Підвищення зносостійкості твердосплавного інструменту методом іонного азотування: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / О.В. Снозик, Технол. ун-т Поділля

Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey

Niicee Ieaenaiae? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 620.178

I?AeAEUAIIss CIININO?EEINO? OAA?AeINIEAAIIAI

?INO?OIAIOO IAOIAeII ?IIIIAI ACIOOAAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.04 — Oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy a iaoeiao

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oiaeueieoeueeee-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaoiieia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? Iiae?eey
(i. Oiaeueieoeueeee) I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaieoi A?oae?e A?eai?iae/,

Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey,

i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?iae?a/oe Ie?ineaa Aaneeueiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo», i?ioani? eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? iaoae?a;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Eanuee?a Aieiaeeie? Aeieo?iae/,
Ae?iaiaeoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e caaaeueii?iaeaia?ieo aeenoeeie?i.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a ?i. A.I. Aaeoey IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e
ia?iaee iaoa??ae?a ??caiiyi ? ieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th (i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «21» ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae70.052.02 Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
Iiae?eey ca aae?anith: 280016, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe. ?inoeooonueea,
11, 3-e o/aiaee ei?ion.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey (aoe. Eai’yiaoeueea, 110/1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «20» aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E?ieoeueeee ss.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia?iaea iaoae?a ??caiiyi caeia? i?ia?aeio ?ieue a
iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? ? i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoenue aieiaiei iaoiaeii inoaoi/iiai
io?eiaiiy ?ici???a aeaoaeae. I?e aeei?enoaii? neeaaeieo aa?noaoieo
eiiieaen?a c oi?aae?iiyi a?ae AII, a oiiaao aio/eeo ae?iaie/eo nenoai
c?inoathoue aeiiae aei yeino?, iaae?eiino?, aeiaaia?/iino? ??caeueieo
?ino?oiaio?a, i?e oeueiio oiiae ?iaioe ?ino?oiaioo noathoue ui?ac
aei?noe?oeie. I?ioiaeeoue i?aeaeuaiiy aeo?ao ?ino?oiaioo ia iaeeieoeth
aeiouaii? i?iaeoeoe?? ? cao?aoe ia ?ino?oiaio iiaeooue nyaaoe 3-5% an???
nia?aa?oino? aeaioiaeaiiy ae?iao.

Ia nueiaiaei? i?e ia?iaoe? no/anieo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a aieiaio
?ieue o ae?iaieoeoa? caeia? ?ino?oiaio ?c nia/aieo oaa?aeeo nieaa?a
aieueo?aiii?noei? a?oie (AE, OE, OOE). Eiai aeiaaia?/i?noue iiaea aooe
i?aeaeuaia ?yaeii oaoiieia?e iaianaiiy ciinino?eeeo iie?eoo?a,
iiaa?oiaaiai oa ia’?iiiai ci?oeiaiiy. Iaeoe?oiai canoinoaaiiy iaaoee
oaoiieia?? o?ce/iiai ? o?i?/iiai inaaeaeaiiy ciinino?eeeo iie?eoo?a ia
iniia? ea?a?ae?a oa i?o?eae?a ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a. Iaeiae i?aeoeea
iieaco?, ui aoaeoeai?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy cia/ii caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia
?iaioe ?ino?oiaioo. A neeaaeieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??, i?e /i?iia?e
ia?iaoe?, ia?a?ea/anoiio ??caii?, oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo aoaeo a?ae ?o
aeei?enoaiiy ??cei iaaea? aae aei iaaaoeaiiai. Oiio, iacaaaeath/e ia
oe?ieo aaio ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiae?a iaianaiiy ciinino?eeeo iie?eoo?a,
i?iaeaia noai?aiiy iaae?eiiai, no?eeiai a neeaaeieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??
iie?eooy ? aein? aeooaeueiith ? ?? ae??oaiiy ? iaeiei ?c aieiaieo
?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?aeaeuaiiy
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? aeaioiaeaii? i?iaeoeoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa i?iaiaeeeanue o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c Aea?aeaaiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?ia?aiith ?05.44.11
«Canoinoaaiiy a i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa? ?iiii-ieaciiai? oaoiieia??» ca
oaiith 1A-93/AeEIO «Ia?niaeoeaia oaoiieia?y ? onoaoeoaaiiy aeey
ci?oeiaiiy aeaoaeae iaoei ? ?ino?oiaioo a aacaiaeiaaiio na?aaeiaeu?
?iiii-ieaciiaei iaoiaeii» oa aea?aeathaeaeaoiith oaiith 2A-95 «Iaoeia?
iniiae i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo ?c
canoinoaaiiyi ?ano?nicaa??aath/i?, aeieia?/ii /enoi? oaoiieia??
aeeooc?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy iiaa?oi?».

Iaoa ?iaioe. Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai ??caeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo a neeaaeieo
oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? ?c canoinoaaiiyi oaoiieia?? ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy a
aacaiaeiaaiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoei iinoaaeaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

— oeyoii aiae?co ?nioth/eo oaoiieia?e i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?
anoaiiaeoe iiaeeea? oeyoe ? iaoai?cie iie?ioaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo ? ia ?o iniia? cai?iiiioaaoe
iaoiae aoaeoeaiiai i?aeaeuaiiy eiai ciinino?eeino?;

— aeine?aeeoe aeeaeio, oaciaee neeaae oa ?io? o?ceei-iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? acioiaaiiai oa?o oaa?aeeo nieaa?a;

— aecia/eoe ci?ie a iai?oaeaiiio noai? iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o oaa?aeeo
nieaa?a i?ney ia?iaee cai?iiiiiaaiith oaoiieia??th;

— anoaiiaeoe iaoai?ci i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai
??caeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo i?ney eiai ci?oeiaiiy iaoiaeii ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy a aacaiaeiaaiio na?aaeiaeu?;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeeoe aieea oaoiieia?? aacaiaeiaaiai ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy ia oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano oa?oy oa ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy
acioiaaiiai oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo;

— iioei?coaaoe ia?aiao?e oaoiieia?? iiaa?oiaaiai ci?oeiaiiy ca e?eoa???i
aeiaaia?/iino? ??caeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo;

— i?iaanoe i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ? aeiiii?/ii iaa?oiooaaoe
aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy a aacaiaeiaaiio
na?aaeiaeu? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? ? aeiaaia?/iino?
oaa?aeinieaaiiai ??caeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1. Aia?oa canoiniaaia oaoiieia?y ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy a aacaiaeiaaeo
na?aaeiaeuao aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai
?ino?oiaioo.

2. Anoaiiaeaii iaoai?ci i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeeo nieaa?a
i?ney ci?oeiaiiy iaoiaeii ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy a aacaiaeiaaiio
na?aaeiaeu?.

