Підвищення ефективності використання інноваційного потенціалу в умовах переходу до ринкових відносин (на прикладі промислових підприємств Донбасу): Ав

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AEIIII?EE I?IIENEIAINO?

?iaeaen OAeE: 330.341. 1+621+658.3-05

AAEOOEI ?aaai Na?a?eiae/

I?AeAEUAIIss AOAEOEAIINO? AEEI?ENOAIIss

?IIIAAOe?EIIAI IIOAIOe?AEO A OIIAAO IA?AOIAeO

AeI ?EIEIAEO A?AeIINEI

(ia i?eeeaae? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaano)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.02. 02 – Aeiiii?ea oa oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei
i?ia?anii,

?iaanoeoe?ei? oa
?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie (i.
Aeiiaoeuee).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iieeiinueeee Oaae?? THoeiiae/,

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee
eaai?aoi???th

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

No??eaoeue Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/,

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
iaiaaeaeiaioo

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaiio?a Ieueaa ?aai?aia,

Aeiiaoeueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?iainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – Caii??cueea aea?aeaaia ?iaeaia?ia aeaaeai?y

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

(i. Caii??aeaey)

eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee oa i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «26» aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.151.01 ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 340048, Aeiiaoeuee,

aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 77.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith : 340048, Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 77 .

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «25 » ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iieeiinueeee O. TH.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaei??th c i?iaeai ?aae?caoe??
aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei
? ?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaiai ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio, ui
aeicaieeoue caa?aaoe e ?icaeaaoe iioaioe?ae i?aei?e?inoaa, i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

I?aei?e?inoaa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ? iaoa??aeueiith iniiaith oaoi?/iiai e
oaoiieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo anueiai ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. A?ae oaii?a
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a oe?e aaeoc? o ae??oaeuei?e i??? caeaaeaoue
i?iaeoeoeai?noue noni?eueii? i?aoe?, aenii?oiee iioaioe?ae oa
iai?iiicaeaoi?noue e?a?ie, iaoa??aeueiee aeia?iaoo ianaeaiiy.

Ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa i?aei?e?inoa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?
oa Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio ia i?ioyc? inoaii?o ?ie?a ciaioothoueny. Oaea
neooaoe?y noaea iane?aeeii canoa??aaiiy iniiaieo oiiae?a oa oaoiieia?e,
iaaeinoaoiuei? i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oa
aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei noai?aiiy
i?iaeoeoe??, oa?aeoa?enoeee yei? iinooiathoueny iaee?auei na?oiaei
c?aceai oa iathoue iecueeo eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue.

Oiio, i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?ai ?aeiino?oeoe?? iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa
aino?i iinoathoue ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai ??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa
ia iniia? ?icoe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aneaieo aia?ai- oa
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e, caoenoo iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.
Iae?iaeiiii?/ia noaa?e?caoe?y, c?inoaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa
a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa, aaoi?eoao Oe?a?ie ia na?oia?e a?ai? a cia/i?e
i??? iia’ycai? c aoaeoeaiei ?icaeoeii eiiieaeno aaeocae
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

A oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ci?iththoueny aeiiii?/ia, i?aai?caoe?eia,
oaoi?/ia, aeieia?/ia aace ae?iaieoeoaa. Oea aeiaaa? ia?ainieneaiiy
oe?eae ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, ??
i???ioaoe?? ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie. Oni?o i?aei?e?inoaa a oaeeo oiiaao
aeinyaa?oueny caaaeyee ooai?aiith e ?iciianthaeaeaiith iiaiaaaaeaiue:
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ic?iaie caaacia/o? iioaioe?eio
iiaeeea?noue aooe eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiei a iaeaooiueiio, a oaeiae
eiieo?oaaoe e iaoe i?eaooie nueiaiaei?.

Ia’?eoeaia ioe?iea ?iiiaaoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae, ia?aiao??a oa
oa?aeoa?enoee ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy i?e
oi?ioaaii? e ?aae?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee i?aei?e?inoa
iaoeiiaoae?aiiai eiiieaeno. Oe?e oaiaoeoe? i?enay/aii iaoeia? i?aoe?
a/aieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a IAI Oe?a?ie, aeeeaaea/?a aaaaoueio
aoc?a, aeiiii?no?a-i?aeoee?a. I?ioa, aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny o iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeiiii?oe?, aeiaaathoue iiaeaeueoiai
ii?aoethaaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie, iniaeeai uiaei i?aei?e?inoa
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

A oaia??oi?e /an iaia? caaaeueiiaeciaii? oi/ee ci?o i?i caniae oa
e?eoa??? ioe?iee ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa,
nooi?iue oai?aoe/iiai oa iaoiaeieia?/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy ieoaiue
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei
ia a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei iio?aaai. Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
ia?ae?/aieo oa aeayeeo ?ioeo i?iaeai, ca’ycaieo c oi?ioaaiiyi a Oe?a?i?
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, iaoiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe, aea?? iaoe e iai?yi?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie i?aai?caoe??. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe iia’ycaia c oaiith «Iaoiaeieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo
iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? ?aa?ii?a (ia i?eeeaae? Aeiiaano)»
a?aeae?eo i?iaeai ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie (1994-1997 ??., iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0194V046247).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe neeaaea?oueny c ?ic?iaee
oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ?icaeoeo
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa ia iniia?
aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaa iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i oa cania?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui aeieeathoue aiane?aeie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee.
A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a ?iaio? iio??aii aoei noi?ioethaaoe
oa ?ica’ycaoe ?yae iaoeiaeo oa i?aeoe/ieo caaea/:

aeine?aeeoe nooi?noue, ?ieue, i?noea, iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?aei?e?inoaa;

cai?iiiioaaoe ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?nioth/iai aeina?aeo iaoai?ci
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?e, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoueny ia i?aei?e?inoaao
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy;

cai?iiiioaaoe e?eoa??? oa iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo a no/anieo oiiaao;

i?iaiae?coaaoe noai oa aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo (ia
i?eeeaae?

iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaano);

aeae?eeoe eeth/ia? neoaeae oa i?ae?icae?ee, ae?yeuei?noue ia?niiaeo yeeo
o iaea?eueo?e i??? aieeaa? ia ?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae;

?icaeyiooe ia?aaaae e iaaeie?ee a oi?aae?ii? ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao;

cai?iiiioaaoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe aeaye? iniiai? iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy
oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth ia?niiaeo i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa a no/anieo oiiaao;

?ic?iaeoe iniiai? iieiaeaiiy nenoaie iioeaaoe?? aoaeoeaii? ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?;

aeine?aeeoe iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ae?icae?e?a
?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci aeei?enoaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao, a oaeiae
noeoii?noue oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo e i?aeoe/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy. sse ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?eeiyoi iaoeiiaoae?ai? i?aei?e?inoaa Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?.

Oai?aoe/ia oa iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith e
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee i?aoe? eeanee?a
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeiiii?no?a, th?eno?a,
nioe?ieia?a, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, o?yaeia? ??oaiiy e iinoaiiae.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy caaaeueiiiaoeia? caniae
i?ciaiiy: aiae?c oa neioac, nenoaiiee aiae?c, caniae noaoenoe/iiai,
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai e eia?/iiai aiae?co, aenia?oieo ioe?iie, aeaiaioe
i?iaiicoaaiiy.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e,
iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ca?oe ?inoeooo?a, iaoa??aee nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?aeiiiai iae?eo oa noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?
iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa, ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue oa
aiae?co.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oaeiio:

ia iniia? o?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
i?aei?e?inoa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ooi/iaii o?aeooaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???
“?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae” noiniaii iiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy ye
noeoiiino? i?e?iaeieo oa o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, i?aai?caoe?eieo,
?ioi?iaoe?eieo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo eiiiiiaio?a, iaoa??aeueieo oaeoi??a, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny o ae?aeaeoe/iiio ca’yceo e ooieoe?iiothoue ye ?aeeia
oe?ea, c iaoith noai?aiiy iioeiaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey ?aae?caoe??
caaea/ ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?;

ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae ? ?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??? oa caniae ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?e, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoueny ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo
i?aei?e?inoaao, ye? neeaaeathoueny c aiae?co o?ueio a?oi /eiiee?a:
e?euee?nieo e?eoa???a (caaaeueiee o?iainiaee ?acoeueoao i?iaeoo,
aioo??oi?e eiao?oe??io ieoiiino?, ia??iae ieoiiino?, ?iaeaen aea?aeiino?
?iaanoeoe?e, ii?ia oiiaeia?aeaea/?); e?eoa???a, aieea yeeo iiaea aooe
aei??yia e?euee?nii eeoa /anoeiai (aieea ?ioeyoe??, ia?eaoeiaia?
/eiieee, nooi?iue ?eceeo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo oiui); /eiiee?a
ye?niiai ??aiy (a?aeiia?aei?noue ?iiiaaoe?e iao?, no?aoaa?? e oaeoeoe?
i?aei?e?inoaa, aieea noeeth oi?aae?iiy ? i?aai?caoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua
oiui);

cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio iieaciee?a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo, yea neeaaea?oueny c iaoo?aeueieo e aa?o?nieo
iieaciee?a, aeiiiaiaieo nenoaiith ye?nieo ioe?iie oa iaiaaeoaaeueieo
oiia. Neeaaeia? oe??? nenoaie a?aeia?aaeathoue nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a, ui aeicaiey? ??ciia?/ii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aniaeoe
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?;

