Підвищення ефективності роботи автомобілів ЗАЗ-110550 на промислових підприємствах Йорданії шляхом удосконалення системи охолодження: Автореф. дис…

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OA?EIANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AAOIIIAIEUeII-AeI?IAEIIE

OAOII*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Aaaeaeue-Aaa? Aae?ae

OAeE 629.113.012.5

I?AeAEUAIIss AOAEOEAIINO? ?IAIOE AAOIIIA?E?A

CAC-110550 IA I?IIENEIAEO I?AeI?E?INOAAO EI?AeAI??

OEssOII OAeINEIIAEAIIss NENOAIE IOIEIAeAEAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.22.10-Aenieoaoaoeiy aaoiiiaieueiiai o?ainii?oo

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?eia – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?(NOAeO)
ia eaoaae?? “Aaoiiia?e?“

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eoe?eia TH??e Aiae??eiae/, caa.eaoaae?ith
“Aaoiiia?e?” a No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aey/aiei Aaneeue A?eai?iae/, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e “AeAN” Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?a?ae?a Aiaoieie.Oeoiiiae/,
caa.eaoaae?ith “O?aeoi?e oa Aaoiiia?e? , Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oe?a?inueeee o?ainii?oiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
“Ae?iaie/i nenoaie oa na?a?n ia o?ainii?o?”

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “3” 03 1999 ?. I 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.059.02 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

ca aae?anith: 310002,i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai,25

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 02 ” 02. 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?
Iiae?eaaei I.A.

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi

A Ei?aeai?? 60% on?o ia?aaacaiue ona?aaeei? e?a?ie cae?enith?oueny
aaoiiia?eueiei o?ainii?oii, yeee oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny ia
i?aei?e?inoaao aieiaieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino?, ui caycai? c aeiaoaaiiyi
oinoaoo ? aaco, ae?iaieoeoaii iioaoo ? oeaiaioo. O cayceo c oeei
Ei?aeai?y caeoiiao? aaoiiia?e? o a?aeiieo o??i, oaeeo ye Ia?naaean
(I?ia//eia), E?aenea? (NOA), O?ao (?oae?y), Iaaei (O?aioe?y), AaoiAAC
(?in?y), o oiio /ene? AaoiCAC (Oe?a?ia) oa ?ioeo. sse iieacaa aeina?ae
aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao Ei?aeai??,
ee?iaoe/i? oiiae cia/ii aieeaathoue ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue aaoiiia?e?a o
oe?eiio, a oaeiae ia iaae?ei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue ?o aoce?a ?
aeaoaeae.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

A Ei?aeai?? iaeneiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a aea?eiai ia??iaeo ?ieo
(o?aaaiue-aa?anaiue) neeaaea? 323 E. A aaaaoueio ?aeiiao caii?ioai?noue
a ie?ai? ia??iaee ?ieo aeinyaa? 100 — 130 ia/i3 i?e oaeaeeino? a?o?o
a?eueoa i?ae 8…10 i/n. *anoi aeieeathoue ii?ioi? ao??. Caii?ioai?noue
iia?o?y i?e oeueiio aeinyaa? 1,95 a/i3.

O?aoiaoth/e neeaaei? ee?iaoe/i? oiiae, aei nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy (n.i.)
aaoiiia?e?a, ui iinoaaeythoueny o e?a?io, i?aaeyaeythoueny a?aeiia?aei?
aeiiae. Aiie iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoe iaae?eio ?iaioo aaoiiia?e?a i?e
oaiia?aoo?? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua aei 323 E, aieiaino? 20% ?
caii?ioaiino? 1,95 a/i3 i?e i?i?iaeueieo aeo?aoao iiooaeiino? ia i?ea?ae
aeiiii?aeieo nenoai.

Aeina?ae aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550 (i?eai) a oiiaao
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Ei?aeai?? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui o aea?eee
ia??iae ?ieo (o?aaaiue-aa?anaiue) c 11 aei 16 aiaeei aenieoaoaoe?y
aaoiiia?e?a iaiiaeeeaa c-ca oaeaeeiai ia?aa??ao aeaeaoia, a iniaeeaino?
o aaoiiia?e?a, ui aenieoaoothoueny i?ioyaii 5-oe ?ie?a.

O cayceo c aeeeaaeaiei aeua ?iaioa i?enay/aia ae??oaiith caaea/?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? n.i. aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550 (i?eai) c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae oiia aenieoaoaoe?? ia i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoaao Ei?aeai??.

Caycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie ? oaiaie

?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue o ?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e
“Aaoiiia?e?“ No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca i?ioaiiyi
eiinoeuenoaa Ei?aeai??. Aei?iaoaaiiy ?aae?aoi??a ?in?enueeiai ?
oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy ?oi?o aia?aaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?iaaaeeeenue ca oaiaie O3-98 ?
O25-98 o a?aeiia?aeiino? c caaaeaiiyi AICO “Ce?o”, ui iinoaaey?
oe?a?inuee? ?aae?aoi?e noi?niiio i?aei?e?inoa? “CAC-Daewoo”.2

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue

Iaoith ?iaioe ? iie?ioaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeaoia
aioo??oiueiai cai?yiiy aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550 (i?eai), ui i?aoeththoue
ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao Ei?aeai??, ia iniia? ?ioaineo?eaoe??
i?ioeano oaieiianiiai?io a ?aae?aoi?? oa aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe aeiea “?aae?aoi?-aaioeeyoi?”.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??oai? oae? caaea/?:

1.Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe aaoiiia?e?a a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa Ei?aeai?? ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a oaeineiiaeaiiy
n.i.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano oaieiia?aaea/? o aethi?i??aiio ?aae?aoi?? c
iaoai?/iei eiioaeoii ?aaa? c o?oaeaie; ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
n.i. c o?aooaaiiyi /anoeiaiai iieaaiiy ?aae?aoi?a iia?o?yi, ui
i?iniieoo?oueny aaioeeyoi?ii.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee n.i. ? ??
iniiaieo aeaiaio?a (?aae?aoi?a, aaioeeyoi?a ? ?i.) c a?aooaaiiyi aieeao
ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe??, ?aaeei?a ?iaioe ? oiia aenieoaoaoe??.

4. Aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a, aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe??, ?aaeei?a
?iaioe n.i. ? ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey ?? oaeineiiaeaiiy aeey
caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaii? aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550 a oiiaao
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Ei?aeai??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1. Oia?oa aeine?aeaeaii aieea oa?i?/iiai iii?o iaoai?/iiai eiioaeoo
o?oaie c ?aa?aie ia oaieiia?aaea/o a aethi?i??aeo ?aae?aoi?ao
?in?enueeiai oa oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa aaoiiia?e?a CAC.

2. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oaieiianiiai?io a ?aae?aoi?? c
/anoeiai iieaa?iith iiaa?oiath oaieiiai?io aaioeeyoi?ii, yea ia a?aei?io
a?ae ?nioth/eo aeicaiey? aeciaoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?ici??e eiaeooa
aaioeeyoi?a i?e i?eeiyoeo ?ici??ao ?aae?aoi?a oa oiiaao iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua.

3. Iaea?aeai? iia? aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeiea
“?aae?aoi?-aaioeeyoi?” c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ?ici???a eiaeooa, a oaeiae
?aae?aoi?a oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa aeey aaoiiia?e?a CAC c o?aooaaiiyi
aieeao /enea ioieiaeaeoth/eo ieanoei-?aaa?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ? i?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? ?
?aaeei?a ?iaioe n.i. aaoiiia?ey CAC-110550 (1102), ye? ia i?aenoaa?
?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee iaea?aeaoe
?aoe?iiaeueiee aa??aio nenoaie aeey aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a a oiiaao
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Ei?aeai??.

3

2. I?aeaeuaia aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe oe?a?inueeiai ?aae?aoi?a aeey
aaoiiia?e?a CAC ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy /enea ieanoeiie-?aaa?.
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oi?iaaaeaeai? i?e canai?ii? ae?iaieoeoaa ?aae?aoi??a AICO
“Ce?o” (i. Eoaainuee). Iaea?aeai? aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aae?aoi??a
oe?a?inueeiai oa ?in?enueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a ia?aiao?e/i?e ?
e?eoa??aeuei?e oi?i?.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaia aoaeoeaia eiino?oeoe?y iia?o?ii/enieea — oo?aoe?caoi?a
iia?o?yiiai iioieo, ui anoaiiaeth?oueny ia aoiae? o ?aae?aoi?.

4. ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe n.i.
aaoiiia?e?a CAC a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao
Ei?aeai??, i?eeiyo? i?aaenoaaieoeoaii Ei?aeai?? a e?a?i?

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

1.?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oaieiianiiai?io o ?aae?aoi?? c
/anoeiai ieaa?iith iiaa?oiath oaieiiai?io aaioeeyoi?ii ? n.i. o oe?eiio.

2.Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeai? aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aae?aoi??a
?in?enueeiai ? oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? aecia/ai? oiiae ?o
aca?iicai?iiino?. Iaea?aeai? e?eoa??aeuei? ? caeaaeiino?, ui iienothoue
oaieiia?aaea/o ? aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? ?aae?aoi??a c o?aooaaiiyi ?o
aenieoaoaoe??.

3. Aecia/aiee aieea n?oee-o?eueo?a ia aoiae? o ?aae?aoi? ia
aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io ?aae?aoi?a.

4. ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aenieoaoaoe??
aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550 a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Ei?aeai??
oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy n.i., ui i?eeiyo? i?aaenoaaieoeoaii Ei?aeai??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ? ie?aieo ?? ?acoeueoao?a aoee
aeieeaaeai? ? noaaeai? ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo NOAeO
(1994-1998), a oaeiae ia VII i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie
?icaeoeo ?aeeiaiai o?ainii?oo” (Eeaaae?y, E?ei) 1997 ?., ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Nenoaiioaoi?ea ia aaoiiia?eueiiio
o?ainii?o?” (Oa?e?a, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iaae?oeiaai? o 6 iaoeiaeo ?iaioao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoea; ai?uo? 140 noi??iie iniiaiiai
oaenoo, 58 ?enoie?a ? 14 oaaeeoeue. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ai?uo?
126 iaeiaioaaiue.

iniiaiee ciino

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ? iiaecia oaie, aeaia caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaaaaeai? iniiai? iai?yiee ae??oaiiy caaea/?.

4

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iienai? ee?iaoe/i? oiiae aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a o
Ei?aeai??. Iaaaaeaiee aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550
(i?eai) a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Iieacaia iaaeinoaoiy aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe
n.i. aeaeaoi?a aaoiiia?e?a o oaeeo oiiaao. Iaaaaeaiee iaeyae ? aiae?c
iniaeeainoae eiino?oeoe?e ? ?acoeueoao?a iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue n.i.
aaoiiia?e?a ??cieo o??i, ye? aeicaieeee aecia/eoe iniiai? iai?yiee o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo c i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a
CAC-110550 ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao Ei?aeai?? a oiiaao
noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo.

Oai?aoe/i? e aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?e
n.i. aaoiiia?e?a, o oiio /ene? noaiaeia? ? iaoo?i? aei?iaoaaiiy
?aae?aoi??a, aaioeeyoi??a, i?eno?i?a aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa ?i.
aeaiaio?a i?iaaaeai? a?aeiieie i?aai?caoe?yie: Ee?anueeei aaoiaei?iaei?i
?inoeoooii (EAAe?), Oa?e?anueeei aaoiaei?iaei?i ?inoeoooii (OAAe?),
Iineianueeei aaoiaei?iaei?i ?inoeoooii (IAAe?), Eai?ia?aaenueeei
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei ?inoeoooii (ENO?), Iineianueeei aaoiiioi?iei
?inoeoooii (IAI?), Iineianueeei aaoio?aeoi?iei ?inoeoooii (IAO?),
Iineianueeei aea?aeaaiei oi?aa?neoaoii ?iaeaia??a cae?cie/iiai
o?ainii?oo (I??O) oa ?i.

Aaeeeee aianie o oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy aianee Aa??e??a E.A., Ao?eia A.A.,
Aiai?ouaiei I.ss., Aey/aiei A.A., Aooa?aae/ TH.O., Aeeneei I.A.,
Ae?aeoea? A.A., Aeoa?ianueeee ?.A., Ieoaeeia A.A., Iaie?aoia A.I.,
Iao?aiei A.A., Iao?e/aiei ?.I., Ooaa?a N.I , Eaen A., Aiaiaeaeue E.,
Iaeao? A., Aoo A. oa ?i.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aenieoaoaoe?? CAC-110550 a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa Ei?aeai??, eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae ? ?acoeueoao?a
iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue n.i. ? ?o

iniiaieo aeaiaio?a aeicaieea noi?ioethaaoe aeey ??oaiiy iniiai? caaea/?,
ui i?eaaaeai? aeua.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
oaieiiai?io a n.i. aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550 (1102) c o?aooaaiiyi ci?iaiiy
ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe, iniiaieo ?? aeaiaio?a
(?aae?aoi?a, aaioeeyoi?ii? onoaiiaee oa ?i.).

Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean oaieiia?aaea/? o ?aae?aoi?? c aethi?i?th
aaoiiia?e?a CAC, o yeiio u?euei?noue iinaaeee eieaeoeaieo ?aaa? ia io/ie
o?oaie cae?enith?oueny i?ioyaeeith ona?aaeei? o?oaie eoeueeaie. C?iaeaia
i?eiouaiiy, ui i?e oae?e iinaaeoe? ?aaa? ia o?oaee i?ioyaii onueiai
ia?eiao?a ?nio? i?e?icaci? ci?iiiai ?ici??o, ui ci?ith?oueny aeiaaeeiai
(a?ae c min aei c max), na?aaeiy aaee/eia (c) yeiai iiaea aooe aecia/aia
ye iane?aeie ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ? ?ic?aooieiaiai
eiao?oe??io?a oaieiia?aaea/? ?aae?aoi?a c oiiae, ui c=0.

O i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? o i?e?icaci?e eiioaeo?a ?aaa? c o?oaeaie
i?inyeathoue ia?e iaeeaa, ianoee, ye? eiiaeainothoueny ia iiaa?oiyo
iaeeaiia?aaea/?, e ia noai?aieo ie?aeao oeeo ??aeei in?aeathoue
i?e?i/anoeiee caa?oaeiaiue c iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, oiaoi
iia?o?yiee caci? caiiaith?oueny oa?ii

5

caa?oaeiaiue, aieea yeiai ia i?ioean oaieiia?aaea/? iiaea aooe
a?aoiaaiee a ??aiyii? aaee/eiith oa?i?/iiai iii?o oaieiia?aaea/?
ona?aaeiaiiai acaeiaae ia?eiao?a ia?a??co oa?o caa?oaeiaiue (c).

C o?aooaaiiyi aieeao oeeo oaeoi??a ia eiao?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/?
iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy

wmetafile8? ??›???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA???? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????@q???@+
???u?????????»????-????7???7????uthY?????

aea wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
``???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ???? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u?????????»????-?????b?@????b?u????u y??????wmetafile8?
??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy@??AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u y??????1 ? 2 – a?aeiia?aeii eiao?oe??io oaieiioaea/?
a?ae “aa?y/iai” oaieiiin?th aei no?iie o?oaie ? a?ae iiaa?oi?
oaieiiai?io aei iia?o?y, Ao/ i2 E;

wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ??AE?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u
y??????wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya??AE?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u
y??????Aeei?enoaiiy aeaeo?ioaieiai? aiaeia?? aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe:

wmetafile8? ??c???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
``???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyy ???? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????0-???0 ???0o???0e
???0›???0 ???u?y??????aea wmetafile8?
??I??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyy ??wmetafile8?
??*???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy`??/?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u y??????

O ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioo aecia/a?oueny eiao?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/?
iiaiai ?aae?aoi?a, aeey yeiai iaoiaeii, iienaiei aeua, iaea?aeaii Re.
Oea aeicaiey? c ??aiyiiy

wmetafile8? ??*???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyy???Y?? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-?????G???G?
???u?????????»????-????I???I???I ???I?
???-?????; ???e
???-????I8???IA???-?????°6

aecia/eoe 2. I?e oeueiio wmetafile8? ??¤????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy???¦?? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-?????b?@????b?u????u?th???????ic?iaeaia
iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oaieiia?aaea/? o ?aae?aoi?? c a?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae noaie oa/?? oaieiiin??a, ui aeaia ia ?en. 1 (A — aenioa
na?oeaaeie ?aae?aoi?a, a (A-o) — oe?eia eiaeooa eiiooci?a aaioeeyoi?a).
“Aa?y/ee” oaieiiin?e ia? aeaa oiaee. Iia?o?y i?iniieoo?oueny
aaioeeyoi?ii /a?ac /anoeie I i III ?aae?aoi?a. Aeey aiae?co ?iaioe
iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io iai/i?oa acyoe ca iniiao noaio, ui iieacaia ia ?en.
1a.

a
a

?en. 1. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia oa/?? oaieiiin??a o ?aae?aoi?? aaoiiia?ey
CAC110550

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oe??th noaiith oaieiia?aaea/a o ?aae?aoi??
iieno?oueny oaeith nenoaiith ??aiyiue, ui iaea?aeaia ia iniia? ??aiyiue
oaieiia?ia/? ? oaieiaiai aaeaino, canoiniaaieo aei a?aeiia?aeieo /anoae
?aae?aoi?a.

