie aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui o?eie?
eiino?oeoe?? iaoei aeey o?i?/iiai caoenoo o ?ineeiieoeoa?
aeaioiaeythoueny c i?ieaoieo i?io?e?a (oaaea?) E?I aa?oeie o??ueie
ii?iaeueiiai a?ae?eao, yea aeoiaeeoue c iieeoe? oaaea?a

EMBED Equation.3 (12)

aea EMBED Equation.3

EMBED Equation.3 — ia?aiao?, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae aaiiao?e/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oaaea?a, EMBED Equation.3.

I?ney oeueiai ia/eneththoueny e?eoe/ia oa ii?iaiaa cia/aiiy aeaeueoa
SYMBOL 45 f «Symbol» s 14- ?ice?eooy ooieeiai? /anoeie o??ueie
ii?iaeueiia a?ae?eao o caeaaeiino? a?ae ?? aeiaaeeie

EMBED Equation.3 (13)

aea EMBED Equation.3 — aaee/eia ?ice?eooy o??ueie, EMBED
Equation.3.

O?ao?e aoai ia?aaeaa/a? i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeey aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee oeeee?/ii? o??ueiio?eieino?
iaoa??aeo ?aie aeaii? eiino?oeoe??. Ia oeueiio aoai? ca iiaoaeiaaiith
EAeA? aecia/athoueny oa?aeoa?enoeee o??ueiio?eieino?: e?eoe/ia ?ice?eooy
o??ueieEMBED Equation.3, ia?aiao?e EMBED Equation.3. I?e/iio
a?aoiao?oueny ianooiia oi?ioea

EMBED Equation.3 (14)

I?ney oeueiai i?iaiaeeoueny ?ic?aooiie caeaaeiino? ?ano?no ?iaioe ?aie
a?ae ?ici??o ii/aoeiaiai aeaoaeoo. Caeeoeiaee ?ano?n ?iaioe
ia/eneth?oueny ca ianooiiei ni?aaa?aeiioaiiyi

EMBED Equation.3, (15)

aea EMBED Equation.3 — caeeoeiaee ?ano?n ?iaioe, aiae.SYMBOL 59 f
«Symbol» s 14;

EMBED Equation.3-

e?euee?noue oeeee?a ca yeo o??ueia ?icaeaa?oueny a?ae ii/aoeiaiai aei
e?eoe/iiai ?ici??o, oeeeeSYMBOL 59 f «Symbol» s 14;EMBED
Equation.3- na?aaeiy /anoioa iaaaioaaeaiiy o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??,
AoeSYMBOL 59 f «Symbol» s 14; EMBED Equation.3, a?aeiia?aeii,
aeiaaeeia o??ueie, yea a?aeiia?aea? ii?iaiaiio
ci**********************************************************************

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**********************ieo ?aie iai?eneoaa/a II 2000-2-01 ia i?oei?noue
oa ?ic?aooieo ?ano?no ii aeiaaia?/iino? iano/eo aeaiaio?a i?iaiaeeee
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue a ?aaeueieo
oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??.

Ca?aeii ?ino?oeoe??, ?iai/a oaeaee?noue iai?eneoaa/?a ia?aaeaa/o?oueny
8 -12 ei/aiae. sse iieaco? i?aeoeea, o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aeaia aeiiaa
?ino?oeoe?? ia aeeiio?oueny. Iai?eneoaa/?, aenieoaoothoueny ia
uaeaeeinoyo aei 16 ei/aiae. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeeny i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ia oaeaeeinoyo
10 oa 15 ei/aiae. Caiiaiaiiy aaea neeaaeaei 1900 e ?iai/iai ?ic/eio.
Aei??thaaeuei? i?eeaaee anoaiiaethaaeeny i?ae iii?e aaea, ianina oa
ooaiae. ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiiue ?a?no?oaaeeny aaciina?aaeiuei
inoeeeia?aoii. A ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee oa aiae?co io?eiaieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ia/eneaii iai?oaeaiiy o aoceao ?aie,
aiane?aeie /iai aecia/aii iaaacia/i? ia?aoeie iano/i? eiino?oeoe?? (?en.
5).