?ic?iaeaii iaoiae ae?aaiinooaaiiy noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
i?aei?e?inoaa, yeee neeaaea?oueny c iine?aeiaiino? aoai?a i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieno ?ino?oiaioa??th oa aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey
?ic?aooieo iieaciee?a, a oaeiae c eiii’thoa?ieo cania?a aaoiiaoecaoe??
i?ioeano ae?aaiinooaaiiy. C ?o aeiiiiiaith aeeiiaii aiae?c noaio oa
aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo AO “Iiaie?aiaoi?nueeee
iaoeiiaoae?aiee caaiae” (AO IEIC) ? AO “Oyaei?iieiiieaeo”;

aeine?aeaeaii neoaeae oa i?ae?icae?ee iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa
(a?aeae?e oe?eueiaeo i?ia?ai ? iaoaioieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a?aeae?e
ia?eaoeiao, a?aeae?e aieiaiiai eiino?oeoi?a oiui), ye? neeaaeathoue
nenoaio oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth, ?o aca?iica’ycie oa
nooi?iue aieeao ia ?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae;

aeyaeaii iayai?noue noia?a/iinoae o nenoai? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy: i?e ioe?ioe?
neeaaeiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? oa
?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e; i?e ae??oaii?
eaae?iaeo ieoaiue ? oi?ioaaii? ii?iaoeaii? aace i?aoe? ia?niiaeo; i?e
canoinoaaii? no/anieo iaoiae?a ieaioaaiiy oa ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee;

cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, aei /enea yeeo
aoiaeyoue cina?aaeaeaiiy iniiaieo ooieoe?e ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o
niaoe?ae?ciaai?e ?iiiaaoe?ei?e neoaea?, ui cae?enith? eii?aeeiaoe?th
?iaioe an?o ?iaeaia?ieo, aeiiii?/ieo neoaea e ae?iaie/eo i?ae?icae?e?a
ii oi?ioaaiith ? ?aae?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee; i?aeaeuaiiy
aaeaioeaiino? i?aai?caoe?? aei ci?i ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaeo oi?i oi?aae?iiy iiaiaaaaeaiiyie;
oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iioeaaoe?? ia?niiaeo; ?icoe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy
no/anii? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee;

?ic?iaeaii iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii ?iiiaaoe?eii?
noa?e iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei; cai?iiiiiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith
iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio caoe?eaaeaiino? ia?niiaeo o i?aeaeuaii?
aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo, ye?
aeeth/athoue ?icaeoie ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo, oae ? eieaeoeaieo oi?i
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, i?aeneeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai e
eieaeoeaiiai noeioethaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy aeaiaio?a «nenoaie o/ano? «;

iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy no/anii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
oaoiieia?? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe i?ae?icae?e?a
?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e, iniiaieie ?enaie yei? ? ia?niiae?caoe?y
aeei?enoaiiy cania?a ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee, noai?aiiy eieaeueieo
ia?aae AII oa ?iciiae?eaieo aaaaoiei?enooaaoeueeeo nenoai ia?iaee
aeaieo, i?aai?caoe?y aaoiiaoeciaaieo ?iai/eo i?noeue (A?I) oao?aoe?a,
canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia?? «Ee??io – Na?aa? «.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeaeaii? aiae?co i?iaeai
oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo
i?aeoiae?a aei ioe?iee noaio ?o ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo, a oaeiae a
iaa?oiooaaii? aeayeeo iai?yie?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ia no/anieo i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c ?ic?iaee
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaioeaiino? iaoeiiaoae?aieo
i?aei?e?inoa aei ci?i ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua, ui caaacia/othoue
caa?aaeaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo ia iniia? i?aeneeaiiy caoe?eaaeaiino? ?iaanoi??a oa
o?oaeiaiai eieaeoeao o ?acoeueoaoao ?iiiaaoe?e.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo o aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeee ioe?iee ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth ia AO IEIC oa AO “Oyaei?iieiiieaeo” ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oeeo i?aei?e?inoa ca ?aooiie: i?aeaeuaiiy
iaa?oioiaaiino? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue; nei?i/aiiy oa?i?io
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaiaaaaeaiue; i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?
ia?niiaeo ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e.

Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaea?aeaii o aeaeyae? c?inoaiiy ianya?a i?iaeaaeo oa aeiaeaoeiaiai
i?eaooeo. A AO “Oyaei?iieiiieaeo” i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo
neeaa o 1996 ?. 1200 a?i. A AO IEIC i/?eo?oueny c?inoaiiy i?eaooeo aei
1,5 a?aenioe?a.

Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny oaeiae o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aeey nooaeaio?a niaoe?aeueiino? 7.050201
“Iaiaaeaeiaio o ae?iaie/?e noa??” o E?aiaoi?nueeiio
aeiiii?ei-aoiai?oa?iiio ?inoeooo?.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny, iaaiai?thaaeeny ? aoee ooaaeai? ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo:

“Yeiiiie/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey no?ai
Niae?oaeanoaa: i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e ?uiie o?oaea, aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea
nayce”, Aeiiaoeuee, 1996 ?.;

«Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo», Aeiiaoeuee, 1996 ?.;

“I?iaeaiu oaoieee, oaoiieiaee e yeiiiieee iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa”, E?aiaoi?nuee, 1996 ?.;

“Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu”,
Aeiiaoeuee, 1997 ?.;

“Eiaanoeoeeiiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea onoie/eaiai ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey”
E?aiaoi?nuee, 1998 ?.;

“I?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey aioee?eceniie iieeoeee a ?aaeiia”, Aeiiaoeuee,
1998 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue o a?aee?eoiio
ae?ooe? iioae?eiaaii 6 ?ia?o, ui a?aeaeaathoue iniiaiee ci?no
aeena?oaoe??, caaaeueiei ianyaii 1.4 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a. Iniaenoi
aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 1.2 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, aeeeaaeaieo ia 179 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 177 aeaea?ae, 9 ?enoie?a,
13 oaaeeoeue, aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

A aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue caoeuathoueny iia?
iaoiaee/i? oa i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ia i?eeeaae? iaoeiiaoae?aii?
i?iieneiaino?.

O ?icae?e? 1 «Nooi?noue ci?i ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee o i?iieneiaino? a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee» i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?ie? e i?noey
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a ci?no? ?aoi?i ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao
Oe?a?ie; aeine?aeaeaii nooi?noue e iniaeeaino? iaiaaeaeiaioo ?iiiaaoe?e
ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao a no/anieo oiiaao; aeyaeaii nooi?noue
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa, eiai
oa?aeoa?enoeee oa no?oeoo?a.

A?aei?/aii, ui ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? yaeythoue niaith noeoii?noue
??ciiiai?oieo i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a, a ia?oo /a?ao, ?iiiaaoe?eieo. Oea
aeiaaa? ?aoaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo iaa?oiooaaiue, uia aeeeth/eoe aia?o?/iee
?icaae ae?th/eo no?oeoo? aac oia?aaeaeoth/iai oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
iiiaeaieo. ?iiiaaoe?? iiaeii? ia o?eueee eiiiainoaaoe ao?aoe a?ae
aeaoooy c ainiiaea?nueeiai ia?ao ae?iaieoeoa, ui canoa??ee, aea e
aeaaaoe i?e??no aeiaeaoeiaiai aoaeoo. Oiio coneeey aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a
Oe?a?ie iiaeii? eiioeaio?oaaoeny ia iiooeao oa aeei?enoaii? aeanieo
?iiiaaoe?eieo oa ?iaanoeoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae, aeai?? i?ei?eoaoieo noa?
?icaeoeo c oaeaeeeie oaiiaie aeiiii?/iiai ia?ao oa i?e?inoo iaeiie/aiue.