3. Io?eiaii aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeinieaaieo
??caeueieo ?ino?oiaio?a a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy.

4. Anoaiiaeaii aieea ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo ia
o?eaieia?/i? ? neeia? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano ??caiiy.

5. Aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy, ui
caaacia/othoue iaeneiaeueio ciinino?ee?noue oaa?aeinieaaiiai ??caeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo i?e oi/?ii? eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaii?
?iaioe noai?aii aenieiaoaeoeaio oaoiieia?th i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo iaoiaeii ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy
a aacaiaeiaaiio na?aaeiaeu?. Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia??
aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ia??iae no?eeino? ?ino?oiaioo a 2,2-3,6 ?ace
caeaaeii a?ae oiia aenieoaoaoe??, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie
i?iaaaeaieo ae?iaie/eo aei?iaoaaiue.

??aaiue ?? ?ic?iaee aeicaieea aeeiioaaoe ci?oeithaaeueio ia?iaeo
oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo a Ni?euei?e eaai?aoi??? i?ia?aneaieo
iaoiae?a ci?oeiaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe ? I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie oa
Iiae?euenueeiio iaoeiaiio o?ceei-oaoiieia?/iiio oeaio?? Oaoiieia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey ia caiiaeaiiy ?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia ?ioeo i?aei?e?inoaao
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy oa ii?ioeiai? iaoaeo?a??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A aeena?oaoe?th aeeth/aii eeoa o? iaoeia?
?acoeueoaoe, ye? io?eiai? aeena?oaioii iniaenoi. A iioae?eiaaieo ?acii
?c ni?aaaoi?aie iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo caeiaoaa/ai aeeiioaaeenue: iinoaiiaea
caaaeaiue, i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ? aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (Aaeineiiaeaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy
eaaei? i?iieneiaino? oa neeaaeii? iiaooiai? oaoi?ee(
(i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1993), III iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
(Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao ?
eiiaa?n?? ae?iaieoeoaa( (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1995), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? (Eaca?iua e oeceei-iaoaie/aneea iaoiaeu ia?aaioee
iaoa?eaeia( (i. N?ioa?iiieue, 1995), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
(Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao a nenoai? ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe oa iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino? Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?iio( (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1995),
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (I?iaeaie o?eaieia??(
(i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1996), iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo oa
nooaeaio?a (i. Ee?a, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o,
c ieo 3 noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 2 noaoo? a ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue oa io?eiaii 1 iaoaio ia aeiao?ae Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e ?c 147 iaeiaioaaiue
oa 1 aeiaeaoeo. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia 129 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 24 ?enoiee oa 17 oaaeeoeue. Caaaeueiee
ia’?i aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 150 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooii?e /anoei? iieacaii noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, aeooaeuei?noue ?
aeioe?euei?noue ?icaeoeo oeueiai iai?yieo iaoee, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ?
caaaeaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe, iaaaaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io
oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo a ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? aea?oueny iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?niaeoeaiino? aeaiiai
iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue c o?eaieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c
canoinoaaiiy a?aeiieo iaoiae?a iiaa?oiaai? ? ia’?iii? ia?iaee aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo a oiiaao ia?iaee
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, ?icaeyiooi ?o ?acoeueoaoeai?noue, aeacaii ia
?oi? aieiai? iaaeie?ee ? ia?aaaae.

I?iaiae?ciaaii oaeee aoaeoeaiee iaoiae i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?
aeaoaeae iaoei ? ?ino?oiaioo ?c eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, ye ?iiia
eaaoaaiiy a oe?th/iio ?ic?yae? ? eiai iiaee aenieiaoaeoeaiee i?aeaeae —
?iiia aciooaaiiy a aacaiaeiaaeo na?aaeiaeuao. Aieiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie
canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeo iiaa?oiaai? ia?iaee ? oae?: cieaeaiiy
aaeaac?eii? aca?iiae?? ? iie?ioaiiy aioeo?eeoe?eieo aeanoeainoae a ia?ao
oa?oy, i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? oa aoiiii? aeo?eaaeino?, aenieee aoaeo ii
ciinino?eeino? ci?oeiaieo aeaoaeae oa ?io?. Iieacaii iiae?ai?noue
aeayeeo aaaeeeaeo aeaiaio?a oe??? oaoiieia?? c oaea aeei?enoiaoaaieie a
?ino?oiaioaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? iaoiaeaie, a naia: eiiaeainaoe??
iie?eoo?a c ?iiiei aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi oa inaaeaeaiiy iie?eoo?a ?c
ia?iaaciai? oace.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aieeao iaoiaeo ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy a aacaiaeiaaeo
na?aaeiaeuao ia aieiai? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa o?eeoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
o?eaieia?/ieo ia?, aeaioiaeaieo c eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a,
cai?iiiiiaaii canoinoaaiiy ? iiaeaeueoo ?ic?iaeo oeueiai iaoiaeo aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? oa iaoai?ci
?oeioaaiiy ? ciiooaaiiy oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo aei ? i?ney ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy.

Oaciaee aiae?c acioiaaieo oaa?aeeo nieaa?a i?iaiaeeany iaoaeia?ao?/iei,
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iei oa i?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiei iaoiaeaie. Aeey
oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaeenue c?acee oaa?aeinieaaieo ieanoei AE8, AE15,
AE20, O15E6, i?aeaioiaeai? o aeaeyae? iiaa?oiaaeo, iiia?a/ieo oa eineo
i?e?ioe?o?a.

Iaoaeia?ao?/iee aiae?c i?iaiaeeany ia i?e?ineii? «IEI-10» i?e
ca?eueoaii? aei 1250 e?ao. ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee aiae?c iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o
i?iaiaeeany ia aeeo?aeoiiao?? «Ae?II-3I» ?c noeeioeeyoe?eiei
e?/eeueieeii a iiiio?iiaoeciaaiiio LiF e?enoaeii aei?ii?ithaaii?.
I?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiee aiae?c i?iaiaeeany ia onoaiiaoe? «CAMEBAX».

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ?iiiiio aciooaaii? oaa?aeiai nieaao
ia ooai?ththoueny iia? o?i?/i? c’?aeiaiiy, a eeoa ?nio? ia?ane/aiee
oaa?aeee ?ic/ei acioo a eiaaeueo?.

Iiaeaiaioiee neeaae oaa?aeinieaaieo c?ace?a aeine?aeaeoaaany iaoiaeii
aeaeo?iiii? iaea-niaeo?ineii?? ia aeaeo?iiiiio niaeo?iiao?? ASC-2000.
E?euee?niee aiae?c cae?enithaaany iaoiaeii aeaiaioii? /ooeeaino?.