Aeey /anoeie I: wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyyA??=?? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-??????J ????a ???u y??????wmetafile8?
??f??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??4?? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-??????oe????7???u?th??????wmetafile8
? ??^??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@????? ???&?
?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????°<???°???u?y??????aea wmetafile8? ??o???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? aA???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy???•?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u?y??????7 wmetafile8? ??<??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy`?? ?? ???&? ?MathType??° ???u?????????"????-?????ey???e( ???u?????????"????-????r???r wmetafile8? ??R??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyy ??Aeey /anoeie II: wmetafile8? ??¦??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy ??c?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????? wmetafile8? ??n??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?? ???&??yyyy?????AyyycyyyA??c?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-??????_????a???uAth??????wmetafile8? ??^??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy ??c?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-??????m????"???u?y??????aea wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  ????&??yyyy?????AyyyµyyyA??O?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u?y?????? wmetafile8? ??=??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ???? ???&? ?MathType??° ???u?????????"????-?????eO???e? ???u?????????"????-????wy???wss???-??????›???? I???-????wI???w???-?????°Y???°(???u?y?????? 1 ? 2 - aecia/athoueny c a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiyiiy (4a). Aeey /anoeie III: wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? aA???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyy???wmetafile8? ??A??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy???±?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-??????wmetafile8? ??I??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyyA??±?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-??????®???? ????O????AE???? ¶????????u@y??????aea wmetafile8? ?? ??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  @???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy???O?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u?y??????O iaaaaeai?e nenoai? ??aiyiue: Q - oaieiaeae?eaiiy o aeaeaoi?, Ao; Q1 ? Q2 - a?aeiia?aeii e?euee?noue oaieioe, ui a?aeaiaeeoueny I ? II /anoeiaie ?aae?aoi?a (?en. 1a); G - ianiaa aeo?aoa oaieiiin?y, ea//; n? - oaiei?ii?noue oaieiiin?y, Aeae/ea E; .u2o.- ianiaa oaeaee?noue iia?o?y o o?iioaeueiiio ia?a??c? ?aae?aoi?a, ea/i2n; wmetafile8? ??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A`???&??yyyy?????AyyyAEyyy ??†?? ???&? ?MathType??0????u?th??????8 i?ioiaeo oaieiiin?y, i2; Nu, Re ? ?a - a?aeiia?aeii e?eoa??? Ionaeueoa, ?aeiieueaeoey ? I?aioey. ??aiyiiy nenoaie e?iaa??ciaai? ca oiiaaie, ui oaiia?aoo?iee iaoene o ?aae?aoi?? i?eeiyoee na?aaeiueia?eoiaoe/iei. Eiao?oe??ioe i?e iaa?aeiieo aaee/eiao (wmetafile8? ??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? aA???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy???•?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u?y??????Ii a?aeiioaiith aei iniiaieo ae?eyiie aa?iaeeiai?/iiai o?aeoo iaea?aeaia ??aiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy oeneo, ui noai?th?oueny aaioeeyoi?iith onoaiiaeith (ui ai?uo? o naaa eiaeoo ia aoiae? ? eaiae ia aeoiae?), yea ca oiiaaie ii =1 (ii eiao?oe??io Ei?eie?na iia?o?yiiai iioieo o ia?a??c? ca aaioeeyoi?ii) ia? aeaeyae: wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`??™?? ???&? ?MathType?? ? ???u?????????"????-?????P¶???P8???P.???PX???P -???PW???P???P'???PE???PM???uAth??????aea ?ao, eai, ?aae.- a?aeiia?aeii eiao?oe??ioe aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iii?o a?ao, eaiaeo aei ?aae?aoi?a ? iiney ?aae?aoi?a; 2’ ? 2’’- a?aeiia?aeii cia/aiiy aonoeie iia?o?y aei ? i?ney ?aae?aoi?a, ea/i3; v2o, vii ? va.- a?aeiia?aeii cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? iia?o?yiiai iioieo o ia?a??c? ia?aae ?aae?aoi?ii ? o ia?a??c?, ui iai?oa?oueny eiianoyie aaioeeyoi?a ? ?ooo aaoiiia?ey, i/n. ?ic?iaeaia eiiithoa?ia i?ia?aia aeey aia?aaoe/iiai ?ic?aooieo n.i. aeaeaoia aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550 c iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? ?iaioe c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao aia?aaoe/ieo ? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?? (a?ao ia aoiae?, n?oee-o?eueo?a, ?aae?aoi?a, eiaeooa, iau?eueiinoae i?ae ?aae?aoi?ii ? eiaeooii oa ?i.) ? ?aaeei?a ?o ?iaioe. Aeey ooi/iaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, o oiio /ene? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?, noi?ioeueiaai? caaea/? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaeao?a ? iaoo?ieo c?ace?a ?aae?aoi??a aeiea “?aae?aoi?-aaioeeyoi?”, aaioeeyoi?ii? onoaiiaee oa ?ioeo aeaiaio?a n.i. ia niaoe?aeueieo noaiaeao (aa?iaeeiai?/i?e o?oa? a?aee?eoiai oeio, aa?iaeeiai?/i?e eaia??) ? ia aaoiiia?eyo. Ii??aiyeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeao?a ?aae?aoi??a aaoiiia?e?a i?ia?aeieo o??i (Oi?ae, Iiaeue, Ia?naaean, Iaaei, O?ao, AAC, AAC) ? oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa (AICO“Ce?o”) iieacaee: ?aae?aoi?e no/anieo eiino?oeoe?e iinooiathoueny ca aia?aaoe/ieie ? ianiaaaa?eoieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?aae?aoi?ai c na?oeaaeiith c i?aeieo o?oaie ? ieanoei ia 15-20 %; ?aae?aoi?e c aethi?i??aeo o?oaie ? ieanoei-?aaa? iathoue i?eaeecii iaeiaeia? iieacieee; aeine?aeiee c?acie ?aae?aoi?a oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, iaeiioeiiee ca eiino?oeoe??th c ?aae?aoi?ii ?in?enueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui canoiniao?oueny ia aaoiiia?eyo CAC, a oaeiae ?aae?aoi?aie aaoiiia?e?a Aoae?, O?ao, Ia?naaean oa ?i., iathoue ia 10-12% iaioee eiao?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/? i?e iaioiio ia 18-20% aa?iaeeiai?/iiio iii??. 9 O cayceo c oei, ui CAC ieaioaaa c 1998 ?ieo canoiniaoaaoe o aaoiiia?eyo ?aae?aoi?e oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa (AICO “Ce?o”, i. Eoaainuee), aoee aei?iaoaai? c?acee ?aae?aoi??a c aeina?aeieo ia?o?e, ye? iathoue iaeiaeia? aaaa?eoi? ?ici??e c ?aae?aoi?ii (o iiaeaeueoiio ?3) ?in?enueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa (aenioo - 340 ii, oe?eio - 380 ii ? aeeaeio - 34 ii) ? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae iueiai oiaueiith i?aa?yth/eo ieanoei (0,08 cai?noue 0,1 ii) ? ?ici??aie ia?a??co o?oaie (ae?aiao? ciai?oi?e - 8,4 ii, aioo??oi?e - 7,6 ii cai?noue 8,5 ii ? 7,25 ii). Oaoiieia?y aeaioiaeaiiy ? oaoiieia?/ia onoaoeoaaiiy i?eioeeiiai iaeiaeia?, aea aeey ou?eueiaiiy c?aeiaiiy ?aaa? c o?oaeaie canoiniao?oueny i?ioyaeea eoeueeaie ae?aiao?ii 7,6+0,1 ii. Aei?iaoaaeenue ?aae?aoi?e ?in?enueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?ney i?ia?ao aaoiiia?ey (200 oen. ei) aeey aecia/aiiy nooiaith aieeao caa?oaeiaiue iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io ia aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee (eiao?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/?, aa?iaeeiai?/iee ? a?ae?aae?/iee ii??) ? ?aae?aoi? c iiaa?oiath oaieiiai?io, ooo/ii iie?eoee ia?aie ianoeea, iaeeaa ? ii?ioii, i?eaacaiee ?c Ei?aeai??. Aei?iaoaaiiy iieacaee, ui ii/aoeiaee aa??aio ?aae?aoi?a oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa c /eneii i?aa?thth/eo ieanoei 257oo. ia? iaioee eiao?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/?, ia 20% iaioee aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? ? ia 7% iaioee a?ae?aae?/iee ii?? (c-ca ca?eueoaiiy ia?a??co aeey i?ioiaeo aiaee) o ii??aiyii? c ?aae?aoi?ii ?1. Ine?eueee aeine?aeiee ?aae?aoi? iiaeiai aooe aca?iici?iiei c ?aae?aoi?ii ?1, ui canoiniao?oueny o aaoiiia?eyo, ii oaiei?icn?thaaeuei?e caeaoiino? aoee ?aae?ciaai? caoiaee aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aea?aaeaioo iiaa?oi? KF2, ui iieaa?oueny iia?o?yi, ? oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae aiaee aei no?iie o?oaie 1: · aeaioiaeai? ? aei?iaoaai? c?acee ?aae?aoi??a c ??cieie e?ieaie ?icoaooaaiiy i?aa?yth/eo ieanoei (240 oo., 252 oo., 257 oo., 267 oo.); · aeaioiaeaiee ? aei?iaoaaiee ?aae?aoi? c oo?aoe?caoi?aie aiaee o o?oaeao (iiaeaeueoa ? 3) c /eneii ieanoei 252 oo.; · aeaioiaeaiee ? aei?iaoaaiee ?aae?aoi? c? ciaaee?aiith iiaa?oiath oaieiiai?io o eiioaeo? ?aaa? c o?oaeaie; · aecia/aii oa?i?/iee ii?? eiioaeoo ?aaa? c o?oaeaie o na??eiiio ? aeine?aeiiio ?aae?aoi?ao. A ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo iaea?aeai? a ia?aiao?e/i?e ? e?eoa??aeuei?e oi?iao caeaaeiino?, iaiao?aei? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey ?aae?aoi??a ?in?enueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa: aeey ?aae?aoi?a ? 1: aei aenieoaoaoe?? wmetafile8? ??&??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy???7?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u y?????? wmetafile8? ??M??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy???7?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u y??????wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ??/?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u y??????i?ney aenieoaoaoe?? (200 oen. i?ia?ao aaoiiia?ey): wmetafile8? ??$??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyyA??7?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u y??????wmetafile8? ??4??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA???? ???&? ?MathType??`????u?y??????ni?aaaaeeea? aeey oiia: u2o =2...20 ea/(i2n); wmetafile8? ??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a????&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy@??•?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u?y??????Re1 = (4...45)103. aeey ?aae?aoi?a ?2 (c /eneii i?aa?yth/eo ieanoei nie=267 oo., iaeiaeiaei c ?aae?aoi?ii ?1) wmetafile8? ??$??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyyA??7?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u y??????wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ??/?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u y??????ni?aaaaeeea? i?e: u2o = 2...20 ea/(i2n), wmetafile8? ??¶???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyy???A?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u y??????Re1 = (4...45)103. Aiae?c aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aae?aoi?a c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao /enea ieanoei (oaaa ?iciieiaeaiiy ?aaa? ia o?oaeao) iieacaa, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaith i?aa?aiiy, iacaaaeath/e ia cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa oaieiia?aaea/? E, aaee/eia KF2, i?iii?oe?iiaeueia oaiei?icn?thaaeuei?e caeaoiino? ?aae?aoi?a, c?inoa?, aea i?e nie=267 oo. (/enei ieanoei a ?aae?aoi?? ?1) ia aeinyaa? iieacieea na??eiiai ?aae?aoi?a ia 8%. I?e oeueiio aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? aeine?aeiiai ?aae?aoi?a caeeoa?oueny iaioei ia 13% o ii??aiyii? c na??eiei. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue iiaeaeueoiai ca?eueoaiiy /enea i?aa?thth/eo ieanoei aei 276 oo. (aei ae??aithaaiiy aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iii?o ?aae?aoi??a). I?e oeueiio aaee/eia KF2 aeinyaa? aaee/eie oeueiai iieacieea ?in?enueeiai ?aae?aoi?a, aea iio?aao? ci?ithaaiue oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy ?aae?aoi??a. Canoinoaaiiy oo?aoe?caoi??a aiaee o ae?aiacii? ci?iaiiy oaeaeeino? aiaee a o?oaeao, ui a?aeiia?aea? ?aaeeio ?iaioe ?aae?aoi?a (v1 =1,6...2,0 i/n), ca?eueoo? oaieiia?aaea/o onueiai ia 10-12%, ui iiynith?oueny noaoai oo?aoeaioiei ?aaeeiii oa/?? aiaee o o?oaeao (wmetafile8? ??u???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyya??/?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u y??????Aiae?c oa?i?/iiai iii?o Re eiioaeoo ?aaa? c o?oaeaie c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaeo?ioaieiai? aiaeia?? iieacaa, ui a?i o na??eiiio ? aeine?aeiiio ?aae?aoi?ao i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee ? neeaaea? aaee/eio Rk=2.95*10-4 K/Ao. Ciaaee?thaaiiy iiaa?oiiue, ui noeeathoueny o eiioaeo?, ia i?eaaei aei ciaioaiiy Re.. Ciaioaiiy oiaueie ?aaa? o ?aae?aoi?? oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia 0,02 ii c?iaeaii c iaoith aeiiii?? eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a. 12 Iaeiae, ye iieacaa aiae?c, aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe i?aa?aiiy i?e oeueiio ciaioeeanue (aeey wmetafile8? ??