?aoi?ie a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie iiee ui ia i?ecaaee aei c?inoaiiy ianya?a
ae?iaieoeoaa, eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aaeeei? /anoeie a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy. Ana oea o cia/i?e i??? iia’ycaii
?c nei?i/aiiyi aeo?ao aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia ?iaanooaaiiy,
iani?eyoeeaei ?iiiaaoe?eiei oa ?iaanoeoe?eiei ee?iaoii a Oe?a?i?. O oie
aea /an iaeiie/aiee na?oiaee aeina?ae e?a?i, ui aeeiai?/ii
?icaeaathoueny, aeae?ey? ?iiiaaoe?? oa oaoi?/iee ?icaeoie ye iaiao?aei?
oa ia?oi/a?aia? caniae ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai.
No?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo noa?e ae?iaieoeoaa oaoiieia?e oeeo e?a?i nie?a?oueny
ia i?eioeei eiioeaio?aoe?? cania?a, aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy e
?i?oe?aoeao i?aei?e?inoa.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa cia/ii caaino?eeeny i?iaeaie,
ui aeieeathoue a oi?aae?ii? i?ioeanaie noai?aiiy iiaeo ciaiue, oai?/ei
iioaioe?aeii, ?ioeie aniaeoaie iiaiaaaaeaiue. Oea coiiaeei iiyao iiaiai
iai?yio o o?aaeeoe?eiiio iaiaaeaeiaio? – ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.
?iiiaaoe?y (iiaiaaaaeaiiy) – oea ye?nii a?aei?iiee a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai
aiaeiao ia’?eo, yeee ai?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai aiane?aeie
i?iaaaeaiiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aai c?iaeaiiai a?aee?eooy. Iiiyooy
«?iiiaaoe?y» canoiniao?oueny aei an?o iiaiaaaaeaiue, ye o ae?iaie/?e,
oae ? a i?aai?caoe?ei?e, o?iainia?e, iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e, ?ioeo noa?ao,
aei aoaeue-yeeo oaeineiiaeaiue, ui caaacia/othoue aeiiii?th aeo?ao aai
iaa?oue oaeeo, ui ooai?ththoue oiiae aeey oaei? aeiiii??.

?iiiaaoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa ?icaeyiooi ?c nenoaiieo
iiceoe?e. A nenoai? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth aeae?eaii
aea? naiino?ei?, aea aca?iiiia’ycai? i?aenenoaie: ui oi?aaey?oueny –
ia’?eo oi?aae?iiy, oa ea?oth/i? – noa’?eo oi?aae?iiy. Ea?oth/a
i?aenenoaia e ia’?eo oi?aae?iiy iia’ycai? i?ae niaith ?ioi?iaoe??th.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoa ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth iieyaa? o noai?aii? iioeiaeueieo oiia aeey ?aae?caoe??
?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, iai?aaeaieo ia ?icaeoie i?aei?e?inoaa,
caaacia/oth/e i?e oeueiio iaeneiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?aeo
i?aei?e?inoaa.

?acii c oei ?iiiaaoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaii c iiceoe?e
i?ioeaniiai i?aeoiaeo. A i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth iiaiaaaaeaiiy i?ioiaeeoue e??cue ieceo aoai?a naiai
aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo, ui iio?aao? a?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae eiaeiiai c ieo.

I?iaaaeaiee aaoi?ii aiae?c na?oiaiai aeina?aeo, ui iaeiie/aii a
?iiiaaoe?ei?e noa??, aeicaieea aeae?eeoe ianooii? aacia? canaaee iiaiai
i?aeoiaeo aei oi?aae?iiy iiaiaaaaeaiiyie: iaae?eaiiy iniiaieo eaiie
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aae?iiy iaiao?aeieie i?aaaie, iiaeeeainoyie oa ?ano?naie
aeey aoaeoeaiiai naii?icaeoeo, no?aoaa?/ii? oa iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?;
oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoi?ee ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy ia an?o aoaiao
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo ia iniia? cania?a i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai
oi?aae?iiy iiaiaaaaeaiiyie; i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy eii?aeeiaoe?? ae?e in?a,
ui oi?iothoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/io oa aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo ia i?aei?e?inoaao;
aeinyaiaiiy no?aoaa?/ii? aio/eino? /a?ac nenoaie eiio?ieth, iino?eiee
?icaeoie iioaioe?aeo, aeeth/ath/e ni?iiiaei?noue aei aaeaioaoe??;
oi?ioaaiiy iiai? oi?aae?inueei? eaae?o?eaoe?? o aaeoc? canoinoaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoiieia??.

Iacaai? oi?aae?inuee? canaaee a ?o noeoiiino? ni?yiiaai? ia iiaeieaiiy
aeenaaeain?a, ?nioth/eo o ainiiaea?nuee?e noa?? oa ia?aoeiaeaeath/eo
?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa: aeenaaeaino i?aa oa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, oiaoi
caeai? oeaio?ae?caoe?? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue aeueie aoaeiiaie oi?aae?iiy;
aeenaaeaino i?ae ??ciiiai?oieie aeaeaie no?aoaa?/ieo ci?i –
oaoiieia?/ieie, aeiiii?/ieie, nioe?aeueieie, aeieia?/ieie oa
i?aai?caoe?eieie; aeenaaeaino i?ae i?eeiyooyi e ?aae?caoe??th ??oaiue
no?aoaa?/ii? iie?oeee; aeenaaeaino i?ae i?ioeanaie aeine?aeaeaiue oa
?ic?iaie c iaeiiai aieo, e ae?iaie/eie, a oaeiae ?iciiae?eue/eie
i?ioeanaie – c ?ioiai; i?aei?aai?caoe?eiiai aeenaaeaino, oiaoi
iaiiaiaeaeaiino? ae?e ??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?caoe?e aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
ni?eueieo i?iaeai.

Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, aea?? iai?yie?a
?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa oa aaeocae o i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c iaoeiaith eaoaai???th
“iioaioe?ae». O aeai?e ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny ?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae
ii ii?aoethaaiith oa ai?iaaaeaeaiith iiaiaaaaeaiue o iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?.
Oea oa?aeoa?enoeea ni?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ?ic?iaeyoe oa
ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iiaiaaaaeaiiy ca?aeii c iaiao?aeieie ye?nieie
noaiaea?oaie c iaoith aaeaioaoe?? aei ci?i a ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu?. A
no?oeoo?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa
cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eeoe eaae?iao, ?ioi?iaoe?eii-ia-oiaeieia?/io,
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/io oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeo neeaaeia? (?en.
1).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c eiai
iaeaaaeeea?oeo oa?aeoa?enoee aeey aecia/aiiy aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino?
neeaaeiaeo, oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo, iai?yie?a oaeineiiaeaiiy iioaioe?aeo c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy. No/aniee aoai
?icaeoeo ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeanoeainoyie
oe?e?niino?, aca?iicaeaaeiino? aeaiaio?a, aaeaioeaiino? aei ci?i,
ni?iiiaeiino? aei a?aeoai?aiiy oa c?inoaiiy.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee cai?iiiioaaoe o?aeoiaeo aeiiii?/ii?
eaoaai??? «?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae» ye noeoiiino? i?e?iaeieo oa
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, i?aai?caoe?eieo, ?ioi?iaoe?eieo e iaoiaeieia?/ieo
eiiiiiaio?a, iaoa??aeueieo oiia, ui ciaoiaeyoueny o ae?aeaeoe/iiio
ca’yceo oa ooieoe?iiothoue ye ?aeeia oe?ea c iaoith noai?aiiy
iioeiaeueieo oiia aeey ae??oaiiy caaea/ ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui no?oeoo?a, aaee/eia ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo, ??aaiue
aeei?enoaiiy ?nioth/eo ?ano?n?a, ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee ie?aieo aeaiaio?a
ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aeicaieythoue eiiieaenii ioe?ieoe
iiaeeea? ia?niaeoeae i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao iioe?aiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?.

O ?icae?e? 2 «Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao» ?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??? oa
iaoiaee ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?e a no/anieo oiiaao, iaoiaee/i?
iniiae ae?aaiinooaaiiy noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo; i?iaaaeaii
aiae?c noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa
Aeiiaano.

A oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iaeaaaeeea?oei caaaeaiiyi
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ? noai?aiiy oiia aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo. Oea ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaii c
ioe?ieith aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo oa ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a.
“Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eiiieaeniie ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia onei?aiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna”
aoa iaeiei c aeieoiaio?a, ui ?aaeaiaiooaaa ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa
a oe?e noa?? a N?N?. Eiai aoei caoaa?aeaeaii iinoaiiaith I?aceae?? AI
N?N? a?ae 3.03.1988 ?., ui ia oeae /an ao?aoeei aeooaeuei?noue.

Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano a Oe?a?i? ia caoaa?aeaeaii iiai? ?aeeii?
iaoiaeeee aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, yea a
a?aoiaoaaea oiiae ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy oe???
noia?a/iino? aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??? oa caniae ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
?iiiaaoe?e, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoueny ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao.
Cai?iiiiiaaii oaanue eiiieaen /eiiee?a aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
?iiiaaoe?e iiae?eeoe ia o?e a?oie: e?euee?ni? e?eoa??? ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino?; /eiieee, aieea yeeo iiaea aooe ioe?iaii e?euee?nii eeoa
/anoeiai; ye?ni? oaeoi?e (?en. 2).

Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?iaeoo ca?aeii ?c cai?iiiiiaaiei
i?aeoiaeii iieyaa? o aecia/aii? oa ioe?ioe? iaaaaeaieo ieae/a aieiaieo
iieaciee?a. Ii e?euee?niei /eiieeai:

a) caaaeueiee o?iainiaee ?acoeueoao i?iaeoo (CO?) – noia o?iainiaeo
?acoeueoao?a, ui aeeneiiooaaeeny (??cieoey iii?ae noiith iaaeoiaeaeaiue
oa noiith aeo?ao eai?oaeo) ca an? ?iee ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo, a?aoiaoth/e
aeaoo ii/aoeo ?iaanoeoe??: O AeI t

CO? =( ––––––––– ,

t (1 + d) t

aea AeI t – a?ioiaee iio?e o ??e t; d – eiao?oe??io aeeneiiooaaiiy;

t = 0, 1, 2… O, T– no?ie cae?i/aiiy i?iaeoo.