?en. 1 Iaea-niaeo?e acioiaaiiai nieaao AE8: 1 — aeo?aeia iiaa?oiy; 2 —
o?aaeaiiy Ar+ 5 oa; 3 — o?aaeaiiy Ar+ 15 oa

?en. 2 ?iciiae?e aeaiaio?a ii aeeaei? acioiaaiiai nieaao AE8

A iaea-niaeo?ao iiaa?oiaaeo iaeanoae acioiaaieo oaa?aeeo nieaa?a AE8 oa
AE15 aeyaeaii e?i?? iaca’ycaiiai a i?o?eaee acioo (?en.1), ye? ia
cieeathoue i?ney iioa?iaiai ?iiiiai o?aaeaiiy (ia a?aei?io a?ae
iaia?iaeaieo c?ace?a, c yeeo ni?aiaaiee ia iiaa?oi? acio i/eua?oueny
i?ney 5 oaeeei o?aaeaiiy io/eii ?ii?a Ar+). I?e aeei?enoaii? einiai
oe?oa (c eooii 2(52(() anoaiiaeaii, ui aeeaeia aeeooc?eiiai i?iieeiaiiy
aoii?a acioo a nieaa? AE8 neeaaea? (50 iei, aeey oe??? iaeano? (?en.2)
iaeneiaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo noaiiaeoue aei 3,5 ao.%.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?ioaa?aeino? acioiaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo i?iaiaeeeenue c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?eeaaeo IIO-3 ca noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith. Aiae?c
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieaco?: oaa?aeinieaai? ieanoeie iaa?oue iaeii?
ia?o?? aeaioiaeaiiy iathoue aaeeea ?icn?thaaiiy cia/aiue i?e?ioaa?aeino?
o aeo?aeiiio noai?; i?ney ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy ?icn?thaaiiy cia/aiue
i?e?ioaa?aeino? a?ae na?aaeiueiai cieaeo?oueny; na?aaei? cia/aiiy
i?e?ioaa?aeino? I100 oaa?aeinieaaieo ieanoei O5E10 i?ney ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny ia 3600 IIa. Oaeei /eiii, i?ney ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy i?ioiaeeoue c?inoaiiy na?aaeiuei? i?e?ioaa?aeino?. Iaeiae
aieiaiee aoaeo iieyaa? a oiio, ui cia/ii cieaeo?oueny ?icn?thaaiiy
aei??yieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ae??aithaaiiy no?oeoo?e,
cae?eiaoaaiiy i?e?iaeaoaeo?a ? i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oaa?aeiai nieaao.

Iaaeniea i?aeaeuaiiy na?aaeiuei? i?e?ioaa?aeino? oaa?aeiai nieaao
iiynith?oueny oaeei /eiii. I?ney ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ia
ooai?ththoueny i?o?eaee, a naia aiie a?ae?a?athoue aieiaio ?ieue a
i?aeaeuaii? oaa?aeino? acioiaaieo noaeueieo iaoa??ae?a. C ?ioiai aieo,
aei?iaoaaiiy ia oaa?ae?noue ?, ca aeneiaethaaiiyi A.N. E?aeia?a,
iaei’yeoei c on?o aeae?a aei?iaoaaiue. Oiaoi iaaaioaaeaiiy
aaeaaethaaiiyi ?iaeaioi?a ? aeecueeei aei ?cinoaoe/iiai noeneo ? ia
aeeeeea? ?icoyaoaaeueieo iai?oaeaiue ? aeaoi?iaoe?e. Oiio a cae/aeieo
iaoaeao, noaeyo (ye iaoa??aeao c iaio ae?aaeaiith ia??aiii??i?noth
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?e noeneo ? ?icoyao) aoaeo a?ae ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy ? a?eueo /?oei ae?aaeaiei. O a?aeiioaii? aei oaa?aeeo nieaa?a
iaea?eueoa caneoaa ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy iieyaa? a ciaioaii? ?icn?thaaiino?
?acoeueoao?a, ae??aithaaii? aeanoeainoae eiiiiceoo a oe?eiio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aioo??oi?o iai?oaeaiue o oaa?aeiio nieaa? i?iaiaeeeeny ia
iniia? aei??thaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? ieinei? ieanoeie i?ney i?iaaaeaiiai
?iiiiai aciooaaiiy. Ia iniia? caeiio Aoea (i?oaeiee oa?aeoa?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ieanoeie iiia?aaeiuei aoa aeiaaaeaiee aeaeo?ie?oe/iei
no?aaethaaiiyi aeeooc?eiiai oa?o) ? aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ??aiyiiy
c?aiooi? in? aaeee aeaaaeaii oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy na?aaei?o
aioo??oi?o iai?oaeaiue a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? i?yiieooii? ieanoeie

, (1)

aea A — iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai iaoa??aeo;

h — oiaueia ieanoeie;

(h — i?iaei a oi/oe? iina?aaeei? iicaeiaaeiuei? in? ieanoeie;

La — aeiaaeeia iii?ii? iiaa?oi? ieanoeie;

(i — eiao?oe??io Ioaniia;

haeeo — oiaueia iiaa?oiaaiai aeeooc?eiiai oa?o.

=+30 IIa (?icoyao). Io?eiaiee ?acoeueoao /?oei ei?aeth? c aeanoeainoyie
acioiaaieo eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae oa ?ioeo iaoae?a ? aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i aiaeia?/iee aieea noai?aieo caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue ia
i?oei?noue ? aoiio acioiaaieo oaa?aeeo nieaa?a.

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oeiino? acioiaaieo oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ca
noaiith (?en.3), iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeaiith aei ?aaeueieo oiia neeiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e aenieoaoaoe?? ??caeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo. Aiia i?eaiaeeea
aei oaeiai aeaeo iai?oaeaiiai noaio, ye /enoee cnoa. Aeaiee aeae
iai?oaeaiiai noaio ?ino?oiaioo ? iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaei, ine?eueee i?e
iueiio i?ae iaaiei eooii aeieeathoue iai?oaeaiiy ?icoyao, i?e yeeo
oaa?ae? nieaae iathoue iaeieae/o i?oei?noue. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
oa?aeoa?iei ciai?oi?i aeaeyaeii iieaiaieo ieanoei — ?oei?aia o??ueia
?iciianthaeaeoaaeanue i?ae eooii 45( aei ieiueie iaaaioaaeaiiy.

