Релігія в етнонаціональному розвитку України (політологічний аналіз): Автореф. дис… д-ра політ. наук / О.В. Шуба, Львів. держ. ун-т ім. І.Франка. —

2

EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 26/28: 323. 1(477)

O O A A IEAEN?E AANEEUeIAE*

?AE?A?ss

A AOIIIAOe?IIAEUeIIIO

?ICAEOEO OE?A?IE

(iie?oieia?/iee aiae?c)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.02 – iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? iiiia?ao?y.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iie?oieia?? o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe,

NE?EIITHE Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/, i?ioani? Ee?anueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?AIAIUe Aaneeue A?eai?iae/, I?aceaeaio Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
(i.Ee?a)

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

NAOO Iao?i TH??eiae/, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith o?einio?? ??aiainueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (i. ??aia)

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?EI?A Ieaa ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoth/ee naeoi?ii ?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie (i. Euea?a)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaee iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?
iai?iie Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e iie?oe/ieo ? aoiai?oa?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
(i.Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 03.11.99?. aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35. 051. 02 o Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290602, i.Euea?a, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290005,
i.Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 02.10.99?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe AeAIENAIEI A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Na?aae /eiiee?a, ui i?ioyaii
noie?oue a?ae/ooii aieeaaee ia ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa,
aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaee aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? oa ?ae?a?ei?,
aca?iica’ycie i?ae yeeie anoaiiaeany ua o yce/ieoeuee? /ane. ?c
cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi o?enoeyinoaa aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? ? ?ae?a?ei? i?ioeane
a?aeaoaaeeny ia eeoa o ia?ic?eai?e ?aeiino? i?ae niaith, a e c
aea?aeaaiei oa iie?oe/iei ?icaeoeii Oe?a?ie.

??ci? ?ae?a??, ia?aaeon?i o?enoeyinuee? oa/??, ?nioth/e o?eaaeee /an ia
oe?a?inueeiio aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?, ioiieee nai?i aieeaii oe?ieee
niaeo? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aoooy ia?iaeo, noaee iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith
aeooiaiiai na?oo oe?a?ioe?a.

Aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii, ia?aaoaaiiy
??cieo ?? oa?eoi??e o neeaae? oeo /e ?ioeo ?iia??e oa aea?aeaa coiiaeee
iie?oe/io no?ieao?noue, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio iica?/i?noue, iiaio
iaiaeii??aei?noue oa eiioan?eio iie?aaii?noue oe?a?inueeiai nioe?oio.
Oe? /eiieee ia??aeei ni?e/eiyee i?iyae iaoa?ieiino? oa naia?aoecio ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ? ?ae?a?eiiio a?oio?, oea?eiai? ?iceiee, ui noiyee ia
caaaae? aeooiaii? ?aeiino? oe?a?ioe?a oa eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

Aiane?aeie ao?aoe nai?? aea?aeaaiino? oa oioaeueii? ?oneo?eaoe??, yea
i?iaaaeeeany ?in?enueeei naiiaea?aeaanoaii c aeiiiiiaith i?aaineaaii?
oea?eae, oe?a?ioe? c /anii ia?aeoee o ?ic?yae ia?noi?e/ieo,
«ieaaaenueeeo» (I.Ae?aaiiaiia) ia?iae?a.

Cia/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia ? ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaia aeeooy a
Oe?a?i? caciaei o ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae. Iie?oeea aea?aeaae o oeeo noa?ao
ni?yiiaoaaeany ia i?aaethaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae oe?a?ioe?a,
iiaeieaiiy ?ae?a??, ooo/iee ?ic?ea ?? ca’yce?a c aoiinii, c yeei aiia
i?aai?/ii ii?aeiaia an?i oiaeii oe?a?inueei? ?noi???. Ana oea cia/ii
i?ae??aaei aeooiai?noue ia?iaeo, iaaaoeaii a?aeaeeiny ia eiai
iaoe?iiaeuei?e na?aeiiino?, eoeueoo??, cae/ayo, o?aaeeoe?yo.

?c caeiaoooyi iacaeaaeiino? oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa io?eiaea iiaeeea?noue
a?ae?iaeeoe ao?a/aia, iicaooeny eieeoi?o oia?aaeaeaieo ?aeaieia?/ieo
onoaiiaie uiaei iaoe?? oa ?ae?a??, aeiei??iii ia?ainieneeoe noni?eueio
?ieue oeeo oaiiiai?a, ae?iaeyoe ? i?iaaaeeoe aeanio iie?oeeo a
aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e oa ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai?e noa?ao. A oeeo oiiaao
aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo oa ?ae?a?eieo i?ioean?a
iaaoaathoue iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino?.

Iaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ie? ?ae?a?? ? oea?eae o aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie aeooae?co?oueny e oei, ui oe? aaaeeea? noa?e
noni?eueiiai aeeooy inoaii?i /anii iaaoee a?ae/ooiiai iie?oe/iiai
caaa?aeaiiy, noaee ia’?eoii i?ioeai?noaa iie?oe/ieo nee ??cii?
i???ioaoe??. I?i naaa ye i?i noa’?eo?a a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy
ana /ano?oa cayaeythoue aeaye? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? oa ?ae?a?ei?
i?aai?caoe??.

No/ania noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia oa ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaia
aeeooy aeeeeea? ?ioa?an o ??cieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Iaoeiaoe?a
oe?eaaeyoue eiai ?noi?e/i? oa oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe, i?aaenoaaiee?a
aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? — i?aeoe/i?, iia’ycai? c iiooeii aoaeoeaieo oi?i ?
iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy ieie. Ia?an?/i? a?iiaaeyie iathoue aecia/eoeny o
nai?io noaaeaii? oa aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? o oeeo i?ioeanao.

Iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy icia/aiiai eiea ieoaiue aeooae?co? oa
ianoaaeia, ui aiie iaeaea ia cieeathoue ?c noi??iie ?in?enueeeo
aeaeaiue, ye? iathoue cia/ia iioe?aiiy a Oe?a?i?. ?o aena?oeaiiy
cae?enith?oueny, cacae/ae, c iiceoe?e iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieo
?ioa?an?a ?in??, ui inoaii?i /anii aeoeaii aeei?enoiao?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? oa ?ae?a?ei? /eiieee ye ?ino?oiaio nai?? aaiiie?oeee.

Aei ia’?eoeaiiai aea/aiiy ?ie? ?ae?a?? ? oea?eae a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo cia/iith i??ith niiioea? ye eiai ieioea,
ui aea? aaaaoee aeina?ae oa iia/aeuei? o?iee aeey nueiaiaeaiiy, oae ?
iei?oiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia oa ?ae?a?eia neooaoe?y a
Oe?a?i?.

Aaaeeea?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a aca?iiae?? aoiino ?
?ae?a?? iia’ycaia ia?aaeon?i c i?iaeaiaie aioo??oiueiai aeeooy
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, i?ioa aiia ia?aeiieeai i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
oaeiae na?oiaei aeina?aeii oa no/anieie i?aeia?iaeieie iiae?yie,
ine?eueee a aneaeaoe?? iie?oe/ieo ? i?aeaoi?/ieo eiioe?eo?a ia??aeei
iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo /eiiee?a aenooia? ?ae?a?eiee.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?? aeooaeueia oaeiae c iaeyaeo ia 2000-e?ooy ??caeaa
O?enoiaiai oa aeieeiaiiy o?enoeyinoaa, yea ?noioii aieeaaei, aieeaa? ?
aieeaaoeia ia iie?oe/iee, iaoe?iiaeueiee, aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie
aaaaoueio ia?iae?a na?oo, cie?aia e oe?a?inueeiai.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. O ?aaeyinuee? /ane c ??cieo i?e/ei,
ia?aaeon?i ?aeaieia?/ieo, aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiieiioan?eieo i?ioean?a ia
iaeaaeaee aei i??i?eoaoieo. Oei a?eueoa iaiiaeeeaei aoei inieneaiiy
iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a aca?iiae?? aoiino oa ?ae?a??, ine?eueee iie?oieia?y
ye iaoea oiae? acaaae? ia aeciaaaeany. O?eaaea ?aii?oaaiiy io?oe?eiith
?aaeyinueeith iaoeith aoii?ae?a?eieo i?iaeai i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui aiie
caeeoeeenue iaeiaio aea/aieie.

Uii?aaaea ie?ai? aeine?aeieee ?iaeee ni?iae aeyaeaiiy oi/ie aeioeeo
aoiino oa ?ae?a??, iniaeeainoae ?o aca?iiae??. Oae, iai?ee?ioe? 60-o
?ie?a OO no. ?in?enuee? aoiia?aoe N.A?oe, I.Io/eia, I.*aaiena?ia,
ss.*aniia oa ?io? cai?iaaaeeee aei iaoeiaiai aaeeoeo iiiyooy
«aoiieiioan?eia ni?eueiioa», aeaee eiai aecia/aiiy, aeine?aeaeoaaee
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoi?/ieo ? eiioan?eieo ni?eueiio.

Aca?iica’ycie aoiino ? ?ae?a?? iaea?eueo aeeaiei e anaa?/ii o
?aaeyinuee? /ane inieneea iineianueeee aeine?aeiee I.?iaoia, yeee ia
ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a ae?eoia ni?aaaaeeeaiai aeniiaeo, ui /eiaei ?ae?a?e,
?nioth/e ia eiie?aoiiio aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?, c /anii iaaoaathoue
a?ae/ooiiai aoi?/iiai caaa?aeaiiy, a aeaye? c ieo noathoue
aoiieiioan?eieie noni?eueieie ooai?aiiyie.

Iaaiee aianie o aea/aiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a aca?iica’yceo
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ? eiioan?eieo aeaiaio?a iai?ee?ioe? 60-o oa o 70-o
?ieao c?iaeee I.Aoe?ia (Ocaaeenoai), ?.Iaeaoia (Aeaaanoai),
ss.I?ieyae/thn (Eeoaa), I.Ionoao?iia (*a/iy), I.Ineiia, A.I?eia (?in?y),
I.Oaceeia (Eacaonoai), E.Oan??a (Oaoa?noai), I.Aiciye, ?.Ieaiae/,
?.Iieoe (Oe?a?ia) oa ?i. Aiie aeine?aeaeoaaee iniaeeaino? aca?iiae??
iaaieo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio c eiie?aoieie ?ae?a?yie — a
iniiaiiio c eaoieeoeeciii, a?aei-eaoieeoeeciii, ?neaiii, a oaeiae
iniaeeaino? i?iya?a ?ae?a?eiino? o iie?aoi?/iiio na?aaeiaeu?. Iaeia/a
oiae?oi? ?aeaieia?/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? onoaiiaee ia aeaaaee iiaeeeaino?
ni?aaae? iaoeiai aeine?aeaeoaaoe oe? i?ioeane a on?e ?o iiaiio?.

A oiiaao iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiino,
iaoe?? oa ?ae?a?? ye noni?eueieo oaiiiai?a cia/ii c??n. Iineeeeanue
oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a aei aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?
oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaa’y, aoiieiioan?eii? niaoeeo?ee eoeueoo?e, ?ie?
eiioan?eieo /eiiee?a a ooaa?aeaeaii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?,
ieoaiue noaiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae. Oe? i?iaeaie iei?
ie?aeii aeine?aeaeothoue a?o/eciyi? ?ae?a??ciaaoe? iiai? aaia?aoe??,
cie?aia N.Cae?i?oe, I.Naaai, A.ssnuee?a. Ia iaoyaeai? noa?eie
noa?aioeiaie, aiie aeaiiino?othoue ia?niaeoeai? i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy
ie?aieo aniaeo?a aca?iiae?? aoiino ? ?ae?a??. I?ioa, iie?oieia?/iiai
inieneaiiy i?iaeai ?ae?a?? ? oea?eae a eiioaeno? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie a?aeo? e aein? .

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? oa ?ae?a?ei? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? o ?o
?noi?e/iiio aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iiae??.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aeyaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy iie?oe/ieo
aniaeo?a aca?iiaieeao aoiino ? ?ae?a??, ?ie? oa i?noey eiioan?eieo
/eiiee?a o iaoe?iiaeueiiio aooo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? iia’ycaia c a?aeiia?aeieie iaoeiaeie iai?yiaie eaoaae?e
iie?oieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,
?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?inoeoooo
o?einio?? ?iai? A?eai??y Neiai?iaee, ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie,
?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?iai? A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai, Oeaio?o
iai’yoeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?e ?ae?a??ciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?anueeiai
a?enueeiaiai aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo
no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Eiiieaeniee oa nenoaiiee oa?aeoa?
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aaoaaa caeo/aiiy aei aiae?co ianeao
??ciiiai?oieo na?onueeeo ? eiioan?eieo aeaea?ae, iaoeiaeo aei?iae?a
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a. Aeei?enoaio aeaea?aeueio aaco
iiaeia oiiaii ?icae?eeoe ia e?eueea aeie?a.

1-e aeie neeaaeathoue nioe?aeueii-o?einionuee?, iie?oieia?/i? oa
nioe?ieia?/i? aeaea?aea. Aac ieo aoei a iaiiaeeeaa inieneaiiy no/anieo
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo oa ?ae?a?eieo i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ia oe?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. O oeueiio eiioaeno? aaaeeeaa
iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy iaee i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo oao?aoe?a A.Aiae?ouaiea,
A.Aaae?ia, I.Aaae?ii?, A.Aaaeea, N.Aiaeaie/a, I.Aa?aiy, A.AEo?aanueeiai,
?.Eai?inueeiai, A.Eieiae?e, A.E?aiaiy, A.Eeoaeia, I.Ieoaeue/aiea,
I.Iieeyea, A.Iacaiea, A.Iie/aiea, A.?aaeaea, N.?yaiaa, Ae.Oaaa/ieea,
E.Ooi/??iea, A.Oea/aiea, I.Oiiaiea, O.?oaee/a, TH.Oaioo/aiea, I.*a?ieo,
o yeeo ?ic?iaeythoueny oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii? o?einio??,
iie?oieia?? oa nioe?ieia??, aeine?aeaeothoueny no/ani? iie?oe/i?
i?ioeane a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, aaaeaoueny iiooe oeyo?a eiai
eiinie?aeaoe??.

Ie?aio a?oio aeaea?ae o oeueiio aeioe? neeaaeathoue aoiieia?/i? oa
aoiiiie?oieia?/i?. Inoaii?i /anii a Oe?a?i? caii/aoeiaaii oae?
ia?niaeoeai? iai?yie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye aoiiiie?oieia?y oa
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoai, o ?aieao yeeo aea/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai oa aea?aeaaieoeueeiai a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?,
iniaeeaino? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai aoiino a iie?oe/io iaoe?th,
?ic?iaeythoueny oa ooi/iythoueny iaoeia? eaoaai???, aecia/athoueny
iniiai? eiioeaiooaeuei? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iie?oeei-i?aaia?
canaaee aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Oe? i?iaeaie
aeoeaii ? ie?aeii aeine?aeaeothoue oae? a?o/eciyi? a/ai?, ye I.A?ei?a,
?.Aa?ca?, I.A?a/a?ee, N.Aiaeaie/, A.Ai?aaoaiei, A.?aooo, A.?aiaoia,
I.Ea?ooiia, ?.E?an?ia, ?.Eo?an, I.Iaeai?iaea, I.Ie?iiaiei, N.Iaea?/oe,
E.Iaai?ia, I.Iaeueaa, I.Iaooiee, ?.Iieuaiei, A.Iai?aoaeueeanea,
A.Ia?aeeoey, A.Iiiiia?ueia, A.Iiiia, N.?eia?aiei, TH.?eia?aiei,
A.Nieaeaoaiei, O.?oaeieoeueea, I.Noaieei, A.Oaaae, E.Oeey?, I.Ooeueaa.