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyyA???? ???&? ?MathType??p????u y??????Caaea/a oaeineiiaethaaiiy nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550, ui aenieoao-othoueny a oiiaao noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo Ei?aeai??, c o?aooaaiiyi ii??aiyii iaaaeeeee eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy iia?o?yiiai iioieo, ui iaa?aa? i?e ?on? aaoiiia?ey, aaaea aei iaiao?aeiino? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeioe?eueiino? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io ?aae?aoi?a ca ?aooiie a?eueoiai aeeth/aiiy a aa?iaeeiai?/iee o?aeo aaioeeyoi?a iiaa?oi? ?aae?aoi?a. O ca’yceo c oeei iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue eiino?oeoe?th eiaeooa, c’?aeioth/iai ?aae?aoi? ? aaioeeyoi?, aoee aea?ai? ?ici??e “o” (aai “A-o”) ? “a” (?en.2). Naia aiie, a?aoiaoth/e ianeiao?e/ia a?aeiinii ?aae?aoi?a ?icoaooaaiiy aaioeeyoi?a, aecia/athoue nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io ? aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe ?aae?aoi?a (??aiii??i?noue eiai iaaeoa o) ? aaioeeyoi?a (eiai i?iaeoeoeai?noue), Oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai? a aa?iaeeiai?/i?e o?oa? a?aee?eoiai oeio. Aei?iaoaaiiy caciaaaa aeie “?aae?aoi?-aaioeeyoi?”, yeee aoei ?icoaoiaaii ia aoiae? a aa?iaeeiai?/io o?oao. ?ici?? “o” ci?ithaaany o ae?aiacii? 120…0 ii, ?ici?? “a”– o ?aaeueiiio ae?aiacii? eiai ci?ithaaiiy 0…50 ii ca ?aooiie ia?ai?uaiiy ?aae?aoi?a aia?aae ia 50 ii aac ?noioiiai ci?iaiiy eiino?oeoe?? eiai e??ieaiiy. Iaoaiaoe/ia ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo c oeeie ia?aiao?aie aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe aeey aecia/aiiy na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? iia?o?y o o?iioaeueiiio ia?a??c? iiia?aaeo ?aae?aoi?a aaaaoi/eai wmetafile8? ??Ae??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?@.???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy?.??7?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u?th??????Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe noaa?aeeee iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? n.i. ca ?aooiie ci?iaiiy ?ici???a “a” ? “o”. Oea aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ci?iaiiy eiino?oeoe?? eiaeooa-aaioeeyoi?a ? ?icoaooaaiiy ?aae?aoi?a. I?iaaaeaia ioe?iea aieeao i?aeniieooaaiiy iia?o?y /a?ac caci? i?ae ?aae?aoi?ii ? eiaeooii ia aeo?aoe iia?o?y /a?ac ?aae?aoi?. Aei?iaoaaiiy iieacaee, ui eiai ou?eueiaiiy ca?eueoo? aeo?aoe iia?o?y /a?ac ?aae?aoi? ia 19%. I?e aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?ey a Ei?aeai??, iniaeeai a oiiaao ii?ioiaeo ao?ue, o ?aae?aoi? iiiaaeathoue e?oii? /anoee ii?ioo, ye? ? eiioeaio?aoi?aie caa?oaeiaiue. 13 Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia noaiae? iieacaee, ui onoaiiaea n?oee c ae?ioo ae?aiao?ii 0,5...0,8 ii ? ?ici??ii /a?oiee 1,3o1,3 ii ia?aae ?aae?aoi?ii ia a?aenoai? 10...15 ii ia o?eueee aeeeth/a? iiiaaeaiiy aaeeeeo /anoie ii?ioo o i?ae?aaa?i? i?inoi?e, aea e i?aeaeuo? eiao?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/? ?aae?aoi?a ia 5...7%, i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaath/e ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue aaioeeyoi?a ?en. 2. Noaia aeiea “?aae?aoi?-aaioeeyoi?” 1- ?aae?aoi?; 2- eiiooci?; 3- iae/aeea aaioeeyoi?a; 4- aeaeo?iaeaeaoi; 5- “iia?o?yi? eeaiaie”. Iii?oiee aieea ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue aaioeeyoi?a ?iaeoue caa?oaeiaiiy ?aae?aoi?a i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe??. Aei?iaoaaiiy nenoaie c ?aae?aoi?ii (i?ney i?ia?ao aaoiiia?ey 200 oen. ei a oiiaao Oe?a?ie) iieacaee, ui i?iaeoeoeai?noue aaioeeyoi?a ciaioo?oueny ia 5...7%. Ia noaiae? “aa?iaeeiai?/ia eaia?a” aoa aei?iaoaaiee aaioeeyoi? c i?eeaaeeie aei iueiai aeaiaioaie eiino?oeoe?? ia aoiae? e aeoiae? (eiaeoo-eiiooci? ia aoiae? ? aeaiaioe e??ieaiiy aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo ia aeoiae?), ye? aecia/athoue oiiae aoiaeo iia?o?yiiai iioieo o aaioeeyoi? ? aeoiaeo c iueiai ? a cia/i?e i??? aieeaathoue ia oa?aeoa?enoeeo aaioeeyoi?a, ? iaea?aeaia aa?iaeeiai?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea, yea aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy c a?eueoith oi/i?noth 14 I?iaaaeai? ia aaoiiia?eyo aei?iaoaaiiy (a oiiaao Oe?a?ie ? Ei?aeai??) aeicaieeee ooi/ieoe aeo?aei? aeai? aeey ?ic?aooieo: i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianina oee?eoeyoe?? aiaee; oaieiaeae?eaiiy aeaeaoia o aiaeo; aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? a?aoie ?aae?aoi?a; eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy iaa?aath/iai iioieo iia?o?y i?e ?on? aaoiiia?ey; iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeio oaeaee?noue ?ooo iaaaioaaeaiiai aaoiiia?ey ia i?aeeii? c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia aaciaee. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee ooi/ieoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aia?aaoe/iiai ?ic?aooieo n.i. aaoiiia?ey CAC-110550 ? i?iaanoe ?ic?aooieia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? c o?aooaaiiyi aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Ei?aeai??. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeaiee aea?? ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe n.i. aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550 aeey ?o aenieoaoaoe?? a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Ei?aeai??. E?ioeaaith iaoith ?ic?aooieo aoei aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo aa??aio?a nenoai ioieiaeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aoaeoeaiino? a oiiaao Ei?aeai?? (c i?i?iaeueieie ia?a?iaeaie) a oiiaao CACa. Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ioieiaeaeaiiy aeaeaoia i?iaiaeeeany ii oaiia?aoo?? aiaee ia aeoiae? c aeaeaoia iiai?noth iaaaioaaeaiiai aaoiiia?ey CAC-110550 i?e eiai ?on? ia ?ic?aooieiaiio i?aeeii? c oaeaee?noth 40 ei/a c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia aaciaee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo oaiia?aoo?e iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (T2'=313…323E) c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao i?aeniieooaaiiy “aa?y/iai “ iia?o?y c i?aeeaiioiiai i?inoi?o ? caa?oaeiaiiy ?aae?aoi?a i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe??. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe, ui na??eiee aa??aio nenoaie (c ?aae?aoi?ii o??ie AAC) i?e oaiia?aoo?? iaaeieeoiueiai iia?o?y 313 E caaacia/o? i?aeo?eioaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ia aeoiae? c aeaeaoia ia iio??aiiio ??ai? ((T1'=373E). I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua aei 323 E (oiiae Ei?aeai??) i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e O1’ aei ??aiy 383 E, ?, ye iane?aeie, caa?oaeiaiiy iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io ?aae?aoi?a i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe?? aei ??aiy 390 E. Canoinoaaiiy o nenoai? ?aae?aoi??a c oo?aoe?caoi?aie o o?oaeao cieaeo? ??aaiue oaiia?aoo?e ioieiaeaeoth/eie ??aeeiaie ia 4...5 E a oiiaao, ui ca?eueoaiee oaea?/? a?ae?aae?/iee ii?? ?aae?aoi?a a?ae oo?aoe?caoi??a ia aoaea ciaiooaaoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianina. O ae?eniino? i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianina a?ae aeiaeaoeiaiai a?ae?aae?/iiai iii?o nenoaie ciaioo?oueny. A ?acoeueoao? aoaeo a?ae canoinoaaiiy oo?aoe?caoi??a caiaeeoueny aei i?i?ioio, a ?aaeei ioieiaeaeaiiy aeaeaoia iia??oo?oueny. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui na??eia n.i. o iaaeinoaoi?e i??? aeei?enoiao? oaeaee?noue iaa?aath/iai iioieo. Iai?eeeaae, i?e ?ic?aooieiaiio cia/aii? oaeaeeino? ?ooo aaoiiia?ey (Va=40 ei/a) aeei?enoiao?oueny oaeaee?noue 15 iaa?aath/iai iioieo o?eueee ia 15%. Ioaea c’yaey?oueny aeiaeaoeiaa caaea/a i?aeaeuaiiy oaiei?icn?thaaeueii? caeaoiino? nenoaie oeyoii ciaioaiiy iii?o iniiaieo aeaiaio?a nenoaie, o oiio /ene? canoinoaaiiy aa?ii iao?/ieo iai?aaeyth/eo iia?o?yiiai iioieo aei ?aae?aoi?a, caoaeaiiy ia?a??co aaiia?a o iai?yieo aei ?aae?aoi?a, canoinoaaiiy iia?o?yieo eeaiai?a o eiaeon? ( aeea. ?en.2). A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui a?eueo iiaia aeei?enoaiiy iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io ?aae?aoi?a, yea o na??eiiio aeeiiaii? ia iaaeoaa?oueny aaioeeyoi?ii, oiaoi aeeth/aiiy oe??? /anoeie iiaa?oi? a aa?iaeeiai?/iee o?aeo aaioeeyoi?a aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe oaiei?icn?thaaeueio caeaoi?noue ?aae?aoi?a. Ci?iaiiy eiino?oeoe?? eiaeooa (eiiooci?a) oaeei /eiii, uia a?i aoa nooe?eueiei, ioiiethaaa onth na?oeaaeio ?aae?aoi?a, aeieeath/e i?aeniieooaaiiy iia?o?y aaioeeyoi?ii c i?aeeaiioiiai i?inoi?o, ? caaacia/oaaa a?aenoaiue a?ae aaioeeyoi?a aei ?aae?aoi?a 45...50 ii, i?aeo?eio? iio??aiee ??aaiue oaiia?aoo?e aiaee ia aeoiae? aeaeaoia (369 E) i?e oaiia?aoo?? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua 323 E, oiaoi nenoaia ia? caian ia caa?oaeiaiiy i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe?? (?en.3). Iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy o ?aae?aoi?? oo?aoe?caoi??a a?aeiaaea?. Canoinoaaiiy n?oee-iia?o?ii/enieea c ae?ioo ae?aiao?ii 0,5...0,8 ii ? ?ici??aie /a?oiee 1,3o1,3 ii aeicaiey? oeiaethaaoe aaeee? /anoee ii?ioo ? iaeii/anii ?ioaineo?eoaaoe oaieiia?aaea/o o ?aae?aoi??, ui cieaeo? ??aaiue oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ia aoiae? o ?aae?aoi? ia 2...3 E. ?en.3. Caeaaei?noue oaiia?aoo?e aiaee ia aeoiae? c aeaeaoia O1’ a?ae oe?eie A ioiieaiiy ?aae?aoi?a eiaeooii ? oaiia?aoo?e iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua O2’ 16 I?e aeine?aeaeaii? n.i. c ?aeiiaiaeiaaiith eiino?oeoe?th eiaeooa ? ?aae?aoi?ii ?2 (oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa) c i?aeaeuaiei /eneii ieanoei-?aaa? Zie=267 oo. aoee iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeae?eueea a??o? o ii??aiyii? c ?aae?aoi?ii ?1: cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e “aa?y/iai” oaieiiin?y ia aoiae? o ?aae?aoi? i?e oaiia?aoo?? iaaeieeoiueiai iia?o?y O=313; 318 ? 323 E aeua a?aeiia?aeii ia 1,1; 2,8 ? 3,2 E o ii??aiyii? c ?aae?aoi?ii ?1 (aeea. ?en.3). Iaeiae e?aua aa?iaeeiai?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aae?aoi?a ?2 aeicaiey? eiiiainoaaoe aeaio oeao ca ?aooiie /enea ieanoei aei 276 oo. (??ai?noue aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iii?o ?aae?aoi??a ?1 ? ?2): ??aaiue oaiia?aoo?e aiaee ia aoiae? o ?aae?aoi? iaaeeaea?oueny aei ??aiy, ui caaacia/o? ?aae?aoi? ?1 (aeea. ?en.3). C aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aeoiaeeoue, ui aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy iaiao?aeii: · canoinoaaoe eiaeoo, ui c’?aeio? ?aae?aoi? c aaioeeyoi?ii, eiino?oeoe?y yeiai ioiieth? onth na?oeaaeio ?aae?aoi?a ? aeeeth/a? i?aeniieooaaiiy “aa?y/iai” iia?o?y c i?aeeaiioiiai i?inoi?o; · ca?eueoeoe a?aenoaiue a?ae ?aae?aoi?a aei iae/aeee aaioeeyoi?a ia 45...50 ii ca ?aooiie ia?ai?uaiiy ?aae?aoi?a oia?aae acaeiaae iai?aaeyth/eo ieanoei, i?e oeueiio aenioa no?iee eiaeooa ca ia?eiao?ii iiaeiia aooe 30...35 ii; · anoaiiaeoe ia?aae ?aae?aoi?ii ia a?aenoai? 10...15 ii n?oeo (o?eueo?-oo?aoe?caoi?) c ae?ioo oiaueiith 0,5...0,8 ii ? ?ici??aie /a?oiee 1,3o1,3 ii aeey oeiaethaaiiy aaeeeeo /anoei caa?oaeiaiue ? i?aeaeuaiiy oaieiia?aaea/? o ?aae?aoi??; · canoinoaaoe o iia?o?icaa??ieo a?eiao (i?ae aaiia?ii) nooe?euei? iai?aaeyth/e iia?o?yiiai iioieo, ui u?eueii i?eeyaathoue aei ?aae?aoi?a; · ia?a??c aaiia?a c?iaeoe caoaeoth/einy o iai?yieo aei ?aae?aoi?a c iaoith ciaioaiiy nooiaith cao?iaiiy ?aae?aoi?a; · canoinoaaoe o eiaeon? aaioeeyoi?a “iia?o?yi? eeaiaie” caaaeueiei ia?a??cii 0,01 i2 (aeea. ?en.2); · i?e canoinoaaii? a n.i. ?aae?aoi??a oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ca?eueoeoe o ieo /enei ioieiaeaeoth/eo ieanoei-?aaa? oiaueiith 0,08 ii aei 276 oooe, aai oiaueio ieanoei aei 0,1 ii (i?e /ene? ieanoei 267 oooe), ui ?iaeoue ?o i?aeoe/ii aca?iici?iieie c ?aae?aoi?aie ?in?enueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. AENIIAEE 1. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a CAC 110550 (i?eai) a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Ei?aeai??, anoaiiaeaia iaaeinoaoiy aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe n.i. a ia??iae aenieeo oaiia?aoo? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (>313 E) ? aeyaeai? i?e/eie ?? cieaeaiiy
i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe??.