?en. 3 Noaia iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia i?oei?noue: 1 — ioainii;
2 — aei?iaiaoaaia ieanoeia; 3 — iii?a

Iaeii/anii aea/aeenue oa?aeoa?enoeee neaiae?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? (AA), ui
aeieeaee i?e iaaaioaaeaii? a oaa?aeinieaaieo ieanoeiao. Ca ii??aiyeueiee
e?eoa??e i?oeiino? i?eeiyoi ?oei?aia iaaaioaaeaiiy ?max. Aiae?c
iaoa??ae?a c AA i?iaiaeeany ca ia??iae a?ae ii/aoeo iaaaioaaeaiiy
ieanoei aei iiiaioo aeinyaaiiy 0,5?max, aeacaiee ??aaiue ? ia?oei?aiei ?
iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaiei.

sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee, i?oei?noue
?ino?oiaioaeueieo ieanoei i?ney ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy c?inoa? a
na?aaeiueiio ia 15%. Aeyaeaii oaeiae a?aei?iiino? a oa?aeoa??
aei?ii?ithaaiiy neaiae?a AA a a?oiao iaia?iaeaieo ? acioiaaieo
?ino?oiaio?a, ui aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe aeiaeaoeiaee iaoiae
ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth aoaeoeaiino? i?iaaaeaii? ci?oeithaaeueii?
ia?iaee. Ci?oeithaaeueia ia?iaea i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy na?aaeiuei?
aiie?ooaee neaiae?a AA ia 40-45%, i?e oeueiio noia?ia e?euee?noue
neaiae?a c?inoa? ia 100%. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i aeoeaaoe?th iiaa?oiaaeo
aoii?a oaa?aeiai nieaao, cae?eiaoaaiiy ciai?oi?o i?e?iaeaoaeo?a,
ca’ycoaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e ? noai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo caaaae ia oeyoo ?o
ia?ai?uaiiy, cae??ieaiiy i?e?io??uei, ae??aithaaiiy aeanoeainoae
eiiiiceoo ? i?aeaeuaiiy eiai i?oeiino? a oe?eiio.

I?iaaaeai? aiae?ce ? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe aieea ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy ia o?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? i?ioean ciiooaaiiy
oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo.

Iiceoeaiee aieea ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy ia o?eeoe?ei? oa iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? noaeae oa ?ioeo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoae?a ? aeia?a
aeine?aeaeaiee a i?aoeyo A.I. A?caianiaa, A.A. Eaieoia, A.Ae.
Eociaoeiaa, TH.I. Eaoo?ia oa A. Aaeaioioa?a ? noaa caaaeueii i?eciaiee.
Iaeiae aaoiiaoe/ia ia?aianaiiy eiai iaoai?ci?a ia oaa?aeinieaaiee
iaoa??ae iaiiaeeeaa /a?ac ?yae nooo?aeo a?aei?iiinoae o aoaeia? ?
aeanoeainoyo oeeo iaoa??ae?a.

Oaa?ae? nieaae ? eiiiiceoe?eieie iaoa??aeaie c ??ceeie a?aei?iiinoyie o
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoyo iayaieo oac ? /?oei aeae?eaieie
i?aeoaciaeie a?aieoeyie. A ii??aiyii? c acioiaaieie noaeyie ? ?ioeie
eiino?oeoe?eieie iaoa??aeaie a acioiaaiiio oaa?aeiio nieaa? a?aenooi?
i?o?eaei? ciie, a ?nioth/a no?oeoo?a ? iiae?aiith aei ciie aioo??oiueiai
aciooaaiiy ?c ci?iiith eiioeaio?aoe??th acioo. Naia oae? no?oeoo?e ?
iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaeie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ye aoiiii? i?oeiino?, oae ?
no?eeino? i?ioe aaeaac?eii-aoiiiiai ciiooaaiiy, yea ? iniiaiei na?aae
aeae?a ciiooaaiiy, ?nioth/eo i?e ??caii? oaa?aeinieaaiei ?ino?oiaioii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeanoeainoae acioiaaieo noaeae anoaiiaeaii, ui
iaeaaaeeea?oo ?ieue a i?aeaeuaii? ?o iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?,
cie?aia, aoiiii? i?oeiino?, a?ae?a?athoue caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy noeneo,
noai?ai? a iiaa?oiaaiio oa??. Iieacaaoe ?o iayai?noue a acioiaaiiio
oaa?aeiio nieaa?, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i aiaeia?/iee aieea oe???
oaoiieia?? ia aoiio oaa?aeinieaaiiai iaoa??aeo.

Ciiooaaiiy oaa?aeiai nieaao i?ioiaeeoue ca nai???aeiei iaoai?ciii ?
iae/ano?oa ia? aoiiiee oa?aeoa?. A ia?oo /a?ao ?c ciie oa?oy aeiinyoueny
aeaoaeoi? ciie ? i?noey neoi/aiue eiaaeueoiai? ca’ycee. A i??o ?o
«aeieaaiiy» i?ioiaeeoue «iaieaiiy» ? aenooiaiiy ea?a?aeieo ca?ai. Oiae?
a cii? oaeoe/iiai eiioaeoo caeeoathoueny i?aeoe/ii nai? ca?ia ea?a?ae?a,
eio?? ? ianooue ia nia? iniiaia iaaaioaaeaiiy. Cae/aeii, a i?ioean? ?o
ciiooaaiiy a eiioaeo anooiathoue /anoeiee a’yaeo/i? oace, ye? a i??o
nai?o aeanoeainoae oaae aecia/athoue i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?eeoe?eieo i?ioean?a
a cii? eiioaeooaaiiy. Caeaoi?noue ea?a?aeieo ca?ai aeo?eioaaoe cia/i?
eiioaeoi? iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?ioenoiyoe ?ico??neoaaiith, yeiiiaa aeiaoa
oo?eioaaoenue a eiiiiceo? — ia oe? aeanoeaino? a ia?oo /a?ao aieeaathoue
iai?oaeaiiy noeneo, noai?ai? ?iiiei aciooaaiiyi. Aiie oaeoe/ii
ni?eythoue cauaieaiith ca?ai ea?a?ae?a ? oea i?eaiaeeoue aei iiai?oiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?no eiiiiceoo.

Oeaiaiooth/a oaca oaa?aeiai nieaao i?aeoe/ii ? oaa?aeei ?ic/eiii W, C,
O, WC a eiaaeueo?. A ?yae? ?ia?o A.?. O?aoueyeiaa, ?.I. *aii?iai? oa
?ioeo iieacaii, ui ?? neeaae (eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ic/eiaieo aeaiaio?a a Ni)
ia? neeueiee aieea ia aeanoeaino? ye naii? ca’ycee, oae ? oaa?aeiai
nieaao a oe?eiio, a a i?aeaeuaii? iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eiaaeueoiai?
ca’ycee, ii??aiyii ?c /enoei eiaaeueoii, caneoaa iaeaaeeoue naia
?ic/eiaiith aeacaieo aeaiaio?a.