Aeeneiiooaaiiy aecia/a? iioi/io aa?o?noue iaeaooi?o aeioiae?a oa aeo?ao.
Ca?aeii c oeei e?eoa???i i?iaeo iiaea aooe i?eeiyoee o ?ac?, yeui CO?
a?eueoa ioey;

a) aioo??oi?e eiao?oe??io ieoiiino? (AEI). Iieaco? oe?ii?noue
?iaanoeoe?e (o a?aenioeao) – oea noaaea aeeneiioo, i?e ye?e aoaeo a?ae
?iaanoeoe?e (CO?), aei??aith? ioeth:

AEI = d, i?e yeiio CO? = 0.

I?iaeo iiaea aooe i?eeiyoee, yeui cia/aiiy iieacieea AEI (o a?aenioeao)
aeey i?iaeoo, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, a?eueoa, i?ae AEI aeey aeueoa?iaoeaieo
i?iaeo?a. Ii??aithaaoe o?aaa o? i?iaeoe, ui iathoue iaeiaeiao nooi?iue
?eceeo;

a) ia??iae ieoiiino? (II). Iieaciee aecia/a?, ne?eueee iaiao?aeii /ano
aeey oiai, uia ?iaanoeoe?? aeaee i?eaooie, ui aei??aith? aeo?aoai:

O
O

II =O, i?e yeiio ( It = ( Et ,

t=1
t=1

aea It – i?eaooie, ui io?eiaii o ??e t; Et – ?iaanoeoe?? o ??e t.

I?iaeo noaaeth?oueny, yeui II ia ia?aaeuo? anoaiiaeaiiai ia??iaeo;

a) ?iaeaen aea?aeiino? ?iaanoeoe?e (A?) – a?aeiioaiiy ianya?a a?aeaea/?
eai?oaeo aei ianya?a ?iaanoeoe?e: O
O

A?= ( It / ( Et .

t=1
t=1

I?iaeo i?eeia?oueny, yeui A? a?eueoa iaeeieoe?, oiaoi CO? i?iaeoo
a?eueoa ca a?aeiia?aei? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy;

ae) ii?ia oiiaeia?aeaea/? i?iaeoo (IOI). Na?aaeiy oiiaeia?aeaea/a
i?iaeoo aecia/a?oueny ye a?aeiioaiiy na?aaeiueiai i?eaooeo, ui
i?iaiico?oueny, aei na?aaeiuei? caeeoeiai? aaeainiai? aa?oino?
?iaanoeoe?e:

O O

IOI= ((It /O) / ((Et /O).

t=1 t=1

Io?eiaiee ?acoeueoao ii??aith?oueny c ii?iaie i?aei?e?inoaa oa aaeoc?.

Uiaei oaeoi??a, aieea yeeo iiaeia ioe?ieoe e?euee?nii o?eueee /anoeiai,
oi iniiai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy oae?: aiae?c aieeao ?ioeyoe??; aiae?c
ia?eaoeiaiaeo /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ianya i?iaeaaeo i?iaeoeoe??
i?aei?e?inoaa; aiae?c aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e; aiae?c nooiaiy
?eceeo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo oiui.

Ioe?iea aieeao ye?nieo /eiiee?a – iaeia c iaeneeaaei?oeo iai?yie?a
aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a. Eiiieaen ye?nieo oaeoi??a
iano?eueee ??ciiiai?oiee, eiaeiee ?iiiaaoe?eiee i?iaeo ia? no?eueee
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae, ui i?eioeeiiai iaiiaeeeai aecia/eoe on?
iai?yie ae?aaiinoeee. I?ioa, ocaaaeueithth/e, iiaeia iacaaoe oae?
iai?yiee ye?niiai aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?e: aiae?c
a?aeiia?aeiino? ?iiiaaoe?e iao?, no?aoaa?? oa oaeoeoe? i?aei?e?inoaa;
aiae?c ?eceeo ?iaanoeoe?e oa eiiieaeno niieo/aieo /eiiee?a; aiae?c
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiei i?iaeoii.

Iaea?eueoo aeinoia??i?noue aoaeooue iaoe o? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?iaeoo, ui a?aoiaothoue ?icaeyae an?o iaaaaeaieo a?oi
oaeoi??a. Aea yeui aeey aiae?co e?euee?nieo /eiiee?a ?ic?iaeai? iniiai?
i?aeoiaee, oi aeey ye?nieo iieaciee?a i?aeoe/ii a?aenooiy iaoiaee/ia
aaca. Oey i?iaeaia aeooaeueia iei? ia o?eueee ia ??ai? aea?aeaa c
ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, aea e aeey ?icaeiaieo ?eieiaeo e?a?i.

Noai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo cai?iiiiiaaii oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oaeeie
a?oiaie iieaciee?a:

eaae?iaeie – e?euee?noue oa eaae?o?eaoe?y iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oao?aoe?a, c
?iciiae?eii ca niaoe?aeueiinoyie, no?oeoo?ieie i?ae?icae?eaie, iaoeiaeie
nooiaiyie oa caaiiyie, c aeuith ? na?aaeiueith niaoe?aeueiith ina?oith
oa ?i. (oaae. 1);

Oaaeeoey 1. Eaae?ia? iieacieee, ui i?iiiiothoueny aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa

Iieaciee Oi?ioea ?ic?aooieo Neeaaeia? ?ic?aooieiai? oi?ioee

Aeiey ?ia?oiee?a i?ae-?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e a caaaeuei?e
/e-naeueiino? ?iaeaia?ii-oao-i?/ieo ?ia?oiee?a i?aei?e?inoaa, Ee1

?eno

Ee1= –––––––

?io ?eno – oaeoe/ia /enaeuei?noue ?iaeaia?-ii-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?oiee?a
i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e i?aei?e?inoaa;

?io – caaaeueia oaeoe/ia /enaeuei?noue ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?oiee?a
i?ae-?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoaa.

Aeiey ?ia?oiee?a i?ae-?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e, ui iathoue
iaoei-aee nooi?iue eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe (Ee2) oa aeieoi?a iaoe (Ee3) a
caaaeuei?e /enaeueiino? ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a
?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e i?aei?e?inoaa ?e

Ee2= –––––

?eno

?ae

Ee3= ––––

?eno ?e – oaeoe/ia /enaeuei?noue ?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a
?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e i?aei?e?inoaa, ui iathoue iaoeiaee nooi?iue
eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe;

?ae – oaeoe/ia /enaeuei?noue ?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii?
noa?e i?aei?e?inoaa, ui iathoue iaoeiaee nooi?iue aeieoi?a iaoe;

Eiao?oe??ioe, ui oa-?aeoa?ecothoue ?iciiae?e ?ia?oiee?a ?iiiaaoe?eii?
noa?e ca a?eii, Ee4, Ee5, Ee6

Ee4= ?a1 / ?eno

Ee5= ?a2 / ?eno

Ee6= ?a3 / ?eno ?a1 – e?euee?noue ?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii?
noa?e o a?oe? aei 35 ?ie?a;

?a2 – e?euee?noue ?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e o a?oe?
a?ae 35 aei 50 ?ie?a;

?a3 – e?euee?noue ?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e o a?oe?
noa?oeo ca 50 ?ie?a;

Eiao?oe??io noaa?eueiin-o? eaae??a, Ee7

Ee7=1- (?oa / ?eno) ?oa – e?euee?noue ?ia?oiee?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e,
ye? ca?eueieeeny ca eaeaiaea?iee ??e, ui ia?aaeo? aea/a?iiio ia??iaeo.

iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieie: ui??/i? aeaeaoee i?aei?e?inoaa ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? oa aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nuee? ?iaioe, i?aeaioiaeo oa
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oao?aoe?a, ??aaiue
iniauaiino? i?ae?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoaa iaiao?aeiei aenia?eiaioaeueiei
onoaoeoaaiiyi, i?aoaoi?eith e o. i. (oaae. 2);

iieacieeaie ??aiy ?icaeoeo e iiaeeeainoae nenoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe??: ye?noue oa e?euee?noue iaeiie/aieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oiiae?a,
??aaiue iaoiaeieia?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia?niiaeo, nooi?iue
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oao?aoe?a o iio??ai?e aeey ?iaioe
?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?i. (oaae. 3);

i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeeie iieacieeaie: oa?aeoa?enoeee noaio
ieaioaaiiy e oi?aae?iiy a ?iiiaaoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa,
i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e, nooi?iue a?aeiia?aeiino? i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e caaaeaiiyi, ui ae??oothoueny iath;
aaeaeaaoi?noue nenoaie iioeaaoe?? no?aoaa?/iei oa oaeoe/iei ieaiai
i?aei?e?inoaa e o.i. (oaae. 4);

ocaaaeueithth/eie iieacieeaie: i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?,
c?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa, i?eaooeo ca ?aooiie
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e; e?euee?noue iiaeo iaoei oa onoaoeoaaiiy,
inai?ieo ca ??e, aeiiii?y a?ae cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe?? ca
?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e; ia?aiao?e iioieo aeiaoiae?a,
?aoei?iiiceoe?e, e?oeaic?e, iaoaio?a, iio-oao e o. i. (oaae. 5).