2. Ia iniiai oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioeano oaieiia?aaea/? o
?aae?aoi?? o?oa/aoi-ieanoei/aoi? eiino?oeoe?? c aethi?i?th c iaoai?/iei
ou?eueiaiiyi eiioaeoo ieanoei c o?oaeaie i?ioyaeeith eoeueeaie
iaea?aeaia ??aiyiiy

17

oaieiia?aaea/?, ui a?aoiao? aieea oa?i?/iiai iii?o oaeiai eiioaeoo, ia
i?aenoaa? aeaeo?ioaieiai? aiaeia??.

3. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue n.i., yea a?aoiao?, ui iiaa?oiy
oaieiiai?io ?aae?aoi?a iaaeoaa?oueny aaioeeyoi?ii /anoeiai.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/ai? aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aae?aoi??a,
aaioeeyoi?ii? onoaiiaee ? aeiea “?aae?aoi?-aaioeeyoi?” c o?aooaaiiyi
aieeao iniiaieo ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe c iaoith
ooi/iaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ? aeeiiaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai ?ic?aooieo n.i.
aeey aeai?o ?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioa, o oiio /ene?:

· iaea?aeai? aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee (E, ?1, ?2) ?aae?aoi??a
(?in?enueeiai ? oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa) c o?aooaaiiyi ia?aiao??a
eiino?oeoe?e, ?aaeei?a ?iaioe ? oiia aenieoaoaoe?? a ia?aiao?e/i?e ?
e?eoa??aeuei?e oi?iao;

· anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c-ca a?aenooiino? iiiie?oiiai eiioaeoo ?aaa? c
o?oaeaie a aethi?i??a?e eiino?oeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a aaee/eia oa?i?/iiai
iii?o eiioaeoo ?aaa? c o?oaeaie neeaaea? 2.95 *10-4 E/Ao ? eiai aieea ia
i?ioean oaieiia?aaea/? o ?aae?aoi?? aeinyaa? 12%;

· aecia/aii nooi?iue i?aa?aiiy aeine?aeiiai (oe?a?inueeiai) ?aae?aoi?a,
iaiao?aeiee aeey caaacia/aiiy aca?iici?iiino? c ?aae?aoi?ii ?in?enueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa;

· anoaiiaeaiee aieea ia aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aae?aoi?a ?
aaioeeyoi?a iniiaieo ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? eiaeooa (oe?eia “A-o” ?
a?aenoaiue “a” a?ae ?aae?aoi?a aei aaioeeyoi?a) ? caci?o i?ae
?aae?aoi?ii ? eiaeooii (aeea. ?en.2);

· iaea?aeaia aa?iaeeiai?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aaioeeyoi?a c o?aooaaiiyi
aieeao oiia ia aoiae? (eiaeooa) ? aeoiae? (eiino?oeoe?? e??ieaiiy
aeaeo?iaeaeaoia) iia?o?yiiai iioieo.