Aieea ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy ia Ni-oaco ? aiaeia?/iei aei ?ioeo acioiaaieo
iaoae?a. Nooo?aa a?aei?ii?noue a ii??aiyii?, iai?eeeaae, ?c acioiaaieie
noaeyie, iieyaa? o a?aenooiino? a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? acioiaaiiai
oaa?aeiai nieaao i?o?eaeii? oace. Noai?aiiy oace ia?ane/aiiai oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio acioo a Ni ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith ?? i?e?ioaa?aeino?, i?oeiino?,
ui, cae/aeii, ae?aaea?oueny a iie?ioaii? iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
oaa?aeiai nieaao a oe?eiio.

C ?ioiai aieo, iaca’ycaiee a niieoee acio ia? aenieo aeeooc?eio
?ooeea?noue (iniaeeai i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??) ?
ni?ey? cieaeaiith neee oa?oy a ?acoeueoao? aeae?eueeio aoaeo?a,
noai?thaaieo ?iiiei aciooaaiiyi. Ii-ia?oa, i?e iayaiino? aeoeaiiai acioo
ia iiaa?oi? oaa?aeiai nieaao i?ioiaeeoue ?ioaineaia ooai?aiiy
aaeni?aoe?eieo oa??a, ui aeeiiothoue ?ieue i?ii?aeiiai «o?aoueiai»
na?aaeiaeua a ia?? oa?oy, oiaoi nai???aeiiai ianoeea. Ii-ae?oaa, /anoeia
aoii?a acioo a i?ioean? oa?oy cai?ith?oueny a?eueo aeoeaieie aoiiaie
eenith, /ei caaacia/othoueny oiiae aeey ooai?aiiy aoi?eiieo ieenieo
no?oeoo?, ui ? iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiei c oi/ee ci?o
ei?ic?eii-ieenethaaeueiiai ciino. Aeaiee iaoai?ci iiai?noth
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeine?aeaeaiiyie aieeao ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy ia
eiao?oe??io oa?oy oa ?io? eiioaeoi? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?e ??caii?
acioiaaiei oaa?aeinieaaiei ?ino?oiaioii.

I?iieee? aoiie acioo ?ici?uothoueny a aeaoaeoieo iaeanoyo: i?noeyo
neoi/aiue aaeain?e, aeeneieaoe?e ? iniaeeai ia i?aeca?iiaeo oa
i?aeoaciaeo a?aieoeyo. Oeae aoaeo i?eaiaeeoue aei ca’ycoaaiiy e?i?eieo ?
oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a, noai?aiiy nai???aeieo aia?aaoe/ieo aa?’???a ia oeyoo
?o ia?ai?uaiiy ? aeieoaaiiy ?o ia?aoiaeo a noai?e?ineii?/i?, a iio?i ?
iaa?no?aeuei? o??ueie. Ie??i oiai, aeeooiaeoth/e ii a?aieoe? ?iciiae?eo
ea?a?aeieo ca?ai ? eiaaeueoiai? ca’ycee, aoiie acioo caeaoi?
i?aeneethaaoe o?i?/i? ca’ycee ia oe?e iiaa?oi?, aee?eaeyoe ?
?icoe?thaaoe nai? a?aieoe? ? oeei ci?oeithaaoe aanue eiiiiceo.

Aeia?a a?aeiii i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iino? i?ney ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy a
iaoa??aeao ?c ?icaeiaiith ciiith aioo??oiueiai aciooaaiiy. I?e ?iiiiio
aciooaaii? a aacaiaeiaaiio na?aaeiaeu? onoaa?oueny oe?aeeeaee aieea
aiaeith, ciaioo?oueny ?iia??i?noue aiaeiaaiai ie?eo/oaaiiy. Oaa?ae?
nieaae ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ? e?eoeeie, i?e /iio ?o i?aeaeuaia
e?eoe?noue i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny
aeaoaeoi?noth a’yaeo/i? oace. A i??o ?inoo oaiia?aoo?e aieea aioo??oi?o
eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c aeaoaeoi?noth ca’ycee,
iii?oii caeaaeaeo?oueny aiane?aeie iaaoooy iath aeayei? ieanoe/iino?. A
?acoeueoao? oeueiai ?iia??i?noue ?oeioaaiiy cieaeo?oueny, oae ye ??no
eieaeueieo iai?oaeaiue cao?eio?oueny, a ??aaiue na?aaei?o iai?oaeaiue ua
ia aeinyaa? e?eoe/ieo cia/aiue. A oeueiio aniaeo? a’yaeo/a oaca a?eueo
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?ey? iai?oaeaiiy i?ae ie?aieie ca?iaie ea?a?ae?a.
Oaeei /eiii, i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iino? eiaaeueoiai? oace aiane?aeie
?iiiiai aciooaaiiy oaa?aeiai nieaao i?eaiaeeoue aei caaaeueiiai
ae??aithaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiino? ie?aieo ca?ai, aeie?a, iiai?oiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?o ?ano?no ?, a e?ioe? e?ioe?a, i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino?
oaa?aeiai nieaao a oe?eiio.

A i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo i?ioiaeeoue
aeeooc?y iaoa??aeo ca’ycee (Ni) a no?oaeeo ? cae?ca no?oaeee a oaa?aeee
nieaa, ui ni?ey? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oae caaiiai aeeooc?eiiai ciino.
Noeioeueiaai? ?iiiei aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi aoiie acioo a i?ioean? aciooaaiiy
iaeneiaeueii aeei?enoiaothoue ? caiiaiththoue an? iiaeeea? eaiaee,
aaeain?? aeey aeeooc?eiiai ?ic/eiaiiy. Noai?aiee acioiaaiee oa?
neoaeeoue nai???aeiei aa?’??ii aeey i?io?eaiiy aeeooc?? i?ae
oaa?aeinieaaiei ? ia?iaethaaiei iaoa??aeii a i?ioean? ??caiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy oaa?aeinieaaiiai iaoa??aeo, ui
aecia/a?oueny no?ee?noth i?ioe noe?aiiy eiaaeueoiai? ca’ycee,
?ioaineai?noth iinooiiaiai ciiooaaiiy ea?a?aeieo ca?ai oa no?ee?noth
inoaii?o i?ioe ae?eaaiiy ?c eiiiiceoo, iiaea aooe nooo?ai cieaeaia
?ic?iaeaiith oaoiieia??th. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui a
?acoeueoao? ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? i?e
aaeaac?eii-aoiiiiio ciiooaaii? oaa?aeiai nieaao a?aeaoaa?oueny a
?acoeueoao? aieeao oaeeo iniiaieo oaeoi??a: noai?aiiy a iiaa?oiaaiio
oa?? caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue noeneo aei 150 IIa, cae?eiaoaaiiy
i?e?iaeaoaeo?a, i?aeaeuaiiy aioeo?eeoe?eieo aeanoeainoae oa ciaioaiiy
?icn?thaaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy na?aaei?o cia/aiue iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii aieea ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy ia oa?aeoa?enoeee oa?oy ? ciinino?ee?noue oaa?aeinieaaiiai
?ino?oiaioo i?e oiea?i?e ia?iaoe?.