Oaaeeoey 2. Iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/i? iieacieee, ui i?iiiiothoueny aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa

Iieaciee Oi?ioea ?ic?aooieo Neeaaeia? ?ic?aooieiai? oi?ioee

Eiao?oe??io ieoiii? aa-ae aeo?ao i?aei?e?inoaa ia IAeAeE?, i?aeaioiaeo
oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?-eaoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo niaoe?ae?no?a a
caaaeueii-io ianyc? athaeaeaoo ?ic-aeoeo i?aei?e?inoaa, Eio1

?ie?

Eio1= –––––––

A?aca ?ie? – aeo?aoe ieaei?e?ionaa ia IAeAeE?, i?aeaioiaeo
oa i?aeaeuaiiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo niaoe?-ae?no?a;

A?aca – ianya athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo i?ae-i?e?inoaa;

?iaeaen aeeiai?ee ieoi-ii? aaae aeo?ao i?aei?e-?inoaa ia IAeAeE?,
i?aeaioiaeo ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo niaoe?ae?no?a
a caaaeueiiio ianyc? athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoaa, Eio1

Eio1j

Eio1= ––––––

Eio1i

Eioj – eiao?oe?aio ieoiii? aaae aeo?ao i?aei?e?inoaa ia IAeAeE?,
i?aeaioiaeo oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo niaoe?ae?no?a
a caaaeueiiio ianyc? athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo i?ae-i?e?inoaa a ia??iae j;

Eioi – eiao?oe?aio ieoiii? aaae aeo?ao i?aei?e?inoaa ia IAeAeE?,
i?aeaioiaeo oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo niaoe?ae?no?a
a caaaeueiiio ianyc? athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo i?ae-i?e?inoaa a ia??iae i;

Eiao?oe??ioe iniaua-iino? i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaa-oe?eii? noa?e
aenia?e-iaioaeueiei onoaoeoaai-iyi oa i?eeaaeaie Eio2, i?aoaoi?eie,
Eio3 *Iyii

Eio2 = ––––––––

*Iiau

*Ii?a

Eio3 = ––––––––

*Iiau *Iyii – e?euee?noue ethaeeii-iia?aoe?e, ui aeeiiaii
i?e ii?aoethaaii? ?iii-aaoe?? ?c canoinoaaiiyi aenia?eiai-oaeueiiai
onoaoeoaaiiy oa i?eeaae?a;

*Ii?a – e?euee?noue ethaeeii-iia?aoe?e, ui aeeiiaii i?e ii?aoethaaii?
?iii-aaoe?? ?c canoinoaaiiyi i?aoaoi?ee;

*Iiau – caaaeueia e?euee?noue ethaeeii-iia?aoe?e, ui aeeiiaii i?e
ii?aoeth-aaii? ?iiiaaoe??;

Eiao?oe??io aeei?en-oaiiy anoaiiaeaiiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, Eio4
Iae

Eio4 = –––––––

Iono Iae – /enaeuei?noue iaeeieoeue onoaoeo-aaiiy
i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e, ui i?aoethaaei o aeaiue
iane?aeoaaiiy;

Iono – /enaeuei?noue iaeeieoeue anoaiia-eaiiiai onoaoeoaaiiy
i?ae?ic-ae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e ia oie aea aeaiue

Oaaeeoey 3. Iieacieee ??aiy ?icaeoeo e iiaeeeainoae nenoaie
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui i?iiiiothoueny aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa

Iieaciee Oi?ioea ?ic?aooieo Neeaaeia? ?ic?aooieiai? oi?ioee

Eiao?oe??ioe e?eueeino? iaeiie/aiieo ?ioi?ia-oe?eieo oiiae?a,

Eioe1 , Eioe2

Eioe1=

= Ia + Iaae + Iac

Eioe2=Iiii + Iii Ia – caaaeueiee ianya ?ioi?iaoe??, ui iaeiie/aii ia
on?o aeaeao iin??a o a?a-e?ioaeao i?aei?e?inoaa (o Iaaaaaeoao);

Iaae ,Iac – caaaeueiee ianya ?ioi?ia-oe??, ui iaeiie/aii ia on?o
aeaeao iin??a, a?aeiia?aeii o aacao aeaieo oa aacao ciaiue i?aei?e?inoaa
(o Iaaaaaeoao);

Iiii – caaaeueia e?euee?noue iaeao?a i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai, ?ic?iaeaieo oa
eoieaieo i?aei?e?inoaii (oo.);

Iii – caaaeueia e?euee?noue iaoaia-oe/ieo iiaeaeae oa aeai?eoi?a,
?ic-?iaeaieo oa aeinooiieo aeey aeei-?enoaiiy i?aoe?aieeaie
i?aei?e?inoaa (oo.);

?ioaa?aeueiee iieaciee ??aith iaoiaeieia?? ?iii-aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
ia?-niiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a ?i-iiaaoe?eii? noa?e i?ae-i?e?inoaa, OI3/4
((OIi )

OI3/4 =––––––––

i

OIi (((((((( OIi – ??aaiue iaoiaeieia?? ?iiiaaoe?e-ii? ae?yeueiino?
i-oiai i?ae?icae?eo ?iii-aaoe?eii? noa?e i?aei?e?inoaa. Aecia/a-?oueny
ca aeiiiiiaith oeaee, cai?iiiii-aaii? aaoi?ii;

Eiao?oe??io nooiaith ca-aeiaieaiiy iio?aa ia?-niiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a
?iii-aaoe?eii? noa?e a iaia-oiaei?e ?i aeey ?iaioe iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
?i-oi?iaoe??, Eioe3

Eoae

Eioe3= ––– 100%

Eii? Eoae – e?euee?noue iieoaieo i?aoe?aiee?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e,
/e? iio?aae o iaiao?aei?e aeey ?iaioe iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e ?ioi?iaoe??
caaeiaieai?;

Eii? – caaaeueia e?euee?noue iieoaieo i?aoe?aiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a
?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e.

Oaaeeoey 4. I?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inuee? iieacieee, ui i?iiiiothoueny
aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaiai
i?aei?e?inoaa

Iieaciee Oi?ioea ?ic?aooieo Neeaaeia? ?ic?aooieiai? oi?ioee

Eiao?oe??io canoinoaai-iy n?oueiaiai ieaio-aaiiy i?e ?aae?caoe??
?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?iaeoa, Eio1 Ina

Eio1 = –––––

Iiau Ina – e?euee?noue ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, i?e
?aae?caoe?? yeeo neeaaeaeeny n?oueia? a?ao?ee;

Iiau – caaaeueia e?euee?noue ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, ui aeeiiaii
i?aei?e?inoaii ca oie aea ia??iae;

Eiao?oe??io aeoaeueiaa-iino? ooieoe?e i?ae?icae?-e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e
i?aei?e?inoaa, Eio2 EOae

Eio2= –––––

EOiau EOae – e?euee?noue ooieoe?e, ui aeoaeth-thoueny oi/a a
aeaiia i?ae?icae?eaie ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e;

EOiau – caaaeueia e?euee?noue ooieoe?e, iieeaaeaieo ia i?ae?icae?ee
?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e i?aei?e?noaa;

I?iaeiaaeaiiy oaaeeoe? 4

Iieaciee Oi?ioea ?ic?aooieo Neeaaeia? ?ic?aooieiai? oi?ioee

Eiao?oe??io aeei?en-oaiiy oiiaeo iaoa??aeue-iiai caioi/oaaiiy ca
i?iiiceoe??, o/anoue o ?ic-?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii? iiaiaaaaeaiue, Eio3

Oeni

Eio3 = –––––

Oia/

Oeni – aeei?enoaiiee oiiae iaoa??-aeueiiai caioi/oaaiiy ca i?iiiceoe??,
o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii? iiaiaaaaeaiue;

Oia/ – ia?aoiaaiee oiiae iaoa??aeue-iiai caioi/oaaiiy ca i?iiiceoe??,
o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii? iiaiaaaaeaiue;

Eiao?oe??io aeei?en-oaiiy athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?ionaa, Eio4
A?acaeni

Eio4 = –––––––

A?aca A?acaeni – aeei?enoaiee ianya athaeaea-oo ?icaeoeo
i?aei?e?inoaa;

A?aca – ia?aoiaaiee ianya athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoaa.

Oaaeeoey 5. Ocaaaeueithth/? iieacieee, ui i?iiiiothoueny aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaiai
i?aei?e?inoaa

Iieaciee Oi?ioea ?ic?aooieo Neeaaeia? ?ic?aooieiai? oi?ioee

?iaeaen c?inoaiiy i?i-aeoeoeaiino? ?iaioe i?a-oe?aiee?a i?aei?e?inoaa,
Eia1 IO j

Eia1 = ––––––

IO i IOi, IOj – i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?iaioe i?aoe?aiee?a
i?aei?e?inoaa, a?aeiia?aeii o ia??iaee i oa j ;

?iaeaen c?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoaa, Eia2 Y
j

Eia2 = –––––

Y i Y i ,Y j – iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoaa,
a?aeiia?aeii, o ia??iaee i oa j ;

?iaeaen c?inoaiiy i?e-aooeo ca ?aooiie ai?i-aaaeaeaiiy iiaiaaaaeaiue,
E?i I j

E?i = ––––

I i Ii , Ij – ianyae i?eaooeo, ui io?eiai? i?aei?e?inoaii,
a?aeiia?aeii, o ia??iaee i oa j;

Eiao?oe??io, ui oa?ae-oa?eco? ia?aiao?e ii-oieo a?aee?eoo?a,
aeiaoi-ae?a, ?aoei?iiiceoe?e, e?oeaic?e, iaoaio?a, Eii

Eii i= Ei i+ Ee i+

+ E?i i+ Ee i+ Ei i

Ei i , Ee i , E?i i , Ee i , Ei i – a?aeiia?ae-ii, e?euee?noue
a?aee?eoo?a, aeiaoiae?a, ?aoei?iiiceoe?e, e?oeaic?e, iaoaio?a, ui
c?iaeaii i?aoe?aieeaie ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e i?aei?e?inoaa o ia?eiae i .

Ae?aaiinoeeo ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaiaeeoe c
iiceoe?e nenoaiiiai aiae?co, ca?aeii ?c aeie-noaiith (?en. 3), yea
aeiiiiaaa? anoaiiaeoe iaaio iine?aeiai?noue aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo
aniaeo?a ae?yeueiino?, iinooiiai iiaeeaethth/e ?icoi?iiy ia’?eoo, ui
ianoaaeo?oueny.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui i?ioean ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa iia’ycaiee ?c
ia?iaeith aaeeeeo ianea?a aeaieo, oi aeey iieaaoaiiy i?aoe?
aeine?aeiee?a ca ei?aeiiii oe?iei canoiniaothoue AII oa niaoe?aeuei?
iaeaoe i?ia?ai. Eiii’thoa?i? i?ia?aie, ui ? o ?icii?yaeaeaii?
a?o/eciyieo oao?aoe?a, ia aeicaieythoue ae?aaiinooaaoe noai
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?aei?e?inoaa. A?aoiaoth/e oea, aaoi?ii aoei
?ic?iaeaii aenia?oio ae?aaiinoe/io eiii’thoa?io nenoaio «FLER», yea
aeicaiey? oao?aoeaa? a noa?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii iia?aoeaii
i?iaiaeeoe eiiieaenio ae?aaiinoeeo ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
i?aei?e?inoa oa ae?iaeyoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth, ia caa?oath/enue ii aeiiiiiao i?ioan?eiiai
i?ia?ai?noa. Iienai? aeua iaoiaeeea oa ae?aaiinoe/ia eiii’thoa?ia
nenoaia aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e ae?aaiinooaaii? noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo AO “Iiaie?aiaoi?nueeee iaoeiiaoae?aiee caaiae” e AO
“Oyaei?iieiiieaeo”, ui i?aeoaa?aeeei iiaeeea?noue cae?enithaaoe
ae?aaiinoeeo noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?aei?e?inoaa ia iiaiio
??ai?.

I?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ia
i?eeeaae? iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaano aeicaieeee aeyaeoe
neeuei? oa neaae? noi?iie oa iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a
AO IEIC ooieoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ?icii?ioai? na?aae
eiino?oeoi?nueeeo, oaoiieia?/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo i?ae?icae?e?a. ?acii c oei
?nioaaiiy a no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy ia’?aeiaiiy i’yoe niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
ae?iaieoeoa iineeeei oaiaeaioe?th aei aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ii oeei
ae?iaieoeoaai an?o aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, aeeth/ath/e ?iiiaaoe?eio.
Aeyaeaii, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? aeyaey? ?iaioa ni?a?ia?oiee?a a?aeae?eo oe?eueiaeo i?ia?ai
oa aeine?aeaeaiue, a?aeae?e?a ia?eaoeiao, aieiaiiai eiino?oeoi?a oa
ieaiiai-aeiiii?/ieo i?ae?icae?e?a.

I?e aea/aii? eaae?iai? neeaaeiai? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iaaaeaii
aiae?c iniiaieo iieaciee?a (oaae 6). E??i oiai, anoaiiaeaii, ui
a?eueo?noue oao?aoe?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e aaea iaeiie/eee aeayeee
aeina?ae ?iaioe a iiaeo oiiaao, iiaeooue ioe?ieoe neeaaei?noue,
/a?aia?noue ?ia?o, iaiao?aei? ?ano?ne, nieaioaaoe nai? ae??. O oie aea
/an, aeaye? ni?a?ia?oieee ia cian?i /?oei oyaeythoue aoaie ia?eaoeiaiai?
oa ?iiiaaoe?eii? ?iaioe naiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny e
?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaieo aoanoaoe?e ia?niiaeo AO IEIC. A?aenooi?e
/?oeee ?aaeaiaio ?iaioe – iio?aaothoue aeiii?aoethaaiiy iieiaeaiiy i?i
a?aeae?e, iinaaeia? ?ino?oeoe??, iaoiaeeee ioe?iee oa ?iciiae?eo
ooieoe?e, iieiaeaiiy i?i noeioethaaiiy. Eiii’thoa?io oaoi?eo
aeei?enoiaothoue o ?iaio? ia an? c iieoaieo oao?aoe?a. Ana oea i?e ci?i?
aoaeue-yeeo ?eieiaeo /eiiee?a i?ecaaaea aei ?noioiiai c?inoaiiy ?eceeo
iaaaea/? ia?eaoeiaiai? oa ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a AO IEIC.

Oaaeeoey 6. Cia/aiiy eaae?iaeo iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo AO IEIC

Iieaciee Cia/aiiy iieacieea, %

Aeiey ?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e a caaaeuei?e
/enaeueiino? ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?oiee?a i?aei?e?inoaa, Ee1

40,1

Aeiey ?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e, ui iathoue iaoeiaee
nooi?iue eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe a caaaeuei?e /enaeueiino? ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo
?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e i?aei?e?inoaa, Ee2

0.3

Aeiey ?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e, ui iathoue iaoeiaee
nooi?iue aeieoi?a iaoe a caaaeuei?e /enaeueiino? ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo
?ia?oiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e i?aei?e?inoaa, Ee3

0

Eiao?oe??ioe, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?iciiae?e ?ia?oiee?a ?iiiaaoe?eii?
noa?e ca a?eii:

aei 35 ?ie?a,Ee4

a?ae 35 aei 50 ?ie?a, Ee5

noa?o? ca 50 ?ie?a,Ee6

11.6

14.9

73.5

Eiao?oe??io noaa?eueiino? eaae??a, Ee7 98,6

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ?niothoue
cia/i? ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo a?o/eciyieo iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa. Aeyaeaii, ui
iniiai? i?iaeaie a ?iiiaaoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino? aeieeathoue o no?oeoo?ieo
i?ae?icae?eao, ye? caeiathoueny ii?aoethaaiiyi iiaiaaaaeaiue, a oaeiae
i?e aca?iiae?? aeayeeo neoaea o i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
i?iaeoo.

Ne?aeoth/e no?aoaa?? aeaeeaaiiy o ?eieiaeo oiiaao ca ?aooiie
caaacia/aiiy eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiino? i?iaeoeoe??, AO IEIC aeoeaii
i?iaiaeeoue IAeAeE?, i?aeaeuo? eaae?o?eaoe?th oao?aoe?a ?iiiaaoe?eii?
noa?e. Aeeiai?ea ieoiii? aaae ianya?a oeeo aeo?ao o caaaeueiiio ianyc?
aeo?aoii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo AO IEIC i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 4.

A ?icae?e? 3 «Iniiai? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa» cai?iiiiiaaii
aeaye? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy; ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe??
ii oaeineiiaeaiith oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii ?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e oa
?aoi?ioaaiith ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaeieia?/ii? neeaaeiai? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth ? eeth/iaei
ieoaiiyi iiaoaeiae i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio aaeaioaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth iieeeeaii caaacia/eoe noai?aiiy aioo??oi?o noeioe?a aeey
?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoaa; i???iooaaiiy ea??aiee?a oa an?o ni?a?ia?oiee?a
i?aei?e?inoaa ia caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa niiaeeaa/?a; oi?ioaaiiy iaiao?aeieo
oiia aeey aeiiii?? iaoa??aeueieo, o?iainiaeo oa o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a;
oe?iea canoinoaaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee; oa’yceo ?ioa?an?a
i?aei?e?inoaa c caaea/aie iae?iaeiiii?ee e?a?ie.

A no/anieo oiiaao aeey iiaoaeiae i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio aaeaioaoe??
ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy ia? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth. Oiio iniiai? ooieoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa i?iiiio?oueny cina?aaeeoe o
niaoe?ae?ciaai?e ?iiiaaoe?ei?e neoaea?, a ?aieao yei? iiaeiai
?aae?ciaoaaoeny iiaiee oeeee oi?aae?inueeeo i?ioeaaeo? a oe?e noa??.
Noai?aiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii? neoaeae aeicaieeoue ?icoe?eoe iiaeeeaino?
i?aei?e?inoaa a iaeano? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

A ?eieiaeo oiiaao c?inoa? ?ieue niiaeeaa/a, aieea ciai?oi?o oiia ia
?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa. Aeey caaacia/aiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao
?aeiiaiaeiaaii i?eeiyoe ia?eaoeiaiao eiioeaioe?th oi?aae?iiy.

Aeaeeaaiiy a?o/eciyieo iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa, ?o
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue a aeieaio?eaaeiio ia??iae? iio?aao? i?e
?aoi?ioaaii? i?aai?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? canoinoaaiiy
i?eioeei?a oa cania?a no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy. O ca’yceo c oeei
cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eeoe nenoaio no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth a?ae iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy a oe?e noa??. Oe?e?
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iia’ycai? c io?eiaiiyi i?eaooeo a iioi/iee
iiiaio, ia?aoai?ththoueny a iioi/i? ieaie, a ca’ycai? c iaeaooi?i
?iiiaaoe?eiei iioaioe?aeii – a ia?niaeoeai? ieaie ?icaeoeo.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaioeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaai
?aeiiaiaeiaaii ca-noiniaoaaoe i?ia?aiii-oe?eueia? oi?ie oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue i?iaeoia oa iao?e/ia
no?oeoo?e. Oea aeicaieeoue aaeaiooaaoe nenoaio oi?aae?iiy aei i?ieeaiai
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua oa oieeaoe eiioe?eo?a i?ae ooieoe?iiaeueieie
i?ae?icae?eaie, aeiaaath/eo iino?eii? o/ano? aeuiai ea??aieoeoaa.

C?inoath/a aeeiai?ea oa iaaecia/ai?noue ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
ca?eueoo? ?ieue ethaeeie o nenoaiao oi?aae?iiy. I?e oeueiio aeieeathoue
ia o?eueee iia? iiaeeeaino? oi?aae?iiy, aea e iia? ia?aoeiaee aeey
?icaeoeo ?iiiaaoe?e. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
eaae?iai? neeaaeiai? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?aei?e?inoa
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii, a?aoiaoth/e iniaeeaino? nenoaie
iioeaaoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oao?aoe?a oa i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo
??oaiue, ?icoe?eoe aeei?enoaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ? eieaeoeaieo oi?i
ae?yeueiino? iaae ?iiiaaoe?eieie i?iaeoaie c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy
n?ia?aaoe/iiai aoaeoo. Iaei??th c oaeeo eieaeoeaieo oi?i ? i?aai?caoe?y
oe?eueiaeo a?oi c oao?aoe?a c ??cieo iaeanoae ciaiiy aeey cae?eniaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a.

Ia aeiaeaoie aei oeueiai cai?iiiiiaaii iniiai? neeaaeia? eiiieaeno
noeioethaaiiy aeiao?aeieoeueei? e ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia
i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, aei yeeo aoiaeyoue: aoaeoeaia nenoaia
a?ioiai? aeiaai?iaee; nenoaia o/ano? i?aoe?aiee?a o ?acoeueoaoao
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa; aeei?enoaiiy oe?ieiai niaeo?o ii?aeueieo
noeioe?a; nenoaia caioi/oaaiue eieaeoeaii? oai?/ino?; noeioethaaiiy
in?a, ye? ni?eythoue ai?iaaaeaeaiith iiaiaaaaeaiue; i?aeo?eiea
ii/eiath/eo aaoi??a; canoinoaaiiy aeoeaieo oi?i ?iaioe c
?aoe?iiae?caoi?aie; iaa/aiiy, iai?i aeina?aeii, iaaeaiiy oai aeey
ii?aoethaaiiy; aeoeaia iiioey?ecaoe?y ?aoe?iiae?caoi?noaa, i?aeo?eiea
ii?iaeueieo noinoie?a iii?ae aaei?i?no?aoe??th oa oao?aoeyie, a oiio
/ene? a inia? i?ioni?eie, oa ?i.

A iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy ??cei c?inea ?ieue
?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaeieia?/ii? aace, yea iiaeiia a?aeiia?aeaoe iiaei
aeiiaai oi?aae?iiy. Oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaeieia?/ii?
neeaaeiai? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo cai?iiiiiaaii ae??ooaaoe
eiiieaenii, o aeae?eueeio aniaeoao:

iaoiaeieia?/iiio – oi?iae?caoe?y iaoiaeieia??, i?ioeaaeo? i?ioeano
?ic?iaee iiaiaaaaeaiue, aaaaeaiiy ?aeeieo e?eoa???a oa cania?a i?e
ieaioaaii?, iae?eo aeo?ao i?aoe?, eiio?ie? yeino? iiaiaaaaeaiue oa ?i.;

i?aai?caoe?eiiio – oi?ioaaiiy oa aaaeaiiy aace aeaieo iae?eo iieaciee?a
?i-iiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?; aaoiiaoecaoe?y ?ic?aooie?a iieaciee?a
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?-yeueiino?; aaoiiaoeciaaiee iae?e oa aiae?c ieai?a
IAeAeE?, aeiaoiae?a, iaoaio?a, ?i.;

oaoiieia?/iiio – ia?niiae?caoe?y aeei?enoaiiy cania?a ia/enethaaeueii?
oaoi?ee, noai?aiiy ?iciiae?eaieo aaaaoiei?enooaaoeueeeo nenoai ia?iaee
aeaieo, i?aai?caoe?y A?I-oao?aoe?a, canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia??
«Ee??io–Na?aa?»;

oaoi?/iiio – aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae no/anieo cania?a AII,
eiiiueoa?ii? ia?eoa??? oa i?aoaoi?ee.

A?aecia/ai? aeua iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaeieia?/ii?
i?aenenoaie a eiiieaen? ?c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth e nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii
?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e iaaeathoue a?o/eciyiei iaoeiiaoae?aiei
i?aei?e?inoaai iiaeeeaino? ia?iuoaaiiy oa ?noioiiai i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?o ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo.

AENIIAEE

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?icaeoeo e i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa.

A i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaee iaea?aeai? oae?
iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe. Aei oai?aoe/ieo ne?ae a?aeianoe
iaaaaeai? ieae/a ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe:

ia iniia? o?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
i?aei?e?inoa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ooi/iaii o?aeooaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iiiyooy
“?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae” noiniaii aei ?eieiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae oa cai?iiiiiaai? e?eoa??? ? iaoiaee ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?e, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo
i?aei?e?inoaao;

?ic?iaeaii nenoaio iieaciee?a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeyoue iaoo?aeuei? ?
aa?o?ni? iieacieee, aeiiiaiai? nenoaiith ye?nieo ioe?iie oa
iaiaaeoaaeueieo oiia, ui a?aeaeaathoue nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a. Oea aeicaiey? ??ciia?/ii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Aei iaoiaee/ieo ne?ae a?aeianoe oae? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe:

?ic?iaeaii iaoiae ae?aaiinooaaiiy noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
i?aei?e?inoaa, yeee neeaaea?oueny c eia?/ii? iiaeae? oa iine?aeiaiino?
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy;

cai?iiiiiaaii ?ino?oiaioa??e oa aeaea?aea ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey ?ic?aooieo
iieaciee?a, a oaeiae eiii’thoa?i? caniae aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano
ae?aaiinooaaiiy, ye? aoei canoiniaaii aeey aiae?co aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaano.

Aei i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ne?ae a?aeianoe
oae?:

aeyaeaii ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy;

cai?iiiiiaaii aeaye? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy;

?ic?iaeaii iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii ?iiiaaoe?eii?
noa?e iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei; cai?iiiiiaaii eeth/ia? iieiaeaiiy oaeineiiaeaiiy
iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio caoe?eaaeaiino? ia?niiaeo o i?aeaeuaii?
aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo, ye?
aeeth/athoue a naaa i?aeneeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai e eieaeoeaiiai
noeioethaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy aeaiaio?a «nenoaie o/ano?» i?aoe?aiee?a o
i?eaooeao a?ae ?iiiaaoe?e;

iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe i?ae?icae?e?a
?iiiaaoe?eii? noa?e.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aaeooei A.N. Iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia?niiaea i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee // Yeiiiie/aneea
i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu: Na. iao/. o?. –
Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu, 1997. – N. 98-104.

2. Aaeooei ?.N. Iaoiaee/i? iniiae ae?aaiinooaaiiy noaio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa // Eiaanoeoeeiiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea
onoie/eaiai ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey: Na. iao/. o?. – Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI
Oe?aeiu, 1998. – N. 26-30.

3. Aaeooei A.N. Iniaaiiinoe aeeaaiinoeee ninoiyiey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
iioaioeeaea i?aaei?eyoey // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.–1998.–?
3.–N.41-48.

4. Iieeiinueeee O.TH., Aaeooei ?.N. Iniiai? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa // I?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey aioee?eceniie iieeoeee e iaoaiecia
aaie?ionoaa i?aaei?eyoee: Na. iao/. o?. – Aeiiaoeuee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu,
1998.– N.162-165 (iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a – ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa; N.163-164).

5. Aioeiiaa N.I., *aiaeaa A.O., Aaeooei A.N., Aecian-ieaie?iaaiea eae
oneiaea oi?ie?iaaiey eoeueoo?u oe?aeineiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa //
Eiaanoeoeeiiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea onoie/eaiai ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey: Na.
iao/. o?. – Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. – N. 83-86 (iniaenoee
aianie aaoi?a – iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee oa aeei?enoaiiy
iiaeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei ieaioaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e ia
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a
Oe?a?i?; N. 84-85).

6. Aaeooei A.N. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ano?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai
aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aai aeayoaeueiinoe / Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
?acaeoey yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo: (Iaoa?eaeu iao/iie
eiioa?aioeee aeieoi?aioia, anie?aioia e nieneaoaeae EYI IAI Oe?aeiu, 11
ai?aey 1996 aiaea) / IAI Oe?aeiu. Ei-o yeiiiieee i?ii-noe; ?aaeeie.:
A.E.Aiioa (ioa. ?aae.) e ae?.–- Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu. – 1996.– N.
52 — 54.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aaeooei ?. N. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei (ia i?eeeaae?
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaano) – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ii niaoe?aeueiino? 08.02. 02 – aeiiii?ea ? oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei
i?ia?anii, ?iaanoeoe?ei? oa ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane. – ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie, Aeiiaoeuee, 1998.

Aeine?aeaeaii i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao; ooi/iaii o?aeooaaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai iiiyooy “?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae” noiniaii aei iiaeo oiia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy; cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio iieaciee?a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo; ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae ioe?iee oa
eiii’thoa?i? caniae ae?aaiinooaaiiy noaio nioe?aeueii? i?aenenoaie
i?aei?e?inoaa, ia iniia? yeeo aeeiiaii aiae?c noaio oa aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa; aeyaeaii
ia?aaaae e iaaeie?ee i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy; cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth ia
i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue, ?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae,
oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth, iaoeiiaoae?aia i?aei?e?inoai.

SUMMARY

Galushko E.S. The increase of effective use of innovational potential in
conditions of transition to the market relations (based on the example
of Donbass industrial enterprises).– Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree by speciality 08.02.02 – economics and
management of scientific and technical progress, investigational and
innovational processes.– The Institute of economics of industry of
National academy of science of Ukraine, Donetsk, 1998.

The problems of increasing of effective innovational activity in
machine-building enterprises are investigated; the treatment of economic
conception as “innovational potential” accordingly to new condition of
economy is clarified; the system of figures of effective use
innovational potential is suggested; the method of valuation and
computer facilities of diagnostics of social system of the enterprise is
worked out, it is the basis where the analyses of condition and the use
of innovational potential of machine-building enterprises is fulfilled;
advantages and lacks in organizing the supervision at innovational
activity at machine-building enterprises are carried out; some ways for
increasing efficacy management of innovational activity at the
machine-building enterprises are suggested.

Keywords: innovational activity, innovational potential, management of
innovational activity, machine-building enterprise.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaeooei A.N. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
iioaioeeaea a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi (ia i?eia?a
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee Aeiiaanna) – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.02.02 – yeiiiieea e oi?aaeaiea
iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii, eiaanoeoeeiiiua e eiiiaaoeeiiiua
i?ioeannu.– Einoeooo yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe IAI Oe?aeiu, Aeiiaoee,
1998.

Enneaaeiaaiu i?iaeaiu iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

A i?ioeanna i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioie iieo/aiu iao/iua e
i?aeoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou, iai?aaeaiiua ia ?acaeoea e iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

E oai?aoe/aneei neaaeoao ioianoe oaeea ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeeiiiie
?aaiou:

ia iniiaa o/aoa iniaaiiinoae eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea i?aaei?eyoee
iaoeiino?iaiey ooi/iaia o?aeoiaea yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee
“eiiiaaoeeiiiue iioaioeeae” i?eiaieoaeueii e ?uii/iui oneiaeyi –
niaieoiiinoe i?e?iaeiuo e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo,
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e iaoiaeieiae/aneeo eiiiiiaioia, iaoa?eaeueiuo oneiaee,
iaoiaeyueony a aeeaeaeoe/aneie nayce e ooieoeeiie?othueo eae aaeeiia
oeaeia n oeaeueth nicaeaiey iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee aeey ?aaeecaoeee caaea/
eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

iaiauai iiuo e i?aaeeiaeaiu e?eoa?ee ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
?ac?aaaouaaaiuo ia iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo eiiiaaoeee;

?ac?aaioaia nenoaia iieacaoaeae ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea. Auaeaeaiu neaaeothuea a?oiiu iieacaoaeae:
eaae?iaua; iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneea; iieacaoaee o?iaiy ?acaeoey e
aiciiaeiinoae nenoaiu iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eioi?iaoeee;
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oi?aaeai/aneea; iaiauathuea. Iacaaiiua a?oiiu aeeth/atho
a naay iaoo?aeueiua e noieiinoiua iieacaoaee, aeiiieiaiiua nenoaiie
ea/anoaaiiuo ioeaiie e ia?aie/eoaeueiuo oneiaee, io?aaeathueo noaiaiue
eniieueciaaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia e iicaieythueo ?aciinoi?iiia
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue ?acee/iua aniaeou eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

E iaoiaee/aneei neaaeoao ioianoe oaeea ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeeiiiie

?aaiou:

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey ninoiyiey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
iioaioeeaea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie
eiae/aneoth iiaeaeue e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey;

i?aaeeiaeaiu eino?oiaioa?ee e enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee aeey ?an/aoa
iieacaoaeae, a oaeaea eiiiuethoa?iua n?aaenoaa aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeanna
aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey, eioi?ua i?eiaiyeenue aeey aiaeeca eniieueciaaiey
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee Aeiiaanna.

E i?aeoe/aneei ?acoeueoaoai aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou neaaeoao ioianoe
oaeea:

enneaaeiaaiu neoaeau e iiae?acaeaeaiey iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho nenoaio oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, eo acaeiinaycue e noaiaiue aeeyiey ia eiiiaaoeeiiiue
iioaioeeae;

auyaeaiu iaee/ea i?ioeai?a/ee a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iaoeiino?iaiey: i?e ioeaiea
neiaeiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e
?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou iiae?acaeaeaiee eiiiaaoeeiiiie noa?u; i?e ?aoaiee
eaae?iauo aii?inia e oi?ie?iaaiee ii?iaoeaiie aacu ?aaiou ia?niiaea; i?e
eniieueciaaiee nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia ieaie?iaaiey e au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee;

i?aaeeiaeaiu iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iaoeiino?iaiey, a /enei eioi?uo
aoiaeyo nin?aaeioi/aiea iniiaiuo ooieoeee eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie eiiiaaoeeiiiie neoaeaa, inouanoaeythuae
eii?aeeiaoeeth ?aaiou anao eiaeaia?iuo, yeiiiie/aneeo neoaea e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee ii oi?ie?iaaieth e ?aaeecaoeee
eiiiaaoeeiiiie iieeoeee; iiauoaiea aaeaioeaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee e
eciaiaieyi ?uii/iie n?aaeu iin?aaenoaii i?eiaiaiey i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaauo
oi?i oi?aaeaiey iiaiaaaaeaieyie;

?ac?aaioaiu iai?aaeaiey niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii
eiiiaaoeeiiiie noa?u iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo
ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi, i?aaeeiaeaiu eeth/aaua iieiaeaiey
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iioeaaoeeiiiiai iaoaiecia caeioa?aniaaiiinoe ia?niiaea
a iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea,
aeeth/athuea a naay iinoaiaiiue ia?aoiae io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo e
eieeaeoeaiui oi?iai eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oneeaiey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e eieeaeoeaiiai noeioee?iaaiey, yeaiaiou “nenoaiu
o/anoey”;

iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey nia?aiaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie
oaoiieiaee aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou iiae?acaeaeaiee
eiiiaaoeeiiiie noa?u, iniiaiuie /a?oaie eioi?ie yaeythony
ia?niiaeecaoeey eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee,
nicaeaiea eieaeueiuo naoae YAI e iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneeo ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo
nenoai ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, i?aaiecaoeey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo iano
niaoeeaeenoia, i?eiaiaiea oaoiieiaee “Eeeaio-Na?aa?”.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiiaaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, eiiiaaoeeiiiue
iioaioeeae, oi?aaeaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth,
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 23.02.99. Oi?iao 60o90/16. Iai?? ae?oe. ? 3.

Iae.-aeae.a?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ? 33

340048, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 77.

?ioai?eio ?AI IAI Oe?a?ie.

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