EMBED Word.Picture.8

?en. 5 Noaia iai?oaeaiue o iaea?eueo iaaaioaaeaieo aeaiaioao i?inoi?iai?
?aie iai?eneoaa/a II2000-2-01, IIa

Ca?aeii ?ic?aooieiai? noaie (?en.5) aeyaeaii ia?aoeie o yeeo iai?oaeaiiy
ia?aaeuothoue aeiionoei? aeey aeaiiai iaoa??aeo, oiaoi, aeyaeaii
iaaacia/i? ia?aoeie ?aie. ?ice?eaath/e nooue i?iaaaeaiiai eiiieaeno
aeine?aeaeaiue a?aecia/eii, ui iaeneiaeuei? eiao?oe??ioe aeeiai?/iino?
aecia/aeeny o o?ueio iai?yieao: aa?oeeaeueiiio, iicaeiaaeiuei ?
iiia?a/ii-ai?eciioaeueiiio. Ine?eueee iaeneiaeueii iaaaioaaeaiei
aeyaeaii aocie 22 (aaee/eia caeiaeueiiai iiiaioo a aeaiiio aoce?
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.5), c a?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui iaeneiaeuei? iai?oaeaiiy
ia?aaeuothoue, a na?aaeiueiiaeneiaeuei? ieae/? a?ae iaae? oaeo/ino?
iaoa??aeo, oi a?aoiaoth/e aaiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oaaea?a ?12,
na?aaei? oaeoi?e oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeee?/ii?
o??ueiino?eeino? caa?ieo c(?aeiaiue noae? 5Ain aecia/aii ii?iaiao oa
e?eoe/io aeiaaeeie o??ueie. I?e oaeaeeinoyo 10 ei/aiae oa 15 ei/aiae
ii?iaiaa oa e?eoe/ia aeiaaeeie o??ueie, a?aeiia?aeii, noaiiaeyoue 1.5
ii.; 26 ii.; 1 ii.; 16 ii. Ia ?en. 6 iiaeaia a?ao?/ia caeaaei?noue
?ano?no ?iaioe eiino?oeoe?? a?ae aeiaaeeie o??ueie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
/anoioith iaaaioaaeaiiy io?eiaiith a ?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??.
A?ao?/ia caeaaei?noue iiaoaeiaaia ca?aeii oi?ioe (14) ? (16). Ioaea o
iaeneiaeueii iaaacia/iiio ia?aoei? aeiaaeeia o??ueie ia iiaeiia
ia?aaeuoaaoe 1.5ii oa 1ii, a?aeiia?aeii i?e oaeaeeinoyo 10 oa 15ei/aiae
. Caeeoeiaee ?ano?n ?ic?aoiao?oueny c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (15).

Ioaea, i?e aeeiiaii? ?ia?o iai?eneoaa/aie ia i?aeaeuaieo oaeaeeinoyo
?ooo (iiiaae 12 ei/aiae) ?ano?n iai?eneoaa/a iaiaaeothoue o??ueie, ye?
aeieeathoue o iaeneiaeueii iaaaioaaeaieo ia?aoeiao, a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo —
a i?noeyo i?e?aeiaiiy aei eiiaea?ii?a in? oiaeiaeo eie?n. E??i oeueiai,
?icaeoie o??uei a aeaieo ia?aoeiao iiaeia iiynieoe eiioeaio?aoe??th
iai?oaeaiue a iaeano? caa?ieo oa?a.

 EMBED AutoCAD.Drawing.14  ?en.6 Caeaaei?noue ?ano?no ?iaioe ?aie
II-2000-2-01 a?ae ?ici??o ii/aoeiaiai aeaoaeoo:

a) oaeaee?noue ?ooo 15ei/aiae; a) oaeaee?noue ?ooo 10ei/aiae

Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aii i?e/eie
?oeioaaiiy eiiaea?ii?a ?ai iai?eneoaa/?a i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe?? ia
i?aeaeuaieo ?aaeeiao ?iaioe,ca?aeee aeo?ea?, ui aenieoaoaoe?y iaoei aeey
o?i?/iiai caoenoo ?ineeiieoeoaa ia oaeaeeinoyo iiiaae 10 ei/aiae cieaeo?
iaae?ei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue ?o ?iaioe, a oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iiaiiai ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe??. ?ic?aooiee aoei i?iaaaeaii c
aeei?enoaiiyi noaiaea?oiiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy (oeio MathCad,
DEPLAN, LIRA).

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeaia ?iaeaia?ia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ?ano?no
?iaioe ii aeiaaia?/iino? iano/eo aeaiaio?a, iiaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
canoinoaaiiy aeaii? iaoiaeeee i?e ?ic?aooieo iano/eo ?ai, oaeiae aeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith iaoaeaeiino?oeoe?? iai?eneoaa/a
II-2000-2-01.

Iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe oa caaaeuei? aeniiaee

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no ?iaioe iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e
iai?eneoaa/?a ca aeiaaia?/i?noth ?o aeaiaio?a, ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici??o ii/aoeiaiai aeaoaeoo, a aeeiai?/i?e iinoaiiaoe?
caaea/?, ui caaacia/o? aecia/aiiy caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no ?iaioe, yeee
noaiiaeoue aei 190aiae. i?e aenieoaoaoe?? iai?eneoaa/a ca nacii 250aiae.
/enoiai /ano.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii i?ioean e?iaoeee ?oeioaaiiy a?ae aoiie
noa?aeiaaeo nenoai a?aee?eoiai iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio, aiane?aeie /iai
noai?aii ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? ? aecia/aii e?eoe/i? ?ici??e aeaoaeo?a
i?inoi?iai? ?aie iai?eneoaa/a i?e/?iiiai c ?ii?noth aaea 2000e.:
ii?iaiaa aeiaaeeia o??ueie  EMBED Equation.3 , e?eoe/ia  EMBED
Equation.3 .

C aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo a?aie/ii? ?ioa?iieyoee? (iaoiaeo Iaeaa?a)
io?eiaii caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy E?I ii?iaeueiiai a?ae?eao aa?oeie
o??ueie ? aecia/aii ?o aaee/eie noiniaii iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e iaoei aeey
o?i?/iiai caoenoo o?ineeiieoeoa?.

Ia iniia? iaoiaeo aea?aaeaioieo noai?a io?eiaii aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino?
aeey aecia/aiiy  EMBED Equation.3  ooieeiai? /anoeie o??ueie o
ia?aoei? a?aee?eoiai oiieino?iiiai i?io?eth oeio oaaea?a. Ca aeaieie
oi?ioeaie aecia/ai? aaee/eie  EMBED Equation.3  o??uei ia
oaeaeeinoyo 10ei/aiae. oa 15ei/aiae. o caeaaeiino? a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy
iai?eneoaa/a

Aecia/aii oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino? iniiaiiai iaoaeo oa
caa?ieo c(?aeiaiue oaaea?ii? noae? 5Ain ia eaai?aoi?iiio onoaoeoaaii?,
aiane?aeie /iai io?eiaii cia/aiiy, a?aeiia?aeii, EMBED Equation.3
EMBED Equation.3EMBED Equation.3EMBED Equation.3.EMBED
Equation.3EMBED Equation.3;EMBED Equation.3.

Ioe?iaii iai?oaeaii — aeaoi?iiaaiee noai i?inoi?iai? eiino?oeoe?? ?aie
iai?eneoaa/a II-2000-2-01, aiane?aeie /iai io?eiaii ?iciiae?eaiiy
?aaeueieo coneeue a ?? aeaiaioao. Iaeneiaeueii iaaaioaaeaiei aeyaeaii
aocie ?22 na?aaeiueiiaeneiaeuei? iai?oaeaiiy a yeiio aeinyaathoue 245,41
Iia.

Ca ?ic?iaeaiith a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaoiaeeeith ? io?eiaieie
/eneiaeie aeaieie ni?iaiiciaaii caeeoeiaee ?ano?n ?iaioe aaciaeo ca??ieo
iaeeieoeue II-2000-2-01, ia iniia? /iai aianaii ci?ie o eiino?oeoe?th
?aie, caaaeyee /iio ca?eueoo?oueny no?ie neoaeae iai?eneoaa/a a 1.5 — 2
?ace.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo i?aoeyo:

Noaoo? a iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo

Iiiiae/ I.A. aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee ?icaeoeo o??uei a
aeaiaioao ?ai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei iaoei. //Iaoeiiciaanoai. —
1997.

— ? 4-6.- N. 30-32.

Aiae?c iiooeiaiai eiino?othaaiiy aaciaeo aoce?a iia?eueieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei/ ?eaae O.?., Iiiiae/ I.A., Einothe A.?.,
Oiiee I.?. //Iaoeiiciaanoai. — 1997. — ? 4-6 — N. 2-5.

Iiiiae/ I.A. Aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue a
aeaiaioao eiino?oeoe?e oiieino?iiiai a?aee?eoiai i?io?eth
(oaaea?).//A?niee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. — 1998. — Oii 3, /enei 3. — N.68-71.

Iiiiae/ I.A. ?ic?aooiie eiao?oe??ioo ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue iano/eo
eiino?oeoe?e a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoeiao. // A?niee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998. — Oii 3,
/enei 3. — N. 65-68.

Iaoa??aee neiiic?oi?a

Iiiiae/ I.A. Iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
o??ueiino?eeino? eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a. //Ca??iee oac
Oe?a?inueei-Iieuenueeiai neiiic?oio.

— Oa?iii?eue, 1997. — N. 187.

?eaae O.?., Iiiiae/ I.A., Oiiee I.?. Iniaeeaino? e?iaoeee ?icaeoeo
o??uei a aeaiaioao a?aee?eoiai i?io?eth. // Ca??iee oac
Oe?a?inueei-Iieuenueeiai neiiic?oio.

— Oa?iii?eue, 1997. — N. 188.

Aieea aeiaeaoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue a?ae aeaieaiaoe?? ia e?eoa??? ioe?iee
?ano?no ?iaioe o?ao?ieo ieanoei./ O.?. ?eaae, I.?. Oiiee, ?.E.
??iaoeueeee, I.A. Iiiiae/ //Iaeeane/i? i?iaeaie oai??? oiieino?iieo
aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e oa o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a: Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae III I?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio.

— ?aaii-O?aie?anuee. — 1995. — N.85-88.

E?eoa??? ioe?iee i?oeiino? eiino?oeoe?e n/a iaoei i?e aeeiai?/iiio
iaaaioaaeaii?./ O.?. ?eaae, I.?. Oiiee, ss.O. ?eaae, I.A. Iiiiae/
//Iaoai?ea ? iia? oaoiieia??: Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae Iaoeiai — oaoi?/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. — Naaanoii?eue. — 1995.

N. 40-43.

Aiioaoe?y

Iiiiae/ I.A. ?ic?aooiie ?ano?no i?e/?iieo iai?eneoaa/?a ii
aeiaaia?/iino? iano/eo aeaiaio?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.05.11 — n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? iaoeie. —
Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia Ioethy,
Oa?iii?eue, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no ?iaioe i?e/?iieo
iai?eneoaa/?a c iiceoe?e iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy. ?ic?iaeaia ?iaeaia?ia
iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ?ano?no iai?eneoaa/?a ii aeiaaia?/iino? iano/eo
aeaiaio?a. Anoaiiaeaii aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey ?ic?aooieo
eiao?oe??ioa ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue oa aeaeueoa-?ice?eooy o??ueie,
?ic?aooieo ?ano?no ?iaioe aeaiaio?a iano/eo ?ai iaoei aeey o?i?/iiai
caoenoo ?ineei. I?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiai?ee ?aaeueii? iaaaioaaeaiino? i?e/aiieo
iai?eneoaa/?a a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??, aecia/aii oa?aoa?enoeee
o??ueiio?eieino? oaaea?ii? noae?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iai?eneoaa/, ?ano?n ?iaioe, o??ueia, eiao?oe??io
?ioaineaiino?
iai?oaea***************************************************************

*********

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************************************************************************
********************************************. ?ac?aaioaiiay eiaeaia?iay
iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa ?ano?na ii?uneeaaoaeae ii aeieaiaa/iinoe ianoueo
yeaiaioia. Anoaiiaeaiu aiaeeoe/aneea caaeneiinoe aeey ?an/aoa
eiyooeoeeaioa eioaineaiinoe iai?yaeaiee e aeaeueoa-?ane?uoey o?aueiu,
?an/aoa ?ano?na ?aaiou yeaiaioia ianoueo ?ai iaoei aeey oeie/aneie
caueou ?anoaiee. I?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee aeeiaieee ?aaeueiie iaa?oaeaiiinoe i?eoeaiiuo
ii?uneeaaoaeae a oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee, ii?aaeaeai oa?aoa?enoeee
o?aueiinoieeinoe oaaeea?iie noaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ii?uneeaaoaeue, ?ano?n ?aaiou, o?aueia, eiyooeoeeaio
eioaineaiinoe iai?yaeaiee, aeaeueoa-?ane?uoea o?aueiu, aeeiaieea
?aaeueiie iaa?oaeaiiinoe.

Summary

Popovich. P.V. Calculation of resource trailer sprayer on longevity of
carrying units. — Manuscript.

Thesis on obtaining of a scientific degree of the candidate of
engineering science of a speciality 05.05.11 — agricultural machines. —
Ternopol state technical university of the name Ivan Puljui, Ternopol,
1998.

The thesis is devoted to problems of prediction of resource of operation
trailer sprayer from positions of a mechanics of destruction. The
developed engineering technique of calculation of resource sprayers on
longevity of carrying units. Analytical dependences are defined for
calculation of stress intensity factor and delta-disclosure of a crack,
calculation of resource of operation of units of carrying frames of
machines for chemical protection of plants. The outcomes of experimental
researches of dynamics trailer sprayer under operating conditions are
represented, is defined the characteristics of stability against
development of cracks of steel.

Key word: sprayer, resource of operation, crack, stress intensity
factor, delta — disclosure of a crack.

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