Aeine?aeaeoaaany aieea iaianaiiai iie?eooy ia neeiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy
??aeo/eo iiaa?oiiue, eiao?oe??io oa?oy oa na?aaeith oaiia?aoo?o a cii?
eiioaeoo ia?iaethaaiiai iaoa??aeo c ?ino?oiaioii. Iaoiaeeea aacoaaeanue
ia oaeoe/iiio aecia/aii? ae?th/eo ia ??caoeue nee c aeiiiiiaith
aeeiaiiiao?a (OAeI-100( ? aei??thaaiiy oa?iiaeaeo?i?oo?eii? neee ca
iaoiaeii iaoo?aeueii? oa?iiia?e (ia?iaethaaiee iaoa??ae — ?ino?oiaio(.

anoaiiaethaaany ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueii io?eiaieo
neeiaeo caeaaeiinoae, aea neee F1 ? N1 aecia/aeenue ?c nenoaie ??aiyiue

, (2)

aea Px, Py, Pz — i?iaeoe?? neee ??caiiy ia in? x, y, z;

( — aieiaiee ia?aaei?e eoo ?ino?oiaioo;

F2, N2 — oaiaaioe?aeueia ? ii?iaeueia neee ia caaei?e iiaa?oi?
?ino?oiaioo, ye? anoaiiaethaaeenue iaoiaeii aeno?aiieyoei? neeiaeo
caeaaeiinoae Pz=f(S?) i Pxy=f(S?) ia ioeueiao oiaueio c?ico.

a) a)

?en. 4 Caeaaeiino? aieiaii? neee ??caiiy Pz — (a) ? oaiia?aoo?e
O? — (a) a?ae oaeaeeino? ??caiiy noae? 45 ?ino?oiaioii O15E6:

1 — iaia?iaeaiei, 2 — ?iiiiacioiaaiei

A?ao?/ia caeaaei?noue (?en. 4a) aieiaii? neee ??caiiy ?z a?ae
iiaa?oiaai? ia?iaee iieaco? cieaeaiiy neeiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ney
?iiiiai aciooaaiiy oaa?aeinieaaii? ieanoeie a onueiio ae?aiacii?
oaeaeeinoae ??caiiy ii noae? 45. Oaea ae noaa?eueia cieaeaiiy nee
??caiiy cao?eniaaii ? aeey noaeae 40O ? 03O18I10O (oaae. 1). I?e
oeueiio, caaaeyee cieaeaiith na?aaeiuei? eiioaeoii? oaiia?aoo?e a
acioiaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo, ae?aiacii noaa?e?caoe?? caeaaeiino? Pz=f(V?)
cnoaa?oueny ai?aai ii in? aanoeen, ui, ca?aeii a?aeiieo iaoiae?a
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? oaeaeeino? ??caiiy, na?ae/eoue i?i ??
i?aeaeuaiiy ia 20%.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea iie?eooy ia oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano oa?oy ? ??caiiy

oaa?aeinieaaiei ?ino?oiaioii

Ia?iaethaaiee

iaoa??ae ?ino?oiaio V?,

i/oa Px,

I Py,

I Pz,

I m1

O?,

iA

Noaeue 45 O15E6-ii 130 330 450 930 0.82 12.8

Noaeue 45 T15K6-ia 130 300 390 860 0.75 12.2

40O O15E6-ii 120 380 520 1200 0.80 18.5

40O O15E6-?a 120 360 450 1100 0.74 18.2

03O18I10O O15E6-ii 100 350 410 820 0.92 12.0

03O18I10O O15E6-?a 100 320 370 750 0.87 11.8

A onueiio ae?aiacii? aeine?aeaeaieo ?aaeei?a ??caiiy niinoa??aa?oueny
cieaeaiiy na?aaeiueiai eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy i?ney ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy
??caeueieo ieanoei. ?icoiaeaeaiiy e?eaeo 1 ? 2 (?en. 5a) ca?eueoo?oueny
c ?inoii oaeaeeino? ??caiiy ? aeinyaa? iaeneioio a cii? iioeiaeueieo
oaeaeeinoae ??caiiy (150…180 i/oa).

Aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo iiaa?oiaai? ia?iaee
i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaio ?c anoaiiaeaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy
?ino?oiaioo i?ney ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy ? aac iueiai i?e iaeiaeiaeo ?ioeo
oiiaao. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aii oaa?aeinieaai? ieanoeie ia?ee
O15E6-?10 03114 12040-8 AINO 19052-80. I?iaiaeeeanue oiea?ia ia?iaea
noae? 40O (IA 220 i?ney oa?iiia?iaee — iie?ioaiiy) c oaeeie ?aaeeiieie
ia?aiao?aie: V?=120 i/oa, S?=0,2 ii/ia, t?=1ii, (=13o, aac
ianoeeueii-ioieiaeaeoaaeueii? ??aeeie. ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy
aecia/aeanue ye a?aeiioaiiy i?e?inoo e?i?eiiai ciino aei oeyoo, ia yeiio
a?i cai??yiee.

a) a)

?en. 5 Aieea ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ieanoei O15E6 ia
na?aaei?e eiao?oe??io oa?oy i?e ??caii? noae? 45:

1 — iaia?iaeai? ieanoeie; 2 — ?iiiiacioiaai?

?en. 6 E?i?eiee ciin ?ino?oiaioo O15E6: 1 — iaia?iae.; 2 — ?iiiiacioia.

Aiae?c a?ao?e?a e?i?eiiai ciino (?en. 6) iieaco?, ui e?ea? ciino iiaeia
?icae?eeoe ia aea? ae?eyiee: ia?oa — i?e?ia?oeiaiai ciino, ae?oaa —
noaei? ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy (??aiii??iiai ciino). Ia ae?eyioe?
??aiii??iiai ciino io?eiaii cieaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? ?ioaineaiino?
ciiooaaiiy a 2,2 ?ace. E??i oiai, a ?ino?oiaio?a, i?aeaeaieo ?iiiiio
aciooaaiith, cao?eniaaii cia/ia ciaioaiiy aaee/eie i?e?ia?oeiaiai ciino
? ca?eueoaiiy naiiai ia??iaeo i?e?ia?oeo.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii inoaoi/io ?ic?iaeo oaoiieia?? ?iiiiai
aciooaaiiy a aacaiaeiaaeo na?aaeiaeuao a canoinoaaii? ?? aei i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiaaia?/iino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo. Aeei?enoiaoaaeanue
noaoe?iia?ia onoaiiaea OAO?-1, aeey yei? ?ic?iaeaii niaoe?aeuei?
i?enoinoaaiiy ? iiiia?aoe?eio oaoiieia?th.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy iaeiioeiaeuei?oeo ?aaeei?a i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?c
anoaiiaeaiiyi caeaaeiino? aeiaaia?/iino? ??caeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo a?oi AE
oa OE a?ae ci?ie oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a. Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo
ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo — ieaio ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo Oa?oe? — aeicaieeei
aeine?aeeoe aieea /ioe?ueio aieiaieo ia?aiao??a oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano,
a naia: oaiia?aoo?e O, oeneo ?, o?eaaeino? i?ioeano aeeooc?eiiai
iane/aiiy ( oa neeaaeo ?iai/i? noi?o? NAr (ia’?iii? eiioeaio?aoe?? Ar a
acioii-a?aiiia?e ?iai/?e noi?o?). Ia iniia? aeina?aeo i?iaaaeaieo
iiia?aaei?o aei?iaoaaiue i?eeiyoi aeia??/? ??ai? ci?ie ao?aeieo oaeoi??a
a oaeeo ?ioa?aaeao: O=540…660iN, ?=80…400 Ia, (=20…240 oa,
NAr=0…76%. I?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo ca 17 ?aaeeiaie aeicaieeei
io?eiaoe eiao?oe??ioe ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??, oiaoi iiaeaoe aeacai?
caeaaeiino? o aeaeyae? iiaiiai eaaae?aoe/iiai iie?iiia. Iai?eeeaae, aeey
?ino?oiaioo AE8

Nae=630-27T+12p+35(+50CAr-79T2-121p2-174(2-139CAr2+

+133Tp+123T(+118TCAr-98p(+133pCAr-233(CAr , (3)

aeey O5E10

Nae=720-24,4T+45p+30(+75CAr-125T2-125p2-140(2-165CAr2-

-288Tp-123T(+62,5TCAr-358p(+92,5pCAr+113(CAr . (4)

Iiaoaeiaaii a?ao?/i? caeaaeiino?, ye? iieacothoue, ui ani oaoiieiai/ii
ia?aiao?e i?ioeano iane/aiiy aeyaeythoue nooo?aee aieea ia
aeiaaiai/iinoue oaa?aeinieaaiiai iino?oiaioo, a iniiaiiio c yaii
ae?aaeaieie aeno?aioiaie. Io?eiaii iioeiaeuei? cia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a ? i?iaaaeaii ia?aa??eo, yea iieacaea, ui aiie caaacia/othoue
iaeneiaeueia i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? ?ino?oiaioo a ?aaeueieo oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe??.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? i?eaiaeyoueny aeieoiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
?acoeueoaoe i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo,
i?aeaeaiiai ci?oeithaaeuei?e ia?iaoe? iaoiaeii ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy.
Eiao?oe??io i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? caeaaeaa a?ae oiia ?iaioe
?ino?oiaioo ? ia oiea?ieo iia?aoe?yo neeaaeaa 2,5…3,6 ?ace, a ia
o?aca?ieo — 2,2…2,6 ?ace.

I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiie aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? oa iaa?oioiaaii
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia?? ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy
oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy eiai ciinino?eeino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino?.

Aeniiaee

1. I?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueiee aiae?c canoinoaaiiy a?aeiieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
iaoiae?a iiaa?oiaai? ? ia’?iii? ia?iaee aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?
oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo oa iieacaii ia?niaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy c
oe??th iaoith iaoiaeo ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy a aacaiaeiaaeo na?aaeiaeuao.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? i?e aaeaac?eii-aoiiiiio ciiooaaii? oaa?aeiai nieaao
a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao? aieeao oaeeo oaeoi??a: noai?aiiy a
iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue noeneo, cae?eiaoaaiiy
i?e?iaeaoaeo?a, i?aeaeuaiiy aioeo?eeoe?eieo aeanoeainoae oa ciaioaiiy
?icn?thaaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy na?aaei?o cia/aiue iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ney ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy ??caeueieo ieanoei
i?ioiaeeoue cieaeaiiy ae?th/eo ia ??caoeue nee ? eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy ia
15% a ae?aiacii? iioeiaeueieo oaeaeeinoae ??caiiy. Ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e a eiioaeo? i?ae ??coeai ? ia?iaethaaiei iaoa??aeii
iioeiaeueia oaeaee?noue ??caiiy i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 20%.

4. Iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai
?ino?oiaioo a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy ?
?ic?iaeaii iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie ci?oeiaiiy ??caeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo.

5. I?iaaaeaieie ae?iaie/eie aei?iaoaaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui aoaeo a?ae
canoinoaaiiy ?ino?oiaioo, ci?oeiaiiai ca ?ic?iaeaiith oaoiieia??th, ia
iaoaeiia?iaieo iia?aoe?yo iaoeiiaoae?aieo caaiae?a noaiiaeoue 2,2 — 3,6
?ace. Iecueea nia?aa?o?noue ci?oeithaaeueii? ia?iaee ?ino?oiaioo ?
aenieee aoaeo a?ae canoinoaaiiy aeicaieythoue ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ?? aei
oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy a ?ino?oiaioaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue

ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?(:

1. Eaieoi A.A., Aeaaeeee ss.I., Niicee I.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?iiiiai ci?oeiaiiy oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo // Problems of Tribology
(I?iaeaie o?eaieia??). — 1996. — ?1. — N. 81-84.

2. Niicee I.A., Eiaooi ?.?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oeiino? acioiaaieo
oaa?aeinieaaieo ?ino?oiaio?a ? aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ui aeieea? i?e ?o
iaaaioaaeaii? // A?niee Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey. — 1997. —
?1. — N. 49-52.

3. Niicue A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aioo?aiieo iai?yaeaiee a oaa?-aeinieaaiii
iaoa?eaea, aucaaiiuo oi?i/iythuae ia?aaioeie // Problems of Tribology
(I?iaeaie o?eaieia??). — 1998. — ?1. — N. 147-149.

4. Eaieoi A.A., Ianooo ?.I., Niicee I.A. Iioei?caoe?y ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio
?iiiiai aciooaaiiy oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo // I?iaeaie no/aniiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. — Oiaeueieoeueeee: OOI, 1996. — N. 104-106.

5. Eaieoi A.A., Niicee I.A., Aaa?eethe N.I. ?iiia oaoiieia?y aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? ??coe?a ?c oaa?aeeo nieaa?a // Ca. iaoa?. III
iaoe-oaoi. eiio. (Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao ? eiiaa?n?? ae?iaieoeoaa(. — Oiaeueieoeueeee:
OOI. — 1995. — N. 228-230.

6. Iaoaio ia aeiao?ae ?23328 A, IEA N23N8/36. Oe?a?ia. Niin?a
o?i?ei-oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee oaa?aeinieaaieo ieanoei / A.A. Eaieoi, I.A.
Niicee (Oe?a?ia). — 4 n.; Iioae. 31.08.98, Athe. ?4.

7. Niicee I.A., Eaieoi A.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ciinino?eeino?
oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo, ci?oeiaiiai ?iiiei aciooaaiiyi // Oace
aeii. iaoe-i?aeo. eiio (Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao a nenoai? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ina?oiuei? oa iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?iio(. —
Oiaeueieoeueeee: OOI. — 1995. — *. 1. — N. 118.

8. Niicee I.A., Aeaaeeee ss.I. Aieea aeeooc?eiiai iie?eooy ia oiiae
??caiiy oaa?aeinieaaiei ?ino?oiaioii // Oace aeii. iaoe-i?aeo. eiio.
(Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao a nenoai? ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oiuei? oa iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino? Iiae?euenueeiai ?aa?iio(. — Oiaeueieoeueeee: OOI. — 1995. —
*. 2. — N. 309.

9. Niicee I.A. Aei?iaoaaiiy oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo, i?aeaeaiiai
?iiiiio aciooaaiith c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy eiai ciinino?eeino? // Oace
aeii. iaoe. eiio. iieiaeeo a/aieo oa nooaeaio?a. *anoeia 2. — Ee?a:
AeAEIO. — 1997. — N. 25.

Aiioaoe?y

Niicee I.A. I?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo
iaoiaeii ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.04 – oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy a iaoeiao. –
Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeaio oaoiieia?th i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? oaa?aeinieaaiiai ??caeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo, iniiaaio ia iaoiae? ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy a aacaiaeiaaeo
na?aaeiaeuao.

Aieea ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy iieyaa? a noai?aii? aeeooc?eiiai oa?o aeeaeiith
aei 50 iei c aenieeie aioeo?eeoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie, caeeoeiaeie
iai?oaeaiiyie noeneo, i?aeaeuaieie iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oa ?o
iaeii??aei?noth, ui a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo aea? aoaeo ?c aeiaaia?/iino?
oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo a ?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? a 2,2 —
3,6 ?ace.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ciinino?ee?noue, aeiaaia?/i?noue, ?iiia aciooaaiiy,
aioeo?eeoe?ei? aeanoeaino?, caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy, iaoai?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, oaa?aeinieaaiee ?ino?oiaio.

Aiiioaoeey

Niicue A.A. Iiauoaiea eciininoieeinoe oaa?aeinieaaiiai eino?oiaioa
iaoiaeii eiiiiai acioe?iaaiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.04 — o?aiea e eciin a iaoeiao, Oaoiieiae/aneee
oieaa?neoao Iiaeieuey, Oiaeueieoeeee, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaii yooaeoeaioth oaoiieiaeth iiauoaiey
eciininoieeinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?aaeouaai eino?oiaioa,
iniiaaiioth ia iaoiaea eiiiiai acioe?iaaiey a aacaiaei?iaeiuo n?aaeao.

Aeeyiea eiiiiai acioe?iaaiey caeeth/aaony a ia?aciaaiee aeeoooceiiiiai
neiy oieueiie aei 50 iei n iaeneiaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeeae acioa o
iiaa?oiinoe ieiei 5%. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth ia?anuuaiiiai
oaa?aeiai ?anoai?a acioa a eiaaeueoa. A iiaa?oiinoiii neia iaaiaeyony
inoaoi/iua iai?yaeaiey naeaoey, caea/eaathony iee?iaeaoaeou, iiauoathony
oaa?aeinoue, i?i/iinoue e, /oi iniaaiii aaaeii, iaeii?iaeiinoue
oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo naienoa.

I?e ?acaiee eiiiiacioe?iaaiiui eino?oiaioii nieaeathony neeu ?acaiey e
eiyooeoeeaio o?aiey, iaeneiaeueiue yooaeo (aei 15%) aeinoeaaaony a
aeeaiaciia iioeiaeueiuo nei?inoae ?acaiey. E?iia oiai, caoeene?iaaii
nieaeaiea n?aaeiae eiioaeoiie oaiia?aoo?u, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
iiauoaiee iioeiaeueiie nei?inoe ?acaiey (aei 20%). A eaai?aoi?iuo
oneiaeyo eiiiia acioe?iaaiea iiauoaao eciininoieeinoue eino?oiaioa O15E6
a 2,2 ?aca. A i?iiuoeaiiuo oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee, ca n/ao nieaeaiey
eiee/anoaa neieia e aue?aoeaaiee ?aaeouaai eacaey, aeieaiaa/iinoue
acioe?iaaiiiai oaa?aeinieaaiiai eino?oiaioa iiauoaaony a 2,2-3,6 ?aca,
/oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony i?iaaaeaiiuie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie eniuoaieyie.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea oaoiieiae/aneeo ?aaeeiia eiiiiai acioe?iaaiey e
onoaiiaeaii iioeiaeueiua ?aaeeiu ?ac?aaioaiiie oaoiieiaee aeey iiauoaiey
aeieaiaa/iinoe oaa?aeinieaaiiai eino?oiaioa a?oii AE e OE a oneiaeyo
oiea?iie ia?aaioee eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eciininoieeinoue, aeieaiaa/iinoue, eiiiia acioe?iaaiea,
aioeo?eeoeeiiiua naienoaa, inoaoi/iua iai?yaeaiey, iaoaie/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee, oaa?aeinieaaiue eino?oiaio.

Summary

Snozyk O.V. Increasing of hard-alloy tools wear-resistance by the
ion-nitriding method. – Manuscript.

The dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences in
speciality 05.02.04 — Friction and wear in machines, Technological
University of Podillia, Khmelnitsky, 1999.

The effective technology of hard-alloy cutting tools durability
increasing, based on the method of ion-nitriding in hydrogen-free
environment is elaborated.

Ion-nitriding influence consists in forming of diffusion coating up to
50 mkm depth, with high antifrictial properties, compression residual
stresses, enhanced mechanical characteristics and their uniformity, that
finally gives effect of hard-alloy cutting tools durability increasing
for 2,2 — 3,6 times in real exploring conditions.

Key words: wear-resistance, durability, ion-nitriding, antifrictial
properties, residual stresses, mechanical characteristics, hard-alloy
tool.

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