5. Anoaiiaeaia iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy oaeaeeinoae o?eaaeiai ?ooo ia
i?aeeiiao iiai?noth iaaaioaaeaiiai aaoiiia?ey. c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia
aaciaee, ia aeieueieoeyo aaoiiia?eueieo oeyoia, ui c’?aeiothoue iniiai?
i?aei?e?inoaa ?onaeoa ? iathoue iaeneiaeuei? i?aeeiie.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a neeo iaaeineiiaeino? aa?iaeeiai?/iiai o?aeoo, ?, ye
iane?aeie, ii??aiyii aaeeeiai eiai aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iii?o, eiao?oe??io
aeei?enoaiiy iaa?aath/iai iioieo a n.i. i?e ?on? c ??cieie oaeaeeinoyie
neeaaea? i?eaeecii 0,15.

7. Ca aeiiiiiaith iaea?aeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?iaioe n.i. aac ca?eueoaiiy iiooaeiino? ia i?ea?ae aaioeeyoi?a, ye?
iiaeooue aooe ?iciianthaeaeai? ? ia aaoiiia?e? CAC-1102, ui
aenieoaoothoueny a Ei?aeai??.

8. ?ic?iaeai? ? oi?iaaaeaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiei?icn?thaaeueii? caeaoiino? ?aae?aoi??a oe?a?inueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
AICO “Ce?o” (i. Eoaainuee) ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy ?o nooiaith i?aa?aiiy.

9. I?iaaaeaii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aoee i?eeiyo? O?yaeii Ei?aeai?? a
Oe?a?i?, yeee

18

iieacaa, ui aaoiiia?e? CAC- 110550 i?ney oaeineiiaeaiiy n.i. iiaeooue c
oni?oii aenieoaooaaoeny ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao Ei?aeai?? a aea?e?
ia??iaee ?ieo (eeiaiue-na?iaiue) ? oea aeicaieeoue ui??/ii caeiiiieoe
o?eueee ia eiia?iao? ?ona?oa aeecueei 104,7 oen. a?i.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee iioae?eiaai? o ?iaioao

1. Eoe?eia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aaaeaeue-Aaa? Aae?ae. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
ioieiaeaeoth/iai i?eno?ith aaoiiia?ey./ A?niee No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeae-oeoai NOAeO. Na??y O?ainii?o. 1996 ?., n
7-13. (iniaenoee aianie 55%).

2. Aaaeaeue-Aaa? Aae?ae, Eoeeeia TH.A., Eaoii A.A. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
ioieiaeaeoth/iai i?eno?ith o?ainii?oiiai caniao i?e iaiiaiiio iaaeoa?
iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io aaioeeyoi?ii./ A?niee No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeae-oeoai NOAeO. Iaoeiaee aeo?iae
?4(8) 1997 ?., n 190-194 (iniaenoee aianie 70%).

3. Eoe?eia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aaaeaeue-Aaa? Aae?ae. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
ioieiaeaeoth/iai i?eno?ith aaoiiia?ey./ I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee
a?niee ?51(62). Aeae-oeoai “Iaoea ? ina?oa”. Na??y- Oaoi?/i? iaoee.
1997. n.24-28 (iniaenoee aianie 65%).

4. Eoe?eia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aaaeaeue-Aaa? Aae?ae. Aeaye? aniaeoe
iiaeaethaaiiy ioieiaeaeoth/iai i?eno?ith o?ainii?oiiai caniao i?e
iaiiaiiio iaaeoa? iiaa?oi? oaiei

iai?io aaioeeyoi?ii./ I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee ?51(62).
Aeae-oeoai “Iaoea ? ina?oa”. Na??y- Oaoi?/i? iaoee. 1997. n.28-32
(iniaenoee aianie 70%).

5. Eoe?eia TH.A., Aaaeaeue-Aaa? Aae?ae, A?eaeie/aiei I.O.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oa?i?/iiai iii?o eiioaeoo ?aaa? oa o?oaie ia
oaieiia?aaea/o o ?aae?aoi?ao aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550./ I?eaei?i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee ?56(123). Aeae-oeoai “Iaoea ? ina?oa”. Na??y- Oaoi?/i?
iaoee. 1997. n.13-15 (iniaenoee aianie 80%).

6. Eoe?eia TH.A., Aaaeaeue-Aaa? Aae?ae. I?i i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaioe nenoaie
ioieiaeaeaiiy aaoiiia?e?a CAC-110550 a oiiaao ?i?aeai??./
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee ?83(150). Aeae-oeoai “Iaoea ? ina?oa”.
Na??y- Oaoi?/i? iaoee. 1998. n.1-8 (iniaenoee aianie 85%).

AIIOAOe?ss

Aaaeaeue-Aaa? Aae?ae. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe aaoiiia?ey
CAC-11050 ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao Ei?aeai?? oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy
nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy. — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.22.10
“Aenieoaoaoe?y aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo” i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, 1999
?.

19

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiia?e?a CAC a oiiaao
Ei?aeai??, onoaiiaeaia iaaeinoaoiy aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe nenoaie
ioieiaeaeaiiy (n.i.) a ia??iae aenieeo oaiia?aoo? iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua (>313 E) ? aeyaeai? i?e/eie ?? cieaeaiiy o i?ioean?
aenieoaoaoe??.

Aeeiiai? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiia?aaea/? o ?aae?aoi?? c
iaoai?/iei ou?eueiaiiyi eiioaeoo ieanoei c o?oaeaie. ?ic?iaeaia
iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue n.i. c ?aae?aoi?ii, iiaa?oiy oaieiiai?io yeiai
iaaeoaa?oueny aaioeeyoi?ii /anoeiai.

Iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
?aae?aoi??a, aaioeeyoi?ii? onoaiiaee ? aeiea “?aae?aoi?-aaioeeyoi?” c
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao iniiaieo ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe c
iaoith ooi/iaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? n.i. ? aeai?o ?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aa??aioa.

Aeeiiaii aiae?c c aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a, aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e ? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe n.i. ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c
oaeineiiaeaiiy n.i. aeaeaoia, ui caaacia/o? iaae?eio ?iaioo aaoiiia?e?a
CAC a oiiaao Ei?aeai??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?iieneiaee o?ainii?o, aaoiiia?eue, nenoaia
ioieiaeaeaiiy, ?aae?aoi?, aaioeeyoi?, oaieiia?aaea/? , iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue.

SUMMARY

Abdel-Bagi Walid.

Increase of an overall performance of the automobile ZAZ-110550 at the
industrial enterprises of Jordan by perfection of cooling
system.Manuscript.

The dissertation for achiering a scientific degree of the Phd in
technical science, major-05.22.10 “Explotation of automobile transport”
at kharkiv state transport techincal university,1999.

The analysis of exploitation of automobiles ZAZ in conditions of Jordan
is made,unsufficient overall performance of cooling system (n.s) is the
period of high

environmental temperatures (> 313E) is defined, reasons of its reduction
in the process of explotation are revealed.

The theoretical researches of transfer in a radiator with mechanical
condensation of the contact of plates with ?ipes are made. The
mathematical model n.s. is developed. The heat exchange surface of this
C.S. is partially blown over by the fan.

The experimental researches of power characteristics of radiators, fan
station and block “radiator–fan” are given in a view of influence of the
basic design parameters and modes

of operation with the purpose of specification of mathematical model
N.S. and of choice of its rational verion.