Ine?eueee oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai caeaaia ? iie?aoi?/iei, aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy iathoue ?noi?e/i? oa no/ani? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iia’ycai? c
aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noth iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei Oe?a?ie. Oe? i?iaeaie
i?eaa?oathoue oaaao oaeeo aeine?aeiee?a, ye E.Aca, I.Ca?aiaa, I.Iai/oe,
A.*e?ei.

Cia/iith iaoeiaith i?aeiiaith aeey c’ynoaaiiy ie?aieo oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue ? noo? eeth/iaeo iiiyoue aoiieia?? oa iaoe?ieia?? noaee
oaeiae i?aoe? aeciaieo cao?aeieo a/aieo I.Aaoa?a, I.Aoaa?a, A.?aiaia.
I?aaenoaaieeai ?in?enueei? oeiee, cie?aia N.A?oothiiao, ?.Aaa?aiiao,
TH.A?iieath, E.Aoi?eueiao, E.Ae?ia?aeaa?e, N.Eaeoao/aio, A.Eiceiao,
I.Eoe?/aieo, ?.Oaaeaainyio, E. *enoiao, oaae aaeaeiny c?iaeoe iaaiee
aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aoiieia?? oa iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei.

2-e aeie neeaaeathoue ?noi?e/i? oa ?ae?a?eii-?noi?e/i? aeaea?aea (i?aoe?
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a ?noi??? oa iie?oe/ii? ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, ?noi??? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei, ?ae?a?? ? oea?eae).
Inieneaiith ?ie? oa cia/aiiy ?ae?a?? ? oea?eae a ?o ?noi?e/i?e
?ao?iniaeoea? aaeeeith i??ith ni?eyee i?aoe? i?aaenoaaiee?a a?o/eciyii?
?noi?e/ii? oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee — A.Aioiiiae/a,
I.A?ooaanueeiai, Ae.Aeiioeiaa, Ae.Aei?ioaiea, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
I.Einoiia?iaa, ?.E?ei’yeaae/a, I.Eoe?oa, A.Eeieinueeiai,
I.I?oiianueeiai, Ae.ssai?ieoeueeiai oa ?i. ? oi/a c ?oiuei? niaaeueie ia
ana ? i?eaeaoiei aeey nthiaiaeaiiy, i?ioa ?o aianie o aea/aiiy oeeo
i?iaeai aaaeei i?aioe?ieoe.

C io?eiaiiyi iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie o iaoeiaoe?a c’yaeeany ?aaeueia
iiaeeea?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo aniaeo?a ?? ?noi???. C iiceoe?e
no/aniiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ?o oni?oii cae?eniththoue iei? a?o/eciyi?
?noi?eee A.Ai?enaiei, A.Aa?nothe, A.Aeaieeaiei, I.Eioey?,
N.Eoeue/eoeueeee, I.?a?io, A.Na?aae, A.Na?a?e/oe, A.Nethna?aiei,
A.Niie?e oa ?i. ?oi? iaoeia? aei?iaee aeiiiiaaaee aaoi?ia? inienethaaoe
aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? oa eiioan?ei? i?ioeane a ?o ?noi?e/i?e aaiethoe??.

A?aeiinii naiino?eio a?oio aeaea?ae o oeueiio aeioe? ooai?ththoue i?aoe?
c ?noi??? ?ae?a?? oa oea?eae a Oe?a?i?. O ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae, eiee
?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaa’y ? a?aei-eaoieeoeecio oa iniaeeaino?
iaoe?iiaeueii-?ae?a?eieo i?ioean?a iaeaea ia aenooiaee ia’?eoii
niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aai aena?oethaaeeny oaiaeaioe?eii, oeth
i?iaaeeio cia/iith i??ith caiiaithaaee iaoeia? ?ica?aeee i?aaenoaaiee?a
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e: A.Aioeth?e?aa, Ae.Ao?ea, ?.Aeanianueeiai,
A.Aoaecyea, A.AEoeianueeiai, I.Eioioeueeiai, ?.Ia??iea, ?.I?oeinueeiai,
I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, TH.Oaaei??aa, ?.Oeiee, I.*oaaoiai. I?ioa
iioe?aiiy a Oe?a?i? aiie ia iaee. sseui o?aaiaioe ?oi?o oai??a ?ieiee e
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao, oi eeoa c iaoith e?eoeee.

Inoaii?i /anii ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai? i?iaeaie a eiioaeno? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
ie?aeii aea/athoue oae? a?o/eciyi? aeine?aeieee, ye N.A?eie?iue,
I.A?ae/aanueeee, I.?aiaoooa, N.AEeethe, A.C?i/aiei, I.E?eaeai?anueeee,
I.Eenaiei, I.Iioey, A.Iauaiei, E.Ieeyaaoeue, N.Ieio?e, A.?e/ea,
O.Oo?/aiei, A.Oeueyiianueeee oa ?i. C’yaeeiny /eiaei ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?
eieaeoeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, o yeeo aena?oeththoueny ?noi??y oa
iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaa’y, ?ieue ?ae?a?? oa oea?eae a
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?iia?nueea ni?yiiaai?noue ae?yeueiino? ?in?enueei?
i?aaineaaii? oea?eae a Oe?a?i?.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? nie?aany oaeiae ia i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a —
N.Ca?aiae, ss.?na?ae/a, A.Eeeiiaa, I.Ianooe?, A.I?/ee, Ae.Noaiiaeea, a
yeeo iieaco?oueny ?ieue ?ae?a?? oa oea?eae a aoiieoeueoo?ieo i?ioeanao,
i?noea oea?eiaii? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie o no/aniiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio e aeooiaiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? Oe?a?ie.

3-e aeie — ?ae?a??ciaa/? oa aoiieiioan?ei? aeaea?aea. Inoaii?i /anii a
oe?a?inueeiio ?ae?a??ciaanoa?, yea ii-ni?aaaeiueiio eeoa
caii/aoeiao?oueny, oni?oii ?ic?iaeythoueny oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie, ?noioii
ia?ainieneththoueny o?aaeeoe?ei? oyaeaiiy i?i nooue ?ae?a?? oa oea?eae,
?o ?ieue a ooaa?aeaeaii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, no/aniiio
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iiio ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. Iia? i?aeoiaee oa aeaaeai?/iee
??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ae?a?eiiai oaiiiaia, no/anieo i?ioean?a ?
oaiaeaioe?e o ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie aeaiiino?othoue
A.Aiiaea?aiei, A.Aeooae, A.?eainueeee, I.Caeiae/, A.Eieiaeiee,
I.Ee?thoei, I.Ei/ai, A.Eoanueeee, A.Iaeueiee, I.Iiae/aiei, I.?eaa/oe,
I.Naoo, I.Ooe?i, E.Oeeeiiae/, I.ss?ioeueeee oa ?i.

Aeey aeeaoiai c’ynoaaiiy oeo /e oeo aniaeo?a ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiai
aeeooy, aeyaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e o ?icaeoeo no/anieo ?ae?a?eieo i?ioean?a a
Oe?a?i? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaee ioae?eaoe??, oni? aenooie aeaa
oe?a?inueeeo oea?eia oa ?ae?a?eieo ae?y/?a ??cieo eiioan?e.

Na?aae aeaea?ae aaaeeeao a?oio neeaaeathoue no/ani? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia?
aeieoiaioe, iaoa??aee nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, noaoenoe/i? aeai?.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ine?eueee iie?oe/i?,
aoi?/i? oa ?ae?a?ei? aeaiaioe a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie o?nii ia?aieaeenue, a
iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii ??ci? i?aeoiaee — ?noi?e/iee,
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee, iie?oieia?/iee, eoeueoo?ieia?/iee,
?ae?a??ciaa/ee.

Aaaaoiieaiia?noue i?iaeaie oaeiae iio?aaoaaea canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeniiai
iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?aeiino? ?noi?eei-o?iiieia?/iiai,
i?iaeaiii-eia?/iiai, ii??aiyeueiiai oa no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
aiae?co.

C iaoith oieeiaiiy oia?aaeaeaieo ioe?iie i?ioean?a ? yaeu, ui
a?aeaoaaeeny a aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e oa ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai?e noa?ao,
aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny ia canaaeao oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?,
ia’?eoeaiino?, iie?oe/ii? oa ?aeaieia?/ii? aaaaoiiai?oiino?,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? oiea?aioiino? ? eiioan?eii? aacnoi?iiiino?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ?
iie?oieia?/iee aiae?c aca?iica’yceo aoiino ? ?ae?a?? o i?ioean? ?o
?noi?e/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oa a oiiaao no/anieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
?aae?e, aecia/aiiy ?ie?, i?noey, cia/aiiy eiioan?eieo /eiiee?a o
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aooo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ?ica’ycaoe oae?
aieiai? caaaeaiiy:

— aecia/eoe caaaeuei? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoiino oa ?ae?a??, c’ynoaaoe iaoai?cie, iniaeeaino? oa
?noi?e/i? oi?ie ?o aca?iiae??, aecia/eoe i?noea ?ae?a?? na?aae
no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a aoiino oa iaoe??, aeyaeoe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio
coiiaeai?noue i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei oa aeoiee eiioan?eii?
iaoa?ieiino?;

— ?ice?eoe aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? oa aoiiiie?oe/i? aniaeoe cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
o?enoeyinoaa a ?on?-Oe?a?i?, i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean oa iniiai? aoaie
noaiiaeaiiy naiiaooiino? oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaa’y ye ?ae?a?eiiai,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ? aoiieoeueoo?iiai oaiiiaia;

— aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaa’y o
neeaae? ?in?enueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, i?e/eie eiai caiaiaaeo,
iieacaoe oi?ie ? iaoiaee aeei?enoaiiy ?in?enueeei naiiaea?aeaanoaii
?ae?a?? oa oea?eae ye caniao ?oneo?eaoe??, aoi?/ii? i?aaeyoe?? e
anei?eyoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

— aecia/eoe i?noea oa ?ieue ?ae?a?? ? oea?eae a aoiieoeueoo?ieo
i?ioeanao Oe?a?ie, c’ynoaaoe i?iaeaie aea/aiiy, caa?aaeaiiy oa
aeei?enoaiiy oea?eiaieo iai’yoie ye aaaeeeaeo neeaaeiaeo oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, ?o ?ieue ? i?noea no/aniiio aeooiaiiio
a?ae?iaeaeaii? Oe?a?ie, aeine?aeeoe ieoaiiy canoinoaaiiy nae?aeueii?
iiae o aiaineoaeaia?e i?aeoeoe? oe?a?inueeeo oea?eia;

— c’ynoaaoe cia/aiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo oa eiioan?eieo /eiiee?a o
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioeanao, ooaa?aeaeaii? oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii?
iaoe??, iieacaoe iniaeeaino? aca?iica’yceo iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa
?ae?a?eiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a oiiaao no/anieo iie?oe/ieo ?aae?e;

— aeyaeoe i?e/eie, nooi?noue, oi?ie, iane?aeee i?aeoea?eiaiiai
eiioe?eoo, ??aaiue caa?ice iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai ? iaoe?iiaeuei?e
aaciaoe? Oe?a?ie, ia?niaeoeae oa oeyoe eiai iiaeieaiiy ye aaaeeeai?
oiiae aeinyaiaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe aeoiee ?aea? ?aeeii? iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae a Oe?a?i?,
?noi?e/i? ni?iae oa iaaaea/? ?aae?caoe??, aeyaeoe ia?aoeiaee, ui noiyoue
ia oeyoo ?? ao?eaiiy o no/anieo oiiaao;

— aecia/eoe iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie o
?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai?e noa??, iniiai? oeyoe ?o caaacia/aiiy, oi?ie
ii?aeiaiiy c iniaenoeie oa eiioan?eieie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe??
iieyaa? ia?aaeon?i o oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e iie?oieia??
cae?eniaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a aca?iica’yceo
aoiino oa ?ae?a??, ?ie? eiioan?eieo /eiiee?a o aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?
aoiiiie?oe/ieo i?ioeanao a Oe?a?i?. ?acoeueoaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noai?aiiy e iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oe?e?nii?
eiioeaioe??, a ye?e ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? aoiino oa ?ae?a??
a ?o ?noi?e/i?e aaiac? ? no/aniiio ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, ui aeeth/a? o naaa
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?, iie?oeei-i?aaia?, i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aenoiooi ? iaa?oioiaaii ieceo
iieiaeaiue, ye? iathoue iaoeiao iiaecio e aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— anoaiiaeaii, ui iacaaaeath/e ia ??ciiieaiia?noue aoiino ? ?ae?a?? ye
nioe?aeueieo ooai?aiue, i?ae ieie ooai?eeeny aeaai?, o?ni? ? noae?
ca’ycee, ye? iathoue ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie aeyao, aca?iica’yceo e
aca?iiae?? o noa?? na?aeiiino?, eoeueoo?e, oa iiaooo. Ia oe?a?inueeiio
a?oio? aoiin oaae iano?eueee o?nii iia’ycaiee c ?ae?a??th, ui aac
iiaiiai ? anaa?/iiai inieneaiiy ?? ?ie? ? i?noey o aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo iaiiaeeeai i?ciaoe iniaeeaino? eiai iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?
oa aeooiaiino?, oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a a
ieioeiio ? oaia?. C ?ioiai aieo, aaaeei inyaiooe nooue ? niaoeeo?eo
?ae?a?eiino? oe?a?ioe?a o a?ae?ea? a?ae ?o iaoe?iiaeueiiai aoooy;

— c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui o noaiiaeaii? oe?a?inueeiai aoiino, oi?ioaaii?
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? iaoe?? ?ae?a?y oa oea?eaa a?ae?a?aaaee ?noi?e/ii
noia?a/eeao ?ieue, oi ni?eyth/e ?oiueiio aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio
naiiaecia/aiith oa naiii?aai?caoe??, oi ia?aoeiaeaeath/e;

— ia iniia? aiae?co ?noi?e/ieo oi?i aca?iiae?? aoi?/ieo oa eiioan?eieo
/eiiee?a c’yniaaii i?noea ?ae?a?? na?aae no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a aoiino ?
iaoe??, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue eiie?aoecoaaoe nooue ie?aieo iiiyoue oa
eaoaai??e aoiieia?? oa ?ae?a??ciaanoaa;

— anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?aeoa? i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeeoue a?ae iniaeeainoae aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aca?iei, a aeoiee
eiioan?eii? iaoa?ieiino? ne?ae ooeaoe o noia?a/eeaeo a?aeiineiao
??ciieiioan?eieo aoiin?a, aecia/aii oi?ie cai?ioiiai aieeao ?ae?a?? ia
i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? i?ioeane;

— aenoiooi oa iaa?oioiaaii oaco, ui ia aaiethoe?th ?ae?a?? a?ae
iie?oa?cio aei iiiioa?cio ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa a ?on?-Oe?a?i?
?noioiee aieea iaee oiai/ani? a?aeiineie no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ieaiai
i?ae niaith oa c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie ? ia?iaeaie. I?ae aieeaii
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo, aoiieoeueoo?ieo oa ?ioeo
/eiiee?a a?caio?enueea o?enoeyinoai o?ainoi?ioaaeiny a oe?a?inueea
i?aaineaa’y, yea noaei iaoe?iiaeueii naiiaooi?i aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iei
oaiiiaiii;

— iieacaii, ui ?io? oa/?? o?enoeyinoaa, ?nioth/e ia oe?a?inueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?, oaae iaaoee aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?en, ioiieee
nai?i aieeaii oe?ieee niaeo? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aoooy oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, noaaoe iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith eiai aeooiaiiai na?oo oa
eoeueoo?e;

— aeiaaaeaii, ui Oe?a?ia o?eaaeee /an aoea ia’?eoii ia eeoa na?onueei? a
e oea?eiaii? ?oneo?eaoe??, i?iaiae?ciaaii oi?ie, iaoiaee, i?eeiie
iaoe?iiaeueii? i?aaeyoe?? e anei?eyoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ui
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oea?nueeei naiiaea?aeaanoaii oa ?in?enueeith
i?aaineaaiith oea?eaith. *a?aoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oa aacaea?aeaaiiai
ia??iae?a a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?? oa?eoi??e ??ciei
?iia??yi oa aea?aeaaai, i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? ?
?ae?a?ei? i?ioeane ii-??ciiio a?aeaoaaeeny o ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, ui
iicia/eeiny ia oaiiao no/aniiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?ae?a?eiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Ai?ioueaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ca oea?eiaio
iacaeaaei?noue oa aaoieaoae?th i?aaineaaii? oea?eae caaaeaee iaea ia
eeoa ?ae?a?eiee, a e iaoe?iiaeueiee oa iie?oe/iee ci?no, aoea iaei??th
?c oi?i eiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueeiai naiiooaa?aeaeaiiy;

— c’yniaaii iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? aoiino oa ?ae?a?? a
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?i?e noa??. Caaaeyee aaaeeea?e ?ie? ?ae?a?? ? oea?eae a
aoiieoeueoo?ieo i?ioeanao cia/ia /anoeia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
iaaeaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo iaaoea aoiieiioan?eiiai ci?noo.
Oea?eiaia ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia niaaeueia iei? ? iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, yea iio?aao? aea/aiiy, ioi?iie oa
caa?aaeaiiy;

— iieacaii aeeiai?eo, aca?iiaieea oa aca?iica’ycie no/anieo
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ? ?ae?a?eieo i?ioean?a, iie?oeei-i?aaia? iniiae e
aca?iiaieea iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? ?ae?a?eiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, i?e/eie
iie?oecaoe?? ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaii? noa?e a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy oa
ooaa?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Cia/ia /anoeia oea?eia,
?ae?a?eieo i?aai?caoe?e, no/anii? oea?eiaii? ae?oe e aeooiaainoaa, iei?
caeaoi? aieeaaoe ia eeoa ia noai oa oa?aeoa? ?ae?a?eiino?, a e ia
noni?eueio ii?aeue, ??aaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ?
naiina?aeiiino?, iie?oe/i? i???ioaoe?? a??oth/i? /anoeie ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie;

— c’yniaaii, ui no/aniee i?aeoea?eiaiee eiioe?eo a Oe?a?i? ia? ?noi?e/ia
ei??iiy, ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? i?e/eie ? aeyaey?oueny o iie?oe/i?e
oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e noa?ao, ia ???a?o?/iiio oa iiaooiaiio ??aiyo. A?i
iino?eii aeeaeoueny iie?oe/iith iiey?ecaoe??th oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, iayai?noth i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae aeaaaie oea?eia, ai?ioueaith
ca noa?e aieeao, eoeueoia? i?ei?uaiiy oa iaeii, a oaeiae
ia?ica’ycai?noth i?iaeai a oe?a?ii-?in?enueeeo oea?eiaieo a?aeiineiao.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui iiaeieaiiy i?aeoea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo ia? aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy ia eeoa aeey eiai noa’?eo?a, a e aeey aeinyaiaiiy
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? ceaaiaee;

— nie?ath/enue ia ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae oea?eiaieo oi?e, aiae?c no/anieo
i?ioean?a ? oaiaeaioe?e o ?ae?a?eiiio aeeoo? aeiaaaeaii
aaci?aenoaai?noue ni?ia ?aae?caoe?? a Oe?a?i? ?aea? ?aeeii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae. Noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui iaeaooi? Oe?a?ie ia a
oi?o?eaoe?? ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiai aeeooy, a a ooaa?aeaeaii? eiioan?eii?
aaaaoiiai?oiino? ? oiea?aioiino?, iaae?eiiio caaacia/aii? ?ae?a?eieo
i?aa ? naiaiae;

— ie?aneaii eiei iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a Oe?a?ie o
?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai?e noa??, ?ice?eoi ?o nooue oa iniaeeaino?
caaacia/aiiy a no/anieo oiiaao. Iieacaii, ui caei?aeiii?
?ae?a?eii-iie?oe/i? aieeae, iie?oe/ii-eiioan?eia ?iceieio?noue
iie?aoi?/iiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, iiaeeea?noue ia?aianaiiy
i?aeoea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo a noa?o aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei oa a
a?i?enueea na?aaeiaeua, iayai?noue ca?oa?aeieo nayuaiiineoaeeoae?a ia
eeoa ia a?aeiia?aeathoue iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai Oe?a?ie, a
e ia??aeei caa?iaeothoue ?? iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa oai?aoe/i?
aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? o iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo, aenooiao aaoi?a ia I?aeia?iaeieo oa Anaoe?a?inueeeo
neiiic?oiao, eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, e?oaeeo noieao. Na?aae ieo
Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y “Aoi?/ia na?aeii?noue ?
iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a” (Ee?a, 1991); Anaoe?a?inueeee iaoeiaee
neiiic?oi “Oea?eaa ? iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy” (Ee?a, 1992);
Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y “?ae?a?eia o?aaeeoe?y a aeooiaiiio
a?ae?iaeaeaii? Oe?a?ie” (Iieoaaa, 1992); Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y “Oe?a?inueea i?aaineaa’y: iniaeeaino?, ?noi??y,
no/ani?noue” (Ee?a, 1992); Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y
“Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay ? oea?eaa” (Ee?a, 1993); Anaoe?a?inueea
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “Iie?oeea ? aeaaea” (Caii??aeaey, 1993);
I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y “?ae?a?y a eiioaeno? noni?eueieo ?
aeooiaieo ?aae?e nueiaiaeaiiy (Ee?a, 1995); I?aeia?iaeia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “A?i?y ? aeooiai?noue: naiaiaea nia?no?
oa a??iaeciaiiy” (Ee?a, 1995); I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y “Aoiiiie?oe/i? oa aoiieoeueoo?i? i?iaeaie Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a,
1996); I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y “?ae?a?y ? oea?eaa a
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao” (Ee?a, 1996); I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y “O?enoeyinoai a eiioaeno? ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie”,
I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “O?enoeyinueea ethaia oa
a?enueeiaee iaia’ycie” (Ee?a, 1997); Anaoe?a?inueea i?aeia?iaeia
o?enoeyinueea anaiaeay “Caiia?aeue iiao aeath aai: etha?oue iaeei
iaeiiai” (Ee?a, 1998); nai?ia?-ia?aaea «Aea?aeaaii-oea?eiai? a?aeiineie:
i?iaeaie nueiaiaeaiiy» (Ee?a, 1997); iino?eii ae?th/ee e?oaeee no?e
«?ae?a?y oa aeaaea» (Ee?a, 1997-1999).

?aea? aeena?oaoe?? ciaoiaeeee i?aeoe/ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iaoeiaeo
aeniiaeao aaoi?a uiaei i?iaeo?a caeii?a Oe?a?ie «I?i a?euei?noue
a??iniia?aeaiiy ? ?ae?a?eio ae?yeuei?noue», «I?i aecia/aiiy canaae
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o noa?? aea?aeaaii-oea?eiaieo a?aeiinei», «I?i
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?io niaaeueio», «I?i aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei
Caeii?a Oe?a?ie «I?i naiaiaeo ntha?no? oa ?ae?a?ei? i?aai?caoe??», «I?i
iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie a Oe?a?i?», a aiae?oe/ieo oa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
iaoa??aeao aeey i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaoaaeeny oaeiae o
eaeoe?yo ?c niaoeeo?no “?ae?a?y ? iaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie”, ui /eoaeeny
aeey nooaeaio?a o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. *anoeia iaoa??ae?a ciaeoea nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o aaoi?nueeeo iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo ioae?eaoe?yo ia
noi??ieao ia??iaee/ii? i?ane.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??ee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaoeiooue iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe?
oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai iie?oieia??, aoiieia?? oa ?ae?a??ciaanoaa.

Aiie iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny oaeiae o aeeeaaeaii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie,
o?einio??, iie?oieia??, oe?a?iiciaanoaa, ?ae?a??ciaanoaa oa ?ioeo
aeenoeeie?i o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ??ciiai ??aiy.

Aeniiaee oa iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
aecia/aii? oa ooi/iaii? iniiaieo canaae ? i??i?eoao?a no/anii?
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o noa?? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo oa aea?aeaaii-oea?eiaieo
a?aeiinei.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeee
eiai eia?eo oa no?oeoo?o. Aeena?oaoe?y (ianya 324 noi??iie)
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?ei?oie (359
iaeiaioaaiue) oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (170 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ?ice?eaa?oueny noai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie, i?inoaaeo?oueny ?? ca’ycie ?c iaoeiaeie
i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie oa oaiaie, aecia/athoueny ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia oa aeaea?aeueia
aaca. C’yniaothoueny oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeena?oaoe??,
aena?oeththoueny ieoaiiy ai?iaaoe?? oa i?aeoe/ii? cia/eiino? ??
?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aca?iica’yceo aoiino ? ?ae?a??” aiae?cothoueny iniiai? aeaea?aea, a yeeo
c’yniaothoueny i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeainoae
aca?iiae?? aoiino ? ?ae?a?? a i?ioean? ?oiuei? ?noi?e/ii? aaiethoe??,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? coiiaeaiino? i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei.

Ine?eueee oe? ieoaiiy oi?eathoueny ye ia?ae?a?eii? (aoi?/ii?) oae ?
?ae?a?eii? (eiioan?eii?) noa?, iiaeyae ia ieo iiaea aooe ? na?onueeei, ?
aiaineianueeei.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui /eiaei ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo
aeine?aeiee?a ??cieo iaoeiaeo oe?e, aecia/ath/e nooi?noue iiiyoue
“aoiin” oa “iaoe?y”, iaceaathoue ?ae?a?th na?aae ?oi?o ao?eaooeaieo
iciae. ?io? iaaiaee — ia aeciathoue ?? eiiiiiaioii aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
ni?eueiio.

Aiaineiae aaaaoueio eiioan?e aaaaeathoue ?ae?a?eiee /eiiee iaia’yceiaei
? aieiaiei aeaiaioii aoiino, ui aea? ?i i?aenoaae aeey ioioiaeiaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? ?ae?a?eiiai.

Aaoi? iaaieioo?, ui ieoaiiy i?i i?noea ?ae?a?? na?aae no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a aoiino oa iaoe?? ? aeineoue neeaaeiei ? iio?aao? ia
oe?eeiaeoiai aeciaiiy /e iaoeueiiai caia?a/aiiy ?ae?a??, a
niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

sseui ae i?aeoiaeeoe aei oeueiai ieoaiiy c iiaeyaeo iaoee, oi iani?aaae?
aoiin oa ?ae?a?y — ia oioiaei? yaeua, a oae?, ye? a?eueo aai iaio
ca?aathoueny, ui a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei neiii?i?/iiai
aaeeaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ?i iiiyoue.

A?aeiii, ui eiaeia c ?noi?e/ieo nioe?aeueii-aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio (??ae,
ieai’y, ia?iaei?noue, iaoe?y), oi/a ? ia? a?eueo /e iaio no?ee?
eiiiiiaioe, i?ioa ?o ?ieue, i?noea oa cia/aiiy o i?ioean? aaiethoe?? ia
caeeoaeeny iaci?iieie. Ine?eueee a ??ciee /an i?aaaethaaee oi iaei?, oi
?io? iciaee aoiino oa iaoe??, ?ae?a?y oaae ia iaea noaeiai i?noey na?aae
ieo.

Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia niaoeeo?ea ?ae?a??
iaea?eueoith i??ith i?iyaey?oueny o eoeueoia?e noa??. sse?ac ia eoeueo?,
ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo aeaiaio?a ?ae?a?eiiai eiiieaeno, a?aeaeoie
aoi?/ieo iciae ? iaeiii?oi?oei. Eoeueoia? aeaiaioe ?ae?a??, o naith
/a?ao, aeineoue aeoeaii aca?iiae?thoue c iaoe?iiaeueiith eoeueoo?ith,
ia?iaeieie o?aaeeoe?yie, cae/ayie ? ia?yaeaie, aeeaiei i?iieeathoue o
iiaooiao noa?o.

Oi/a c aoi?/ieie aeaiaioaie iaea?eueoith i??ith iia’ycai? iaoe?iiaeuei?
?ae?a??, i?ioa na?oia? oaae c /anii oyae?thoue aei ieo. Ine?eueee
a?eueo?noue ia?iae?a ? iaoe?e, ye i?aaeei, iathoue aieiaia, o?aaeeoe?eia
a??iniia?aeaiiy, eiai iiaeia ca iaaieo oiia ca?aoiaoaaoe aei ?ic?yaeo
noaeeo aoi?/ieo ?aeaioeo?eaoi??a, a a?aeoae ? aei aeaiaio?a
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai i?aai?cio.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aoiioai?/a ?ieue eiioan?e o ??cieo ia?iae?a aoea
iaiaeiaeiaith, ?ae?a?y ana-oaee iiaea aooe o??th iciaeith, yea a
noeoiiino? c ?ioeie neeaaeiaeie aeiiiiaaa? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oo /e oo
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio ni?eueiioo ye oe?e?nia noni?eueia ooai?aiiy.

sse a?aeiii, iaae? o??? /e ?ioi? ?ae?a?? iiaeooue iiai?noth /e /anoeiai
ca?aaoeny c aoi?/ieie aai aeoiaeeoe ca ieo. A?aeoae i?ae aieeaii iaaii?
?ae?a?? iiaea aooe iaeia aoi?/ia ooai?aiiy /e eiai /anoeia aai a?ae?aco
e?eueea aoiin?a. ? iaaiaee, iaeei ? oie aea aoiin /e eiai /anoeie
iiaeooue iaoe noaeee ca’ycie c iaei??th aai c e?eueeiia ??cieie
?ae?a?yie. Oea i?ecaiaeeei aei aeieeiaiiy aiiiaaiieo (iaeiieiioan?eieo)
aai aaoa?iaaiieo (iie?eiioan?eieo) aoiin?a oa iiiiaoi?/ieo /e
iie?aoi?/ieo ?ae?a?e.

O i?ioean? ?noi?e/ii o?eaaei? aca?iiae?? eiie?aoieo aoi?/ieo a?aae?a ?c
iaaieie eiioan?eieie nenoaiaie a?aeaoaaeiny ?o caeeaeaiiy ? iaa?oue
ceeooy, aiane?aeie /iai c’yaeyeeny aoiieiioan?ei? ooai?aiiy —
iaoaaoiieiioan?ei?, aoiieiioan?ei? ni?eueiioe oa aoiieiioan?ei? a?oie.

O ?icae?e? cacia/a?oueny, ui a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo oiai /e ?ioiai
aoi?/iiai i?aai?cio, ci?ie iaae eiai in?aeeino? ?ae?a?y oaae ia??aeei
caciaaaea ci?i. Aeey aecia/aiiy ni?aaaeiuei? ?ie? ?ae?a?? a
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo iio??aai eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee i?aeo?ae,
yeee iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaoaaa ae oiiae, a yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny aca?iiae?y
aoi?/ieo ? eiioan?eieo aeaiaio?a.

Ia ci?no ?ae?a?eiino? ia??aeei aieeaa? oa?aeoa? a?aeiinei i?ae
ia?iaeaie. I?aeaoi?/ia oa i?aeiaoe?iiaeueia ai?iaeia/a, ui iaea i?noea a
?noi??? aaaaoueio ia?iae?a na?oo, cie?aia oe?a?inueeiai, ye i?aaeei,
ia?aiineeanue o ?ae?a?eia na?aaeiaeua, ciaoiaeeea o iueiio nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o aeaeyae? eiioan?eii? iaoa?ieiino?, oiaoi
oia?aaeaeaiiai, iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei ie?aieo ethaeae ? aoi?/ieo
ni?eueiio, ye? niia?aeothoue ?io? ?ae?a??, aeio?eiothoueny ?ioeo
ia?yae?a, cae/a?a oa o?aaeeoe?e.

Aeoiee iaoa?ieiiai noaaeaiiy aei ?iia??oe?a, aeanoeaiai aaaaoueii
eiioan?yi, ne?ae ooeaoe o noia?a/eeaeo a?aeiineiao i?ae ia?iaeaie. A
iiaeaeueoiio eiioan?eia iaoa?iei?noue iino?eii cae?enithaaea iaaaoeai?e
aieea ia ni?eeoaaiiy ethaeae ??cii? aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino?.

?icaeyaeath/e nooi?noue iaoa?ieiino? ia eiioan?eiiio a?oio?, aaoi?
aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui aiia o?nii iia’ycaia c i?aoaic??th ?ae?a?e ia
?noeii?noue. A aeena?oaoe?? iaaiaeyoueny /eneaii? ?noi?e/i? oaeoe, ye?
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui ai?ioueaa iaeiiai ia?iaeo i?ioe ?ioiai ia??aeei
aaeany i?ae aaneaie caoenoo ?noeiii? a??e.

Oi/a aeoiee ?ae?a?eii? iaoa?ieiino? nyaathoue aeeaiei a ?noi??th, ??
i?iyae iathoue i?noea ? nueiaiaei? o ??cieo ia?iae?a ? eiioan?e. ? oi/a
inoaii?i /anii ia aeoiai?/ieo caoiaeao ieoaiiy i?i ?noeii?noue iaeaea ia
ii?ooo?oueny, i?ioa ana?aaeei? eiaeii? eiioan?? aiii, ye ? ?ai?oa,
caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiei.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny caaaeueiee aeniiaie, ui ?ae?a?eia iaoa?iei?noue
? iaaacia/iith aeey iie?aoi?/iiai oa iie?eiioan?eiiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, ine?eueee caeaoia aeeaeoe iie?oe/iee, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee
oa ?ae?a?eiee aeno?ai?ci, i?eoeeueiee aei e?aei?o iiaeyae?a ? oi?i
?ica’ycaiiy iac??eeo i?iaeai a iae?aaeeeaeuei?oee niin?a, aeeth/ath/e
canoinoaaiiy neee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oe?a?inueea i?aaineaa’y ye aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee
oaiiiai” aeine?aeaeothoueny aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? oa aoiiiie?oe/i? aniaeoe
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa a ?on?-Oe?a?i?, iniaeeaino? o?ainoi?iaoe??
i?aaineaa’y ia oe?a?inueeiio aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?, oi?ie ? iaoiaee
aeei?enoaiiy oea?nueeei naiiaea?aeaanoaii ?ae?a?? ? oea?eae o
?oneo?eaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a oa noinoie?a no?aeieo
neia’yi c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie ? ia?iaeaie o aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie, ui ia ?oiueiio eiioan?eiiio aeai?? nooo?ai iicia/eeeny ye
a?aeiineie i?ae niaith, oae ? c aeaeaeeie ? aeecueeeie non?aeaie.

Ine?eueee ?onue-Oe?a?ia oi?ioaaeany ye iie?aoi?/ia ooai?aiiy, aeey ia?
aaea oiae? oa?aeoa?iith aoea iie?eiioan?ei?noue — /eneaii? ieaiaia
aeio?eioaaeeny nai?o yce/ieoeueeeo a??oaaiue. I?ioa eiioan?eii?
?aeaioe/iino? no?aeieo neia’yi ?c o?enoeyinueeeie aea?aeaaaie ?a?iie ia
aoei. ?oi? iie?oa?noe/i? ?ae?a?? i?eeoee oaeiae o noia?a/i?noue c
ia’?aeiaa/ith iie?oeeith ee?anueeeo eiyc?a ? noaee nai???aeieie
aa?’??aie ia oeyoo iaeaaiaeaeaiiy, ?icoe?aiiy ? ci?oeiaiiy eiioaeo?a
i?ae niaith oa c ?ioeie ?a?iiaenueeeie e?a?iaie oa ia?iaeaie.

A?aeoae ?onue-Oe?a?ia ia’?eoeaii iinoaea ia?aae ?aaeueiith i?iaeaiith
iaiao?aeiino? ci?ie ?ae?a?? c iie?oa?noe/ii? ia iiiioa?noe/io. Ia iniia?
e?oiienieo aeaea?ae aeena?oaio aiae?co? ?noi?e/i? oaine cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
a ?on?-Oe?a?i? cao?aeiiai o?enoeyinoaa, ?neaio oa ?oaea?cio.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui io?oe?eia o?auaiiy eeyi o 988 ?ioe? aoei
caaa?oaeueiei aeoii o?eaaeiai i?ioeano i?iieeiaiiy o?enoeyinoaa ia
no?aeiineia’yinuee? caie?, aeeeeeaiiai ia eeoa nooi ?ae?a?eieie
i?e/eiaie, a e aea?aeaaiith iaiao?aei?noth. O?enoeyinueea ?ae?a?y ianea
o na?aaeiaeua no?aeieo neia’yi na?e aoii?ioaa?aoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ?
a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae yce/ieoeoai, aoea i?enoiniaaia aei ?nioaaiiy o
aaaaoiieai?ii?e aea?aeaa?. Aiia ni?eyea iiaeieaiith ?o ieai?iii?
?ic??ciaiino?, ooai?aiith oe?e?niiai aoiiiie?oe/iiai i?aai?cio.

A ia??iae oaiaeaeueii? ?icae?iaeaiino? oea?eaa ye ?aeeia oeaio?ae?ciaaia
i?aai?caoe?y aeeiioaaea ?ieue noni?eueiiai ?ioaa?aoi?a ? aei iaaii? i??e
no?eioaaea ae?th a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee, aaeueioaaea ?icaeoie
naia?aoenonueeeo oaiaeaioe?e, caaacia/oaaea noni?eueii-iie?oe/io
noaa?euei?noue. Iaeia/a ?? ?ioaa?aoeaia neea ia aoea aaniethoiith, ? c
/anii aeyaeeanue iani?iiiaeiith oo?eioaaoe iineaaeai?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa iie?oe/i? ca’ycee i?ae
caiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueieie ooai?aiiyie Ee?anueei? ?on?.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ooaa?aeaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa a
Ee?anuee?e ?on?, a?aeaoaaeiny o i??o iaaoooy iei aoi?/iiai caaa?aeaiiy ?
iie?oe/ieo ooieoe?e. Aaeaiooth/enue aei iniaeeainoae aeooiaiiai na?oo
neia’yi, ia?inoath/e aeaiaioaie ?oiuei? eoeueoo?e, o?enoeyinoai
ia?aeiiethaaeiny /a?ac ?oi? na?oini?eeiaiiy, i?enoiniaoth/enue aei
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ono?ith aeaaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaae, aae?ath/e ?
ia?ainienethth/e aeaiaioe ?iaeiieai?iieo ?ae?a?e a?aeiia?aeii aei nai?o
aeiaiaoe/ieo onoaiiaie. Oaeei /eiii, ia a?oio? no?aeiineia’yinueeiai
aoiino a?aeaoaaany neioac yce/ieoeoaa ? o?enoeyinoaa. A aeooiai?e
eoeueoo?? e na?oiaeyae? aeaai?o oe?a?ioe?a c’yaeeeny iaa?aeii? ?i ?ai?oa
ooai?aiiy: yce/ieoeoai, ii?aeiaia c o?enoeyinoaii («o?enoeyi?ciaaia
yce/ieoeoai») oa o?enoeyinoai, a yea aeeeeny caeeoee yce/ieoeoaa
(«iyce/iaia o?enoeyinoai»). Aiane?aeie neeaaeii? aoi?/ii? (oe?a?inueei?)
? eiioan?eii? (yce/ieoeueei?) o?ainoi?iaoe?? o?enoeyinoai iaiiaieeiny
neia’yinueeei ci?noii.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny, ui aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio aieeaia?
i?aeaeaaaany ia eeoa i?aaineaaiee eoeueo, a e oea?eiai? ?inoeoooe??.
I?ney io?oe?eiiai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa a ?on?-Oe?a?i? ii/aany
i?ioean oai?aiiy aeanii? iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae. ?? oiniaeaiiyi a
Oe?a?i? aoea Ee?anueea ieo?iiie?y, i?aeii?yaeeiaaia
Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiio iao??a?oaoo. Ee?anuee? eiyc?, ii/eiath/e c
ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, ea?oth/enue ia?aaeon?i iie?oe/ieie oa
iaoe?iiaeueieie ?ioa?anaie, ?iaeee iaiaei ni?ia iicaaaeaiiy a?ae
a?caio?enueei? oea?eiaii? caeaaeiino? oeyoii caaaeaiiy ia ee?anueeo
eaoaae?o aeanieo ???a?o?a.

Iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue, yea noiyei ia?aae oe?a?inueeith
oea?eaith, ui i?aoaiaeoaaea ia ?ieue iacaeaaeii?, aoei noai?aiiy aeanii?
???a?o?? ? caaacia/aiiy naaa i?noeaaeie eaae?aie. Aaeaea oea?eaa, ui
iiai?noth /e /anoeiai ianeoaiaoaaeany ?iicaioeyie, ia iiaea i?aeiyoeny
aei ??aiy ona?aeiieaiiy ? ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai,
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ia?iaeo, iao??ioe/iiai
neoae?iiy.

Oe?a?inueea oea?eaa e?ie ca e?ieii iicaaaeyeany a?caio?enueei?
caeaaeiino?, iinooiiai oi?ioth/enue o iaoe?iiaeueio ?ae?a?eio
?inoeoooe?th. O i?ioean? iiaeaeueoiai noaiiaeaiiy ?ene aaoiiiiiino?
oe?a?inueei? oea?eae i?iyaeyeeny ua a?eueoa. Iaeaea an? oea?eiai?
ieoaiiy ae??ooaaeeny ee?anueeeie ieo?iiieeoaie aai niai?aie ?ieneii?a
naiino?eii. Ca a?caio?enueeeie ia?oi???a?oaie caeeoaeiny i?aai
caoaa?aeaeaiiy ieo?iiieeo?a.

Iio?aieaoe i?ae caa?oi?noue ?in?enueei? ?iia???, Oe?a?ia, ?? ia?iae oa
oea?eaa caciaee cia/ieo ?oneo?eaoe?eieo aieea?a. Ia’?eoii oea?eiaii?
?oneo?eaoe?? ia?aaeon?i noaea Ee?anueea ieo?iiie?y, yea caaaeyee
aaoiiiiiiio noaoono oa a?aeaeaeaiino? a?ae naiai aeooiaiiai oeaio?o —
Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai iao??a?oaoo — iaea ciiao ai?iaeiaae e?eueeio
noie?oue aacia?aoeiaeii ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? aeaiaioe o
?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaia aeeooy.

?in?enueeee oea?eci oa i?aaineaaia oea?eaa, noaaoe ia a?aeaa?oi
aioeoe?a?inuee? iiceoe??, ii/aee onoaaoe ie?yi a?ae o/ano? o oea?eiaiiio
aeeoo?, oi?o?eoaaoe oea?eiaio neoaeao, aeo?niyoe oe?a?inueeo iiao oa
aeaiaioe oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ?c aiaineoaeaiai? i?aeoeee, aeoeaii
iaa’ycoth/e na?e noeeue aeeooy, iiao, oea?eiai? cae/a? ? o?aaeeoe??.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui iaeiei ?c i?eeii?a, yeee aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaany
?in?enueeith i?aaineaaiith oea?eaith o i?ioean? ?oneo?eaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino oa ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiai aeeooy a Oe?a?i?, aoei
“eaae?iaa ia?ai?ooaaiiy» aeooiaainoaa.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?ae?a?eii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? aaoi? aeioiaeeoue
aeniiaeo, ui ca /an naiai ia?aaoaaiiy o neeaae? ?in?enueei? i?aaineaaii?
oea?eae oe?a?inueea i?aaineaa’y cia/ii ao?aoeei nai? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ene.
I?ioa iiai?noth aeei??ieoe ?o ?c ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiai aeeooy
?in?enueeiio naiiaea?aeaanoao oae ? ia aaeaeiny.

Iai?ee?ioe? OIO — ia ii/aoeo OO no., iacaaaeath/e ia cia/ia iineeaiiy
?oneo?eaoe?eieo aieea?a, a Oe?a?i? ii/aa iaaoaaoe iioe?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo, yeee ioiiethaaa oaeiae ? ?ae?a?eia na?aaeiaeua.

Iiaei ?iioeuenii iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa oe?a?i?caoe??
noni?eueiiai aeeooy, cie?aia ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiai, noaee iiae??,
iia’ycai? c Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??th. ?aii?oth/e iia?ice ?in?enueeeo
???a?o?a, i?eoeeueieee oea?eiaii? iacaeaaeiino? noai?eee nooi
iaoe?iiaeueio ?ae?a?eio ?inoeoooe?th — Oe?a?inueeo aaoieaoaeueio
i?aaineaaio oea?eao. ?aeath ?ic?eao oea?eiaieo ca’yce?a c Iineaith
i?aeo?eiaa O?yae aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, cie?aia i?i?no?e
a??iniia?aeaiue A.C?iuee?anueeee oa I.Eioioeueeee. Ia iiceoe??
oea?eiaiiai onaiino?eiaiiy noaea oaeiae Aee?aeoi??y. Aea i?aeo?eiea
aea?aeaaith oea?eiaii? iacaeaaeiino? aoea iao?eaaeith, ye iao?eaaeei
aoei e naia ?? ?nioaaiiy.

?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui i?aaineaa’y a Oe?a?i? caciaei nooo?aeo ci?i. Aiii
o?ainoi?ioaaeiny ?c a?caio?enueei? ?ae?a?eii? ?inoeoooe?? a oe?a?inueeo.
Noaaoe /anoeiith io?oe?eii? ?in?enueei? oea?eiaii? no?oeoo?e ? cia/ii
c?oneo?eoaaaoenue, i?aaineaa’y ia iaaiee /an ao?aoeei naith
ni?iiiaei?noue aei aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioaa?aoi?a
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. O?eaaea na?onueea ? oea?eiaia aoi?/ia
i?aaeyoe?y oa ?oneo?eaoe?y oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo cia/ii i?ae??aaea eiai
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio oa eiioan?eio ?aeaioe/i?noue, aea inoaoi/ii ia
cieueea. ?? caeeoee noaee iniiaith iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? ?ae?a?eiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “?ae?a?y oa oea?eaa a aoiieoeueoo?ieo
i?ioeanao” aiae?cothoueny iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? aoiino oa ?ae?a?? a
eoeueoo?i?e noa??, iieaco?oueny aieea eiioan?eieo /eiiee?a ia
eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueea aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui na?aae ?ioeo ?ae?a?e a oe?a?inueeeo
caieyo iaeaaaaooo aeooiaio niaaeueio caeeoeei i?aaineaa’y. ? oi/a
o?eaaeee /an aiii ia?aaoaaei o neeaae? ?in?enueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae,
ia eiai iniia? aoee noai?ai? ienoaoeuee? oai?e, ye? iathoue yne?aai
ae?aaeai? oe?a?inuee? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ene.

Iaea?eueo iii?oiei aca?iica’ycie aoiieoeueoo?ieo oa eiioan?eieo /eiiee?a
ia oe?a?inueeiio a?oio? aoa o oaeeo noa?ao, ye a?o?oaeoo?a, oea?eiaiee
aeeaiien oa ni?a. O eiaei?e ?c oeeo noa? noai?ai? oi?eaeuei? ooaeiaei?
oai?e.

O ?icae?e? cacia/a?oueny, ui no/ania iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?, ciooo? aei ia?aaeyaeo ? ia?aioe?iee iia’ycaieo
c ieie eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue. Iei? a Oe?a?i? ? iaiao?aei? oiiae, aeey
ia’?eoeaiiai c’ynoaaiiy ?aaeueiiai aianeo oea?eae o ?icaeoie
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. O ca’yceo c oeei aaoi?ii ii?ooo?oueny ieoaiiy
i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee oaei? aaeoc?
a?o/eciyii? ?noi??? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?ieia??, ye
iai’yoeiciaanoai acaaae? ? oea?eiaia cie?aia.

Iaeia ?c iniiaieo eiai caaaeaiue, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iieyaa? o
eiiieaeni?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo canaae aea/aiiy,
caa?aaeaiiy, a?aeiiaeaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy o??? /anoeie
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie, yea c’yaeeanue a oe?a?inueeeo
caieyo i?ae aaciina?aaei?i /e iiina?aaeeiaaiei aieeaii ?ae?a?? ?
oea?eae. Ine?eueee aeaye? ?aa?iie iathoue aeani? oi?eaeuei? oea?eiai?
iai’yoee, aaoi?ii noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee ?aa?iiaeueiiai iai’yoeiciaanoaa oa oea?eiaiiai e?a?ciaanoaa.

Iaoeia? aeniiaee oea?eiaiiai iai’yoeiciaanoaa iathoue noaoe iniiaith
?ica’ycaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue, ye? noiyoue iei? ia?aae oe?a?inueeith
aea?aeaaith oa ?ae?a?eieie i?aai?caoe?yie o ni?aa? caa?aaeaiiy
eoeueoiaiai ienoaoeoaa, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?aueo o?aaeeoe?e a?o/eciyiiai
o?aiiaoaeoaaiiy, ?eiiiieno, noai?aiiy iiaeo eoeueoiaeo i?aaeiao?a ?
ia’?eo?a, aeinoieieo noaoe a ?yae ?c aeciaieie iai’yoeaie
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e oa iiaa?iaii? a Oe?a?io ??
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo iai’yoie, ye? e aein? ciaoiaeyoueny ca ??
iaaeaie.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny oaeiae ieoaiiy i?i nae?aeueio iiao o
aiaineoaeaia?e i?aeoeoe? oe?a?inueeeo oea?eia. A?ae iiae, yea
aaeeaa?oueny o aiaineoae?ii?, cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue nooi?iue
?icoi?iiy a??oth/ith ethaeeiith ci?noo aeanii? ?ae?a??, ?? iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue ? i?eioeei?a.

?aeay ia?aeeaaeo Nayoiai Ienueia aeeaith ia?iaeiith iiaith c’yaeeany a
Oe?a?i? ua o OIV no., aea o?eaaeee /an caeeoaeany ia?aae?ciaaiith.
Na?aae ia?oeo ?ae?a?eieo eieaeie oe?a?inueeith iiaith — Ia?aniiieoeueea
?aaiaae?? (1561 ?.). Oey eieaa ? iei? ia? ia eeoa ?ae?a?eia, a e
?noi?e/ia oa iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia cia/aiiy.

Ia?oei iiaiei oaenoii Nayoiai Ienueia oe?a?inueeith iiaith aoea
ciaiaieoa Ino?icueea A?ae?y (1581 ?.). A ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ni?iae
ia?aeeaaeo A?ae?? oa ?? /anoei oe?a?inueeith iiaith aoee iaiiiaeeiieeie,
iaeia/a ia an? oni?oieie. Aaaiiee aianie o oeth ni?aao c?iaeee
I.Ii?aa/aanueeee, I.Eoe?o, ?.Ioethe, ?.Ia/oe-Eaaeoeueeee, ?.Ia??iei,
E.AEaaei-Iioaiiae/, ?.Oiiaiei oa ?i.

Aaoi? iaaieioo?, ui iei? aaeeea ?ieue o aeoiaaii? iiaaae aei ??aeii?
iiae, aaciina?aaeiueiio ?? ai?iaaaeaeaii? o oea?eiaio e?oo?a?th
iaeaaeeoue iaoe?iiaeueii i???ioiaaiiio aeooiaainoao.

Iei? ?ae?a?ei? i?aai?caoe?? a Oe?a?i? ii-??ciiio iaiaaathoueny
?ica’ycoaaoe i?iaeaio aiaineoaeaiai? iiae. Oae, Oe?a?inueea
a?aei-eaoieeoeueea, Oe?a?inueea aaoieaoaeueia i?aaineaaia oa Oe?a?inueea
i?aaineaaia oea?eaa — Ee?anueeee iao??a?oao a?ae?aco noaee ia oeyo
iiaii? oe?a?i?caoe?? e?oo?a??. Iinooiiai ia?aoiaeyoue ?c ?in?enueei? ia
oe?a?inueeo iiao oe?a?inuee? i?ioanoaioe. O ?einueei-eaoieeoeueeeo
einoaeao ia??aeei cao/eoue iieuenueea iiaa, a?iiaaeao ?oaea?a —
?a?aenueea, o ionoeueiainueeeo ia/aoyo E?eio — e?einueeioaoa?nueea oa
?i. Oe?a?inueea i?aaineaaia oea?eaa c ia?aoiaeii ia aaeeaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae cacia? o?oaeiiu?a. Aaeaea ?in?enueea i?aaineaaia
oea?eaa, neeaaeiaith yei? aiia ?, ana ua i?oeii o?eia?oueny o?aaeeoe??
aaeeaaiiy oea?eiaiineia’yinueei? iiae.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui i?ioean ci?ie aiaineoaeaiai? iiae,
iniaeeai o i?aaineaaieo o?aiao, ? neeaaeiei ? o?eaaeei o /an?. Aaeaea
cia/ia /anoeia nayuaiee?a no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo oea?eia io?eioaaee
aeooiaio ina?oo a nai?ia??yo oa aeaaeai?yo ?in??, canaithth/e ?ae?a?eio
oa?i?iieia?th oea?eiaiineia’yinueeith oa ?in?enueeith iiaaie.

O aeayeeo eiioan?yo inoaii?i /anii ooaa?aeaeo?oueny i?aeoeea
aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo iia o aiaineoaeaia?e ae?yeueiino?. O eaoieeoeueeeo
einoaeao Oe?a?ie, iai?eeeaae, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aa?iio, aaeeaa?oueny
oe?a?inueea, ?in?enueea, aiae?enueea oa iieuenueea iiae. Oaea i?aeoeea ?
aeineoue aeaiie?aoe/iith uiaei iiaieo oiiaeiaaiue a??oth/eo. Aaeaea
ianeeueieoeueea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o??? /e ?ioi? iiae o oea?eiaio e?oo?a?th
iiaea aeeeeeaoe cai?ioio ?aaeoe?th.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui i?iaeaia aiaineoaeaiai? iiae ia? a
Oe?a?i? aeaaith ?noi??th ? caeeoa?oueny ia aei e?ioey ?ica’ycaiith ua e
nueiaiaei?. Aiia o?nii iia’ycaia ?c caaaeueiith iai?inoith iei? iiaiith
neooaoe??th. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui a i??o ?icoe?aiiy aaeeaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae o ??cieo noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy aiia ana a?eueoa
ooaa?aeaeoaaoeiaoueny oaeiae o oea?eiaiiio aaeeoeo.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “?ae?a?y a aoiiaea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioeanao oa
iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? no/anii? Oe?a?ie” ?icaeyaea?oueny
aca?iica’ycie iaoe?iiaeueieo ? ?ae?a?eieo i?ioean?a, oa?aeoa? oa
i?iaeaie aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, iniaeeaino? iai?ae?a?eiiai ?ooo.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?, eiee ?ioaineai?noue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ? ?ae?a?eieo
i?ioean?a cia/ii i?enei?eeanue, ?o aca?iiae?y oaae iineeth?oueny.

Aaciina?aaei?i aeyaii ?aeiino? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ? ?ae?a?eiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoei a?aeiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueii
i???ioiaaieo oea?eia — Oe?a?inueei? aaoieaoaeueii? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae,
Oe?a?inueei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, a caiaeii — ooai?aiiy
Oe?a?inueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae — Ee?anueeee iao??a?oao.

Aeieacii iayaiino? ?ae?a?eiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ? ?icaoaeiaa
?icaaeoaeaeaii? ?ae?a?eii? ia?aae?, ca?eueoaiiy /enaeueiino? a??oth/eo
oa iiaeeaeaiiy ?o ?ae?a?eiino?. Ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy noaoenoe/ieo
iaoa??ae?a iieacaii aeeiai?eo c?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? ?ae?a?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e, o??ciiiai?oiaiiy eiioan?eii? ea?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaeiei ?c iieaciee?a ?ae?a?eiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ? aeoea?caoe?y
i?iiia?aeieoeueei? oa i?n?iia?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ?ae?a?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e, c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? eoeueoiaeo aoae?aaeue, ?ae?a?eii?
ia??iaeeee.

sse?ni? ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny oaeiae o ?ae?a?eiino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.
Inoaii?i /anii /eiaei ethaeae ia?ai???iooaaeiny ia ?ae?a?ei? oe?iiino?,
aiane?aeie /iai ca?eueoeeiny /enei a??oth/eo o caaaeuei?e ian?
ianaeaiiy, c?inea ieoiia aaaa aeeaiei a??oth/eo, iiaeeaeeanue aioo??oiy
?ae?a?ei?noue ??cieo eaoaai??e ? a?oi. C?inoathoue noni?eueia aeciaiiy,
i?anoeae oea?eae oa ?ae?a?eieo i?aai?caoe?e.

O aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae a?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?ioeane aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa ?ae?a?eiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiaeooue noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny iia?/ieie
iaaaoeaieie i?iyaaie, cie?aia oaeeie, ye eiioe?eoi?noue, noeo?ei?noue,
aeno?ai?ci, ?aa?iiae?ci oa naia?aoeci ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio oa ?ae?a?eiiio
a?oio?, a?aeiiaeaiiy eiina?aaoeaieo o?aaeeoe?e, ye? aaeueiothoue
?icaeoie noni?euenoaa, i?iiia?aeue iaoe?iiaeueii? oa eiioan?eii?
aeiyoeiaino? ? ai?iaeia/?, iiyaa oa iioe?aiiy ?ae?a?eieo iiaiooai?aiue
aeano?oeoeaiiai ni?yioaaiiy.

Aaoi? i?aee?aneth?, ui eeoa ye?nia caeiiiaeaanoai, yea ?aaoeth?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie oa ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaia aeeooy, a oaeiae
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia oa aeaaaeaia aea?aeaaia iie?oeea iiaeooue
oiaiiaeeeaeoe iaaaoeai? yaeua o oeeo noa?ao oa ni?yioaaoe ?oi?e ?icaeoie
o oeea?e?ciaaia ?onei.

O ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny i?e/eie, i?iyae oa iniaeeaino?
iai?ae?a?eiiai ?ooo. Cacia/a?oueny, ui eiioan?eia ea?oa no/anieo
iai?ae?a?e a Oe?a?i? ? aeineoue no?ieaoith ? a?aei?iiith a?ae
aaia?ao?/iiai iioe?aiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo eiioan?e oa oea?eia. *eiaei
iine?aeiaiee?a no/anieo iao?aaeeoe?eieo ?ae?a?e i?iyaeythoue aaeeeo
i?iiia?aeieoeueeo oa i?n?eio aeoeai?noue, iaiaaath/enue ii?aeioaaoe
eoeueoiao ae?yeuei?noue ?c iicaeoeueoiaith.

Ie?ai? ?c iai?ae?a?eieo oa/?e, ?nioth/e ia oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio
a?oio?, i?iaeiaaeothoue caeeoaoeny ia?aaaaeii einiiiie?oe/ieie. ?io?
iaiaaathoueny aienaoeny a oe?a?inueeee aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?
aoiieoeueoo?iee eiioaeno oeyoii iiooeo ni?eueieo ?en c oe?a?inueeeie
aeooiaieie o?aaeeoe?yie, ia?aeeaae?a ?ae?a?eii? e?oa?aoo?e oe?a?inueeith
iiaith oa aeei?enoaiiy ?? o nai?e aiaineoaeaia?e i?aeoeoe?.

Na?aae no/anieo iia?oi?o ?ae?a?eieo oa/?e, ui ?niothoue a Oe?a?i?,
iaea?eueo aoi?/ii caaa?aeaiei ? a?o/eciyia iaiyce/ieoeoai. I?aoaiaeoth/e
ia ?ieue aoi?/ii? oe?a?inueei? ?ae?a??, aiii, i?e?iaeii, anooia? o
noia?a/i?noue ?c o?aaeeoe?eieie oea?eaaie, ye? oaae aaaaeathoue naaa
iaoe?iiaeueieie ?ae?a?eieie ?inoeoooe?yie.

Aaoi? iaaieioo?, ui no/ania iaiyce/ieoeoai ia oioiaeia ?c
aeaaiueioe?a?inueeei yce/ieoeoaii. I?ioa aeey aea?aeaae ? noni?euenoaa
aaaeeeaei ? ia no?eueee oeae oaeo, ne?eueee iaoe?iiaeueia i???ioaoe?y
eiai iine?aeiaiee?a, i?aeo?eiea oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, ni?eyiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ? aeooiaiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?, iiaa?iaiith aei
ia?oiaeaea?ae a?o/eciyii? aeooiaiino? oa eoeueoo?e, a?ae?iaeaeaiith ia
eeoa aeaai?o ?ae?a?eieo a??oaaiue, a e ia?iaeieo cae/a?a, o?aaeeoe?e,
ia?yae?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeeiai?/iee ?icaeoie iai?ae?a?eieo
i?ioean?a i?eca?a aei cia/iiai iineeaiiy eiieo?aioe?? a i?aeeiioan?eiiio
i?inoi?? Oe?a?ie. Iioe?aiiy iai?ae?a?e aeeeeea? o?eaiao ia?aaeon?i o
i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aaeeoe?eieo oea?eia, ye? eaae?o?eothoue ?o ye
nai???aei? «?ii?iaei? o?ea» a noni?eueiiio i?aai?ci?, ui caaaaeathoue
eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, oeiaeyoue iaoe?iiaeuei?e
eoeueoo??, noaaeyoue i?ae caa?ico aeooiaia oa ii?aeueia caei?ia’y
iaoe??. Iaeaea an? iao?aaeeoe?ei? a??oaaiiy ca?aoiaothoueny ieie aei
?ic?yaeo aioeoe?a?inueeeo.

Oia?aaeaeai?noue oa iaoa?iei?noue o?aaeeoe?eieo ?ae?a?e aei iai?ae?a?e
ia??aeei ciaoiaeeoue i?aeo?eieo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?ao oa a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
a?iiaaenuee?e aeoioe? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Ia iiaeyae aaoi?a, iaaaciaea
oaeeo i?aeoiae?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui noai?aiiy ooo/ieo ia?aoeiae o
ae?yeueiino? iai?ae?a?eieo a?iiaae caa?iaeo? ia?aoai?aiith ?o ?c
nithciee?a aea?aeaae ia iiiceoe?eio neeo.

?acii c oei, i?aee?aneth?oueny o aeena?oaoe??, ia iiaeia ia ?aaaoaaoe ia
iayai?noue na?aae iao?aaeeoe?eieo a??oaaiue ia’?aeiaiue oioae?oa?iiai
oa?aeoa?o, o na?aaeiaeu? yeeo iathoue i?noea i?iyae ?ae?a?eiiai
aeno?ai?cio oa oaiaoecio, a ?iiae? e noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ae?e.
Aea?aeaaa ia? an?eyei caoeuaoe nai?o a?iiaaeyi a?ae iinyaaiue ia ?oi?
aeeooy, caei?ia’y, /anoue ? a?aei?noue aoaeue-yeeo ?ae?a?eieo
ia’?aeiaiue. An?, ooi /eieoue oae? ae??, iathoue ianoe
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ia?aaeaa/aio /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui iai?ae?a?eiee ?oo a Oe?a?i? iinooiiai iaaoaa?
noaa?e?caoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o. ?iaeoueny i?eiouaiiy, ui c iaoith
ci?oeiaiiy nai?o iiceoe?e iai?ae?a?ei? a?iiaaee iaiaaaoeiooueny e
iaaeae? i?enoiniaoaaoeny aei aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, oi/a aeinyaoe oeueiai ?i aoaea iaeaaei,
ine?eueee ?oi?e eoeueo, /a?ac yeee iiaeeeaa ii?aeiaiiy c iaoe?iiaeueieie
aeaiaioaie, ia?aaoaa? o noaae?? noaiiaeaiiy.

E??i oiai, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaeaooi? iai?ae?a?eieo a??oaaiue cia/iith
i??ith aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae noaio ni?aa o o?aaeeoe?eieo ?ae?a?yo.
I?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?e/ieo oea?eia, o naith /a?ao, aoaeooue ?
iaaeae? an?eyei aeo?niyoe iai?ae?a?? ?c aeooiaiiai i?inoi?o Oe?a?ie. Ia
aeeeth/aii, ui o i??o iineeaiiy aieeao iai?ae?a?e a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa? eiioe?eo i?ae ieie ? o?aaeeoe?eieie ?ae?a?yie, yeee iei?
ia?aaoaa? o eaoaioiiio noai?, ia?inoaoeia.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “I?aeoea?eiaiee eiioe?eo a no/ani?e Oe?a?i? ye
?ae?a?eia oa iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaia i?iaeaia” aiae?cothoueny i?e/eie
oa nooi?noue i?aeoea?eiaiiai i?ioenoiyiiy a Oe?a?i?, i?iiiiothoueny
oeyoe oa iaoai?cie eiai iiaeieaiiy.

A?caecia/a?oueny, ui noa’?eoaie iei?oiueiai ?ae?a?eiiai eiioe?eoo ?
iaeaieeaia?o? a Oe?a?i? ?ae?a?ei? i?aai?caoe??. Iaea?eueoo
iai?oaeai?noue o noni?euenoai aiinyoue a?aeiineie i?aaineaaieo oea?eia
i?ae niaith oa noinoiee i?aaineaaieo ?c a?aei-eaoieeeaie.

Iaei? i?e/eie i?aeeiioan?eii? eiioe?eoiino? ae?noaeenue o niaaeie a?ae
ieioeiai, ?io? — ii?iaeaeai? no/aniei ?icaeoeii oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

Na?aae i?e/ei caaino?aiiy i?aeoea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo a Oe?a?i?
iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a aoee noeo?eiee ii/aoie ?ae?a?eiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, aeeiai?/iee ia?a?iciiae?e noa? aieeao oea?eia, ni?ioea
iaaii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy ni?iaai oaeaeei? oe?a?i?caoe??
?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiai aeeooy. Eiioe?eo aoa i?aeneeaiee iaiaeiaeiaeie
oaiiaie aeaiie?aoecaoe?? ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaii? noa?e a ??cieo ?aa?iiao
Oe?a?ie.

*anoeia i?iaeai o a?aeiineiao i?ae oea?eaaie aeieeea c aeie ?ae?a?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e, ?oi?o ea??aiee?a, aeaye? c’yaeeenue ia aac o/ano?
iaoea?eiaieo nee — iinaaeiaeo in?a, aieeaiaeo iie?oee?a, iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e ? ?oo?a, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

O aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny i?iyae i?aeoea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo o
iie?oe/i?e, aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e noa?ao, ia ???a?o?/ii-iiaooiaiio oa
ia?ao?yeueiiio ??aiyo.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui oi/a ?ae?a?ei? i?aai?caoe?? ia ae?iaeythoue aeanii?
iie?oeee, aea aiie caeaoi? aenooiaoe ia aioe? iaaieo iie?oe/ieo nee.
Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? iiaeyaee a??oth/eo ia??aeei
aeyaeythoueny o ?ae?a?ei?e oi?i?, iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ie?ai? iie?oeee
??cii? i???ioaoe?? inoaii?i /anii ana /ano?oa aeyaeythoue ?ioa?an aei
?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaieo ieoaiue.

Oea?eae, ?oi? ???a?oe, aeooiaainoai, /anoeia ?yaeiaeo a??oth/eo oaae
i???ioothoueny ia iaai? iie?oe/i? neee, ni?ai?aoeththoue c ia?o?yie,
aenooiathoue i?ae ?oi?ie ciaiaiaie ? aaneaie. Iaeiei ?c ia?aeiieeaeo
na?ae/aiue iie?oecaoe?? ?ae?a?? a Oe?a?i? ? noai?aiiy ia?o?e
eiioan?eiiai ni?yioaaiiy.

Aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui a oiiaao no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, aea iaaei??ii caiie?oeciaai? ??ci? noa?e aeeooy, aea
cia/ia /anoeia ianaeaiiy i???ioo?oueny ia ?ae?a?ei? oe?iiino?, aeaeea?o?
naith ?ae?a?ei?noue, ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia iiaio ?cieueiaai?noue oea?eae a?ae
iie?oeee ia aeiaiaeeoueny. Iei?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiaea eoeny eeoa i?i
i?i?i?caoe?th aeano?oeoeaiiai aieeao iie?oeee ia ?ae?a?th, ca yei?
eiioan?ei? i?iaeaie iiai?noth ia ?ic/eiyeeny a o noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo,
a nai? oea?eae ia ia?aoai?thaaeeny ia iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe??.

Iayai?noue ?noi?e/iiai ia?aieao?iiy ? aca?iiae?? ?ae?a?eieo aeaiaio?a c
aoi?/ieie, i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui no/aniee i?aeoea?eiaiee eiioe?eo
caa?iaeo? ni?e/eiaiiyi iai?oaeaiino? o aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?e noa??.

A?i ia eeoa noai?th? iac?o/iino? aeey ae?yeueiino? ?ae?a?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e, ii?iaeueiiai caaeiaieaiiy a??oth/eie nai?o ?ae?a?eieo
iio?aa, a e aaeueio? i?ioeane iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa
ooaa?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. ?icaeyaeath/e i?aeoea?eiaiee
eiioe?eo ye caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueio i?iaeaio, aaoi? ii?ooo? ieoaiiy i?i
aea?aeaaia iina?aaeieoeoai o eiai a?aaoethaaii?.

Ia’?aeiaiiy coneeue oea?eae ? aea?aeaae o iiaeieaii? i?aeoea?eiaii?
iai?oae ? aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith aeinyaiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ceaaiaee,
ooaa?aeaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai ie?o ? niieith a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?.

O ?icae?e? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui i?aeoea?eiaiee eiioe?eo a Oe?a?i?
coiiaeaiee ye ?noi?e/ieie, oae ? no/anieie i?e/eiaie, ia’?eoeaieie e
noa’?eoeaieie /eiieeaie ? a?aeia?aaea? anth neeaaei?noue oa
noia?a/eea?noue i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? oa
oiacaeaaeiaiiy oe?a?inueei? oea?eae. Iei?oi? i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae oea?eaaie
?nio? ia naia ii nia?, a a eiioaeno? iie?oe/ieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
?aae?e no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

O iiooeao oeyo?a aeoiaeo ?c i?aeoea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo, aeayeeie
i?aaenoaaieeaie na?onueeeo oa ?ae?a?eieo e?e i?iiiio?oueny noai?aiiy a
Oe?a?i? ?aeeii? iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae.

Naia ?aeay oa ni?iae ia’?aeiaiiy oea?eia, ye? o ?noi?e/i?e iaooe?
iicia/athoueny oa?i?iii «oi?y», cacia/a? aaoi?, ia ? iiaeie. Aiie
iathoue aeeaiea ei??iiy a ?noi??? ??cieo e?a?i na?oo ? a oe?a?inuee?e
cie?aia. O ca’yceo c oeei ?icaeyaeathoueny i?e/eie oa iane?aeee
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oi?e a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui na?aae
?ioeo, iaea?eueoee aieea ia aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ni?aaeea
Aa?anoaenueea oi?y 1596 ?., ine?eueee aiia aaciina?aaeiuei oi?eaeany ia
eeoa ?ae?a?eiiai, a e noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy.

Ia iniia? aiae?co o?ie?a oeeaaeaiiy oea?eiaieo oi?e oa oain?a ??cieo
eiioan?e ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i iaiiaeeea?noue i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? a
Oe?a?i? ?aea? ?aeeii? iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae. Iei? ?aaeueieie iiaeooue
aooe eeoa ii?icoi?iiy, caeeaeaiiy oa ni?ai?aoey oea?eia.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ?aeay ?aeeii? iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae iia’ycaia c
noai?aiiyi a Oe?a?i? aea?aeaaii? ?ae?a??. C iaeyaeo ia aaaaoiaoi?/i?noue
oa iie?eiioan?ei?noue oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa iinoaiiaea ieoaiiy i?i
i??i?eoaoio oea?eao a aea?aeaa? ? ia i?inoi iiieeeiaith, a iaa?oue
iaaacia/iith. Aaeaea ao?eeoe ?? o aeeooy aac a?oaeo ii?ooaiue i?aa
ethaeeie, naiaiaee nia?no? ? a??iniia?aeaiiy, oeneo ia a??oth/eo
iaiiaeeeai.

Iaeaooi? aeooiaiiai aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa aaoi? aaa/a? ia o
eiino?othaaii? ?aea? ?aeeii? iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae, a o aa?iii?caoe??
i?aeoea?eiaieo a?aeiinei, ooaa?aeaeaii? ni?aaaeiueiai ?ae?a?eiiai
ieth?ae?cio, ie?iiio ni?a?nioaaii? ??cieo a??iniia?aeaiue, caaacia/aii?
iaeiaeiaiai ?oiueiai i?aaiaiai noaoono, aeoiaaii? oa?ieiino? ?
oiea?aioiino? o a??oth/eo ??cii? aoi?/ii? oa eiioan?eii? iaeaaeiino?.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? «?ae?a?y ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie»
cacia/a?oueny, ui c ooai?aiiyi iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ia?aae
iath oe?eeii caeiiii??ii iinoaei ieoaiiy i?i ona?aeiieaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy,
?aae?caoe?th oa caoeno iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o ??cieo noa?ao
noni?eueiiai aeeooy, cie?aia o ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai?e. Oi/a oea?eaa,
?ae?a?ei? i?aai?caoe?? a?aeie?aieai? a?ae aea?aeaae, ?oiy ae?yeuei?noue
oi?ea?oueny ye aioo??oi?o, oae ? ciai?oi?o ?? ?ioa?an?a.

Ine?eueee iaeaieeaia?oa a Oe?a?i? ?ae?a?eia i?aai?caoe?y — Oe?a?inueea
i?aaineaaia oea?eaa — ia?aaoaa? a th?enaeeeoe?? Iineianueeiai
iao??a?oaoo, iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane iaoi? aea?aeaae o
?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai?e noa?? iaea?eueoith i??ith iaooiaoothoueny iei? ia
?ioa?ane ?in??. Aaeaea, iacaaaeath/e ia iayai?noue aeciaieo aea?aeaaieo
ei?aeii?a, iaaeo in?aeeino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, Iineianueeee
iao??a?oao, ye ? ?ai?oa, aaaaea? Oe?a?io nai?th «eaiii?/iith
oa?eoi???th» e oo?eio? Oe?a?inueeo i?aaineaaio oea?eao o nai?e
th?enaeeeoe??. Iaaaciaea i?aeeaaeino? cia/ii? /anoeie oe?a?inueeiai
i?aaineaa’y Iineianueeiio iao??a?oaoo iieyaa? o oiio, ui eiai
ea??aieoeoai, ye ? ?ai?oa, noi?oue ia iiceoe?yo a?aeiiaeaiiy eieeoiueiai
Nithco ?N? aai noai?aiiy «neia’yinueeiai o?eeooieea» — ?in?y, Oe?a?ia,
A?ei?onue — /ei caa?iaeo? aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie iieyaathoue o iiaeaeueoiio ooaa?aeaeaii?
nai?? aea?aeaaiino?, a ia’?aeiaii? oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaa’y th ?aeeio
Iii?nio oea?eao oa io?eiaiiy iath iiaii? iacaeaaeiino?. ?ica’ycaiiy oeeo
i?iaeai iaei a aaaeeeaa ye ?ae?a?eia, oae ? iie?oe/ia cia/aiiy.
Iayai?noue eaiii?/ii? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, ie??i ni?eyiiy
aea?aeaaioai?/iio i?ioeano, aioo??oi?e eiinie?aeaoe?? oa noaa?eueiino?
noni?euenoaa, aeaea a ciiao oe?a?inueeiio i?aaineaa’th caeieaoe
?cieueiaai?noue a?ae na?oo.

Iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a oi?ea?oueny oaeiae i?iaeaia
no/aniiai noaio ?eii- oa a?aei-eaoieeoeecio a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae
oe?a?ii-aaoeeainueeeo a?aeiinei. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeoeaia aoiaeaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie a ?a?iio iio?aao? nooo?aiai ?icoe?aiiy oa ci?oeiaiiy eiioaeo?a
?c aeii?ioth/ith ia oeueiio eiioeiaio? eaoieeoeueeith oea?eaith oa ??
na?oiaei oeaio?ii Aaoeeaiii.

Iaiao?aei?noue iiaeeaeaiiy a?aeiinei c Aaoeeaiii coiiaeaia oaeiae
iayai?noth a Oe?a?i? cia/ii? e?eueeino? o?ai?a, ia?aae? no?oeoo? oa
i?eoeeueiee?a ?eii-eaoieeoeueei? oa a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eia. ? oi/a
aiie iathoue a Oe?a?i? caeaa?eueoiai ?aa?iiaeueia iioe?aiiy, ?oiueiai
aieeao ia oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai iaaeiioe?ithaaoe ia iiaeia.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui Oe?a?ia ye aea?aeaaa ia? nai?
aaiiie?oe/i? oa ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai? ?ioa?ane ia eeoa ia i?ai?/iiio
Noiae?, Caoiae?, a e ia I?aaei?. sse?ac ooo inoaii?i /anii ana aeoeai?oo
?ieue ii/eia? a?ae?a?aaaoe aaia?ao?/ii aeecueea Oo?a//eia, o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? yei? aeineoue iiaaaeia i?noea iin?aea?
?neai. A oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a?i oaae ia? aeeaiea ei??iiy. Ia eiai
oe?iiino? i???ioothoueny 26 oth?eiiiaieo ia?iae?a, ui i?iaeeaathoue ia
oa?eoi??? no/anii? Oe?a?ie.

O ca’yceo c iiaa?iaiiyi ia nai? ?noi?e/i? caie? e?einueeeo oaoa?, aeey
yeeo ionoeueiainoai oaae ? o?aaeeoe?eiith ?ae?a??th, ia ?aa?ii aeoeaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?neaio ia?aoai?eany E?ei. A?i noaa ciiith i?aeaeuaieo
?ioa?an?a ? ia’?eoii ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ionoeueiainueeeo e?a?i,
ia?aaeon?i Oo?a//eie. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui i?aino??a iiiaae aeaa
noie?ooy ia?aaoaaa o caeaaeiino? a?ae Iniainueei? ?iia???, ionoeueiaie
Oo?a//eie aaaaeathoue e?einueeeo oaoa? «nai?ie a?aoaie», «a?eeith
oo?aoeueei? iaoe??».

Ia aeeeth/aii, ui ni?iae ?aae?caoe?? ?aea? noai?aiiy aeiaaeueii?
ionoeueiainueei? oeea?e?caoe?? iiaeooue i?ecaanoe aei iineeaiiy
?neainueeiai ooiaeaiaioae?cio ia eeoa a iieiaeeo aea?aeaaao Na?aaeiuei?
Ac?? oa Caeaaeaccy, aea o ca’yceo c ?iciaaeii ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco
iineaaeany aieea ?in??, a e a Oe?a?i?.

Ca?aaee caaacia/aiiy aeanieo ?ioa?an?a o oeueiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ia ia?
aanoe aeoeaio aioo??oith ? ciai?oith iie?oeeo, a?aoiaoth/e
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae ianaeaiiy, iniaeeaino? ?ae?a?eii? neooaoe?? a
?aa?ii?, an?eyei iaeo?ae?coth/e aieeae ca?oa?aeieo ?neainueeeo
aeno?ai?no?a oa ooiaeaiaioae?no?a.

Iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a oi?eathoueny oaeiae
i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aeooiaieo oeaio??a, yeei i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ?ae?a?ei?
i?aai?caoe??, ui ?niothoue a Oe?a?i?, oa iayai?noue ?iicaiieo
nayuaiiineoaeeoae?a. *eiia caeiiiaeaanoai ia caai?iiy? ?ae?a?eiei
i?aai?caoe?yi i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoeny oeaio?ai iica iaaeaie Oe?a?ie oa
ei?enooaaoeny iineoaaie ca?oa?aeieo ?ae?a?eieo ae?y/?a,
nayuaiiineoaeeoae?a, i?iiia?aeiee?a, ianoaaiee?a oa ?ioeo in?a. I?ioa
aeey ia? iaaaeaeoaea noaaeaiiy aei Oe?a?ie aea?aeaa, o yeeo
ciaoiaeyoueny aeooiai? oeaio?e, ia yeeo iiceoe?yo (i?ioe?a?inueeeo /e
aioeoe?a?inueeeo) ia?aaoaathoue ca?oa?aei? neoaeeoae? eoeueoo, yea
ni?aaaeiy iaoa ?oiueiai i?e?caeo a iaoo e?a?io, /e caeaoi? aiie
iaeaaeiith i??ith a?aoiaoaaoe o nai?e ae?yeueiino? iaoe?iiaeuei? oa
?ae?a?ei? iniaeeaino? Oe?a?ie, iaioae?oao oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui aeii?ioaaiiy a aeooiaiiio i?inoi??
Oe?a?ie ?in?enueeeo, aaoeeainueeeo, ionoeueiainueeeo oa ?ioeo
ca?oa?aeieo ?ae?a?eieo no?oeoo?, iayai?noue ?iicaiiiai aeooiaainoaa ia
caaaeaee ca?aa?oueny c iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieie ?ioa?anaie
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny oaeiae, ui iaaio caa?ico
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai Oe?a?ie, ?? noaa?eueiino? oa
aaciaoe? noaiiaeyoue aeac?ioaa?aoe?ei? i?ioeane oa aioo??oi? i?ioe??//y,
?icoa?oaaiiy ? ?iceiee o ?ae?a?eieo i?aai?caoe?yo, ui inoaii?i /anii
aeathoueny aciaee. E??i oiai, aeey aea?aeaae oa noni?euenoaa
iaaacia/iith ? ?aa?iiae?caoe?y ?ae?a?e, ui caeaoia ni?e/eiyoe ?
iineethaaoe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee naia?aoeci, aenooiaoe ia?aoeiaeith ia
oeyoo eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??.

Iaei??th ?c aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai aea?aeaaii-oea?eiaieo oa i?aeoea?eiaieo
a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? ? iaeneiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy ?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae ?
?ae?a?eieo i?aai?caoe?e, c iaeiiai aieo, oa ?ioa?an?a ??cieo ?ae?a?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e, c ae?oaiai.

Aacia?a/ii, aea?aeaaa ia’?eoeaii caoe?eaaeaia o ii?aeiaii?
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a c ?ae?a?eieie, o i?aeo?eioe? oea?eaaie oa
?ae?a?eieie i?aai?caoe?yie ?? aioo??oiuei? ? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee.
Nai?th eoeueoiaith ? iicaeoeueoiaith ae?yeuei?noth aiie iathoue ia eeoa
caaeiaieueiyoe ?ae?a?ei? iio?aae a??oth/eo a?iiaaeyi, a e ni?eyoe
ci?oeiaiith aea?aeaae, caaacia/aiith ?? aioo??oiuei? ? ciai?oiuei?
aaciaee, i?aeaeuaiith aaoi?eoaoo ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?, a?ae?iaeaeaiith
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, aeooiaiino?, ooaa?aeaeaiith ii?aeueiino?,
a?iiaaeyinueeiai ie?o ? ceaaiaee a noni?euenoa?.

A aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iaei??th c iaea?eueo iaae?eieo
aa?aio?e caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oa iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee
Oe?a?ie ? ?? Ca?iei? Neee. C i?eeiyooy Caeii?a Oe?a?ie «I?i naiaiaeo
nia?no? oa ?ae?a?ei? i?aai?caoe??» ? «I?i aeueoa?iaoeaio (iaa?enueeiao)
neoaeao” aca?iiae?y a?i?? oa oea?eae iie?ioeeany, i?ioa ?ae?a?ei?
iio?aae a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a iaoe?iiaeueieo Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie
caaeiaieueiythoueny ua ia iiaiith i??ith.

O ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth noai?aiiy iaeaaeieo oiia aeey ?aae?caoe??
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyie ia?aaeaa/aiiai /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii i?aaa ia
naiaiaeo na?oiaeyaeo oa a??iniia?aeaiiy iinoa? ieoaiiy i?i
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy eaiaeainueei? neoaeae a Ca?ieieo Neeao Oe?a?ie. Iei?oi?e
niaeo? iiaeyae?a ia iueiai aeineoue oe?ieee: a?ae caia?a/aiiy naii?
?aea? noai?aiiy oeueiai ?inoeoooo, aei iaaaeii? ?? ?aae?caoe??.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaei??th ?c iaeneeaaei?oeo i?iaeai, yea ia? aooe
?ica’ycaia o i?ioean? a?aei?aoethaaiiy ae??aiai iaoai?cio aca?iiae??
a?i?? ? oea?eae, ? aecia/aiiy eiioan?e ? oea?eia, ye? iiaee a
cae?enithaaoe aeooiaia ianeoaiaoaaiiy a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a. I?aeoe/ia
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie eaiaeainoaa oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui eiaeia ?c
eiioan?e ia?ane?aeo? i?e oeueiio aeani? ?ioa?ane.

Uia a?aeaa?iooe caa?ico ia?aianaiiy ai?iaoaaiiy c i?aeoea?eiaii? noa?e o
a?enueeiao, ia?aoai?aiiy a?i?? ia a?aio i?ioeai?noaa oea?eia, iio??aii
a?aoiaoaaoe ia eeoa eiioan?ei? ?ioa?ane, a e ?ae?a?ei? oiiaeiaaiiy
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie.
Oiio aeiee ?c ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaiiai aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ia
aoaeooue inoaoi/ii onoioo? ai?iaeia/a ? i?ioenoiyiiy, aeioe
?nioaaoeiooue o?oaeiiu? aa?iii?caoe?? a?aeiinei a?i?? ? oea?eae.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ui nii/aoeo oey i?iaeaia ia? aooe ?ica’ycaia
eiioeaiooaeueii, oai?aoe/ii, caeiiiaeaa/i, a aaea iio?i — i?aeoe/ii. Ia
iei?oiueiio aoai? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ye cacia/a?oueny
o aeena?oaoe??, iiaeeeaa eeoa iaooaoia aeooiaii-?ae?a?eia ianeoaiaoaaiiy
a??oth/eo a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a. I?ioa iaa?oue o oaeeo oiiaao aeooiaia
?iaioa a a?i?? iiaeiia ia?ane?aeoaaoe ia eeoa nooi ?ae?a?ei? oe?e?, a
e ni?yiiaoaaoeny ia aeoiaaiiy o ai?i?a iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?,
aenieeo ii?aeueieo yeinoae, iao??ioe/ieo ii/ooo?a. Eeoa ca oe??? oiiae
aiia aoaea a?aeiia?aeaoe iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai Oe?a?ie.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?noi?e/ieo oi?i aca?iiae?? aoiino oa ?ae?a??, ?ie?
?ae?a?? oa oea?eae a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio oa aoiiiie?oe/iiio ?icaeoeo,
aoiieoeueoo?ieo i?ioeanao, no/aniiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
Oe?a?ie o aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeyoueny oae? caaaeuei? aeniiaee.

1. Oi/a aoiin ? ?ae?a?y ? a?aeiinii naiino?eieie nioe?aeueieie
ooai?aiiyie, o i?ioean? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo i?ae ieie c’yaeeiny /eiaei
oi/ie aeioeeo. Iie?oaoi?/i?noue eiioan?e oa iie?eiioan?ei?noue aoiin?a,
aca?iiae?y aeaiaio?a aoiino c aeaiaioaie ?ae?a?? coiiaeee iiyao
aaaaoiiai?oiino? oi?i ?oiueiai ni?a?nioaaiiy, ooai?aiiy iica?/ieo
aoiieiioan?eieo eiino?oeoe?e. Ci?ia iaae iioe?aiiy aoiino,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? i?ioeane a?aeaeaaeeny ia ?ae?a??, iicia/aeeny ia
i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiineiao. O iie?aoi?/iiio oa iie?eiioan?eiiio
na?aaeiaeu? aeii?ioth/ith ?ae?a??th, ye i?aaeei, aoea ?ae?a?y
aeii?ioth/i? iaoe??. Caeiaoooy ia?iaeii iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino?
a?aee?eaaei aei?iao eiai iaoe?iiaeueiiio ? ?ae?a?eiiio a?ae?iaeaeaiith.
O ?icaeoeo aoiino oa iaoe?? ?ae?a?y a?ae?a?aaaea iie?ooieoe?iiaeueio
?ieue. Aiia ia eeoa a?aeia?aaeaea aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie oa
i?ioeane, a e aieeaaea ia ieo.

2. A Oe?a?i? aca?iica’ycie aoiino oa ?ae?a?? iaa ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie
aeyao ? caeaaeii a?ae ?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei oi iineethaaany, oi
iineaaethaaany, aea iaeaea i?eiee ia ia?a?eaaany. C on?o ?ae?a?e
iaea?eueoee aieea ia iaoe?iiaeueia aoooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ni?aaeei
i?aaineaa’y. A eiai aeooiaiiio a?aae? a?aeaoaaany i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. ?nioth/e ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, aiii caciaei
cia/ieo ci?i, o?ainoi?ioaaaoenue o iaoe?iiaeueii naiiaooi?
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?ia yaeua. I?aaineaaia ?ae?a?y aeyaeeany ni?iiiaeiith
aeeiioaaoe ?ieue eaoae?caoi?a aoiiaaiaco, noeioeyoi?a i?ioean?a
naiii?aai?caoe?? oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy Oe?a?ie. Aiia
i?iaeaiiino?oaaea naaa ae??aith aoiieiinie?aeoth/ith neeith, caeaoiith
ni?eyoe iaaoooth oa caa?aaeaiith oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeii aoi?/ii?
?aeaioe/iino? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?. I?aaineaa’y aenooiaei
iin??i oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, ciaiaiii
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae, caniaii i?aeianaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeooo oa a?aeiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ooaa?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? iaoe?? oa aea?aeaaiino?. Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
Oe?a?i?, ye i?aaeei, noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi ?ae?a?eiei, a
?oo ca iacaeaaei?noue oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae — aeiiaaaiiyie
aaoieaoaeueiiai noaoono oea?eae. I?ioa a /ane ia?aaoaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
i?aaineaa’y o neeaae? ?in?enueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae aei iueiai
iino?eii aiaethaaei oea?nueea naiiaea?aeaanoai, cae?enithth/e
?oneo?eaoe?th Oe?a?ie ia eeoa na?onueeeie, a e ?ae?a?eieie caniaaie.

3. Ia iaoe?iiaeueia aoooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, iniaeeai a Cao?aeiiio
?aa?ii?, cia/iee aieea iaa a?aei-eaoieeoeeci. I?ioa a?i, ye ?
i?aaineaa’y, a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a?ae?a?aa iaiaeiicia/io
noia?a/eeao ?ieue. C iaeiiai aieo, ?c cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi oi?? ii/aany
i?ioean ?oeioaaiiy aeooiaii? ?aeiino? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, a c ae?oaiai
— a?aei-eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa neoaeeea caa?aaeaiith ?? naiiaooiino? oa
caoenoo a?ae anei?eyoe?eieo aieea?a. I?eoeeueieee a?aei-eaoieeoeecio
caaaeaee noiyee ia iiceoe?yo iacaeaaeiino? oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

4. Aiane?aeie iaeaea /ioe?ueionioe?oiuei? ?noi?e/ii? aaiethoe??
naiiaooi?i aeooiaii-?ae?a?eiei oaiiiaiii a Oe?a?i? noaa i?ioanoaioeci.
?nioth/e a ioi/aii? i?aaineaa’y oa a?aei-eaoieeoeecio — ?ae?a?e c
yne?aai ae?aaeaieie iaoe?iiaeueieie ?enaie oa i?noeaaith niaoeeo?eith, —
a?i c /anii oaae ii/aa iaaoaaoe iaaiiai aoi?/iiai caaa?aeaiiy. I?ioa
ii??aiyii c i?aaineaa’yi oa a?aei-eaoieeoeeciii eiai aieea ia
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aoa iaioei. C
io?eiaiiyi iacaeaaeiino? i?ioanoaionuee? a?iiaaee ii/aee aeoeaii
a?ae?iaeaeoaaoeny, oe?a?i?coaaoeny, noai?thth/e nai? aaoiiiii? oeaio?e,
i?iyaeyth/e i?e oeueiio eiyeuei?noue aei aeaaee, eiioan?eio oa?iei?noue
oa aioiai?noue aei ae?aeiao c ?ioeie ?ae?a?yie.

5. Ine?eueee Oe?a?ia caeaaia aoea iie?aoi?/iei ooai?aiiyi, ia ??
oa?eoi??? ?nio? /eiaei ?ae?a?e iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. A /ane i?iaaaeaiiy
iie?oeee aeaaoi?caoe?? oa anei?eyoe?? iaei??iieo ia?iae?a aiie oi/a ?
i?aeaeaaaeeny ooeneai oa aii?iiyi, i?ioa caa??aaee aoi?/io
?aeaioe/i?noue. Iei? ?ae?a?? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, ye ? ?io? eiioan??,
a?ae?iaeaeothoueny, ooaa?aeaeoth/enue o aeooiaiiio i?inoi?? Oe?a?ie.

6. ?aaeuei?noth no/aniiai aeooiaiiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie ? iai?ae?a??. Noaaoe
a oiiaao aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa aeueoa?iaoeaiith oa iiiceoe?eiith
oi?iith ?ae?a?eiino? uiaei o?aaeeoe?eieo oea?eia, aiie, c iaeiiai aieo,
cia/ii i?eiiiaeeee iie?eiioan?ei?noue a Oe?a?i?, a c ae?oaiai — iineeeee
iayaia i?ioenoiyiiy o noa?? i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei.

7. No/aniee i?aeoea?eiaiee eiioe?eo ia eeoa caaaaea? a??oth/ei
a?iiaaeyiai ii?iaeueii caaeiaieueiyoe ?ae?a?ei? iio?aae, a e aenooia?
iaei??th ?c ia?aoeiae aeinyaiaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? a
aea?aeaa?. A?aeoae eiai iiaeieaiiy ? ni?aaith ia eeoa ?ae?a?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e, a e aea?aeaae.

8. Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/iee aieea ?ae?a?? oa oea?eae ia aeeooy
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, na?oiaeyae oe?a?ioe?a ia aoa iaeii??aeiei.
Ii?yae ?c ?ae?a?eiei iiaeyaeii ia na?o oa ethaeeio ?nioaaee ?io?, oi/ ?
iaio iioe?ai?, oi?ie na?oiaa/aiiy, a yeeo a??a o iaaei?e?iaeia ia aoea
aeii?ioth/ith.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy cana?ae/o?, ui ??ci? eiioan?? aieeaaee ia
iie?oe/ia, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia oa iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia aeeooy
noni?euenoaa iaiaeiaeiai ? /anii noia?a/eeai, i?ioa eiaeia ?c ieo
caeeoeea na?e iaiiaoi?iee ne?ae o aeooiaiiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a.

?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iiiia?ao??

1. Ooaa I. ?ae?a?y a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie
(iie?oieia?/iee aiae?c). — E.: E?eieoey, 1999. — 324 n.

2. Ooaa A.A. I?aaineaaea e iaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey. I?iaeaiu
acaeiiaeaenoaey yoiina e ?aeeaee. — E.:Eea?aeue, 1992. — 132 n.

Iiiia?ao??, aioeeeeiiaae??, neiaieee, a?ioo?e

1. Ooaa I. Aoiieiioan?ei? i?ioeane//Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie
(oa?i?ie, aecia/aiiy, ia?niiae??). — E.,1993. — N. 774.

2. Eaooainueeee I., Ooaa I. Caaaeueiiethaenueeee ci?no ?ae?a?eii?
ii?ae? //Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie (oa?i?ie, aecia/aiiy,
ia?niiae??). — E.,1993. — N. 776.

3. Ooaa I. Iaoa?iei?noue eiioan?eia //Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie
Oe?a?ie (oa?i?ie, aecia/aiiy, ia?niiae??). — E.,1993. — N. 783.

4. Ooaa I. ?ae?a?eii-aoi?/iee aai?ci //Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie
Oe?a?ie (oa?i?ie, aecia/aiiy, ia?niiae??). — E.,1993. — N.787-788.

5. Ooaa I. Ni?euei?noue aoiieiioan?eia //Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie
Oe?a?ie (oa?i?ie, aecia/aiiy, ia?niiae??). — E.,1993. — N.791-792.

6. Ooaa I. ?ae?a?eii-iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy //?ae?a??ciaa/ee
neiaiee. — E.: *aoaa?oa oaeey. 1996, — N.278-279.

7. Ooaa I. Iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ae?a?? //?ae?a??ciaa/ee neiaiee — E.:
*aoaa?oa oaeey, 1996. — C.209.

8. Ooaa I. Ni?euei?noue aoiieiioan?eia //?ae?a??ciaa/ee neiaiee. — E.:
*aoaa?oa oaeey, 1996. — N. 317 .

9. Ooaa I. Aoiieiioan?ei? i?ioeane //Iaea aioeeeeiiaae?y
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa. — E.: Aaiaca, Aeia??a, 1996. — N. 481.

10. Ooaa I. O?aaeeoe?eia iaoe?iiaeueia ?ae?a?y //Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee
?icaeoie Oe?a?ie (oa?i?ie, aecia/aiiy, ia?niiae??). — E.,1993. —
N.792-793.

11. Ooaa I. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy //Iaeee neiaiee ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. —
E.:Eea?aeue, 1997. — N.86.

12. Ooaa I. Ee?anueea ieo?iiie?y //Iaeee neiaiee ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. —
E.:Eea?aeue, 1997. — N.190.

13. Ooaa I. Ee?eei Oo?ianueeee //Iaeee neiaiee ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. — E.:
Eea?aeue. 1997. — N.195.

14. Ooaa I. Ethaa/?anueeee Ie?ineaa //Iaeee neiaiee ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. —
E.: Eea?aeue. 1997. — N.240.

15. Ooaa I. Ne?iee Einei //Iaeee neiaiee ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. — E.:
Eea?aeue, 1997. — N.366.

16. Ooaa I. Oe?a?inueea a?aei-eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa (OAEOe)//Iaeee
neiaiee ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. — E.:Eea?aeue, 1997. — N.401.

17. Ooaa I. I?aaineaa’y ? o?aaeeoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. —
E.:Ciaiiy, 1989. — 48 n.

18. Ooaa I. I?aeoea?eiaiee eiioe?eo ye ia?aoeiaea ia oeyoo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie //Oea?eaa ? iaoe?iiaeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. — E., 1993. — N.189-198.

19. Ooaa I. ?aeay ?aeeii? iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae a aoiiiie?oe/iiio
i?inoi?? no/anii? Oe?a?ie //Aoiiiie?oe/iee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie: aeina?ae,
i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae. — E., 1997. — N.193-197.

Coaoo?

1. Ooaa I. I?aaineaa’y ? o?aaeeoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e
//?ae?a?eia o?aaeeoe?y a aeooiaiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? Oe?a?ie. — Iieoaaa,
1992. — N. 25-26.

2. Ooaa I. A?i?y ? oea?eaa: i?iaeaie aca?iiae?? a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? //A?i?y ? aeooiai?noue: naiaiaea nia?no? oa
a??iaeciaiiy. — E.: Oe?a?inueea i?aaie/a ooiaeaoe?y, 1995. — N.66-71.

3. Ooaa I. Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ?ae?a?y ? oea?eaa //A?/a. —
1992., — ? 9. — N. 157-159.

4. Ooaa I. ?aeeia iaoe?iiaeueia oea?eaa? //A?/a. — 1994. — ? 3. — N.
137-141.

5. Ooaa I. Aca?iica’ycie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? ?ae?a?eiiai a oe?a?inueeiio
i?aaineaa’? //?noi??y ?ae?a?e a Oe?a?i?. — Ee?a, Euea?a, 1996. —
N.198-199.

6. Ooaa I. I?aeoea?eiaiee eiioe?eo a Oe?a?i? ? oeyoe eiai iiaeieaiiy
//O?yaeo Oe?a?ie: I?aceaeaioo, caeiiiaeaa/?e, aeeiiaa/?e aeaae?.
(Aiae?oe/i? ?ic?iaee, i?iiiceoe?? iaoeiaeo oa i?aeoe/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a).
— O 1. — E.,1994. — C. 120-125.

7. Ooaa I. Aca?iica’ycie ?ae?a?eiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
//?ae?a?y ? oea?eaa a eiioaeno? ?aae?e nueiaiaeaiiy. — E., 1995. —
N.83-84.

8. Ooaa I. Oea?eiai? iai’yoee a eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e
Oe?a?ie //A?niee Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa ioi?iie iai’yoie ?noi??? oa
eoeueoo?e. — 1995. — ? 4. — N.12-16.

9. Aoii?i A., Ooaa I. Nayuaiee a a?i??. Iio?aaa aeoo? /e iiaea? //A?/a.
— 1995. — ? 10. — N. 65-71.

10. Ooaa I. I?aeoea?eiaiee eiioe?eo. Niiae?aaiiy ia ioae??noue ?
oa?i?iiy //A?/a. — 1996. — ? 8. — N.142-154.

11. Ooaa I. …Ia?aae Aiaii ? aeaniith nia?noth. O?ii?ea i?eeiyooy
iieiaeaiue iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie c ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiaieo i?iaeai
//Ethaeeia ? na?o. — 1996. — ? 9. — N.2-8.

12. Ooaa I. Oea?eiai? iai’yoee ye caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? eoeueoo?i?
iaaeaaiiy //Iai’youe noie?oue. — 1996. — N 3. — N. 78-84.

13. Ooaa I. Oea?eiai? iai’yoee ye aeaea?aei iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi???
//Ee?anueea noa?iaeia. — 1996. — ? 6. — N. 93-96.

14. Ooaa I. ?ae?a?y ? iie?oeea a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? //?ae?a?y ?
noni?euenoai a Oe?a?i?: oaeoi?e ci?i. — E., 1998. — N.60-67.

Aiioaoe?y

Ooaa I.A. ?ae?a?y a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie (iie?oieia?/iee
aiae?c). — Iiiia?aoiy.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iie?oe/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane. —
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea. — Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa
iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a aca?iiae?? aoiino ? ?ae?a?? o i?ioean? ?o ?noi?e/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oa a oiiaao no/anieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ?aae?e
Oe?a?ie. Aena?oeth?oueny ?ieue ? cia/aiiy eiioan?eieo /eiiee?a o
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aooo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. ?ice?eaathoueny i?ioean
aaiethoe?? oa iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaa’y ye iaoe?iiaeueii
naiiaooiueiai ?ae?a?eiiai e aoiieoeueoo?iiai oaiiiaia, aiae?cothoueny
i?e/eie eiai ?iceieo, i?iaeaie ia’?aeiaiiy oa caeiaoooy aaoieaoae??.
C’yniao?oueny i?noea ?ioeo ?ae?a?e o aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny ca’ycie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? ?ae?a?eiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a no/aniuo oiiaao. Aeyaeythoueny oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ? ?ae?a?eieo i?ioean?a, i?e/eie oa nooi?noue
i?aeoea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo, nooi?iue eiai caa?ice noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e
noaa?eueiino? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. Ie?aneth?oueny eiei
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a Oe?a?ie o ?ae?a?eii-oea?eiai?e
noa??, aecia/athoueny iniiai? iai?yie ?o caaacia/aiiy a oiiaao
?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ae?a?y, oea?eaa, aoiin, iaoe?y, aoiieiioan?eia
ni?euei?noue, iaoe?iiaeueia oa ?ae?a?eia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? i?ioeane, iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane.

Aiiioaoeey

Ooaa A.A. ?aeeaey a aoiiiaoeeiiaeueiii ?acaeoee Oe?aeiu
(iieeoieiae/aneee aiaeec). — Iiiia?aoey.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iieeoe/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02 — iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e i?ioeannu. —
Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei. — Eueaia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaaony enneaaeiaaieth oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneeo e
iieeoe/aneeo aniaeoia acaeiiaeaenoaey yoiina e ?aeeaee a i?ioeanna eo
enoi?e/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee, a oaeaea a oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiuo
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo ?aaeee Oe?aeiu. Inaauaaony ?ieue e cia/aiea
eiioanneiiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia a iaoeeiiaeueiii auoee oe?aeineiai ia?iaea.
?ane?uaathony yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiay iaoneiaeaiiinoue iaaeeiioanneiiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee, yoiiiieeoe/aneea aniaeou aaaaeaiey o?enoeainoaa a
?one-Oe?aeia. I?ineaaeeaathony i?ioeann yaiethoeee e iniaaiiinoe
oe?aeineiai i?aaineaaey eae iaoeeiiaeueii naiiauoiiai ?aeeaeiciiai e
yoiieoeueoo?iiai oaiiiaia. Aiaeece?othony oi?iu e iaoiaeu ?oneoeeaoeee
Oe?aeiu iiae ?aeeaeiciui i?ee?uoeai. Auyniythony i?e/eiu ?aneiea a
oe?aeineii i?aaineaaee, i?iaeaiu aai iauaaeeiaiey e iieo/aiey
aaoieaoaeee. Ii?aaeaeyaony ianoi ae?oaeo ?aeeaee a yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiii
?acaeoee Oe?aeiu. Enneaaeoaony ?ieue ?aeeaee e oea?eae a ooaa?aeaeaiee
oe?aeineie iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeae, naycue iaoeeiiaeueiiai e ?aeeaeiciiai
aic?iaeaeaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, iieeoe/aneia, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiia e
eiioanneiiaeueiia iiiaiia?acea nia?aiaiiiai oe?aeineiai iauanoaa a aai
nioeeieiae/aneii e noaoenoe/aneii ecia?aieyo. Ii?aaeaeythony oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo e ?aeeaeiciuo i?ioeannia a Oe?aeia a oeaeii
e aa ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao, i?e/eiu e nouiinoue iaaeoea?eiaiiai
eiioeeeoa, noaiaiue aai oa?icu iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe
oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa, iooe ieieiecaoeee e i?aiaeieaiey. I/a?/eaaaony
e?oa iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiuo eioa?ania Oe?aeiu a
?aeeaeicii-oea?eiaiie noa?a, ii?aaeaeythony iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey eo
iaania/aiey a i?ioeanna ooaa?aeaeaiey oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aeeaey, oea?eiaue, yoiin, iaoeey,
yoiieiioanneeiiaeueiay iauiinoue, iaoeeiiaeueiia e ?aeeaeiciia
aic?iaeaeaiea, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiua i?ioeannu,
iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiua eioa?anu.

Summary

Shuba A.V. Religion in ethnonational development of Ukraine (political
analysis). — Monograph.

Doctoral degree Dissertation on political science — specialty 23.00.02 —
Political institutes and processes. — The Ivan Franko Lvov university. —
Lvov, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to investigation of theoretico-methodoligical
and political aspects of interaction of ethnos and religion in the
process of their historical transformation and in conditions of
Ukrainian modern social and political reality. The role and the meaning
of confessional factors in the national life of Ukrainian people are
shown. The process of evolution and Ukrainian Orthodoxy peculiarities as
national-original religious and ethno-cultural phenomena are disclosed,
the reasons of its split, the problem of unification and getting
autocephaly are analyzed. The role of other religions in ethnonational
development of Ukraine is cleared up. The connection of the national and
religious revival in modern conditions is investigated. Tendencies of
the development of ethno-national and religious processes, causes and
essence of the conflict between churches and the degree of its treat to
social-state stability of Ukraine are defined. Ukrainian national and
state interests in religious sphere are outlined, the main directions of
their securing in conditions of Ukrainian State system organization are
determined.

Keywords: religion, church, ethnos, nation, ethno-religions unification,
national and religions revival, ethno-national processes, national-state
interests.

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