The analysis of the choice of rational parameters, of designs and modes
of N.S. operations is made. The recommendations for perfection of N.S
which guarantees a sate work of automobiles ZAZ in conditions of
Jordan,are dereloped.

Key words: industrial transport, automobile, cooling system, radiator,
ventilator, transfer , mathematical model.

20

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaaeaeue-Aaae Aaeeae. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou aaoiiiaeey
CAC-110550 ia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo Ei?aeaiee iooai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.10 “Yenieoaoaoeey aaoiiiaeeueiiai o?ainii?oa”.
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999a.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe yenieoaoaoeee aaoiiiaeeae CAC a oneiaeyo
Ei?aeaiee, onoaiiaeaia iaaeinoaoi/iay yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou nenoaiu
ioeaaeaeaiey a ia?eiae aunieeo oaiia?aoo? ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu (>313E) e
auyaeaiu i?e/eiu aa nieaeaiey a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee.

Auiieiaiu oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeannia oaieiiaiaia a nenoaia
ioeaaeaeaiey aaoiiiaeeae CAC-110550 (1102) n o/aoii eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia
eiino?oeoeee e ?aaeeiia ?aaiou, iniiaiuo aa yeaiaioia (?aaeeaoi?a,
aaioeeyoi?iie onoaiiaee e ae?.). Enneaaeiaai i?ioeann oaieiia?aaea/e a
?aaeeaoi?a ec aethieiey, a eioi?ii ieioiinoue iinaaeee eieeaeoeaiuo
?aaa? ia io/ie o?oaie inouanoaeaia i?ioyaeeie ecioo?e o?oaie oa?eeaie.
Iieo/aii o?aaiaiea eiyooeoeeaioa oaieiia?aaea/e, o/eouaathuaa aeeyiea ia
i?ioeann oaieiia?aaea/e neiy caa?yciaiee a iee?icaci?ao eiioaeoia ?aaa?
n o?oaeaie n eniieueciaaieai aaee/eiu oa?ie/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey.
Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea ea/anoaa eiioaeoa iiaa?oiinoae ?aaa? e o?oaie ia
eiyooeoeeaio oaieiia?aaea/e e onoaiiaeaia ?aoeeiiaeueiay noaiaiue eo
i?eeaaaiey.

?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey n ?aaeeaoi?ii,
iiaa?oiinoue oaieiiaiaia eioi?iai iaaeoaaaony aaioeeyoi?ii /anoe/ii.
Iieo/aii o?aaiaiea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aeaaeaiey, nicaeaaaaiiai
aaioeeyoi?iie onoaiiaeie ia iniiaiuo o/anoeao ay?iaeeiaie/aneiai o?aeoa.

I?eaaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee iaeaoia e
iaoo?iuo ia?acoeia ?aaeeaoi?ia, aeiea “?aaeeaoi?-aaioeeyoi?”,
aaioeeyoi?iie onoaiiaee e ae?oaeo yeaiaioia nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey ia
niaoeeaeueiuo noaiaeao e ia aaoiiiaeeyo: ?aaeeaoi?u nia?aiaiiuo
eiino?oeoeee ec aethieiey onooiatho ii yia?aaoe/aneei e ianniaaaa?eoiui
oa?aeoa?enoeeai ?aaeeaoi?ai n na?aeoeaaeiie ec iaaeiuo o?oaie e ieanoei
ia 15…20%; ?aaeeaoi?u ec aethieieaauo o?oaie e ieanoei-?aaa? eiatho
i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaua iieacaoaee; iiuoiue ia?acaoe ?aaeeaoi?a oe?aeineiai
i?iecaiaenoaa eiaao ia 10…12% iaiueoee eiyooeoeeaio oaieiia?aaea/e i?e
iaiueoai ia 18-20% ay?iaeeiaie/aneii nii?ioeaeaiee e iaiueoai ia 7%
aeae?aaee/aneii nii?ioeaeaiee.

Aiaeec yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaeeaoi?a n o/aoii aeeyiey /enea

21

ieanoei (oaaa ?aniieiaeaiey ?aaa? ia o?oaeao) iieacae, /oi n oaaee/aieai
noaiaie i?aa?aiey, ianiio?y ia nieaeaiea eiyooeoeeaioa oaieiia?aaea/e E,
aaee/eia wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy???AE?? ???&? ?MathType??P????u
y??????I?eiaiaiea oo?aoeecaoi?ia aiaeu a aeeaiaciia eciaiaiey nei?inoe
aiaeu a o?oaeao, niioaaonoaothuai ?aaeeio ?aaiou ?aaeeaoi?a, oaaee/eaaao
oaieiia?aaea/o ia 10-12%, /oi iauyniyaony noaoai oo?aoeaioiui ?aaeeiii
oa/aiey aiaeu a o?oaeao. A oi aea a?aiy aeae?aaee/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea
oaaee/eeinue i?aeoe/anee a 2 ?aca.

I?iaaaeaia ioeaiea aeeyiey iiaenina aicaeooa /a?ac caci? iaaeaeo
?aaeeaoi?ii e eiaeooii ia ?anoiae aicaeooa /a?ac ?aaeeaoi? (aai
oieioiaiea oaaee/eaaao ?anoiae aicaeooa /a?ac ?aaeeaoi? ia 19%).

Enneaaeiaaiey ia noaiaea iieacaee, /oi onoaiiaea naoee ec i?iaieiee
aeeaiao?ii 0,5…0,8 ii e ?acia?ii y/aeee 1,3o1,3 ii ia?aae ?aaeeaoi?ii ia

?annoiyiee 10…15 ii ia oieueei eneeth/aao iiiaaeaiea e?oiiuo /anoeoe
iuee a iaae?aaa?iua i?ino?ainoaa, ii e oaaee/eaaao eiyooeoeeaio
oaieiia?aaea/e ?aaeeaoi?a ia 5…7%, i?aeoe/anee ia aeeyy ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aaioeeyoi?a.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee iicaieeee
ooi/ieoue iaoaiaoe/aneoth iiaeaeue yia?aaoe/aneiai ?an/aoa nenoaiu
ioeaaeaeaiey aaoiiiaeey CAC-110550 e i?iaanoe ?an/aoiua enneaaeiaaiey aa
n o/aoii yenieoaoaoeee aaoiiiaeeae a oneiaeyo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
Ei?aeaiee.

?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii auai?o iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia ?aaiou
nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey e ?aoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioia aa
eiino?oeoeee, iaania/eaathueo iaaeaaeioth ?aaioo aaoiiiaeeae CAC-110550
a oneiaeyo Ei?aeaiee:

-i?eiaiaiea eiaeooa, niaaeeiythuaai ?aaeeaoi? n aaioeeyoi?ii,
eiino?oeoeey eioi?iai ioaaouaaao anth na?aeoeaaeio ?aaeeaoi?a e
eneeth/aao iiaenin “ai?y/aai” aicaeooa ec iiaeeaiioiiai i?ino?ainoaa;

-oaaee/aiea ?annoiyiey io ?aaeeaoi?a aei iaa/aeee aaioeeyoi?a ia
45…50 ii ca n/ao ia?aiauaiey ?aaeeaoi?a aia?aae ii iai?aaeythuei
ieanoeiai;

-i?eiaiaiea a eiaeooa aaioeeyoi?a “aicaeooiuo eeaiaiia”;

-oaaee/aiea a nenoaia ioeaaeaeaiey ?aaeeaoi?ia oe?aeineiai i?iecaiaenoaa
/enea ioeaaeaeathueo ieanoei-?aaa? oieueiie 0,08 ii aei 276 oooe eee
oieueiu ieanoei aei 0,1 ii (i?e /enea ieanoei 267 oooe), /oi naeaeaao eo
acaeiicaiaiyaiuie n ?aaeeaoi?aie ?inneeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?iiuoeaiiue o?ainii?o, aaoiiiaeeue, nenoaia
ioeaaeaeaiey, ?aaeeaoi?, aaioeeyoi?, oaieiia?aaea/a, iaoaiaoe/aneay
iiaeaeue

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *